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# Zain Bin Zahid/FA16-EPE-022

## COMSATS University Islamabad

Lab: 07
Course: Power Transmission EEE-381
Instructor: M. Ali Khan

Student:
Reg. Number: FA16-EPE-022

## Name: Zain Bin Zahid

Section: _________________________
(Do not write anything here)

ASSESSMENT
Pre-lab Task: /5
Lab Performance: /10
Post-Lab: /10

Total: /25
Zain Bin Zahid/FA16-EPE-022

## Lab # 7: Series connection of two transmission lines

Objectives:
• Measurement of the voltage distribution in a series connection of two lines of
different lengths.
• Determination of the relationship between line length and voltage drop.
• Investigation of the effect of the operating capacitances on the voltages and currents.

Pre-Lab:
This arrangement, where the individual units of operating equipment are connected in series,
is the basis of the radial network. The relations are deduced first for the simplified
representation (Le. without shunt elements); then a more exact treatment, in which the shunt
elements are considered, is carried out.

A characteristic feature of a series circuit is that approximately the same current flows through
all branches. Thus, the cross-section of the weakest line is decisive in determining the extent
to which a series circuit can be loaded.

The following expressions are valid for series connection in the simplified line representation:

Fig. 7.1: Series connection of two lines (simplified equivalent circuit diagram)

## Z 1 = R1 + j L1 = R1 + j X : longitudinal impedance of line 1

Z 2 = R2 + j L2 = R2 + j X 2 : longitudinal impedance of line 2

## U A : voltage at the beginning of line 1 (= feeding voltage)

Zain Bin Zahid/FA16-EPE-022

## In order to demonstrate the characteristic properties of a series connection, it is sufficient to

assume a purely ohmic load at the end of line 2. However, the expressions which are derived under
such an assumption are also principally valid

## for other load cases.

Zain Bin Zahid/FA16-EPE-022

Fig. 7.2: Phasor diagram for the circuit shown in fig. 7.1

The two line impedances Z1 and Z2 add together to give a total line impedance Z tot :

## UE = 𝑈𝐴 − Z𝑡𝑜𝑡. I𝐸 = UA − (R1 + R2 + 𝒋(X1 + X2)). IE

Accordingly if two identical lines are connected in series, the connection behaves just as if it were
a single line twice as long (shunt elements ignored here).

However, impermissibly high voltage drops occur when the line is very long, which
introduces the necessity of transmission at a higher voltage level (see the example in
the supplementary exercises).

Consideration of shunt elements (operating capacitances) leads to the following equivalent circuit
diagram:
Zain Bin Zahid/FA16-EPE-022

Fig. 7.3: Series connection of two lines (with the shunt elements taken into consideration) Fig. 7.4:
Phasor diagram for the circuit shown in fig. 7.3
Zain Bin Zahid/FA16-EPE-022

The following relationships are based on the voltage and current at the end of line 2 (given by
the conditions required at the load):

## Half of the operating capacitance of line 2 lies parallel to the load.

The current IBE through line 2 is thus composed of the load current and the charging current at
the end of line 2. If current IB is known the voltage drop along line 2 and thus the voltage UB
can be determined. Knowing UB the two charging currents IB0 and IB0/ at the end of line 1, resp.
at the beginning of line 2, can be found.

Adding these currents to IBE gives the current IAB through line 1 and thus the corresponding
voltage drop along line 1 resp. the required voltage 𝑈𝐴 at the beginning of the circuit. Now the
charging current IAO at the beginning of line 1 is to be found from this value and added to the
current IAB in order to obtain the current 4 which flows into the circuit.

The treatment in the phasor diagram above is qualitative (i.e. not to scale). The values show that
in reality the influence of the operating capacitances is smaller than represented in the phasor
diagram.

It should be noted that the voltages obtained from this calculated evaluation are always phase-
to- neutral voltages and not the phase-to-phase voltages!

It must also- again be pointed out that the representation here using concentrated elements
(especially in the case of the operating capacitances) does not agree completely with the real
situation. In the case of real lines there is thus no difference between the currents IAB and IBE
at the B node.

In Lab:
Select the rated voltage as secondary voltage on the transformer and repeat the measurements
for a current of 1 A through the lines (the voltage UA should have as near as possible the same
value in all the following measurements; this is realized by plugging in the value UN - 5 %
Zain Bin Zahid/FA16-EPE-022

First, select the voltage UN - 5% on the secondary side of the three-phase transformer using the
bridging plugs.

Ensure that both transmission line models have the shortest possible length of 144 km. Starting
with a value of 100 %, reduce the ohmic load until a current of 0.5 A flows through the consumer.

TASK 1

Measure the voltage UA at the beginning of line 1, UB at the beginning of line 2, the voltage UE
at the load and the three currents I1 at the beginning of line 1, I2 at the beginning of line 2 and lE
through the load:
Zain Bin Zahid/FA16-EPE-022

IF UA UB UE

## 1A 213.1 V 199.8 V 189.5 V

TASK 2

Select a secondary voltage of 380 V on the transformer and repeat the measurements for a current
of 1 A through the lines (the voltage UA should have as near as possible the same value in all the
following measurements; this is realized by selecting the value UN - 5 % when the currents are 0.5
A and UN when the currents are 1 A).

By rearranging the bridging plugs, change the length of line 2 to 216 km and repeat the above
measurements:

IF UA UB UE

## 1A 213.1 V 198 V 180 V

TASK 3

Change the length of line 1 to 216 km and that of line 2 to 144 km and repeat the above
measurements:

IF UA UB UE

## 1A 212.3 V 190.6 V 179.6 V

TASK 4

Change the length of both lines to 216 km and repeat the above experiment

IF UA UB UE

## 1A 212.5 V 189.2 V 172 V

Zain Bin Zahid/FA16-EPE-022

Critical Analysis

In this lab we have carefully analyzed the series of two transmission lines. This lab has made me able
to understand the effect on voltage of the sending and the receiving ends of each transmission line
when two transmission lines are connected in series in four different form short-short, short-
medium, medium-short and medium-medium the lab which was done by me today is basically
divided into four tasks

## i. Both lines are of short length (144 km)

ii. 1st transmission line is 144 km (Short) and 2nd transmission line is 216 km (Medium)
iii. 1st transmission line is 216 km (Medium) and 2nd transmission line is 144 km (Short)
iv. Both lines are of Medium length (216 km)
The conclusion that I have made after performing this lab is that we get maximum voltage at the
sending end UA because there is no drop between the supply and the first transmission line. The
voltage at the second transmission line i.e. UB is lesser than UA this is because of the resistive and
inductive load present between the two transmission lines. Similar result is seen at UE the voltage is
less than the voltage UB this is again due to the drop occurring at the resistance and inductance of
the transmission line. The voltage trend is as follows: UA> UB> UE