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APPENDIX - A

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
MANONMANIAM SUNDARANAR UNIVERSITY
Tirunelveli

MIND MAPS FOR LEARNING HISTORY


(Standard – XI)

Prepared by: Supervised by:


K. Gireesh Kumar Dr. B. Krishna Prasad
Research Scholar Research Supervisor
MIND MAP

Mind map is a powerful graphic technique which provides a universal key to

unlock the potential of the brain. It is an expression of radiant thinking and is

therefore a natural function of the human mind. Tony Buzan, a psychologist and brain

researcher is the exponent of mind map and it was first developed as a method for

taking notes as briefly as possible and in a manner that is interesting to the eye. The

mind map harness the full range of cortical skills - words, images, numbers, logic,

colour and spatial awareness in a single uniquely powerful technique. The mind map

can be applied in every aspect of life where improved learning and clearer thinking

will enhance human performance. It leads to more active learning environment, and

deeper processing of learning. This technique helps students with improved

understanding and recall of facts. In short, it is an intuitive study method that

enhances the rate of learning and understanding of the learned materials.

This section (Appendix - A) consists of ten mind maps prepared by the

investigator as instructional materials for teaching History at Standard XI on the

selected topics. Mind maps prepared on each topic are given in the following pages as

mind map – 1 to 10. Separate mind maps were also prepared for the major concepts of

each topic and included behind each mind map topic as (mind map - 1 (i), (ii), (iii),

mind map - 2 (i), (ii), (iii), etc.). Consolidation points of each mind maps are also

given at the end of each mind map topic.


MIND MAP-1

PRE-HISTORIC INDIA

1. Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age)

a) The important sites of Paleolithic age are:

i) The Soan valley and Potwar plateau in northwest India

ii) The Siwalik Hills in north India

iii) Bhimpetka in Madhya Pradesh

iv) Adamgarh Hill in Narmada River

v) Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh and

vi) Attirampakkam near Chennai in Tamil Nadu

b) The people of this age are called hunter gatherers

c) Food was obtained by hunting animals and gathering edible plants and

tubers

d) They used stone tools, hand-sized and flaked-off large pebbles for

hunting animals

e) Stone implements made of hard rock known as quartzite

f) Large pebbles were found in the river terraces

g) Group of people combined together for hunting big animals with large

stone axis

h) Life became modified due to domesticated animals, make crude pots and

grow some plants in due course of time

i) Paintings had been found on the rocks at Bhimbetka and other places.

j) The period of Paleolithic Age was before 10,000 B.C.


2. Mesolithic Age (Middle Stone Age)

a) The period roughly falls between 10,000 B.C to 6000 B.C.

b) Transitional period between Paleolithic and Neolithic Age

c) Mesolithic remains were found and Langhanj in Gujarath , Adamgarh in

Madhya Pradesh and some other places in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and

Bihar

d) Paintings and engravings were found in rock shelves, gives an idea about

Social and Economic life of people

e) They were also hunting gathering people

f) Shifted from hunting of large animals to hunting of small animal and

fishing

g) Started domestication of animals, horticulture, and primitive cultivation.

h) Animal bows such as Dog, Deer, Boar and Ostrich were found

i) Burials of dead bodies along with some Microliths and shells were in

practice

3. Neo - Lithic Age

a) In this period remarkable progress noticed in human civilization

b) The period is approximately dated between 6000 B.C to 4000 B.C

c) Important sites excavated in south India are Maski, Brahmagiri, Hallur

and Kodekel in Karnataka, Paiyampalli in Tamil Nadu and Utnur in

Andhra Pradesh

d) Main features were practice of agriculture, domestication of animals,

polishing of stone tools, and pottery manufacturing

e) These led to the emergence of village communities based on sedentary

life
f) Great improvement had been noticed in making technology of making

tools and other equipments used by man

g) Houses were built by mud brick instead of grass huts

h) Pottery was used for cooking and storage of food grains

i) Wheat, barley, rice, millet were cultivated in different points of time.

j) Domesticated Sheep, Goat and Cattle were used for cultivation and

transport

k) Clothes made of cotton and wool was used by the people

4) Chalcolithic Age (Metal Age)


a) Copper and Bronze came to be used in this period

b) Smelting metal ore and crafting metal artifacts is an important


development in human civilization

c) People began to travel for long distance and this led to the network of
Chalcolithic cultures, found in many parts of India

d) Chalcolithic culture grown in river valleys and Harappan culture is


considered as important of Chalcolithic period

e) River valleys in south India such as Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra,


Pennar and Kaveri were settled by farming

f) Evidences were found for using copper and bronze artifacts by the end
of second millennium B.C.

g) Several bronze and copper objects, beards, Terracata figures and


pottery were found in Paiyampalli in Tamilnadu

h) This age is followed by iron age related to the megalithic burials

i) Important megalithic sites are Hallur and Maski in Karnataka,


Najurjuna konda in Andhra Pradesh and Adichanallur in Tamil Nadu.

j) Black and red pottery iron artifacts such as hoes, sickles and small
weapons were found in burial pits
MIND MAP-2

HARAPPAN CULTURE

Excavations were done at Harappa in west Punjab and Mohenjadaro in Sind.

A civilization was found based on the light of this exacavation known as Indus valley

civilization. It is also known as Harappan civilization after the first discovery site.

1. Important Sites

i) The most important excavated sites are

a) Kot diji in Sind

b) Kalibangan in Rajastan

c) Rupur in Punjab

d) Banawali in Haryana

e) Lothal, Surkotada and Dholavira in Gujarat

ii) Mohenjodaro is the largest of all cities and it is estimated to have

spread over an area of 200 hectares.

2. Origin and Evolution

a) There are four important phases of evolution namely Pre-

Harappan, Early Harappan, Mature-Harappan and Later

Harappan

b) Pre-Harappan state is located in eastern Baluchistan

c) Existence of this culture excavated at Mehrgarh to the north west

of Mohenjadaro

d) The nomadic people began to lead a settled agricultural life.

e) In early Harappan stage, people lived in large villages in the

plains
f) Transition from rural to urban life took place and growth of town

started.

g) Amri and Kot diji remain the evidence for early Harappan stage

h) The excavation at Kalibangan with its elaborate town planning

and urban features prove the evolution of mature-Harappan stage

i) The evolution of later- Harappan stage was revealed through the

excavations at Lothal

j) Lothal remained as trade emporium between Harappan

Civilization and the remaining part of India as well as

Mesopotamia

3. Date and Excavations

a) In 1931, Sir John Marshall estimated the duration of this culture

between 3250 B.C and 2750 B.C

b) The dating of Harappan culture was modified due to discovery of

new sites

c) Advent of radio carbon method paves way for fixing the accurate

date

d) Fairservis brought down dating of the Harappan Culture between

2000 B.C and 1500 B.C. On the basis of radio carbon findings

e) D.P. Agarwal concluded the date of the total life span of this

culture between 2300 B.C and 1750 B.C


MIND MAP 3

SALIENT FEATURES OF HARAPPAN CULTURE

1. Social Life

a) The dress of both men and women consisted of upper garment and

lower garments.

b) This dress is same to that of modern Dothi

c) Jewelleries such as bangles, bracelets, fillets, gridles, anklets, ear-rings

made of gold, silver, copper, bronze and semi-precious stones were

worn by women

d) Various household articles made of pottery, stone, shells, ivory and

metal had been found at Mohenjadaro

e) Fishing was regular occupation while hunting and bull fighting were

other past times

f) Numerous specimens of war weapons such as axes, spear heads,

daggers, bows, arrows made of copper and bronze

2. Economic Life

a) Great progress noticed in all spheres of economic activity of people

such as agriculture, industry, crafts and trade

b) Wheat and barley were the main crops grown by people besides

sesame, mustard and cotton

c) Animals like sheep, goats and buffalo were domesticated

d) Artisans group include goldsmiths, brick makers, stone cutlers,

weavers, boat builders and terracotta manufactures

e) In many places gold, silver and pottery remains of red and black

coloured paint were found


f) Internal trade was extensive with other parts of India. Foreign trade

was also conducted with Mesopotamia, Afghanistan and Iron

g) The imported items were gold, copper, tin and several semi-precious

stones

h) Exported items were agricultural products such as Wheat, Barley, Peas,

Oilseeds and various other finished products

i) There was trade link between Indus and Sumerian people and the trade

was based on barter system

j) The seals and terracotta models reveal the use of bullock-carts and

oxen for land transport and boat and ships used for river and sea

transport
MIND MAP-4

SALIENT FEATURES OF HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION

1. Town Planning

a) The civilization was distinguished by its town planning

b) Streets and lanes cutting across one another almost at rigid angles, that

dividing the city into several rectangular blocks

c) Harappa, Mohenjadaro and Kalibangan had its own citadel, built on high

podium of mud brick

d) Large- scale use of burnt bricks in almost all kinds of construction was

found and there was absence of stone building

e) Underground drainage system connecting all houses to the street drains

was covered by stone slabs or bricks

f) Great bath is the important public place measuring 39 feet length, 23 feet

breadth and 8 feet depth

g) The floor of bath was made up of burnt bricks and there were side rooms

for changing clothes

h) Water was drawn from large well in an adjacent room and outlet from

one corner of bath led to a drain

i) Granery is the largest building measuring 150 feet length and 50 feet

breadth

j) The citadel of Harappan was found by six granaries

2. Script

a) According to Parapola and his Scandinavian colleagues the language of

Harappan was in Dravidian

b) Some scholars view that Harappan Script was in Brahmi


c) The script of Harappan was written from right to left

d) In some long seals, writing in reverse direction in alternative lines was

adopted

3. Religion

a) Pasupathi is the chief male Diety sitting in the Yogic posture with three

faces and two horns

b) Pasupathi is surrounded by four animals - Elephant, Buffalo, Tiger and

Rhinocerous facing each in different direction

c) The chief female diety was mother goddess represented in Terracotas

figures

d) People of Harappan Civilization worshipped Linga, trees and animals

e) They believed in ghosts and evil forces and used amulets as protection

against them

4. Arts

a) Figures of men and women, animals and birds were made of terracotta

and the carvings on the seals show high degree of proficiency

b) The figure of dancing girl made of bronze with right hand rests on hip,

left arm covered with bangles and hangs loosely in a relaxed posture

c) Two stone statues representing back view of man and other a dancer was

the specimen of the sculpture

d) Pottery made of pots and jars were painted with various designs and

colours

e) The pictorial motifs consisted of geometrical patterns like horizontal

lines, circles, leaves , plants and trees


MIND MAP-5

THE VEDIC CULTURE

1. Original Home of Aryans

a) Different scholars have different views regarding the orginal home of

Aryans. They include Arctic region, Germany, Central Asia and South

Russsia

b) Based on astronomical calculations, Balagangadara Tilak argues that

Aryans came from Arctic region

c) The Historians accepted the theory of southern Russia as the original

home of Aryans

d) From southern Russia Aryans moved to different parts of Asia and Europe

e) They entered India in about 1500 B.C and came to be known as Indo-

Aryans and they spoke the language Sanskrit

2. Vedic Literature

a) Veda is derived from the word ‘Vid’ which means to know. (the superior

knowledge)

b) Vedic literature consist of four Vedas - Rig, Yayur, Sama and Atharva

c) The Rig Veda is the earliest of four Vedas and it consist of 10228 hymns,

that were sung in praise of various Gods

d) The Yajur Veda consists of various details of rules to be observed at the

time of sacrifice

e) The Sama Veda is set to tune for the purpose of chanting mantras during

sacrifice. The origin of Indian music are traced in it

f) The Atharva Veda contains the details of various rituals


g) Along with Vedas other sacred books were Brahmanas, Upanishads,

Aryanakas and the epics like Ramayana and Mahabaratha

h) The Brahmanas are the treatises relating to prayer and sacrificial

ceremony

i) The Upanishads are philosophical texts dealing with the soul, absolute

origin of the world mysteries of nature

j) The Aryanakas are called forest books and they deal with mysticism, rites,

rituals and sacrifices

k) The author of Ramayana is Valmiki and Mahabaratha is Vedavyasa

3. Early Vedic Period (Rigvedic Age)

a) The period of Rigveda is between 1500 B.C and 1000 B.C and the people

were mostly confined to Indus region

b) The Rig Veda refers to Saptasindhu or the land of Seven rivers

c) The seven rivers include the five rivers of Punjab namely Jhelum, Chenab,

Ravi, Beas, Sutlej along with the Indus and Saraswathi

d) From the hymns of Rig Veda the Political, Social and Cultural life of Rig

Vedic people can be understood thoroughly

4. Later Vedic Period (1000-600 B.C)

a) Several tribal groups and kingdoms are mentioned in the later Vedic

literature

b) Large kingdoms developed during this period and the kingdoms such as

Kuru and Panchala flourished in the beginning

c) Parikshat and Janamejaya were the famous rulers of Kuru kingdom

d) Pravahana and Jaivali were the popular rulers of Panchalas


e) After the fall of Kurus and Panchalas, the kingdoms like Kosala, Kasi,

Videha came into prominence

f) Ajatasutra was the famous ruler of Kasi and Janaka was the king of

Videha with its capital Mithila

g) The eastern most tribal kingdoms were Magada, Anga, and Vanga

h) The later vedic texts also refers to three divisions of India. Aryavartha

(northern India), Madhya Desa (Central India) and Dakshivapatha

(Southern India)
MIND MAP-6

EARLY VEDIC PERIOD (Rig Vedic Age)

1. Social Life

a) The society was Patriarchical in nature and the basic unit of society was

the family or graham

b) The head of the family was known as Grahapathi

c) Monogamy was generally practiced while polygamy prevailed among

royal and noble families

d) Women were given equal opportunities as men for their spiritual and

intellectual development

e) Women poets like Apala, Viswavara, Ghosala and Lopamudra were

patronized

f) Child marriage and practice of sati were not prevailed during Rig Vedic

period

g) Both men and women wore both upper and lower garments like cotton and

wool and other variety of ornaments

h) Chief food items were Wheat, Barley, Milk and its products like curd and

ghee, vegetables and fruits items

i) Their favourite past times of people were chariot racing, horse racing,

dicing, music, dance etc.

j) The Social division was not very rigid during Rig Vedic period as it was in

the Later Vedic period


2. Political Organization

a) Kula or family was the basic unity of political organization

b) Several families joined together on the basis of their kinship to form a

Village or Grama. The leader of Grama was known as Gramini

c) Group of villagers constituted a larger unit called Visu. headed by

Vishayapati

d) There were several tribal kingdoms such as Bharatas, Matsyas, Yadus and

Purus

e) Rig Vedic polity was monarchical and succession was hereditary and the

head of the kingdom was called King or Rajan

f) The king was assisted by Purohita or priest and Senani or commander of

the army in his administration

g) Two popular bodies known as Sabha and Samithi, in which Sabha was the

council of elders, and Samithi seems to be the general assembly of the

entire people

3. Economic Condition

a) The people were pastoral and the main occupation was cattle rearing and

their wealth was estimated in terms of Cattles

b) Practiced agriculture and with the knowledge of use of iron, they cleared

the forest and brought more land under cultivation


c) Carpentry as a profession was made profitable by the availability of wood

from the cleared forest and produced chariots and ploughs

d) Metal workers made a variety of articles with copper, bronze and iron

e) Cotton and woolen fabrics were made through spinning and various kinds

of domestic vessels were made by potters

f) Rivers served as important means of transport for trade activity and this

was based on barter system

4) Religion

a) People worshipped natural forces like Earth, Fire, wind, Rain and Thunder

b) They personified these natural forces into many Gods and worshipped

them

c) The important rig Vedic gods were Prithvi related to Earth, Agni related to

Fire, Vayu related to Wind, Varuna related to Rain and Indira related to

Thunder

d) Indira was most popular and Agni was regarded as an intermediary

between Gods and people

e) Popular female gods were Aditi and Ushas were worshipped by the people

f) No temple or idol worship prevailed during this period

g) Prayer was offered to Gods in expectations of rewards and ghee, milk and

grain were offered

h) Elaborate rituals were followed by the people


MIND MAP-7

LATER VEDIC PERIOD (1000 - 600 B.C)

1. Political Organization

a) Larger kingdoms were formed by amalgamating many jana or tribes to

form Janapadas or Rashtras

b) The royal power of king increased and performed various rituals and

sacrifies to strengthen his kingdom

c) The important rituals are Rajasuga (consecration ceremony), Asvamedha

(horse sacrifice) and Vajpeya (chariot race)

d) The king assumed the titles like Rajavisvajanan, Ahilabhuvana pathi (lord

of all earth), Ekrat and Samrat (Sole ruler)

e) In addition to the existing administrative officials such as Purohita, Senani

and Gramini, new officials were also included

f) The new officials include the treasury officer, tax collector and royal

messenger

g) The lower level of administration was carried out by village assemblies

h) The importance of Sabha and Samithi had been diminished during this

period

2. Social Life

a) The four divisions of the society or varna system was thoroughly

established.

b) The four divisions were Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras.

c) The higher class Brahmis and Kshatriyas enjoyed the privilages that were

denied to Vaisyas and Sudras


d) Brahmin occupied higher position than Kshatriyas but sometimes

Kshatriyas claimed higher status over the Brahmins

e) Based an occupational status many sub-castes emerged in the society.

f) No importance in the status of women and they were considered as

inferior to men

g) Child marriages become common in the society and the women of the

royal house hold enjoyed certain privileges

3. Religion

a) Early Vedic gods like Indira and Agni lost their importance

b) The prominent gods were Prajapathi (the creator) Vishnu (the protector)

and Rudra (destroyer)

c) Sacrifices and rituals were more important like that of early Vedic period,

but the importance of prayer become less importance

d) Priestly class became hereditary one and become a profession, the formula

for sacrifice were invented and elaborated by them

e) Strong opposition were there against the scarifies and priestly domination.

f) Due to the direct impact of this scarifies, Buddhism and Jainism aroused

and spread

g) The authors of Upanishads turned away from the useless rituals and

insisted on true knowledge for peace and salvation

4. Economic Condition

a) Agriculture was the main occupation and the cultivation was done by

clearing the forests with the help of iron weapons

b) The major agricultural products were barley, rice and wheat.

c) Industrial activity became more varied and specialization


d) Metal work, Leather work, Carpentry and Pottery made great progress

e) Internal and foreign trade became extensive and a class of hereditary

merchants (Vaniya) came into existence

f) The people were familiar with sea and established trade with Babylon.

g) Vaisyas also carried on trade and commerce and they organized

themselves into guilds known as Ganas

h) Gold and silver coins like Satamana and Krishnala were used as media of

exchange
MIND MAP-8

CAUSES FOR THE RISE OF JAINISM AND BUDDHISM

1. Rituals

a) By the 6th century B.C the Vedic philosophy and religion lost its

originality and purity

b) The rites and ceremonies had become expensive and the common people

cannot afford it

c) The religious rituals were made almost a frequent affair of household and

it became heavy burden on common people

d) Common people fed up with religious formalities

2. Sacrifices

a) There were numerous sacrifices and their performances were complex and

elaborate

b) The common people cannot break this performance during sacrifices

c) The killing of animals and human beings on certain ceremonial occasions

created feeling of revolt and contempt among the people

d) The Brahmins dominated in the public ceremonies and house hold rites.

e) The people not only hated sacrifices but also Brahmins

3. Theological Confusion

a) There were number of theological doctrines and creeds conflicting each

other

b) Number of ways to attain Moksha such as Karma Marga, Bhakti Marga

and Jnana Marga


c) All these confused people and they were eager to seek some solution from

the ills of the world

d) These conflicting views for attaining Moksha created unrest and

confusion in the moral and spiritual world

4. Caste System

a) The caste system was very rigid and due to this the non-Brahmins faced

very miserable condition

b) They were forbidden from taking ascetic life

c) The Brahmins dominated and were superior in the society

d) The caste system brought tension in the society and due to this the social

set up was Orthodox in nature

5. Language

a) All the Hindu religious literature has been written in Sanskrit

b) The sacrifices and rituals were performed in Sanskrit

c) Majority of the common people were not able to follow this language

6. Brahmin Supremacy

a) Monopoly of Hindu priests and their domination disgusted common man

b) The Brahmins enjoyed special privileges and powers to the maximum

c) They dominated all the aspects of life from the birth to death

d) They were considered superior over the rest of Hindu people

e) They claimed to be the exponent of Vedic tradition and rituals

f) Their claim was questioned by enlightened people in the society


MIND MAP – 9

JAINISM

1. Life History

a) Vardhamana Mahavira was the 24th Thirthankara of Jain tradition

b) He was born at Kundagrama near Vaisali in a Kshatriya caste family

c) His parents were Siddhartha and Trisala. He married Yasodha and gave

birth to a daughter

d) Mahavira became ascetic at the age of thirty and wandered for twelve

years

e) In the 13th year of his penance, he attained the highest spiritual knowledge

called Kevala Gnana

f) He was known by the name Mahavira and Jina and his followers called

Jains and the religion Jainism

g) Preached his doctrine for thirty years and died at the age of 72 at Pava

near Rajagriha

2. Teaching

(1) The three principle of Jainism known as Trirathas (three gems) are: right

faith, right knowledge and right conduct

(2) Raith faith is the belief in the teachings and wisdom of Mahavira

(3) Right knowledge is the acceptance of the theory that there is no god and

the world has been existing without a creator

(4) Right conduct refers to the observance of five vows such as not to injure

life; not to lie, not to steal, not to acquire property, not to lead immoral life

(5) Mahavira regarded on objects both animate and inanimate have souls on

various degree of conscious


(6) Both the objects possess life and feel pain and pleasure

(7) Rejected the authority of the Vedas and objected to the Vedic rituals

(8) Agriculture was considered as sinful as it causes injury to the earth,

worms and animals

(9) Mahavira advocated ethical code of life such as Ahimsa, Satya,

Brahmacharya and Aparigriha

3. Spread of Jainism

a) Sangha were organized by admitting both men and women to spread the

teachings which consisted of both monks and lay followers

b) Due to rapid and dedicated work of the members of Sanga, Jainism spread

to various parts of western India and Karnataka

c) The rulers who patronized Jainism were Chandragupta Maurya, Karavela

of Kalinga, and the royal dynasties of south India such as Ganges, the

Kadambas, Chalukyas and Rastrakutas

d) The two sects of Jainism were Svetambaras and Digambaras. The former

wore white cloth and the latter were naked

e) The first Jain council was convened at Pataliputra by Stulabaha, the leader

of Digambaras in the beginning of 3rd century A.D.

f) The second council held at Valabhi in 5th century A.D and the final

completion of Jain literature called twelve Angas was completed in this

council
MIND MAP-10

MAURYAN ADMINISTRATION

1. Central Government

a) The system of government like republic and oligarchies prevailed in the

pre-Mauryan India collapsed and monarchy rule started

b) Kautilya a political theorist in Ancient India supported monarchical form

of government and oppose royal absolutism

c) There was a council of ministers known as Mantriparishad to assist the

king related to administrative matters

d) This Mantriparishad consists of Purohita, Mahamantri, Senapati and

Yuvaraja

e) There were many civil servants known as Amatyas, to look after the

administration and they were similar to that of IAS officers of

Independent India

f) Ashoka appointed Dhamma Mahamatras to supervise the spread of

Dhamma

2. Revenue Department

a) Samharta, the chief of the Revenue Department was in charge of the

collection of all revenues of the empire

b) The source of revenue from land, irrigation, customs, shop tax, ferry tax,

forests, mines and pastures, fines collected in the law courts

c) The land revenue was normally fixed as one sixth of the product

d) The main items of the expenditure of the state were related to king and his

household, army, government servants, public works, poor relief, religion

etc.
3. Army

a) The Mauryan army was well organized and it was under the control of

Senapati

b) Pliny the Greek author says, the Mauryan army consisted of six lakh

infantry, thirty thousand cavalry, nine thousand elephants and eight

thousand chariots

c) In addition to these four wings, there were the Navy and Transport and

supply wings

d) Megasthanese mentioned six boards of five members each to control the

six wings of the military

e) Each wing was under the control of Adyakshas

4. Judiciary

a) Civil and criminal courts were there and the chief justice of the Supreme

Court was Dharmathikaran

b) Subordinate courts were also there at the provincial capitals and districts

under Amatyas

c) Different kinds of punishments such as fines, imprisionment, mutilation

and death were in prevalence

d) Torture was adopted by the police officials in order to extract truth from

the culprits

5. Provincial Administration

a) Mauryan Empire was divided into four provinces with their capital at

Texas, Ujjain, Suvarnagiri, and Kalinga


b) The provincial governors were appointed from the members of royal

Family and they were responsible for maintenance of law and order and

tax collection

c) The district administration was under the charge of Rajukas , whose

Position and function are similar to modern collector and he was assisted

by Yuktas

d) The village administration was in the hords of Gramini and his officiate

Superior called Gopa who was in charge of ten to fifteen villages

e) According to Megasthenese these were six committees of five members

each to look after the administration of Pataliputra

f) The duty of this committees were to look after industries, foreigners,

registration of birth and death, trade, manufacture of sales and good,

collection of sales tax

g) Nagarika or city superintendent was appointed and his chief duty was to
maintain law and order in the state

6. Census

a) The census were taken permanently and continuously in Mauryan

administration

b) The village officials were entrusted the charge of taking census such as

caste, occupation, number of animals in each house etc.

c) The census in town was taken by the municipal officials

d) The data collected through census were crossed checked by the spices
APPENDIX – B

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
MANONMANIAM SUNDARANAR UNIVERSITY
Tirunelveli

ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN HISTORY

Standard: XI Time: 2.30 hours


Marks: 100

PART- A

I Choose the correct answer from the following (10 x 1 = 10 Marks)

1. The Chalcolithic age is followed by

a) Old stone age b) New stone age c) Iron age d) Mesolithic age

2. The Oldest Veda is

a) Yajurveda b) Rig veda c) Samaveda d) Atharvaveda

3. Vardhamana Mahavira was born at

a) Kapilavastu b) Pataliputra c) Kundagrama d) Kusumapura

4. The original name of Buddha was

a) Siddhartha b) Suddhodana c) Jeenar d) Vardhamana

5. The Capital of Magada was

a) Rajagriha b) Ujjain c) Kosala d) Kausambi

6. Bimbisara belongs to the dynasty of

a) Haryanka b) Maurya c) Gupta d) Sunga

7. The five fold divisions of land during Sangam period was mentioned in

a) Jeevakachintamani b) Kundalakesi

c) Silapathikaram d) Tolkappiam
8. The detail of Kalinga war was mentioned in

a) Kalinga edict b) XIII rock edict c) Sarnath pillar d) Arthasasthra

9. The Sungas were succeeded by

a) Kushanas b) Mauryas c) Kanwas d) Satavahanas

10. Brihatrata the last Mauryanruler was assassinated by

a) Pushyamitra b) Samprati c) Samhartha d) Ajivikas

II. Fill up the blanks with correct words (10 × 1 = 10)

11. Sir John Marshall used the ___________________ method to estimate the

period of Harappan Culture.

12. ___________________ is the chief male diety of the Harappan people.

13. The arctic home of Aryans was suggested by ___________________

14. The first Buddhist council was held at _________________________

15. The last ruler of Nanda dynasty was __________________________

16. Bindusara was called by Greeks as___________________________

17. The book written by Kautilya was ____________________________

18. ____________________ was the founder of the Saka Era.

19. The school of art that developed in modern Uttar Pradesh is ________________

20. Ettutogai and Pattupattu are divided into ______________________

PART-B

III. Answer the following in a Sentence or Two (10 × 2 =20)

21. Identify the important sites of Harappan Civilization in Indian map ?

22. Why was old age people known as hunter- gatherers ?

23. Write any two reasons on how the principles of Buddhism have great value in
the Modern World ?
24. What was the position of women during later Vedic period ?
25. How did Alexander defeat Porus?

26. How did Chandragupta establish Mauryan Dynasty ?

27. What do you meant by Mantri Parishad?

28. Write the impact of Gandhara art in the modern world

29. What were the main exports during the Sangam Age ?

30. What are the sights that changed Buddha to become an Ascetic ?

PART- C

IV. Answer the following questions in a paragraph (8 × 5= 40)

31 Assess the economic life of Harappan Civilization

32. Draw a mind map about the teaching of Gauthama Buddha

33. Analyze the impact of Persian invasion on India.

34. Explain the importance of having a university like Nalanda in present Age.

35. Explain the effect of Alexander’s invasion

36. Why Asoka is called as the greatest of King?

37. “The increasing rites and rituals during later Vedic period caused for the rise of

Jainism and Buddhism”. Substantiate this statement when compared with

present Indian situation

38. Draw a mind map of Sangam Society

PART-D

V. Answer the following questions in about a page (2 × 10= 20)

39. Draw a mind map of Mauryan Art and Architecture and explain

40. Discuss the Socio-economic condition of Ancient Tamil Nadu


APPENDIX - C
SCORING KEY
PART- A

I. Choose the correct answer from the following

1. Iron Age

2. Rig Veda

3. Kundagrama

4. Siddhartha

5. Rajagriha

6. Haryanka

7. Tolkappiyam

8. XIII Rock Edict

9. Kanwas

10. Pushyamitra

II. Fill up the blanks with suitable answers

11. Radio Carbon

12. Pasupathi

13. Bala Gangathar Thilak

14. Rajagriha

15. Dhana Nanda

16. AmithraGhata

17. ArthaSastra

18. Kanishka

19. Mathura School of Art

20. Aham and Puram


PART-B

III. Answer the following in a sentence or Two

1. KotDiji in Sind, Kalibangan in Rajastan, Ruper in Punjab, Banawadi in

Haryana, Lothal and Dholavira in Gujarat are the important sites of Harappan

Culture.

2. The Old Age people are known as Hunter Gatherers because they obtained

their food by hunting animals and gathering edible plants and tubers.

3. Buddhism was identical with morality and it emphasized purity of thought,

word and deed. It also taught the code of practical ethics and laid down the

principle of social equity.

4. Women were considered as inferior and subordinate to men. They also lost

their political rights of attending the assemblies. Child marriage was also

commonly practiced.

5. Alexander crossed Indus river in February 326 B.C. and sent a message to

Pours to submit. But Pours refused to submit. So Alexander marched from

Taxila to the bank of the river Hydaspes. He crossed the river and the famous

Battle of Hydaspes was fought between Alexander and Porus on the plains of

khaari. Pours lost the Battle.

6. During 322 B.C. Chandra Gupta Maura captured Pataliputra from the last ruler

of Nanda dynasty, Dhanananda with the help of Kautilya. After establishing

his power in the Gangetic Valley he moved to central India and occupied the

region north of Narmada river and established Mauryan dynasty.

7. Mantri Parishad is a council of ministers to assist the mauryan king in the

administrative matters. It consisted of Purohita, Mahamantri, Senapati, and

Yuvaraja.
8. The Gandhara School of Art made sculpture of Buddha in various sizes,

shapes, and postures and its impact caused for the spread of Buddhism in

different nations of modern world and caused for the spread of new form

known as Mahayana Buddhism.

9. The major exports during the Sangam age were cotton fabrics, spices like

Pepper, Ginger, Cardamom, Cinnamon, Turmeric, Ivory products, Pearls, and

Precious stones.

10. An old man, a diseased man, a corpse, and an ascetic are the four sights that

changed Buddha to become an ascetic.


APPENDIX - D

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
MANONMANIUM SUNDARANAR UNIVERSITY
Tirunelveli

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS

Dear Student,

This check list is meant for collecting details about the educational outcomes

of using mind maps in learning History at higher secondary level. Please go through

the items given below and suggest your responses by putting a tick mark (Ö) in the

appropriate columns.

Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully
K. Gireesh Kumar
(Research Scholar)
PART – A

PERSONAL DATA

1. Name of the student :

2. Name of the school :

3. Standard :

4. Gender : Male / Female

5. Locality : Rural / Urban

6. Family Income : BPL / APL

7. Educational Qualification of parents : Upto S.S.L.C / H.Sc / Degree

8. Occupational status of parents : Coolie / Business / Govt.


PART – B

The educational outcomes of learning History using mind maps:

i) Provides motivation for learning -

ii) Recall of information is possible -

iii) Learning becomes enjoyable -

iv) Helps to develop interest in learning -

v) Promotes retention power -

vi) Learning becomes more meaningful -

vii) Encourages deeper learning -

viii) Independent learning is possible -

ix) Helps to develop skill in drawing -

x) Helps to make association easily -

xi) Minimum time required for learning the content -

xii) Helps to develop overall picture of the topic -


APPPENDIX – E

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
MANONMANIUM SUNDARANAR UNIVERSITY
Tirunelveli
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS

Respected Sir/Madam,

This questionnaire is intended to collect details of using mind maps for

teaching History at higher secondary level. Please go through the items given below

and indicate your responses by putting a tick mark (Ö) in the space provided.

Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully
K. Gireesh Kumar
(Research Scholar)
PART – A
PERSONAL DATA

1. Name of the Teacher :

2. Name of the School :

3. Designation :

4. Gender : Male / Female

5. Age : Below 30 / Between 30 to 40 / Between 40 to 50

6. Locality : Rural / Urban

7. Religion : Hindu / Christian / Muslim

8. Community : OC / BC / MBC / SC / ST

9. Educational Qualification : P G with B. Ed / P G with M. Ed / M. Phil

10. Teaching Experience : Below ten years / Above ten years

11. Type of School : Government / Aided


PART – B

1. Do you use Mind Map for teaching history - Yes No

If no, give reasons for not using mind maps in teaching.

(i) Lack of knowledge about mind map -

(ii) Lack of interest in mind map -

(iii) Lack of practice in using mind maps -

(iv) Lack of training in mind map -

(v) Lack of literature about mind map -

(vi) Difficulty in maintaining discipline in class room -

(vii) Difficulty in preparing mind maps for teaching -

Any other reason, Please Specify.

2. Do you think any special training is required in mind maps


to teach History. Yes No
3. Do you attend any special training programme in the area
of mind maps . Yes No
4. Practical difficulties likely to be encountered while using mind maps for teaching.

i. Lack of practice in preparing mind map -

ii. Inadequate knowledge about mind map -

iii. Difficulty in preparing mind map -

iv. Overcrowded class room -

v. Over loaded Syllabus -

vi. Lack of reference materials -

vii. Difficulty in maintaining discipline -

i. Time consuming -

ix. Rigid time table -


ii. Lack of suitable models based on mind maps -

xi. Problems related to evaluation -

5. Whether suitable resources are available to teach the following content in History
by using mind maps.

a. Pre-historic India -

b. Harappa Culture -

c. Vedic Culture -

d. Jainism and Buddhism -

e. Rise of Magadha and Alexander’s Invasion -

f. The Mauryan Empire -

g. Post-Mauryan India -

h. Sangam Age -

6. Suggestions for effective use of mind maps for teaching history.

i. Frequent in-service training to be conducted for teachers -

ii. Time table should be made flexible -

iii. Proper resources should be made available -

iv. Library facilities should be provided -

v. Strength of the class should be reduced -

7. Educational outcomes of using mind maps in teaching at higher secondary level.

a. Enables to teach the concept meaningfully -


b. Helps to summarize information -
c. Helps to develop interest in students -
d. Enables to retain the learned concepts -
e. Acquisition of deep knowledge about historical aspects -
f. To provide individual attention -
g. Develop creativity among students -
h. Can complete the content with in limited time -
i. Helps to develop overall picture of the topic -
j. Develops skill in designing maps for representing concepts -
k. Promotes independent thinking -
l. Learned concepts can be retained for a longer time -
n. Independent learning is possible -
n. Get practice in processing information -
o. Develops skills in structuring models to represent different concepts -
p. Participatory learning is possible -
q. Creates motivation for learners -
r. Recall of information is possible -
s. Encourages deeper learning -
t. Systematic organization of ideas -
u. Enables to plan routes while learning -

Mind map helps to develop the following capabilities

a) Creative thinking -

b) Logical thinking -

c) Problem solving ability -

d) Decision making capacity -


APPENDIX – F

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
MANONMANIUM SUNDARANAR UNIVERSITY
Tirunelveli

RATING SCALE FOR TEACHERS

Dear Sir / Madam,

This rating scale is meant for collecting details about using mind maps for

teaching history at higher secondary level. Please go through the items given below

and suggest your views by putting a tick mark (Ö) in the appropriate column.

Thanking You,

Yours Faithfully
K. Gireesh Kumar
(Reseaech Scholar)
PART – A

PERSONAL DATA

1. Name of the Teacher :

2. Name of the School :

3. Designation :

4. Gender : Male / Female

5. Age : Below 30 / Between 30 to 40 / Above 40

6. Locality : Rural / Urban

7. Religion : Hindu / Christian / Muslim

8. Community : OC / BC / MBC / SC / ST

9. Educational Qualification : P G with B. Ed / P G with M. Ed / M. Phil

10. Teaching Experience : Below ten years / Above ten years

11. Type of School : Government / Aided


PART – B

1. Extent of Feasibility of mind map for teaching History at higher secondary level.

i) Great Extent (G E) -

ii) Some Extent (S E) -

iii) Not at All (N A) -

2. Extent of rating of suitability of mind map method and lecture method in realizing

the instructional objectives of teaching history at higher secondary level.

Sl. INSTRUCTIONAL TEACHING RATING DIMENSIONS


No. OBJECTIVIES METHOD
GE SE NA

1. To acquire knowledge of terms, MM


facts, events, concepts and
LM
principles concerning history.
2. To develop understanding of MM
terms, facts, concepts, principles LM
etc. related to history.
3. To apply acquired knowledge in MM
unfamiliar situations. LM

4. To acquire practical skills related M M


to the study of history. LM

5. To develop interest towards MM


learning history. LM

6. To develop positive attitude MM


towards history. LM
3. This part contains the details regarding the Suitability and Practicability of
mind maps for learning History at higher secondary level. Please go through
the items and indicate your responses in the appropriate columns.

Suitability and practicability of using Mind Maps for teaching the concepts:

Responses in Percentage
Sl.No. Concepts Suitability Practicability
GE SE NA GE SE NA
I PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD

1 Old Stone Age

2 Middle Stone Age

3 Neolithic Age

4 Metal Age

HARAPPA CULTURE

1 Original Evaluation

2 Salient features

3 Town planning

4 Economic life

5 Social life

6 Art and script

7 Religion

8 Decline of Harappa culture

II VEDIC CULTURE

1 Vedic literature

2 Vedic Age

3 Social life

4 Economic conduction

5 Religion
III JAINISM AND BUDDHISM

1 Causes for the rise

2 Life History of Buddha and Mahavira

3 Teachings

4 Spread of Religion

5 Buddhist Council

6 Causes for decline

7 Buddhist Contribution
RISE OF MAGADA AND
IV
ALEXANDR’S INVASION
1 Bimbisara

2 Four Kingdoms

3 Nandas

4 Persian Invasion

5 Alexander’s Invasion

6 Hydospes Battle

Effect of Alexander’s Invasion

V THE MAURYAN EMPIRE

1 Literacy Sources

2 Archaeological Sources

3 Chandragupta Maurya

4 Asoka the Great

5 Asoka and Buddhism

6 Asoka’s Dhamma

7 Mauryan Administration

8 Art and Architecture

9 Causes for decline

VI POST –MAURYAN INDIA

1 Sungas
2 Satavakanas

3 Foreign Invasion

4 Gandhara Art

5 Matura School of Art

6 Successors of Kaniska

VII SANGAM AGE

1 Literature

2 Political History

3 Sangam Polity

4 Sangam Society

5 Religion

6 Position of Women

7 Economy of Sangam Age

8 End of Sangam