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A standard can be defined as a set of technical definitions and guidelines-“how to" instructions
for designers and manufacturers.
−They serve as a common language, defining quality and establishing safety criteria.
−Examples- ASTM standard, ISO standard.

Why Standard is required ?

−Standards are documents that establish engineering or technical requirements for products,
practices, methods or operations.
−Build confidence about quality in users.
−Lower the cost of production as requirements are standardize.

A code is a standard that has been adopted by one or more governmental bodies and has the force
of law, or when it has been incorporated into a business contract
• Only if Regulatory body in your Country has adopted said Code as law
• If not, Code will server as generally accepted guidelines for design, construction and
• Examples- ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code , AWS D1.1 etc.

Why Code is required ?

−Providing a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for manufactured,
fabricated or constructed objects.
−Also refer out to standards or specifications for specific details on additional requirements not
specified in the Code itself.

Piping Code & Standard

• Provide a set of requirements for a safe, reliable and economical installation and operation
throughout the life of process plant
• Provide consistent dimensions and ratings so that components will fit together
• Improve system reliability
• Cost saving

ASME B31.3 Process Piping Code

•Code Cover..(Scope of ASME B31.3 Code)
−Requirements for materials
−Fabrication, assembly, erection,
−Examination, inspection, and testing of piping.

Material standard
•Material Standard cover..
−Manufacturing process
•Open hearth (OH), electro furnace (EF), basic oxygen (BO)
•Hot/ cold drawing, forging, extruding , bending , piercing, rolling etc..
−Chemical and Mechanical Property of raw material and finished product
•Carbon, Manganese, sulfur, silicon, Cr, Mo, Ni etc..
•yield, tensile strength, elongation, hardness etc..

Material standard
•Material Standard cover..
−Heat treatment requirements
•Normalizing, stress reliving, annealing, solution annealing etc..
−Mechanical testing requirements •Tensile test, bending test, Flattening Tests, impact testing
−NDT examination, inspection and testing requirements
•Radiography, Dye/liquid penetrant or magnetic particle, ultrasonic, visual etc..
−Acceptable tolerance for imperfection
−Defect repairs
•Extent of repair, method of repair and acceptance level
−Marking and certification requirements
•manufacturer’s name or brand, the specification and grade, Heat no. length, dimension etc..

Material standard for Process Piping components

•Material Standard cover..
−Supplementary requirements
•These are the requirements mentioned in purchase order and are over and above the standard
requirements as per purchasers' need.
−General requirements
•Product finishing, ordering information, packing etc..

Dimension standard
•Dimension Standard cover..
−Different standard for different components gives product specific requirements
• Pipe
−Pipe sizes, inside and outside diameters, wall thickness, schedules, permissible variance,
markings and weight of pipe
•ASME B36.10 - Welded & Seamless wrought iron pipes
•ASME B36.19 - Stainless steel pipes Dimension standard
• Pipe Fittings
− sizes, inside and outside diameters, wall thickness, ratings, end preparation, tolerances and
marking requirements −
•Butt welded fittings
•ASME B16.9 - Factory-Made Wrought
•ASME B16.28 - Wrought Steel Butt Welding Short Radius Elbows and Returns
•Socket & Threaded fittings
•ASME B16.11- Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded

Dimension standard
• Flange: Pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking and testing.
Flange bolting dimension and gasket requirements are also included
−NPS ½ through NPS 24
•ASME B16.5 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

−NPS 26 through NPS 60 − ASME B16.47 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges

Dimension standard
• Branch connection
−pressure-temperature ratings, size and types, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking and
•MSS SP-97
− Included in Flange dimension standard
−ASME B16.5 /B16.47
Materials, dimensions, tolerances, and markings for metal ring-joint gaskets, spiral-wound metal
gaskets, and metal jacketed gaskets and type of filler material
−ASME B16.20 - Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges-RingJoint, Spiral-Would, and Jacketed
−ASME B16.21- Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

 American Petroleum Institute (API) Standards

 API provides free access to more than 160 standards incorporated by reference (IBR) in
the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Registration is required.
 Not all American Standards are issued directly by American National Standards Institute.
The Material Standards are covered under ASTM (American Society for Testing and
Materials) and Dimension Standards under ANSI (American National Standards
Institute). Most of these Standards are adapted by ASME (American Society for
Mechanical Engineers).
The American Standards referred by Piping Engineers are:
o The American Petroleum Institute (API) : The Standards referred by Piping
Engineers are:
 API 5L - Specification for Line Pipe
 API 6D - Pipe Line Valves, End Closures, Connectors and Swivels
 API 6F - Recommended Practice for Fire Test for valves
 API 593 - Ductile Iron Plug Valves - Flanged Ends
 API 598 - Valve Inspection and Test
 API 600 - Steel Gate Valves
 API 601 - Metallic Gaskets for Refinery Piping
 API 602 - Compact Design Carbon Steel Gate Valves

API 604 - Ductile Iron Gate Valves - Flanged Ends

API 605 - Large Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges
API 607 - Fire Test for Soft Seated Ball Valves
API 609 - Butterfly Valves
 API 1104 - Standard for Welding Pipeline and Facilities
 ANSI IBR Portal
 The ANSI IBR Portal offers free access to standards that have incorporated by reference
(IBR) in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Standards are available in read-
only PDF format.

 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (2013)

 ASTM Compass - Standards & Publications

 Full-text access to 12,000 active standards, plus ASTM journals and publications.

ASCII “American Standard Code for Information Interchange”

As it says, it’s a Code, and it also explains that this Code is the American Standard for
Information Interchange.
As you may know, computers only work with HIGH(1) and LOW(0) electrical states, known as
bits, with correspond to mathematical Base 2 numbers.
Numbers are easy to store using bits, as for example, ‘8’ would be ‘1000’ at Base 2.
But graphically, you don’t have ‘8’, neither ‘0’ or ‘1’, bits in fact are just states: “On” when
powered, “Off” when not, so how could we display characters on a screen?
Skipping how they did the screen printing itself, ASCII iks a Code that tells to the display what
he should print given an input.
This Code output is, internally, a byte (8 bits) that are simple regular numbers at Base 2 (as
‘00001000’ stands for 8 at Base 10).
So what ASCII in fact is: The mapping of Binary Numbers that correspond to Actions (that
may be an action to Display a Graphical Representation of an Character or, for example,
Remove Previous Character, as does Backspace - ASCII Code ‘00001000’)

American Standards for Testing of Materials (ASTM)

ASTM General Standards for Stainless


A 167 Specification for stainless steel and heat-

resisting chromium-nickel steel plate,

sheet, and strip (This specification is often

referenced on older drawings. It is no longer
the appropriate specification to reference and
should be replaced with A 240 and, in many
cases, A 480 should also be referenced.)
A 240 Specification for heat-resisting chromium and
chromium-nickel stainless steel plate, sheet,
and strip for pressure vessels (This is the
most widely used specification for stainless
steel plate, sheet, and strip, no matter what the
end-use application. It covers chemistry and
minimum strength requirements for common
stainless steel in the annealed condition. A
480 should also be referenced for some
A 270 Specification fkor Seamless and Welded
Austenitic Stainless Steel Sanitary tubing.
This specification was developed because of
the finish requirements in the food and
beverage and pharmaceutical industries. It is
the only specification that describes tube
finishes and the finish requirements could be
applied to pipe as well. Alternatively,
suppliers could be asked to match sheet and
strip finishes in ASTM A 480.
A 480 General requirements for flat-rolled stainless
and heat-resisting steel plate, sheet, and
strip (describes surface finishes for sheet,
strip, plate; defines edge conditions; provides
dimensional and flatness tolerances; describes
shipping requirements; and requirements for
heat treatment, test specimens, test methods)
A 478 Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Weaving
and Knitting Wire (composition and
mechanical requirements of common types of
stainless steel wire intended for weaving and
A 793 Standard specification for rolled floor plate,
stainless steel

A 947M Standard specification for textured stainless

steel sheet
B 506 Copper-clad stainless steel sheet/strip in flat
lengths/coils/rolls for building construction

ASTM Cleaning and Passivation

A 380 Standard Specification for Cleaning,

Descaling and Passivation of Stainless Steel
Parts, Equipment and Systems – This covers
the treatments required to restore the
corrosion resistance of the stainless steel
after welding, hot forming, and heat
treatment. It also covers inspection after
cleaning and tests for free iron, residual oil
and other surface contaminants.
A 967 Standard Specification for Chemical
Passivation for Stainless Steel Parts – This
specification includes methods for testing for
and removing free iron and other foreign
matter from the surface that can prevent the
formation of a protective passive film on the
stainless steel. These treatments do not
remove heat tint from welding.
ASTM Fasteners and Other Structural
(Please note there is no ASTM standard for
stainless steel washers and they must be
ordered to the raw material standard
A 193/ Alloy-steel and stainless steel bolting
A 193M materials for high temperature or high
pressure service and other special purpose
A 194/ Carbon and alloy steel nuts for bolts for high
A 194M pressure or high temperature service or both
(includes stainless steel)
A 262 Austenitic stainless steel susceptibility to

intergranular attack under structural analysis

A 276 Specification for stainless and heat-resisting
steel bars and shapes (This covers the
chemistry and mechanical property
requirements for hot and cold finished rounds,
squares, hexagons, angles, tees, channels and
other shapes used for structural applications.
ASTM A484 may also need to be specified.)
A 484/ General Requirements for Stainless Steel
A 484M Bars, Billets, and Forgings (This provides
dimensional tolerance, straightness, and finish
descriptions for hot or cold finished bar,
squares, angles, channels, tees and other
shapes. The finish descriptions are very
general. More precise descriptions of finish
options should be obtained from the supplier.
A 554 Standard specification for welded stainless
steel (austenitic 300 - series including 304 and
316) and ferritic 400-series) mechanical
tubing (round, square, and rectangular
tubing for structural applications) Note:
Duplex stainless steels could be ordered to
these requirements but are covered by the
duplex standards A 789.
A 555/ General Requirements for Stainless Steel
A 555M Wire and Wire Rods (terminology and
dimensional tolerance requirements).
A 666 Austenitic stainless steel
sheet/strip/plate/flat bar (for
vessel/magnetic/ cryogenic/heat resisting
applications) This standard defines the
additional strength levels that should be
expected when should only be used when
additional cold work is required to achieve
higher strength levels. The general material
standards for these products are A 240 and A
A 774/ Austenitic stainless steelfittings (as-welded)

A 774M for general corrosive service at low/moderate

A 789/ Duplex tube, seamless/welded. Note: This is
A 789M for pressure rated tubing. For purely structural
applications see A554.
A 951/ Standard specification for steel wire for
A 951M masonry joint reinforcement (This includes
stainless steel wire for this application.)
A 955/ Stainless steel bars for concrete
A 955M reinforcement
C 1242 Standard guide for design, selection, and
installation of exterior dimension stone
anchors and anchoring systems (This says
that metal in contact with stone should be a
300 series stainless, but other materials can be
used if properly protected against moisture
and galvanic corrosion. Copper and stainless
steel wire are used for wire ties.)
F 593 Stainless steel specification for bolts/hex cap
F 594 Specification for stainless steel nuts
F 738M Stainless steel specification for
bolts/screws/studs, metric
F 836-a Specification for stainless steel metric nuts
F 837/ Specification for stainless steel socket head
F 837M cap screws
F 879/ Specification for stainless steel metric socket
F 879M button and flat countersink head cap screws
F 880/ Specification for stainless steel socket set
F 880M screws

The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) :

These specify the material by its Chemical and Physical properties. When specific model of
manufacture of the element is not to be specified, then the material can be identified by ANSI
Standards. The most commonly used AISI specifications are :

1. AISI 410 - 13% Chromium Alloy Steel

2. AISI 304 - 18/8 Austenitic Stainless Steel
3. AISI 316 - 18/8/3 Austenitic Stainless Steel

American National Standard Institute (ANSI):

The American National Standards Institute's standards used in the design of the Piping Systems
are :

1-B31.1 - 2001 - Power Piping: Piping for industrial plants and marine applications. This code
prescribes minimum requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, erection, test, and
inspection of power and auxiliary service piping systems for electric generation stations,
industrial institutional plants, central and district heating plants.
The code covers boiler external piping for power boilers and high temperature, high pressure
water boilers in which steam or vapor is generated at a pressure of more than 15 pounds per
squakre inch (PSIG) or 1 Kg per square centimeters, and high temperature water is generatked at
pressures exceeding 160 pounds per square inch (PSIG) or 12.5 Kg per square centimeters and /
or temperatures exceeding 250 degrees F. (120 degrees C.)

2-B31.2 - 1968 – Fuel Gas Piping : This has been withdrawn as a National Standard and
replaced by ANSI/NFPA Z223.1, but B31.2 is still available from ASME and is a good reference
for the design of gas piping systems (from the meter to the appliance).

3-B31.3 - 2002 - Process Piping : Design of chemical and petroleum plants and refineries
processing chemicals and hydrocarbons, water and steam. This Code contains rules for piping
typically found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor,
and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals.
This Code prescribes requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly,
erection, examination, inspection, and testing of piping. This Code applies to piping for all fluids

 Raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals

 Petroleum products
 Gas, steam, air and water
 Fluidized solids
 Refrigerants
 Cryogenic fluids

Code and Standard used for Pressure Vessel:

Complementing these codes are ASME VIII (Code for Pressure Vessel) and British Standard
BS5500 for unfired fusion welded pressure vessel.
The basic consideration of B31.1 Code is safety. It includes:
a. Material and component standards
b. Designation of dimensional standards for elements of piping system
c. Requirements for design of components, including supports
d. Requirements for evaluation and limitation of stresses, reactions and movements associated
with pressure, temperatures and external forces
e. Requirements for fabrication, assembly and erection
f. Requirements for testing and inspection before and after assembly.
Pipes: For pipes, the materials used in geothermal application are normally A53-B, A106-B and
API 5L-B pipe , with mill tolerance. Commercial available pipes normally have a mill tolerance
of 12.5% and pipe schedule numbers based in B36.10.
Fittings: For elbows, tees, and reducers, the material used in geothermal application is normally
A234 WPB. All dimensions are in accordance with B16.9. Flanges and valves rating Flanges are
rated to ANSI B16.5 standard, For those up to 24” diameter, they are rated to ANSI 150, ANSI
300, ANSI 600 and ANSI 900. For flanges of 26” and bigger , ANSI B16.47 applies. The flanges
are usually classified series A and series B. The material used for these flanges are A181 grade I
and A105 grade I. Valve rating is similar to the flange rating selected for the pipe.

Code and Standard for Piping System:

B31.4 - 2002 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other
Liquids : This Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, construction, assembly,
inspekction, and testing of piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural
gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquid alcohol, liquid
anhydrous ammonia and liquid petroleum products between producers' lease facilities, tank
farms, natural gas processing plants, refineries, stations, ammonia plants, terminals (makrine, rail
and truck) and other delivery and receiving points.
Piping consists of pipe, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, relief devices, fittings and the pressure
containing parts of other piping components. It also includes hangers and supports, and other
equipment items necessary to prevent overstressing the pressure containing parts. It does not
include support structures such as frames of buildings, buildings stanchions or foundations.

B31.5 - 2001 - Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components : This Code prescribes
requirements for the materials, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, test, and inspection of
refrigerant, heat transfer components, and secondary coolant piping for temperatures as low as -
320 deg F (-196 deg C), whether erected on the premises or factory assembled, except as
specifically excluded in the following paragraphs.
Users are advised that other piping Code Sections may provide requirements for refrigeration
piping in their respective jurisdictions. This Code shall not apply to:

7. any self- contained or unit systems subject to the requirements of

Underwriters Laboratories or other nationally recognized testing
8. water piping
9. piping designed for external or internal gage pressure not
exceeding 15 psi (105 kPa) regardless of size
10. pressure vessels, compressors, or pumps, but does include all
connecting refrigerant and secondary coolant piping starting at the
first joint adjacent to such apparatus.

B31.8 - 2003 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems : This Code covers the
design, fabrication, installation, inspection, and testing of pipeline facilities used for the
transportation of gas. This Code also covers safety aspects of the operation and maintenance of
those facilities.

B31.8S-2001 - 2002 - Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines : This Standard applies to
on-shore pipeline systems constructed with ferrous materials and that transport gas. Pipeline
system means all parts of physical facilities through which gas is transported, including pipe,
valves, appurtenances attached to pipe, compressor units, metering stations, regulator stations,
delivery stations, holders and fabricated assemblies. The principles and processes embodied in
integrity management are applicable to all pipeline systems. This Standard is specifically
designed to provide the operator (as defined in section 13) with the information necessary to
develop and implement an effective integrity management program utilizing proven industry
practices and processes. The processes and approaches within this Standard are applicable to the
entire pipeline system.

B31.9 - 1996 - Building Services Piping : This Code Section has rules for the piping in
industrial, institutional, commercial and public buildings, and multi-unit residences, which does
not require the range of sizes, pressures, and temperatures covered in B31.1. This Code
prescribes requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, installation, inspection,
examination and testing of piping systems for building services. It includes piping systems in the
building or within the property limits.

B31.11 - 2002 - Slurry Transportation Piping Systems : Design, construction, inspection,

security requirements of slurry piping systems. Covers piping systems that transport aqueous
slurries of no hazardous materials, such as coal, mineral ores and other solids between a slurry
processing plant and the receiving plant.

Other major ANSI / ASME Standards refereed for the piping elements are :
ANSI B 1.1 - Unified Inch Screw Threads
ANSI / ASME B 1.20.1 - Pipe threads for general purposes
ANSI / ASME B 16.1 - Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ANSI / ASME B 16.3 - Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings
ANSI / ASME B 16.4 - Cast Iron Threaded Fittings
ANSI / ASME B 16.5 - Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

ANSI / ASME B 16.9 - Steel Butt Welding Fittings

ANSI / ASME B 16.10 - Face to Face and End to End dimensions of Valves
ANSI / ASME B 16.11 - Forged Steel Socket Welding and Threaded fittings
ANSI B 16.20 - Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges - ring joint, spiral wound
ANSI / ASME B 16.21 - Non Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
ANSI / ASME B 16.25 - Butt Welding Ends
ANSI / ASME B 16.28 - Short Radius Elbows and Returns
ANSI / ASME B 16.34 - Steel Valves, Flanged and butt welding ends
ANSI / ASME B 16.42 - Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings - Class 150# and 300#
ANSI / ASME B 16.47 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges - NPS - 26" to 60"
ANSI / ASME B 18.2 1 and 2 - Square and Hexagonal head Bolts and Nuts (Inch and mm)
ANSI / ASME B 36.10 - Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipes
ANSI / ASME B 36.19 - Welded and Seamless Austinitic Stainless Steel Pipe

American Welding Society (AWS) :

These standards provide information on the welding fundamentals, weld design, welder's training
qualifications, testing and inspection of the welds and guidance on the application and use of
welds. Individual electrode manufacturers have given their own brand names for the various
electrodes and the same are sold under these names.

American Water Works Association (AWWA) :

These standards refer to the piping elements required for low pressure water services. These are
less stringent than other standards. Valves, Flanges etc., required for large diameter water
pipelines are covered under this standard and are refereed rarely by piping engineers.

 C-500 : Gate Valves for Water and sewage system

 C-504 : Rubber Seated Butterfly Valves
 C-507 : Ball Valves 6" to 48"
 C-508 : Swing Check Valves 2" to 24"
 C-509 : Resilient Seated Gate Valves for water and sewage

C-510 : Cast Iron Sluice Gate Valves

The manufacturers Standardization Society of Valves and Fitting Industry -

Standard Practices (MSS-SP) :

In addition to the above standards and material codes, there are standard practices followed by
manufacturers. These are published as advisory standards and are widely followed. The most
common MSS-SP standards referred for piping are :

 MSS-SP-6 : Standard Finishes for contact surface for flanges


 MSS-SP-25 : Standard marking system for valves, fittings, flanges

 MSS-SP-42 : Class 150 corrosion resistant gate, globe and check valves
 MSS-SP-43 : Wrought stainless steel butt weld fittings
 MSS-SP-56 : Pipe hanger supports - Material, design and manufacture
 MSS-SP-61 : Pressure testing of valves
 MSS-SP-67 : Butterfly Valves
 MSS-SP-68 : High Pressure off seat butterfly valves
 MSS-SP-69 : Pipe hanger supports - selection and applications
 MSS-SP-70 : Cast iron gate valves
 MSS-SP-71 : Cast iron check valves
 MSS-SP-72 : Ball Valves
 MSS-SP-78 : Cast iron plug valves
 MSS-SP-80 : Bronze gate, globe and check valves
 MSS-SP-81 : Stainless steel bonnet-less knife gate valves
 MSS-SP-83 : Pipe unions
 MSS-SP-85 : Cast iron globe valves
 MSS-SP-88 : Diaphragm valves
 MSS-SP-89 : Pipe hangers and supports - fabrication and installation
 MSS-SP-90 : Pipe hangers and supports - guidelines on terminology
 MSS-SP-92 : MSS valves user guide
 MSS-SP-108 : Resilient seated eccentric CI plug valves


In many instances, it is possible to find a British Standard which may be substitutes for
American Standards. For example, BS 2080 (British Standard for Face to Face or End to End
dimensions of valves) is identical to ANSI/ASME B16.10. Similarly BS 3799 and ANSI/ASME
B 16.11 also compare.
There are certain British Standards referred by Indian Manufacturers for Piping and Valves. The
most commonly referred British Standards in the Piping Industry are :

BS 10 : Flanges
BS 806 : Pipes and Fittings for Boilers
BS 916 : Black Bolts, Nuts and Screws
BS 970 : Steel for Forging, Bars, Rods, valve steel, etc.
BS 1212 : Specification for Float Operated Valves
BS 1306 : Copper and Copper alloy pressure piping system
BS 1414 : Gate Valves for Petroleum Industry
BS 1560 : Steel Pipe Flanges
BS 1600 : Dimensions of Steel Pipes
BS 1640 : Butt Welding Fittings
BS 1740 : Wrought Steel screwed pipe fittings
BS 1868 : Steel Check Valves for Petroleum Industry
BS 1873 : Steel Globe and Check Valves for Petroleum Industry
BS 1965 : Butt welding pipe fittings

BS 2080 : Face to Face / End to End dimensions of Valves

BS 2598 : Glass Pipelines and Fittings
BS 3059 : Boiler and Super-heater Tubes
BS 3063 : Dimensions of Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
BS 3381 : Metallic Spiral Wound Gaskets
BS 3600 : Dimensions of Welded and Seamless Pipes and Tubes
BS 3601 : C.S. Pipes and Tubes for pressure purposes at room temperature
BS 3602 : C.S. Pipes and Tubes for pressure purposes at high temperature
BS 3603 : C.S. and Alloy Steel Pipes and Tubes for pressure purposes at
low temperature
BS 3604 : Alloy Steel Pipes and Tubes for high temperature
BS 3605 : SS Pipes and Tubes for pressure purposes
BS 3799 : Socket Weld / Screwed Fittings
BS 3974 : Pipe hangers, Slides and Roller type supports
BS 4346 : PVC pressure pipe - joints and fittings
BS 4504 : Steel, Cast Iron and Copper alloy fittings
BS 5150 : Cast Iron Wedge and Double Disc Gate Valves for general
BS 5151 : Cast Iron Gate (parallel slide) Valves for general purposes
BS 5152 : Cast Iron Globe and Check Valves for general purposes
BS 5153 : Cast Iron Check Valves for general purposes
BS 5154 : Copper alloy Globe, Gate and Check Valves
BS 5155 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Butterfly Valves for general purposes
BS 5156 : Diaphragm Valves for general purposes
BS 5157 : Steel Gate (parallel slide) Valves for general purposes
BS 5158 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Plug Valves for general purposes
BS 5159 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Ball Valves for general purposes
BS 5160 : Flanged Steel Globe and Check Valves for general purposes
BS 5163 : Flanged Cast Iron Wedge Gate Valves for general purposes
BS 5351 : Steel Ball Valves for Petroleum Industry
BS 5352 : Steel Gate, Globe and Check Valves, smaller than 2" NB
BS 5353 : Specifications for Plug Valves
BS 5391 : Specifications for ABS pressure pipes
BS 5392 : Specifications for ABS fittings
BS 5433 : Specifications for underground stop valves for water services
BS 5480 : Specifications for GRP pipes and fittings
BS 6364 : Specifications for Valves for Cryogenic services
BS 6755 : Testing of Valves

BS 6759 : Safety Valves


Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) have so far not developed an Indian Standard for the design of
Piping Systems. Hence, ANSI Standards ASME 31.1 and 31.3 are widely used for the design.
These standards also accept materials covered in other standards. Unlike American Standards,
Indian Standards cover dimensions and material specifications under the same standard number.
There are no groupings based on branch of engineering. Some of the most commonly referred
Indian Standards by Piping Engineers are :

IS 210 : Grey Iron Castings

IS 226 : Structural Steel (superseded by IS 2062)
IS 554 : Dimensions of Pipe Threads
IS 778 : Specification for Copper Alloy Gate, Globe and Check Valves
IS 780 : Specification for Sluice Valves - 50 NB to 300 NB
IS 1239 (Part I and II) : Specification for Mild Steel tubes and fittings
IS 1363 : Hexagonal Bolts, Screws and nuts - Grade C
IS 1364 : Hexagonal Bolts, Screws and nuts - Grade A and B
IS 1367 : Technical supply conditions for threaded steel fastners
IS 1536 : Centrifugally Cast Iron Pipes
IS 1537 : Vertically Cast Iron Pipes
IS 1538 : Cast Iron Fittings
IS 1870 : Comparison of Indian and Overseas Standards
IS 1879 : Malleable Iron Pipe Fittings
IS 1978 : Line Pipe
IS 1979 : High Test Line Pipe
IS 2002 : Steel Plates
IS 2016 : Plain Washers
IS 2041 : Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels used at moderate and low temperature
IS 2062 : Steel for general structural purposes
IS 2379 : Color Code for Identification of Pipelines
IS 2712 : Compressed Asbestos Fiber Jointing
IS 2825 : Code for Unfired Pressure Vesselsk
IS 2906 : Specification for Sluice Valves - 350 NB to 1200 NB
IS 3076 : Specification for LDPE Pipes
IS 3114 : Code of Practice for laying pipes
IS 3516 : Cast Iron flanges and flanged fittings for Petroleum Industry
IS 3589 : Seamless or ERW Pipes (150 NB to 2000 NB)
IS 4038 : Specifications for Foot Valves
IS 4179 : Sizes for pressure vessels and leading dimensions
IS 4853 : Radiographic Examination of Butt Weld Joints in pipes
IS 4864 to IS 4870 : Shell Flanges for vessels and equipments
IS 4984 : Specification for HDPE Pipes
IS 4985 : Specification for PVC Pipes
IS 5312 : Specification for Check Valves
IS 5572 : Classification of Hazardous area for Electrical Installation
IS 5822 : Code of practice for laying welded steel pipes
IS 6157 : Inspection and Testing of Valve
IS 6286 : Seamless and Welded pipes for Subzero temperatures

IS 6392 : Steel Pipe Flanges

IS 6630 : Seamless alloy steel pipes for high temperature service
IS 6913 : Stainless Steel tubes for food and beverage industry
IS 7181 : Horizontally cast iron pipes
IS 7240 : Code of Practice for Cold Insulation
IS 7413 : Code of Practice for Hot Insulation
IS 7719 : Metallic spiral wound gaskets
IS 7806 : Stainless Steel Castings
IS 7899 : Alloy Steel castings for pressure services
IS 8008 : Specification for molded HDPE Fittings
IS 8360 : Specification for fabricated HDPE Fittings
IS 9890 : Ball Valves for general purposes
IS 10221 : Code of Practice for coating and wrapping of underground MS pipelines
IS 10592 : Eye wash and safety showers
IS 10605 : Steel Globe Valves for Petroleum Industries
IS 10611 : Steel Gate Valves for Petroleum Industries
IS 10711 : Size of Drawing Sheets
IS 10805 : Foot Valves
IS 10989 : Cast / Forged Steel Check Valves for Petroleum Industry
IS 10990 : Technical drawings - Simplified representation of pipelines
IS 11790 : Code of Practice for preparation of Butt welding ends for valves, flanges and fittings
IS 11791 : Diaphragm Valves for general purposes
IS 11792 : Steel Ball Valves for Petroleum Industry
IS 12709 : Specifications for GRP pipes
IS 13049 : Specifications for Diaphragm type float operated valves
IS 13095 : Butterfly Valves
IS 13257 : Ring type joint gasket and grooves for flanges

Other Important International Standards:

There are certain other international standards, which are also referred in Piping Industry. These
are DIN standards of Germany and JIS standards of Japan. DIN standards are more popular and
Periodic review of the standards by the committee are done and these are revised to incorporate
the modified features based on the research and feedback from industry. It is, hence, necessary
that the latest editions of the codes and standards are referred for the design.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

A premier source for timely, relevant, actionable information on
national, regional, international standards and conformity
assessment issues.

Computer and Communication

A very complete listing of companies, organizations, news groups

and sources dealing with standards and standardization in the areas

of communications and computer science.
Standards.Gov offers background materials and useful links for
locating information about the use of standards in government.
PLEASE NOTE: The primary focus is on federal agency use of
standards for regulatory and procurement purposes.

Internet RFC/STD/FYI/BCP Archives

This Web site is an archive for the following Internet documents:
RFCs (requests for comments), STD (standards), FYI (for your
information), and BCP (best current practices). Searchable by
keyword or document number, the archives may also be browsed by
several indexes. All documents are freely available.

Internet-Drafts and RFC Search

Two types of documents are available through this Web site:
Internet-Drafts and RFCs. RFCs (Requests for Comments) are
official documents of the Internet Architecture Board; they are
protocols and policies that never change, are permanently archived,
and can be updated with a new RFC. An Internet-Draft has no
formal status, is valid for only six months, and may become an RFC.
Using the keyword search facility, either type of document can be
located. Once it is found, the full text is freely available.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

The NIST is a federal technology agency that works with industry
to develop and apply technology, measurements, and standards.

NSSN: A National Resource for Global Standards

References to standards from more than 600 developers worldwide.
Provides descriptions and information on how to obtain standards

RFC Editor
Funded by the Internet Society, the RFC Editor is the master
repository of RFCs (requests for comments) as well as RFC
metadata. Search results include the metadata, links to the RFC text
itself, and links to any errat
Standards.Gov offers background materials and useful links for
locating information about the use of standards in government.

PLEASE NOTE: The primary focus is on federal agency use of

standards for regulatory and procurement purposes.

Provides access to standards and codes from over 350 standards
organizations. Covering a wide range of industries, including
electronics and information technology, this fee-based service
delivers documents either by subscription or by individual
document. Some of the standards organizations represented are the
Electronics Industry Alliance, the IEEE, the International
Organization for Standardization, and the International Committee
for Information Technology Standards. Standards can be searched
by keyword, title, ISBN, and document number.

Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA)

The Video Electronics Standards Association is an international
non-profit organization representing hardware, software, PC, display
and component manufacturers, cable and telephone companies, and
service providers. VESA supports and sets industry-wide interface
standards for the PC, workstation, and computing environments.
VESA promotes and develops timely, relevant, open standards for
the display and display interface industry, ensuring interoperability
and encouraging innovation and market growth.



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