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UNIT-4

Climate Change and


Uncertainty of Water
Availability
Water
• Water is the transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical
substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the
fluids of most living organisms, and that is vital for all known forms of life, even
though it provides no calories or organic nutrients.
Importance of water
• The water in our bodies is essential for life. Without water, we can’t
survive. Since the water in our bodies is continually being used or lost,
it needs to be continually replaced, and the best fluid to replace it with
is water.
• Water is involved in every bodily function from digestion and
circulation through to the control of body temperature and the
excretion of waste products. The water in our bodies is continually
being used or lost from the body. Some is used or absorbed by the
functions it performs and some is lost through sweat, urine and faeces.
• About 60% of the adult human body is made up of water. In infants
and children this percentage is even greater
Major Central Legislation Regarding Water
This section provides an overview of EU and Czech national legislation
which concerns the responsibility and authority of the Ministry of
Agriculture regarding water management and protection.
•EU(European Union) Legislation
The framework for water management, improvement of water quality
and protection of aquatic environment in the EU is provided by Water
Framework Directive. The Directive has been implemented into the
Water Act 254/2001 as amended, which is the major piece of national
legislation regarding water management and protection.
• Drinking Water Directive - Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November
1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption
concerns the quality of water intended for human consumption.
• Its objective is to protect human health from adverse effects of any
contamination of water intended for human consumption by ensuring
that it is wholesome and clean.
• It provides hygienic requirements on drinking water and hot water
and frequency and extent of the control over drinking water.
• The Act of 14 July 2000 on the protection of public health and
amendments to some Acts, provides a national framework for the
required quality and public supply of drinking water.
• Bathing water Directive - 2006/7/EC of the European parliament and
of the council of 15.
• February 2006 concerning the management of bathing water quality
and repealing Directive 76/160/EEC has been implemented into the
Water Act 254/2001 as amended, and into the decree 155/2011 col.,
of 30 May 2011 on bathing profiles of surface waters.
• Although, the main responsibility regarding bathing waters lies on the
Ministry of Health, the River Board, state enterprises under the
supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture, are responsible for
providing initial data for registry of natural bathing waters
administrated by the Ministry of Environment.
• Urban Waste Water Directive - Council Directive 91/271/EEC concerning urban
waste water treatment was adopted on 21 May 1991 to protect the water
environment from the adverse effects of discharges of urban waste water and
from certain industrial discharges has been implemented into the Water Act
254/2001 col., as amended, and Act 274/2001 col., of 10 July 2001 on public
water mains and sewerage, as amended.
• Any discharge of waste water and construction of waste water treatment plant
and sewerage system must be authorised by a local Water Authority governed by
central Water Authorities.
• The River Board, state enterprises under the supervision of the Ministry of
Agriculture, represent the controlling mechanism for authorising the construction
and management of sewerage providing local Water Authorities with statements
for individual projects.
• The responsibility of improving water quality through better waste water
treatment lies on the Ministry of Environment.
• The Nitrates Directive - Council Directive 91/676/EEC of 12 December 1991 concerning the
protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources aims to protect
water quality across Europe by preventing nitrates from agricultural sources polluting ground and
surface waters and by promoting the use of good farming practices.
• It is an obvious responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture to promote and financially support
good farming practices and other measures to prevent pollution of water and also to reduce the
soil erosion and degradation which are often closely related to water pollution.
• The designation and register of vulnerable areas is within the responsibility of the Ministry of
Environment as is the governance of related Action Programme.
• The implementation of the Ground Water Directive (Directive 2006/118/EC of the European
Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on the protection of groundwater against
pollution and deterioration) is under the authority of the Ministry of Environment.
• However, as the River Board, state enterprises, are responsible for preparing the sub-basin plans
of which groundwater protection is unavoidable part, the Ministry of Agriculture is also involved
in provisions regarding ground water protection.
• CZ Legislation
• The main national document concerning water management that
incorporates requirements of European directives is the Water Act
254/2001 col., of 28 June 2001 on Water and Amendments to Some
Acts - The Water Act. The validity of enclosed document is to the date
of the first issue of the Water Act, further updates are not included.
Rivers of India
• The river systems of India are divided into two categories
• (i) Himalayan Rivers and
• (ii) Deccan Rivers or Peninsular Rivers.
• Himalayan rivers-
• Himalayan rivers are those rivers which have origins in Himalayan
mountains.
• Himalayan rivers are divided into the rivers of Indus Basin, Ganga
and Brahmaputra Basin.
Rivers of Indus Basin-
• The rivers of Indus basin are drained the Indus and its tributaries are The Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi,
Vyas Satluj.
• The Indus rivers originates from the Mansarovar lake in Tibet.
• It flows westward direction and turns into southward near Gilgit and enters Pakistan.
• After covering the distance of nearly 2900 kilometer it falls in the Arabian Sea near Karachi.
The Rivers of Ganga Basin-
• The river Ganga originates from the Gangotri glacier in the Uttarakashi district of Uttaranchal.
• After passing through the states of Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal and forming
the world's biggest delta it falls in the Bay of Bengal.
• The tributaries of the rivers Ganga are-The Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomti, Sharda, Saryu, Gandak
etc. The most important and the most sacred river of India is the Ganga.
The Rivers of Brahmaputra Basin-
• The river Brahmaputra originates from the lake Mansarovar in Tibet and flows north-eastern direction and
enters in India in Arunachal Pradesh and descends Assam valley.
• It forms the world's biggest delta at the mouth of the river and falls in the Bay of Bengal.
• Main tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are-The Tista, Swaruashree, Lohit and Dihang. Brahmaputra river
in Bangladesh is known as Yamuna.
Rivers of Peninsular India-
• The most important rivers of peninsular India are Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Mahanadi, Tapti and Narmada.
These rivers are catagorised into west flowing and east flowing rivers.
• East flowing peninsular rivers fall into the Bay of Bengal, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri are the
east flowing rivers.
• Tapti and Narmada are west flowing rivers which fall in the Arabia Sea.
• Some important Peninsular rivers also flow in the north direction which are Chambal, Betwa, Ken and Sone.
First three rivers fall in the river Yamuna and the last one fall in the Ganga.
• At the western coast Mandavi and Juari in Goa; Kalindi, Sharawati ai Netravati in Karnataka, Ponnar; Periyar
and Pamba in Kerala are some important rivers of South India.
Rainfall in India
• ndia is said to be Monsoon country because the climate in India is
Monsoon climate. But the distribution of Monsoon rainfall is uneven
both regionally and seasonally. Moreover, it is undependable as its
occurrence is not at stipulated times.
• Unevenness
• Unevenness of Monsoonal rainfall in India is found both regionally
and seasonally:
• Regional Unevenness:
• Regional unevenness in Indian rainfall is described in the following terms:
• □ Mysinram receives the heaviest rainfall in the world. Here the annual
rainfall exceeds 1080 cm. On the contrary there are also places in India
which receive the least rainfall. Barmer in Thar Desert receives only less
than 12 cm annual rainfall. Sometimes it also happens that the western-
most part of Rajasthan Desert does not experience even a single
centimeter of rainfall for years together.
• □ In the Great Plains of the North (the Ganga-Yamuna Plain) Monsoonal
rainfall goes on decreasing from east to west during the period of South-
West Monsoon. Rainfall on Assam hills exceeds 250 cm while Bihar plain
receives only 125 to 150 cm rainfall. In Punjab it decrease to 75 cm only.
• In the Peninsular India Monsoonal rainfall decreases from west to
east. Western slopes of the Western Ghats enjoy more than 250 cm
of Monsoonal rainfall. Rainfall decreases from 75 to 100 cm on the
eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. It further comes down in the
Maidan region of Karnataka, thus putting it in the rainshadow area of
the South-west Monsoon. Here rainfall is only 40 to 60 cm.
• During winter also, regional variations are found in rainfall
distribution; North-west India obtains upto 25 cm of winter rainfall
while on the coasts of Tamilnadu as much as 75 cm winter rainfall
occurs. In other parts of country winter rainfall is negligible.
• Seasonal Unevenness:
• Seasonal unevenness is very glaringly experienced in the Monsoonal
rainfall of India. This unevenness is revealed in the following account.
• 1. During summer and rainy season India receives 75% to 85% of the
total annual rainfalls while only 15 to 25% of the total annual rainfall
is obtained in the remaining period of the year. Southwest Monsoon
provides rains in summer and rainy season while North-east Monsoon
and western disturbances cause winter rainfall.
• 2. Tropical cyclones bring rainfall on the coastal region in summer and
in the season of Retreating Monsoon.
Ground Water
• Groundwater is used for drinking water by more than 50 percent of
the people in the United States, including almost everyone who lives
in rural areas. The largest use for groundwater is to irrigate crops.
• The area where water fills the aquifer is called the saturated zone (or
saturation zone). The top of this zone is called the water table. The water
table may be located only a foot below the ground’s surface or it can sit
hundreds of feet down.
• Aquifers are typically made up of gravel, sand, sandstone, or fractured
rock, like limestone. Water can move through these materials because they
have large connected spaces that make them permeable. The speed at
which groundwater flows depends on the size of the spaces in the soil or
rock and how well the spaces are connected.
• Groundwater can be found almost everywhere. The water table may be
deep or shallow; and may rise or fall depending on many factors. Heavy
rains or melting snow may cause the water table to rise, or heavy pumping
of groundwater supplies may cause the water table to fall.
• Groundwater supplies are replenished, or recharged, by rain and
snow melt that seeps down into the cracks and crevices beneath the
land's surface. In some areas of the world, people face serious water
shortages because groundwater is used faster than it is naturally
replenished. In other areas groundwater is polluted by human
activities.
How much in India we depend on
groundwater
• If current trends continue, in 20 years about 60% of all India’s aquifers
will be in a critical condition.
• India is the largest user of groundwater in the world. It uses an
estimated 230 cubic kilometers of groundwater per year - over a
quarter of the global total.
• More than 60% of irrigated agriculture and 85% of drinking water
supplies are dependent on groundwater.
Water Resources Potential
• Annual rainfall (2005) – 1208 mm
• Major river basin – 12 (catchment area > 20, 000 sq. km) – 253 M. ha
• Medium River Basins –46 (catchment area < 20, 000 sq. km) – 24.6 M. ha
• Average annual Precipitation – 4000BCM
• Average Precipitation during Monsoon (Jun-Sept – 3000 BCM
• Natural Runoff – 1986.5 BCM
• Estimated utilizable surface water resources – 690 BCM
• Total utilizable ground water resources – 433 BCM
• Total annual utilizable water resources – 1123 BCM
• Note: BCM means billion cubic metres
Utilization of Water
• India is a country of vast biological, geographic, and climatic diversity.
It has total geographic area of 329 Mha; excluding bodies of water,
India’s total land area is estimated at 297 Mha.
• India is bordered in the north by the 2,500-kilometer long Himalayan
Mountains. Melting snow and glaciers provide. a continuous flow for
numerous rivers running south from the Himalayas into the vast Indo-
genetic Plain, which is dominated by the Ganges River and its
tributaries.
• Heavy rains are typical in the Himalayas during the monsoon months between
June and October, causing frequent floods. Southern India consists largely of the
Deccan Plateau, which is flanked by the Western Ghats running along the west
coast and the smaller Eastern Ghats of the east coast. The Deccan Rivers are rain
fed and fluctuate in volume; many of these rivers are not perennial.
• India receives average annual precipitation of 4000 km3, out of which 700 km3 is
immediately lost of the atmosphere, 2150 km’ soaks into the ground, and 1150
km3 flows as surface run-off.
• India is one of the few countries in the world endowed with abundant land and
water resources. Average annual precipitation including snowfall over the country
is 4000 billion cubic metres (BCM). In addition, it receives another 200 BCM from
rivers flowing in from other countries.
• Average annual water resources in various river basins are estimated to be 1869
BCM, of which the utilisable volume of water has been estimated to be 1086 BCM
including 690 BCM of surface water and 396 BCM of ground water.
• The rest of the water is lost by evaporation or flows into the sea and goes waste.
The utilisation of water is expected to be 784 to 843 BCM by the year 2025.
Though “the present utilisation level is only about 5(3 per cent, the availability of
water is highly irregular. It is not available in places of need, at times of need and
required quantities.
• In the major part of the country, rainfall is the only sources for water, which is
available mainly during the monsoon season lasting for less than 3 months. Due
to tropical climate and its geographical, location, the country experiences vast
spatial and temporal variation in precipitation.
• About one- third of the country’s area is drought prone. The south and western
parts comprising the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are the drought prone states.
On the other hand, north and northeastern regions including states of Uttar
Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Assam subjected to periodic flooding.
Water Pollution
• Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a
result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lakes,
rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater. Water pollution results
when contaminants are introduced into the natural environment.
• The few major causes of water pollution: Sewage And Waste Water:
Sewage, garbage and liquid waste of households, agricultural lands
and factories are discharged into lakes and rivers. These wastes
contain harmful chemicals and toxins which make the water
poisonous for aquatic animals and plants.
Occurrence of Floods
• Floods are among Earth's most common – and most destructive –
natural hazards. A flood occurs when water inundates land that’s
normally dry. It is an overflow of water from lakes, rivers or oceans
that submerges nearby land.
Factors which may contribute to flooding include:
• Rivers or streams overflowing their banks.
• Encroachment of encroaches land areas by sea-water during high tides.
• Excessive rain (coupled with poor drainage system)
• A ruptured dam or levee
• Ground cover and topography
• Rapid ice melting in the mountains
• An unfortunately placed beaver dam
• Flooding can also occur due to an earthquake triggered landslide blocking the
channel, or when such a temporary dam is swept away due to increasing water
level. Coastal flooding occurs when a large storm or tsunami causes the sea to
surge inland.
Acid Rain
• Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic,
meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have
harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. Acid rain is
caused by emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react
with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Some
governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of
sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere with positive
results. Nitrogen oxides can also be produced naturally by lightning strikes,
and sulphur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions. Acid rain has been
shown to have adverse impacts on forests, freshwaters and soils, killing
insect and aquatic life-forms, causing paint to peel, corrosion of steel
structures such as bridges, and weathering of stone buildings and statues
as well as having impacts on human health.
National Water Policy (NWP)1987
• National Water Policy is formulated by the Ministry of Water
Resources of the Government of India to govern the planning and
development of water resources and their optimum utilization. The
first National Water Policy was adopted in September, 1987. It was
reviewed and updated in 2002 and later in 2012.
The major provisions under the policy are:
• Envisages to establish a standardized national information system with a
network of data banks and data bases .
• Resource planning and recycling for providing maximum availability.
• To give importance to the impact of projects on human settlements and
environment.
• Guidelines for the safety of storage dams and other water-related
structures.
• Regulate exploitation of groundwater .
• Setting water allocation priorities in the following order: Drinking water,
Irrigation, Hydropower, Navigation, Industrial and other uses.
• The water rates for surface water and ground water should be rationalized
with due regard to the interests of small and marginal farmers.
Measures Taken to Improve Water Quality
• Keep paved surfaces clean
• Sweep grass clippings and rake leaves from the street and storm drain. Clean up
spilled fertilizer, oil, and other chemicals and dispose of properly.
• Turn your downspout onto your lawn
• Runoff directed down your driveway can pick up oil, yard waste, and other debris.
Be a good neighbor and be careful not to redirect the water towards your
neighbor’s property or a highly erodible area.
• Reduce fertilizer use
• Have your soil tested before applying fertilizer to your lawn. Excess fertilizer can
runoff or leach from the soil and impacts our lakes, creeks, and wetlands. Using a
mulching mower can be roughly equivalent to one free fertilizer application per
year. You can learn more by reading this factsheet about phosphorus law in
Minnesota and water quality protection.
• Wash vehicles on the lawn
• Many soaps and detergents can contain phosphorus or other nutrients which
may benefit your lawn but run off readily from paved surfaces where they can
negatively impact our water resources.
• Capture and infiltrate your runoff
• Install a rain garden or rain barrel. Reduce unnecessary impervious surfaces or
replace failing surfaces with pervious pavers to help increase the amount of
runoff absorbed into the ground.
• Minimize use of road salt

• Pay attention to temperature and weather conditions to ensure you're using the
right substances and methods to manage snow and ice. Excess road salt damages
local surface waters as well as groundwater, vegetation, and infrastructure. Learn
more strategies to balance salt use with winter safety here.
Future Requirements of Water
• Important voluntary domestic water conservation measures include the
following:
• Limiting toilet flushing.
• Adopting water-saving plumbing fixtures, such as toilets and shower heads.
• Adopting water-efficient appliances (notably washing machines).
• Limiting outdoor uses of water, as by watering lawns and gardens during the
evening and early morning, and washing cars on lawns and without using a hose.
• Adopting water-saving practices in commerce, such as providing water on request
only in restaurants and encouraging multiday use of towels and linens in hotels.
• Repairing household leaks.
• Limiting use of garbage disposal units.
• Roof top rain harvest
• Residents themselves could reduce the burden on the water supply authorities by
adopting roof top rain harvesting which would meet the household water
requirement not only during the monsoon but later also.
• Desilting of the existing ponds
• There have been innumerable success stories of desilting existing ponds in the country.
This enhances not only the water holding capacity of the existing ponds but also
improves the moisture content in the surrounding area encouraging proper afforestation
plan to promote natural cycle of evapotranspiration bringing back the same as rain.
• Diversion of existing nalas

• Considering the hydrology of Kolar, one has to work out detailed plan of diverting nalas
into the existing ponds OR create new water holding ponds. This activity ensures not only
the constructive utilisation of wasteful monsoon water but also ensures steady water
supply both for a better agriculture and domestic consumption.
• This of course is nothing new as one could witness these examples in many of our
ancient temples and even villages.
• Water holding potential of existing rivers
• Looking at the hydrological network along the course of principal rivers
over decades tells us that they have been transformed (main course of the
river) due to either encroachment or cultivation or urbanization.
• Yamuna (the main flow) in Delhi has shrunk so much that one has to
struggle to acquire even the original floodplain along this riverThe only
option before us is to widen the ‘main river course’ through desilting and
creating bunds along the main course of the river.
• It is evident that this precious commodity is under severe threat due to
various reasons. If we do not pay serious attention now, it will be too late
to ensure continuance of humanity on this planet.
Threat of Climate Change
• Sea levels are rising and oceans are becoming warmer. Longer, more
intense droughts threaten crops, wildlife and freshwater supplies. From
polar bears in the Arctic to marine turtles off the coast of Africa, our
planet’s diversity of life is at risk from the changing climate.
• Climate change poses a fundamental threat to the places, species and
people’s livelihoods WWF(World Wide fund) works to protect. To
adequately address this crisis we must urgently reduce carbon pollution
and prepare for the consequences of global warming, which we are already
experiencing. WWF works to:
• advance policies to fight climate change
• engage with businesses to reduce carbon emissions
• help people and nature adapt to a changing climate
Water Crisis Scenario
• Not only is India the world’s second most populated country, but it has a
fast growing middle class that is raising the demands on clean, safe water.
Then consider close to half of the country practises open defecation and
you have a dichotomy of two very different populations desperately pulling
at the same limited resource.
• One group wanting to grow and flourish and the other wanting to survive.
• A few numbers from the World Bank highlight the plight the country is
facing:
• 163 Million Indians lack access to safe drinking water
• 210 Million Indians lack access to improved sanitation
• 21% of communicable diseases are linked to unsafe water
• 500 children under the age of five die from diarrhea each day in India
• More than half of the rivers in India are highly polluted with numerous others at levels considered unsafe by modern
standards. The waters of the Yamuna, Ganga and Sabarmati flow the dirtiest with a deadly mix of pollutants both hazardous
and organic.
• Aside from commonplace industrial pollution and waste, India’s rivers are open use across much of the country. From
dumping human waste as previously noted to bathing to washing clothes, the human element contributes to the epidemic of
health related concerns.
• Adding to the human toll is the reliance on seasonal rains, which are often sporadic in some years and over abundant in
others. Rain totals can vary greatly and do not always arrive in the places they are needed most. The drought and flooding
that results from this inconsistent cycle often leads to crop failures and farmer suicides.
• Much of the above affects rural citizens where poverty is rampant, but even more developed urban areas face their own
challenges.
• Even with a robustly growing middle class, when combining rural and urban populations, over half of India still lives at or
below the poverty level. Furthermore, no city in India can provide clean, consumable tap water full-time.
• Should the crisis continue unabated, the scarcity of water will have a negative impact on the industrial health of the
country.
• Recent drops in manufacturing jobs can be tied to companies being unable to access clean water. Along with the inability to
properly cultivate agriculture areas and the water crisis quickly becomes an economic one.