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COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

Sector:
AUTOMOTIVE AND LAND TRANSPORT
Qualification:
DRIVING NC II
Unit of Competency:
DRIVE LIGHT VEHICLE

Module Title:
DRIVING LIGHT VEHICLE

Technical Education and Skills Development


Authority
DRIVING NC II
COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIALS

List of Competencies

NO. UNIT OF COMPETENCIES MODULE TITLE CODE

1 Carry out Minor Vehicle Carrying out Minor Vehicle ALT723348


Maintenance and Servicing Maintenance and Servicing
2 Drive Light Vehicle. Driving Light Vehicle ALT832302
3 Obey and Observe Traffic Rules Obeying and Observing Traffic ALT832303
and Regulation Rules and Regulation
4 Implement and Coordinate Implementing and ALT832304
Accident Emergency Coordinating Accident
Procedure Emergency Procedure

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HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIALS

Welcome to the module in Driving NC II. This module contains


training materials and activities for you to complete.
The unit of competency “DRIVING LIGHT VEHICLE" contains knowledge,
skills and attitudes required for a trainer course. It is one of the specialized
modules in Driving NC II.
You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order
to complete each learning outcome of the module. In each learning outcome
are Information Sheets and Resources Sheets (Reference Materials for
further reading to help you better understand the required activities). Follow
these activities on your own and answer the self-check at the end of each
learning outcome. You may remove a blank answer sheet at the end of each
module (or get one from your facilitator/trainer) to write your answers for
each self-check. If you have questions, don‟t hesitate to ask your facilitator
for assistance.
You may already have some or most of the knowledge and skills
covered in this learner's guide because you have:
 been working for some time
 Already completed training in this area.
If you can demonstrate to your trainer that you are competent in a
particular skill or skills, talk to him/her about having them formally
recognized so you don't have to do the same training again. If you have a
qualification or Certificate of Competency from previous trainings, show it to
your trainer. If the skills you acquired are still current and relevant to the
unit/s of competency they may become part of the evidence you can present
for RPL. If you are not sure about the currency of your skills, discuss this
with your trainer.
This module was prepared to help you achieve the required
competency in DRIVING LIGHT VEHICLE. This will be the source of
information for you to acquire knowledge and skills in this particular trade
independently and at your own pace, with minimum supervision or help
from your instructor.
 Talk to your trainer and agree on how you will both organize the Training
of this unit. Read through the module carefully. It is divided into
sections, which cover all the skills, and knowledge you need to
successfully complete this module.
Work through all the information and complete the activities in
each section. Read information sheets and complete the self-check.
Suggested references are included to supplement the materials
provided in this module.

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 Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or
manager. He/she is there to support you and show you the
correct way to do things.
 Your trainer will tell you about the important things you need to
consider when you are completing activities and it is important
that you listen and take notes.
 You will be given plenty of opportunity to ask questions and
practice on the job. Make sure you practice your new skills
during regular work shifts. This way you will improve both your
speed and memory and also your confidence.
 Talk to more experience workmates and ask for their guidance.
 Use the self-check questions at the end of each section to test
your own progress. When you are ready, ask your trainer to
watch you perform the activities outlined in this module.
 As you work through the activities, ask for written feedback on
your progress. Your trainer keeps feedback/ pre-assessment
reports for this reason. When you have successfully completed
each element, ask your trainer to mark on the reports that you
are ready for assessment.
 When you have completed this module (or several modules), and
feel confident that you have had sufficient practice, your trainer
will arrange an appointment with registered assessor to assess
you. The results of your assessment will be recorded in your
competency Achievement Record.
Instructional Sheets:
 Information Sheet – This will provide you with information
(Concepts, principles and other relevant information) needed in
performing certain activities.
 Job Sheet – This is designed to guide you how to do the job
that will contribute to the attainment of the learning outcome.
 Performance Criteria – are evaluative statements that specify
what is to be assessed and the required level of performance.
 Performance Test – to test the demonstrated skills.

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MODULE CONTENT

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : Drive Light Vehicle

MODULE TITLE : Driving Light Vehicle

MODULE DESCRIPTOR : This module covers the knowledge, skills and


attitudes required in cleaning premises of an
accommodation industry. It includes selection
and set-up of equipment and materials; cleaning
of both wet and dry areas; and maintenance of
cleaning equipment and materials.

NOMINAL DURATION : 80 hours

QUALIFICATION LEVEL : NC II

SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon completion of this module, the trainee would be able to:


L.O 1 Perform light vehicle pre-starting and warm-up

L.O 2 Drive light vehicle

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

 Inspect vehicle as per manufacturer’s specification.


 Check Safety harness/devices and tools according to the Land
Transportation Office (LTO)/ Land Transportation Franchising and
Regulatory Board (LTFRB) requirements.
 Perform Warm-up of light vehicle as per manufacturer’s manual.

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LEARNING OUTCOME #1 Perform vehicle Pre starting and Warm up
CONTENTS  Parts of Light Vehicle and its
Function
 Hand Tools
 LTO/LTFRB Safety
Requirements with some
Safety
Harness/Devices/Tools of a
vehicle
 Routinely Check-up of a
Vehicle/Light Vehicle Pre-
starting and Warm-up

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA  Vehicle Inspection is performed as


per manufacturer’s specification
(THE BLOWBAGETS)
 Safety harness/devices and tools
are check according to the land
transportation office (LTO)/ land
transportation franchising and
regulatory board (LTFRB)
requirements.
 Warm up of light vehicle is
performed as per manufacturer’s
manual.
REFERENCES  Internet Websites

CONDITION: Students/Trainees must be provided


with the following:
1. WORKPLACE LOCATION:
- Equipment
- Computer
- LCD
2. TOOLS, ACCESSORIES AND
SUPPLIES
- Whiteboard
- CD
- Tapes
3. TRAINING MATERIALS:
- Request form
- Modules
ASSESSMENT METHOD  Written Test
 Demonstration

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LEARNING EXPERIENCES

Learning Outcome No. 1 Perform vehicle Pre starting and


Warm up.

Learning Activities Special Instructions

Read Information sheet 1.1-1 on Use Information sheet 1.1-1 on


Parts of Light Vehicle and its Parts of Light Vehicle and its
Function Function

Answer Self-Check 1.1-1 Check your answer using


Answer Key 1.1-1

Read Information sheet 1.1-2 on Use Information sheet 1.1-2 on


Hand Tools Hand Tools

Answer Self-Check 1.1-2 Check your answer using


Answer Key 1.1-2

Read Information sheet 1.1-3 on Use Information sheet 1.1-3 on


Light Vehicle with some Safety Light Vehicle with some Safety
Harness/Devices/Tools of a Harness/Devices/Tools of a
vehicle vehicle

Answer Self-Check 1.1-3 Check your answer using


Answer Key 1.1-3

Read Information sheet 1.1-4 on Use Information sheet 1.1-4 on


Routinely Check-up of a Vehicle Routinely Check-up of a Vehicle
(BLOWBAGETS)

Answer Self-Check 1.1-4 Check your answer using


Answer Key 1.1-4

Perform Job Sheet 1.1-1 on Light Evaluate your Performance using


Vehicle Pre-starting and Warm- Performance Criteria Checklist
up
Perform Observation Checklist Evaluate your Observation
1.1-1 on Light Vehicle Pre- Checklist.
starting and Warm-up
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Information sheet 1.1-1
Parts of Light Vehicle and Its Function
Objectives: After reading this information sheet, the trainee should be able
to:
1. Give the parts of the vehicle and its function.
2. Explain the operation of the speed-control system, and other electrical
and electronic devices.
3. Describe analog and electronic instrument panels, and the operation
of the speedometer and odometer.

I. Vehicle Lightning
A. Lights—the driver uses electric lightning to provide the
illumination or light needed to safely operate the vehicle. The
various lights provide vision and information to the driver,
convenience for passengers, and signals and warnings to
other drivers and pedestrians.

The outside or exterior lights on an automotive include:


1. Two or four headlamps which illuminate the area ahead of
the vehicle.
2. Taillights to show red at the rear of the vehicle.
3. Parking light to mark the front of a parked vehicle, and to
mark the front of the vehicle if a headlamp fails.
4. License light too illuminate the license plate on the rear of
the vehicle.
5. Side-marker lights on the front and rear sides of the vehicle
to indicate its overall length.
6. Turn-signal lights which indicate an intended change in
direction by flashing lights on the side toward which the turn
will be made.
7. Backup lights to illuminate in back of the car when the
transmission is shifted into reverse.
8. Emergency flasher or hazard-warning lights that warn
an approaching driver of the presence of a vehicular hazard
by flashing all turn-signal lights together.

The inside of the car has a variety of interior lights. These


include:
1. Instrument-panel lights
2. Warning and indicator lights
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3. Courtesy and dome lights—turn on when a door opens.
Courtesy and dome lights are all powered from the fuse
panel. They will operate regardless of the position of the
ignition key or headlamp switch.

B. Light Bulbs

Lightning is provided by various sizes and types of light


bulbs. When an electric current flows through a fine wire or
filament in the bulb, the filament gets hot and emits visible
light. The bulb may fit into a socket which forms part of a lamp.
The bulb may fit into a socket which forms part of a lamp.
Some bulbs have two filaments. This allows a single bulb
to provide light in two circuits for different purposes. The various
bulbs and lighting circuits usually receive power from the fuse
panel, ignition switch, or headlamp switch.

C. Headlamps

It is the most important lamps for the driver. When switch


on, they provide light ahead of the vehicle. The tungsten
filament turns white-hot when connected to the battery and
gives out light. The light is reflected forward by the curved
reflector. Then the light passes through the lens which arranges
it in a pattern to light the road ahead. The sealed beam
headlamp is replaced as a unit.

Many vehicles have halogen headlamps. These emit a


whiter and brighter light than other sealed-beam lights. The
halogen headlamp has a smaller inner bulb filled with halogen
gas which protects the tungsten filament. The outer case is
airtight or hermetically sealed. The halogen headlamp is
replaced as a unit.

The most widely used headlamps are made in four sizes,


two round and two rectangular The round sizes are 5.75 (146
mm) and 7 inches (178 mm). The rectangular sizes are 6.5 by 4
inches (165 by 100 mm) and 7.9 by 5.6 inches (200 by 142mm).
All have the number the number 1 or 2 molded into the top of
the lens. Type 1 has one high-beam filament. Type 2 has two
filaments, one for high beam and other for low beam. The letter
H or the word HALOGEN appears on the lens of a halogen
headlamp.

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Some cars use smaller rectangular headlamps or
aerodynamically-styled composite headlamps .These are made of
plastic instead of glass and have a replaceable halogen bulb.
A vehicle with four headlamps has two type 1 and two
type 2 headlamps. For low- beam driving, one filament in each
type 2 headlamp comes on. On high beam, the other filament in
the type 2 headlamps comes on along with thee single filament
in the type 1 headlamps.
D. Headlamp Switch
The Headlamp Switch controls the operation of the
headlamps and other exterior and interior lights. It connects
directly to the battery and mounts on the instrument panel to
left of the steering wheel. The headlamp switch usually
combines a circuit breaker with a three- position pull switch. It
also includes a rotary switch that operates a variable resistor or
rheostat.
The three positions of the pull switch are OFF, PARK, and
HEADLAMPS. Pulling the knob to the first detent or PARK
position turns on the parking lights, side-marker lights, and
instrumental panel lights. Pulling the knob to the second detent
turns on the headlamps. Clockwise rotation of the knob varies
the instrument-panel lighting from full bright to dim Rotating
the knob fully counterclockwise turns on the dome light and
courtesy lights. Instead of the pull-type headlamp switch, some
cars have three-position rocker switch and a rotating
thumbwheel on the instrument panel.

E. Automatic Headlamp Controls


The automatic headlamp dimmer automatically switches
the headlamps from high to low beam. This occurs when a light
sensor senses the headlamps of an approaching vehicle or the
tail-lamps of a vehicle overtaken. The light sensor triggers a
relay that switches beams. When the other car has passed, the
system automatically returns the headlamps to high beam. A
sensitivity control can be set by the driver. This adjusts the light
sensor to the surrounding light.
An automatic on-off headlamp control turns the
headlamps on when it gets dark enough to require light for
driving. A light sensor signals the control module when
headlamps are needed. The control then switches the
headlamps on. This system also includes an adjustable time-
delay turn-off. The headlamps will stay on for a short time after
the ignition key is turned off. This is a convenience when exiting
the car at night.
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F. Turn-Signal Lights

The turn signals permit the driver to signal an intention


to turn right or left. The system includes:
1. A lamp at each front and rear corner of the vehicle.
2. A lever-operated turn-signal switch in the steering
column.
3. A flasher which is an automatic-reset circuit
breaker.
4. Left- and right- turn indicator lights in the
instrument panel.

The turn-signal lever is moved up for right turn and down


for a left turn. The turn-signal switch then completes the
circuits to the proper lamps current flows from the battery
through the flasher to the lamps. In the flasher, the current
passes through a thermostatic blade. The resulting heat causes
the thermostatic blade to bend, opening thee flasher contacts.
The blade quickly cools and contacts close. This produces a
pulsating voltage that causes the turn-signal lights to flash.
After completing the turn, the turn movement the steering
wheel automatically cancels the turn signal. The lever moves
back to its neutral position, opening the circuit.
A bulb failure or poor ground may cause the turn signals
to work in one direction but not the other. If no flashing occurs
in either direction, check for a blown fuse or defective flasher.
G. Fiber-optic Lighting
Some cars have as many as 80 light bulbs. Each bulb can
burn out and fail. Some components, such as instrument
panels, have many bulbs close together. However, there is
little room behind the instrument panel for the bulbs, their
sockets, and thee connecting wiring. One solution is the use
of printed circuits. Another is the use of fiber-optic cables.
Fiber-optic cables are made of one or more transparent
glass or plastic fibers bundled together parallel to one
another. Each cable formed by the fiber or bundle can
conduct light, even around bends and corners. As light starts
down thee fiber, the light keeps reflecting off the internal
surfaces of the fiber with little loss. When the light comes out
the other end, it is almost as strong as when it entered.

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There is what we call a fiber-optic lamp monitor system.
Fiber-optic cables run from the lamps to a lamp monitor on
top of each front fender. When the headlamps are on, the
lamp monitors show that the lights are working. If a bulb
burns out, its monitor also goes out. This warns the driver
that the lamp has failed.
Another way to use fiber-optics is to run cables from a
central light source to various outlets where light is needed.
This allows only one bulb to provide light at many places. A
special arc- discharge bulb provides thee light. It is smaller
and lasts longer than a halogen bulb. Similar to a fluorescent
or neon bulb, there is no filament to burn out. The light
appears at each lamp or outlet only when needed. This
system would prevent the failure of many individual bulbs.

H. Computer Controlled Lighting


In most cars, a separate switch controls each lighting circuit.
However, an electronic-control module or lamp module can
control the complete vehicle lighting system. When the driver
operates any switch that controls a lamp circuit, the switch
sends an input signal to tee lamp module. It then turns the
desired lamps on or off. The lamp module provides the
intermittent operation of the hazard-warning and turn-signal
lights. No flasher is needed.
In most lighting system a switch supplies voltage to lamps
that are permanently grounded. With computer-controlled
lighting, many circuits operate differently. Voltage is always
supplied and a switch or relay provides the lamp ground. The
various lights switches are grouped on the left side of the
steering column in the left switch pod.

I. Distributed Lighting System


The distributed lighting system is a computer-controlled
lighting system that uses the body control module (BCM) as
the lamp module. The system includes nine-solid-state
switches or output switching modules (OSM), a serial data line
or bus, and the left switch pod. The BCM controls all interior
and exterior lighting through the switching modules. Each
switching module controls four lamp circuits. Three jumpers
divide the power feeds into three groups. This prevents a
module circuit failure from making all rear or all front lights
inoperative.
In addition to controlling and monitoring lamp operation,
the system can substitute some lamps for others that have
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failed. The system includes two extra or redundant relays.
They automatically provide power to the headlamp (low beam)
and left tail amp if the BCM or the serial data buss fails.
Problems in the distributed lighting system cause a
LIGHTING FAULT message to display. This also sets a
lighting-system trouble code which is stored in the BCM.
The operation of the distributed lighting system is made
possible by multiplexing. This is the use of one conductor,
such as the serial data bus, to do the job of many wires. A
single main-wiring harness simplifies the electrical system.
Because of multiplexing, it has fewer connectors which
improve reliability.

J. Headlamp Aiming

Headlamps must be aimed correctly so the driver can see


at night and to prevent the blinding of approaching drivers.
One method is the use of an aiming screen. Park the car on a
level floor, 25 feet (7.6 m) from the screen. Then the high
beam and low beam can be checked.
Adjust the headlamps to provide the specified pattern.
There are usually adjusted by turning vertical-aim and
horizontal-aim adjusting screws. An adapter mounts to the
three aiming pads on the headlamp. Some shops have an
optical aimer. It does not touch the headlamp. When using a
headlamp aimer, follow the manufacturer’s operating
instructions. Headlamp-aiming patterns and adjustment are
in the vehicle service manual.

Some vehicles have aiming devices built into the


headlamp assembly. A bubble level indicates the proper height
(up-and-down) adjustment as the vertical aim adjusting screws
are turned in and out. Other vehicles also have built-in scales
and pointers for horizontal (side-to-side) adjustment.
Caution:
Halogen bulbs and headlamps get very hot. Do not touch
a halogen bulb or lamp while it is on or shortly after it has been
turned-off. Handle the separately-mounted bulb carefully. It
contains gas under pressure. The bulb may shatter if scratched
and dropped. Do not touch the glass envelope. The oil from your
skin may damage it. Keep the bulb out of reach of children.
II. Safety and Signaling
A. Horn and Horn Relay
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Most Cars have two horns at the front of the car. Horns
are electrically-operated noise- makers used by the driver to
provide a loud warning signal. Pressing a horn button in the
steering wheel or column grounds thee circuit connecting the
battery to the horn relay. This closes contact points in the relay
and connects the horns—through the relay—to the battery. The
electric current then causes a diaphragm in each horn to
vibrate and produce the sound.

B. Vehicular Security Systems

An anti-theft or security alarm system causes the horn to


sound and the lights to flash if someone tries to break into the
vehicle. There are several different ways to trigger the alarm.
Typically, the driver sets the alarm by operating a switch when
leaving the vehicle. Then opening or forcing the hood, trunk,
tailgate, or any door triggers the alarm.
Many vehicle security systems include a starter interrupt.
This prevents the starting the engine after any forced entry, even if
the ignition switch is bypassed.
C. Seat Belts
Seat Belts restrain the vehicle occupants if there is an
accident. After entering the car, the driver and passengers each
fasten a lap or lap-and-shoulder belt. The belt then helps hold that
person in the seat during a collision or rollover. Inertia-sensitive
retractors lock the belt in place when an impact occurs.
A passive restraint provides protection without requiring any
action by the driver or passenger. Two types of passive restraints
are air bags and motorized seat belts. These are front-seat shoulder
belts that move into position automatically. After entering the car
and closing the door, the driver turns on the ignition key. The
electric motor then pulls a cable or tape connected to the belt. The
belt travels forward and out of the way when the door opens. In
some cars with an air bag on only the driver’s side, the seatbelt for
the front-seat passenger automatically tightens in a crash. This
provides the passenger with additional protection.
C. Air bags

Air bags are also called supplemental inflatable restraints (SIR).


They are balloon-type devices that inflate automatically to protect
the driver (and front-passenger in some vehicles) if a front-end
crash occurs. The air bag prevents the occupant from being thrown
forward and injured by striking the steering wheel or wind-shield.
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The seat belt and air bag together provide maximum protection
against injury in a collision.
.When the ignition key is turned on, the readiness indicator
light should come on for about six seconds. Any other operation of
the light indicates a malfunction. The system is powered directly
from the battery. This allows the air bag to inflate with the ignition
key in any position, including OFF and LOCK.
If a front-end crash occurs, two of the four sensors must
activate to trigger the air bag. This helps prevent a short circuit
in a sensor or wiring from causing an unwanted inflation. When
the sensors detect a collision, an electric spark below the
inflator in the steering hub ignites a small canister of gas. The
gas in turn ignites the propellant (sodium azide) in the inflator.
The burning propellant creates nitrogen gas. This fills the
air bag stored above in the inflator in the steering wheel hub. As
the bag inflates, it pushes through both the air-cushion
container and the steering wheel trim cover. Deployment time,
from impact to full inflation, is about 50 milliseconds (0.050
second) or less. Some systems include a capacitor that will
trigger the system if the battery or battery cables are damaged
by the impact.
D. Air-Bag Replacement

An air bag inflates only once. Then remove the deployed


air bag and clean the inside of the vehicle. This is necessary
because of the powder emitted as the air bag deploys. Install a
new air bag module. Follow the air-bag service procedures in
the vehicle service manual.
Caution:
Be careful when working on vehicles with air bags. You
could accidentally trigger the system. A deploying air bag could
injure you if you are not belted in the normal seated position.
E. Windshield Wipers and Washers
Windshield wipers clean the windshield so the driver can
see clearly while driving in rain or snow. The wiper blades are
moved back and forth by linkage connected to a motor on the
firewall in the engine compartment. A switch on the steering
column or instrument pane connects the motor to the ignition
switch. The motor will run when the ignition key is in the ON or
ACC position.
The windshield-wiper switch has at least two or three
speeds. Many cars have intermittent windshield wipers. These
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include an adjustable time delay between blade movements. The
wiper blades will move across and back. Pause, and then repeat
the action.
The windshield washer is a part of the windshield-wiper
system. When the driver presses a button, liquid windshield-
washer fluid squirts on the windshield. This allows the blades to
clean more effectively. Some cars have heated wind-shield
washer nozzles. This prevents ice from clogging the small holes
in cold weather.
The rear window in some cars has a similar wiper-and
washer-system. It works automatically when the windshield
washer operates.

III. Driver Information and Safety


A. Instrument Pane
The instrument panel contains the indicators—gauges,
lights, and displays— the driver needs to operate the car. These
are usually grouped for easy reading by the driver in an
instrument cluster. Some driver-operated controls mount on the
instrument panel, or above or below it in a console/ these
include the headlamp switch, heating and air-conditioning
controls and the controls of the radio and tape and compact-
disc player.
Automotive instrumentation may take the form of analog
gauges or electronic displays. Analog gauges show thee condition
being monitored by movement of thee pointer on the gauge.
Several analog gauges are group into an analog instrument
cluster. In an electronic cluster, the various readings and
conditions displays a numbers or a bar-graph display. Both
types of the instrument clusters inform the driver of any
conditions including:
1. Vehicle speed
2. Distance traveled
3. Engine temperature
4. Engine oil pressure
5. Battery charge or discharge
6. Amount of fuel in fuel tank.

Some cars have a hybrid instrument cluster .It includes


both analog gauges and electronic displays, along with other
indicating devices and warning lights. This may illuminate a
symbol or a message such as DOOR AJAR or TAIL LAMP OUT.

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B. Head-up Display
Images containing driving information are projected onto
the windshield. The information includes displays of vehicle
speed, turn-signal indicators, high-beam indicator, and low-fuel
warning. These images appear suspended in space near the
front bumper. The driver’s eyes do not need to move from the
road or refocus to view this information.
Only certain information from the instrument panel
appears in the head-up display. A warning CHECK GAUGES
messages appearing on the windshield alerts the driver that a
gauge on the instrument panel needs attention. Controls allow
adjustment of the head-up display brightness and vertical
location in the windshield.

C. SPEEDOMETER AND ODOMETER


A speedometer in the instrument cluster shows the driver
how the fast the vehicle is moving. Many speedometers are
driven from the transmission output shaft by a set of gears.
Thee driven gear fastens to a flexible shaft or speedometer cable.
It runs from the transmission output shaft to the back of the
speedometer head.
Inside the speedometer, the cable turns a shaft with a
small magnetic field produces a varying pull on the metal ring
surrounding the magnet. A pointer attaches to the metal ring.
As magnetic field spins, it causes the ring to overcome a light
spring and swing with the magnetic field. This moves the
pointer which then indicates car speed. The faster the car
speed, the faster the magnet spins, and the farther the pointer
moves.
The odometer records the total distance the vehicle has
traveled. It is a row of numbers, usually located in the
speedometer shaft. Its motion is carried through the gears to the
mileage or kilometer number rings. These turn to show the
distance traveled by the vehicle.
Some vehicles have an electronically-driven speedometer
and odometer. A vehicle-speed sensor (VSS) on the transmission
output shaft sends vehicle speed signals through wiring to the
speedometer. This eliminates the speedometer cable. The speed
signals operate a small electric stepper motor which turns the
odometer number rings. Cars with an electronic instrument
cluster have a digital speedometer and odometer display. When
the key is off, the body control module (BCM) stores the
odometer reading. The odometer reading is not lost when the
battery is disconnected.
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D. Speed-Control System

The cruise control or speed-control system helps the


vehicle to automatically maintain a speed selected by the driver.
When set at any speed above about 225 mph [40 kmph], the
driver’s foot can be removed from the accelerator pedal. An
actuator motor, vacuum servo then opens and closes the
throttle, as needed to maintain the speed. However, steep grades
up or down may cause vehicle speed to vary.
Tapping the clutch or brake pedal operates a switch that
disengages the system. Touching the RESUME button or switch
causes the vehicle to return to the former speed setting.
Depressing thee accelerator pedal for passing does not affect the
setting. Depressing the accelerator pedal for passing does not
affect the setting. When the pedal is released, the system returns
the vehicle to the preset speed. To disengage and turn off the
speed-control system, move the OFF-ON switch to OFF.
E. Networks and Multiplexing
Some cars have several microprocessors which control the
various electronic systems. One way to reduce duplication and
wiring is to have these controllers communicate with each other.
When this happens the group of interconnected components and
systems becomes a network. For example, a sensor is wired to
one controller. If then shares the information with all other
controllers that require it. The vehicle has fewer sensors, and the
amount of wiring and number of connections is greatly reduced.

F. Other electrical and Electronic Devices


The automobile may contain other electrical and electronic
devices in addition to those already described. These include
power seats, power windows, heated windshield, voice alert
systems, voice command systems, mobile telephones, and
electronic navigation systems. Some of these and other electrical
and electronic devices are described below.
1. Electric seat adjusters are motors under the seat that
operate by push buttons or levers to move the seat forward
and back, or up or down. Some also change the inclination
and shape, or contour, of the seat.
2. The window regulator has a motor in the door that raises or
lowers the window as a switch is operated.
3. The voice alert system uses a computerized voice which says,
“The door is ajar,” “The key is in the ignition lock,” or ‘the
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headlamps are on.” These and other messages inform the
driver of conditions that need attention.
4. The voice command system causes the car to respond in
some way to a spoken command. This may be “Tune thee
radio,” “Lower thee window,” or “Dial a phone number.”
There are many other voice-command possibilities. One
includes using a voice command to unlock the car door and
operate the ignition instead of using a key.
5. The keyless entry system has a panel of buttons on the
driver-side door. To unlock the door, the buttons must be
pressed in the proper order. This code takes the place of the
key. Some keyless entry systems can also be operated from
up to 33 feet [10 m] by a small hand-held transmitter.
Pushing a button on the transmitter will lock all doors,
unlock all doors, or open the trunk. Another button— the
PANIC button- acts as a theft deterrent or anti-theft device.
Pushing the panic button with the ignition of activates the
horn and flashes the headlamps.
6. Electronic navigation systems display a map on the
instrument panel which shows the location of the vehicle on
the road. The location point moves on the map as the vehicle
travels on the highway. It also shows the route to the
destination. In some systems, a satellite orbiting in space—
22,000 miles [35,400] above the earth—pinpoints vehicle
location.
7. Radar braking uses radar to sense how fast a vehicle is
closing on the vehicle ahead. The brakes apply automatically
to slow the vehicle if necessary to maintain a safe distance.
Someday radar braking may be combined with throttle
control into intelligent cruise control. This could keep traffic
moving at a preset speed while radar braking maintains safe
intervals between vehicles.

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Self-Check 1.1-1
A. Multiple Choices
Instruction: Choose the letter that correspond the correct answers.

1. ________are electrically-operated noise- makers used by the driver to


provide a loud warning signal.
a. Turn-signal lights c. Windshield wipers
b. Seat Belts d. Horns

2. ____s restrain the vehicle occupants if there is an accident.


a. Turn-signal lights c. Windshield wipers
b. Seat Belts d. Horns

3. _______are balloon-type devices that inflate automatically to protect the


driver (and front-passenger in some vehicles) if a front-end crash occurs.
a. Turn-signal lights c. Windshield wipers
b. Seat Belts d. Air Bags

4. ______ clean the windshield so the driver can see clearly while driving in
rain or snow.
a. Turn-signal lights c. Horns
b. Seat Belts d. Windshield wipers

5. _____ which indicate an intended change in direction by flashing lights on


the side toward which the turn will be made.

a. Turn-signal lights c. Windshield wipers


b. Seat Belts d. Seat Belts

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Answer Key 1.1-1

1. D
2. B
3. D
4. D
5. A

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Information sheet 1.1-2
HAND TOOLS
Hand tools
Automotive service work requires a great variety of tools. The proper
tools properly used enable to do a job with safety, speed, and efficiency.
This information sheet covers hand tools. Your hand supplies the
energy to use them. They include striking, turning, gripping, and cutting
tools. They also include tube bending and flaring tools.
A. Striking tools
1. Hammers— a hammer is a hand tool used for striking. The ball-
peen hammer is the one used most in the shop. Grip thee
hammer on the end of the handle. Swing it so the hammer face
strikes the object or surface squarely. Avoid hitting the object at
an angle. Use rawhide, plastic, brass, and rubber hammers to
strike easily marred surfaces. A dead blow hammer has a hollow
head partially filled with small metal shot. This recess
rebounding.

B. Turning Tools
1. Screwdrivers—Use the proper screwdriver to drive or turn
screw. Screwdrivers are made in a variety of sizes, shapes, and
special purpose designs. The most common type has a single
flat blade for driving screws with slotted heads there are also
Torx-head and Phillips-head screws.
Always select a screw driver of the proper types and size for the
job. When using a single-blade screwdriver, the blade should
completely fill the screw slot. This helps prevent damage to the
screw head.
2. Wrenches—long-handled tool with fixed or adjustable jaws. You
use a wrench to turn bolts, nuts, and screws to work on both
USC, and metric fasteners, you need both USC and metric
wrenches. A 3/8- to 1-inch USC set and a 6- to 119-mm metric
set will handle most jobs. You need these sizes in sets of open-
end, box, and combination wrenches.
a. Open-end wrench— usually has a jaw opening at a 15
degree angle to a handle. Turn the bolt or nut as far as the
space permits. Then flip the wrench over for further turning
of the fastener.

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An open-end wrench has a different size on each end. Make
sure the wrench fits snugly against the flats. These are the
sides of a nut or bolt head. A loose fit may break or spring
the jaws of the wrench. Springing jaws spread apart and
round off the corners of the hex. This makes use of the
proper wrench more difficult.
Careful:
Never use an open-end wrench to final-tighten a fastener or
to free a frozen fastener. The jaws may spread enough to
allow thee wrench to slip. Use a box wrench or a socket
wrench for these jobs.
b. Box-wrench—opening surrounds or “boxes in” the nut or
bolt head. An advantage is that the box will seldom slip off.
However, you must lift the box wrench completely off and
then place it back on for each swing. The wrench-head is
thin for use in tight places. The head usually sets at a 15-
degree angle to the body. This provides hand clearance for
swinging the wrench.
The most common box wrench has 12 notches or “points” in
the head. This allows turning the fastener if the wrench can
swing 30 degrees. A six-point box wrench holds better on a
nut or bolt but needs a greater swing. The box wrench has
different size openings on each end.
c. Combination wrench— has a box on one end and an open
end on the other. The two ends are usually the same size.
The box end is more convenient for breaking loose or final
tightening a nut or bolt. But you must lift the box completely
free after each swing. The open end is more likely to slip off.
However, once the fastener is loose, the open end can turn it
faster.
d. Flare-nut wrench— is a special type of combination or box
end wrench. It is used to attach or loosen a flare nut or
tubing nut. The ends of the flare-nut wrench are thicker than
on the wrenches. This helps prevent slipping and rounding
off the points on soft-metal tube fittings. The six-point box
end has one of the flats cut out .The opening is large enough
to slip over the tube.
Careful:
Do not turn the flare nut without holding coupling nut. This
will usually twist and break the metal tube.ee.

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e. Adjustable wrench— an adjustable wrench (has a movable
jaw that you adjust the fit nuts and bolt heads of various
sizes. Tighten thee jaws against the flats of the nut or bolt
before applying a turning force. Adjustable wrenches are
normally used only when applying relatively light torque.
They are not always a strong as fixed jaw wrenches and may
be damaged if excessive torque is applied.
f. Socket wrenches—the most widely used tools. They are like
box wrenches except that the head or socket is detachable
from the handle. You assemble the socket wrench you need
from the socket set in your toolbox
1. SOCKET. The 12-point socket allows you to turn a
bolt or nut in tight spots. However, if a bolt head or
nut has rounded corners or excessive resistance to
turning, thee 120point socket may slip. Use a six point
socket for these. The eight point socket is for turning
square heads. These include drain plugs, fill plugs,
and pipe plugs.
Deep sockets reach nuts on bolts or studs that are too
long for the standard socket to reach. You remove and
install spark plugs with a spark-plug socket. This is a
six-point deep socket with a rubber insert. Thee insert
holds the plug to prevent it from falling out of the
socket.
2. HANDLES. Figure 7-8 shows several handles. The
ratchet handle has a mechanism that permits free
motion in one direction but lockup in the other. You
select the direction for lockup by moving the reversing
lever Extensions of various lengths provide access to
hard-to-reach bolts or nuts. The universal joint allows
you to turn a nut or bolt while holding the driver at an
angle. Adapters allow you to use a driver with a socket
having a different drive size. Also, various kinds and
sizes of screw drivers, Torx drives, Allen wrenches, and
flare- nut wrenches will fit the drivers and adapters.
NOTE:
To work on variety of domestic and imported cars, you
need both USC and metric socket sets.
g. Torque wrench— is basically a special handle for a socket.
An indicator on the torque wrench measures the torque or
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twisting force. This is the amount of force applied to a nut or
bolt while tightening it. Vehicle service manuals give the
torque specification might be to tighten a bolt to “20 lb-ft.”
this means to apply a 20 pound pull at a distance of 1 foot
from the bolt.

Dirty or damaged threads put a drag on the threads as the


bolt or nut is tightened. This gives a false reading on the
torque wrench. It can also result in not enough tightening.

Many torque wrenches read in pound-feet 9lb-ft). Some read


in pound-inches (lb-in). Use these where you need to
accurately apply a small torque. Twelve pound-inches equals
one-pound-foot.
The scale on metric torque wrenches is in kilogram-meters
(kg-m), kilogram-centimeters (kg-cm), or newton-meters (n-
m). Newton- meters is the preferred unit. To convert from
USC to newton-meters, multiply pound-feet by 1.35.
h. Torque-Angle Gauge—Tighten torque-to-yield bolts to an
initial torque with a torque wrench. Then final-tighten the
bolts by turning them through a specified angle with a socket
wrench.
You can easily see a 90-degree turning angle by watching
how a ratchet-handle or breaker-bar moves. For other
angles, use a torque-angle gauge. It accurately measures the
turning angle in degrees. The gauge attaches to the socket
driver. The socket attaches to the gauge. As the handle
turns, the degree indicator remains the greatest angle
reached.

C. Gripping tools
1. Pliers—Pliers are hand tools with a pair of adjustable pivoted
jaws for cutting or gripping .There are many styles and sizes of
pliers. Combination slip-joint pliers may have cutting edges at
the back of the jaws for wire cutting. Tongue-and-groove or
groove-and-land pliers such as Channel lock pliers have the
tongues or lands to different grooves changes the distance the
jaws can open. The jaws remain parallel at any setting.

Locking pliers such as Vise-Grip pliers have locking jaws.


This makes them useful as pliers, wrenches, clamps, and small
vises. Look the jaws by turning a screw in the end of the handle.
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This adjusts the size of the opening. Closing the handles then
locks the jaws into place. To release the jaws, pull the release
lever.
Careful:
Never use gripping pliers on hardened steel surfaces. This
dulls the pliers’ teeth. Never use pliers on nuts or bolt heads.
The pliers may slip and round off the edges of the hex. Then a
wrench or socket will not fit on the fastener properly.
2. Pullers—remove parts assembled with an interference fit. This
includes removing gears and hubs from shafts, and bushings
from bores or cylinder liner from engine blocks.
A puller set has many pieces that can fit together to form the
puller needed for the job. There are three basic types of pullers.

D. Cutting Tools
Cutting tools remove metal. They include chisels, hacksaws, files,
punches. Drills, taps, and dies are also cutting tools. Power cutting
tools include grinders, hones, lathes, and boring machine.
1. Chisels— the chisel is a cutting tool with a single cutting
edge. There are various sizes and shapes of chisels. Striking
the chisel with a hammer makes the chisel cut metal. Hold
the chisel with one hand and the hammer in the other. Hit
the end of the chisel squarely holding the chisel in a chisel
holder or smooth-jaw locking pliers will protect your hand.

Caution:
Always wear eye protection when using a chisel.
Never use a chisel with a mushroomed head. When the
hammer strikes the head, a piece could fly off. The flying
metal could cut you or injure an unprotected eye.
2. Hacksaw—is basically an adjustable metal frame that holds
a steel saw blade .The blade is replaceable and has from14 to
32 teeth per inch. Cutting occurs on the forward stroke as
you push the blade across the metal. The teeth act like tiny
chisels and cut off fine shavings or chips. Select a blade with
the proper number teeth per inch for the job. The teeth must
be close enough so at least two teeth are cutting. Teeth that
are too close together clog and stop cutting. The hacksaw
blade for general cutting has 18 teeth per inch.

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3. Files— are used for cutting and shaping metal. They have
many cutting edges or teeth. When the cuts are far apart,
there are only a few per inch. This is rough- or coarse-cut file.
When the cuts are close together, the file is a smooth or
dead-smooth file. A single-cut file has a series of sharp
blades. A double-cut file has a second series cut at an angle
to the first. This creates a series of sharp teeth. Various
sizes and cuts of round, half-round, flat, and triangular files
are used during automotive service work. Always use a
handle with a file. Tapping the end of the handle on the
bench tightens the file in the handle. Keep the file teeth clean
with a file card. It has short stiff-wire bristles that remove
chips and dirt from the teeth.

4. Punches—are used to knock out rivets and pins. They also


align parts for the assembly. To remove a rivet, grind off the
rivet head. Or cut it off with a chisel. Mark spots where holes
are to be drilled with a center punch. The punch mark keeps
the drill bit centered as it starts cutting you can use the
center punch to mark parts before they are disassembled.
Align the punch marks to reassemble the parts in the same
position.
5. Twist drills (Drill bits) — are tools for making holes. The
material being drilled determines the preferred shape of the
cutting edges that form the point. The grooves along the body
carry the chips out of the hole. A hand-held air or electric
drill motor, or a drill press, drives the drill bit.
6. Taps and Dies — tap-and-die sets are for cutting USC and
metric threads. Taps cut inside the threads. To tap a hole,
determine the thread size needed. Refer to a tap drill chart
and select the size of drill bit required. The hole made by the
specified tap drill will be the proper diameter for
tapping.Dies cut outside threads on rods diestock holds the
die. Chamfer or bevel the rod end so the die starts easily.
The basic procedure is the same for both taps and dies.
Apply cutting the lubricant to the surface. Then begin thread
cutting. After every two turns, back off the tap or die and
apply more lubricant.

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Self Check 1.1-2
Multiple Choices
Instruction: Choose the letter that correspond the correct answer.

1. ___are long-handled tool with fixed or adjustable jaws.


a. screw driver c. Hammer
b. Wrenches d. Pliers

2. _____ is a hand tool used for striking.


a. Hammer c. screw driver
b. Wrenches d. Pliers

3. Use the proper ____ to drive or turn screw.


a. screw driver c. Hammer
b. Wrenches d. Pliers

4. ____are hand tools with a pair of adjustable pivoted jaws for cutting or
gripping
a. Pliers c. Hammer
b. Wrenches d. screw driver

5. _______ are used to knock out rivets and pins.


a. Punches c. Hammer
b. Wrenches d. screw driver

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Answer Key 1.1-2
1.B
2.A
3.A
4.A
5.A

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Information Sheet 1.1-3
LTO/LTFRB Light vehicle with Some Safety Harness/ Devices/
Tools of a Vehicle

Objectives: After reading the information sheet, the trainee should be


able to:
1. Enumerate Examples of Light Vehicle
2. Give some safety harness/devices/tools of a vehicle

A. Light vehicle

1. Private car
2. Owner type Jeepney
3. Taxicab
4. Public Utility Jeepney

B. Some Safety Harness/ devices/ tools of a vehicle

1. Seat belt— a strong strap or harness designed to keep the wearer


securely in a seat in a vehicle or aircraft

2. Early Warning device— advance notice that something, especially


something dangerous or threatening, is going to happen.
 E.W.D orange must be set in front the vehicle at least 5
meter away
 E.W.D red must be set at the back of the vehicle at least 5
meter away
3. Hand tools

a. Wrench— a hand or power tool with fixed or movable jaws, used


to seize, turn, or twist objects such as nuts and bolts
b. Pliers—a hand tool with two hinged arms ending in jaws that
are closed by hand pressure to grip something
c. Screwdrivers—a tool for driving screws that consists of a
handle or power tool with a metal rod shaped at the tip to fit
into the head of a screw
d. Early warning Device
e. Jack—a portable device that uses a mechanical or hydraulic
lifting system to raise heavy objects, especially cars, a short
distance
f. Spare tires—rubber edging for wheel kept in case of emergency.

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4. Flashlights— emergency lighting device
5. Consumable Materials and spare parts such as”
a. Rags—a small piece or scrap of usually old or unwanted cloth
used for cleaning, polishing, or applying liquid substances
b. Fan Belt—a continuous belt that turns a fan, especially one
turning the cooling fan in the engine of a motor vehicle
c. Wheel cap—a wheel in a vehicle that is connected by way of the
steering column to the steering gear and is turned to change
direction
d. Fuse—an electrical safety device containing a piece of a metal
that melts if the current running through it exceeds a particular
level, thereby breaking the circuit
e. Electrical Tape
f. Brake Fluid—a liquid or gas put in brake
g. Motor oil—oil put in the engine

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Self-Check 1.1-3
Enumeration
Instruction: Enumerate the following.

A. Light vehicle

B. Some Safety Harness/ devices/ tools of a vehicle

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Answer Key 1.1-3
Model Answer
A. Light vehicle

1. Private car
2. Owner type Jeepney
3. Taxicab
4. Public Utility Jeepney

B. Some Safety Harness/ devices/ tools of a vehicle

1. Seat belt— a strong strap or harness designed to keep the wearer


securely in a seat in a vehicle or aircraft

2. Early Warning device— advance notice that something, especially


something dangerous or threatening, is going to happen.
 E.W.D orange must be set in front the vehicle at least 5
meter away
 E.W.D red must be set at the back of the vehicle at least 5
meter away
3. Hand tools

a. Wrench— a hand or power tool with fixed or movable jaws, used


to seize, turn, or twist objects such as nuts and bolts
b. Pliers—a hand tool with two hinged arms ending in jaws that
are closed by hand pressure to grip something
c. Screwdrivers—a tool for driving screws that consists of a
handle or power tool with a metal rod shaped at the tip to fit
into the head of a screw
d. Early warning Device
e. Jack—a portable device that uses a mechanical or hydraulic
lifting system to raise heavy objects, especially cars, a short
distance
f. Spare tires—rubber edging for wheel kept in case of emergency.
4. Flashlights— emergency lighting device
5. Consumable Materials and spare parts such as”
a. Rags—a small piece or scrap of usually old or unwanted cloth
used for cleaning, polishing, or applying liquid substances
b. Fan Belt—a continuous belt that turns a fan, especially one
turning the cooling fan in the engine of a motor vehicle
c. Wheel cap—a wheel in a vehicle that is connected by way of the
steering column to the steering gear and is turned to change
direction
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d. Fuse—an electrical safety device containing a piece of a metal
that melts if the current running through it exceeds a particular
level, thereby breaking the circuit
e. Electrical Tape
f. Brake Fluid—a liquid or gas put in brake
g. Motor oil—oil put in the engine

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Information Sheet 1.1-4
Routinely Checks on Vehicle Component
(THE BLOWBAGETS}

Objective: After reading the information, the trainee should be able to


perform routinely checks on vehicle component (THE BLOWBAGETS}.

T– Tires – is a ring shaped component that surrounds a wheel’s rim to


transfer a vehicle’s load from the axles through the wheel to the ground and
to provide traction on the surface traveled over.
The Following must be checked:
a. Uneven sidewall wear, down to fabric plies, due to significant
under-inflation

H – Horn – is a sound making device that can be equipped to motor


vehicles, buses, bicycles, trains and other type of vehicles. The vehicle
operator uses the horn to warn others of vehicle approach or presence. Or to
call attention to some hazards.
The following must be checked:
a. Check the relay connecting to the battery.

E– Engine – is a machine designed to convert one form into mechanical


energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to create heat which is then used to do
work.
The following must be checked”
a. Engine oil
b. ATF
c. Brake Fluid
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d. Fan Belt

B -Battery - The cars source of electrical energy. It supplies direct current to


the electrical Components an electro chemical device for storing energy in
chemical form so that it can be released as electricity for cranking the
engine and powering the electrical load
The following must be checked
a. Clamps and cables
b. Battery solution
c. Cracks
d. Under charge
e. Terminal corrosion
f. Sulfation

L- Light-The lighting system of a vehicle inside and outside of the car is


either automatic or manually operated or switch by the driver.
a. Headlight – the main lighting system of a vehicle
b. Signal light-use to indicate right turn or left turn
c. Stop light- use to indicate slow down or stopping
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d. Back up light- use to indicate vehicle backing up
e. High beam indicator- use to indicate high beam of headlight
f. Horn
g. Fuses and relays
h. Wires and cables
i. switches

O –Oil- Is to prevent friction between moving parts of the engine by


supplying an adequate amount of oil.
Tasks
 To cool the engine components
 To provide seal between sliding contact components
 To clean internal parts of the engine
 Motor oil, gear oil, and A.T.F

W- Water -Is place in the radiator where cooling takes place.


A. Cooling System Flush
Overheating in engines is often caused by a poorly performing cooling
system. This can lead to a lack of performance or worse, the potential failure
of your engine and transmission resulting in expensive repair bills.
Our Cooling System Flush is designed to safely break down and remove rust
and scale deposits from the cooling system. This specialty service then
replaces up to 95% of the old coolant and refills the system with quality,
long life fluid.
Specialty conditioning treatment is added to help maintain the cooling
system in optimum condition.
KEY ITEMS:

o Check radiator for damage or leaks


o Check hoses and thermostat operation
o Drain and flush cooling system
o Refill radiator with coolant and conditioner
o Pressure test cooling system and test for leak

B-Brakes – A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing


energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving
vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent its motion, most often accomplished by
means of friction
Date Developed: Document No.
October 2018 Issued by:
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Developed by:
DRIVE LIGHT VEHICLE Revision # 00
Gregory Marner A. Marilla
A-Air
Air, mixture of gases that composes the atmosphere surrounding
Earth. Air is the life sustaining of vehicle tire and must always be checked
before running the vehicle.
The following must be checked
a. Tire pressure

Tire Service

Why is it important?
Tires may wear differently depending on their position on the vehicle, your
driving style and the condition of your suspension. Regularly rotating your
tires can evenly distribute their wear—helping you get the most miles out of
your tires while maximizing traction on all four wheels.
What is the service?
Changing the position of the tires on your vehicle is according to your
vehicle and tire manufacturers’ recommended rotation pattern.
Benefit to you:
Tire Rotation Service – Helps maximize the life span of your tires.

G-Gas – Natural gas vehicle (NGV) is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses
compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). Natural gas
vehicles should not be confused with vehicles powered by LPG (mainly
propane), which is a fuel with a fundamentally different composition.
- Especially during long drives, a full gas tank is important. Imagine
how troublesome it would be if you run out of fuel while you’re
stuck in traffic or driving along the road where a gas station is
nowhere in sight.

E-EarlyWarning Device – a device that signals the occurrence of some


undesirable event.
Date Developed: Document No.
October 2018 Issued by:
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Developed by:
DRIVE LIGHT VEHICLE Revision # 00
Gregory Marner A. Marilla
4 reasons why carrying an Early Warning Device:
1. Safety - EWD is designed for safety purposes. It warns other
motorists that there’s a stalled vehicle ahead, which could
lessen the odds of an accident.
2. Road Courtesy - Placing EWD won’t just keep you safe when
you pull over to the side but, it will also protect the approaching
motorists. In this way, you are being courteous towards other
road users, and at the same time, you are promoting road
safety.
3. Responsible Car Owner - If all of us are responsible car owners
or drivers, car-related accidents could be reduced to a
minimum. Be a responsible driver by practicing road safety and
courtesy. As such, you should always have the essential tools
inside your car–especially the EWD
4. Required by the Law - Yes, it is required by the law. The
Memorandum Circular No. VPT-2012-1609 or the Revised
Rules on the Implementation of the Early Warning Device
Requirement states that EWD is a mandatory accessory for all
motor vehicles, except motorcycles and tricycles. The
memorandum goes on by stating that “a pair of EWD…shall be
carried at all times.” So, you might want to buy EWD right now
if you still don’t have one inside your car.

T-Tools – a device or implement, especially one held in the hand, used to carry
out a particular function, any instrument or simple piece of equipment that
you hold in your hands and use to do a particular kind of work.

S-Self- Human error is the leading cause of road accidents. Accident


Recording and Analysis System cites fatigue, sleepiness, drunkenness, and
medical problems like asthma and dizziness as examples.
The following must be checked
1. Check yourself! If you’re sick, dizzy, tired, sleepy, or drunk, you
better let somebody else take over the steering wheel.
Date Developed: Document No.
October 2018 Issued by:
DRIVING NC II Page 39 of
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Developed by:
DRIVE LIGHT VEHICLE Revision # 00
Gregory Marner A. Marilla
2. Also, check your documents before you hit the road. Your driver’s
license, LTO registration papers, and proof of car insurance should
be within reach when you get pulled over on your road trip.

Date Developed: Document No.


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Self-Check 1.1-4
A. True or False
Instruction: Write T if the statement is correct and f if the statement
is False.
1. Overheating in engines is often caused by a poorly performing
cooling system.
2. It is highly recommended to check your oil twice a month.
3. The lighting system of a vehicle inside and outside of the car is
either automatic or manually operated or switch by the driver.
4. Changing the position of the tires on your vehicle is according to
your vehicle and tire manufacturers’ recommended rotation
pattern.
5. Air is the life sustaining of vehicle tire and must always be
checked before running the vehicle.

B. Enumeration
1. Vehicle components routinely to be checked
2. Components must be checked on the Battery
3. Components must be checked on Light

Date Developed: Document No.


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Answer Key 1.1-4
A. True or False
1. T
2. T
3. T
4. T
5. T
B. Enumeration
1. Vehicle components routinely to be checked
T - Tires
H - Horn
E - Engine

B—Battery
L—Light
O—Oil
W—Water
B - Brakes
A - Air
G - Gauges
E – Early Warning Device (EWD)
T - Tools
S - Self
2. Components must be checked on the Battery
a. Clamps and cables
b. Battery solution
c. Cracks
d. Under charge
e. Terminal corrosion
f. Sulfattion

3. Components must be checked on Light


a. Headlight Signal light
b. Stop light
c. Back up light
d. High beam indicator
e. Horn
f. Fuses and relays
g. Wires and cables
h. switches

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Gregory Marner A. Marilla
JOB SHEET 1.1-1

Title Light Vehicle Pre-Starting and Warm-Up

Objective After performing the Job Sheet, the trainee should be


able to Perform Light Vehicle Pre-starting and warm-Up.

Condition
The trainee should be able to observe OH & S.

Hand Tools
Tools/Materials Car
Safety harness/ devices/tools

Procedure 1.Perform Vehicle Inspection (THE BLOWBAGETS)


a. the transmission to neutral
b. drivers sit accordingly/properly
c. steering column accordingly
d. wiper
e. side mirrors
2. Check Safety harness/ devices/tools
3. Pre-Starting of Vehicle
a. insert ignition key to ON
b. switch ignition key to START
c. slightly press accelerator
4. warm up the engine for at least 2 to 3 minutes
5. observe the following while warming up the vehicle
a. ammeter
b. oil pressure gauge
 c. water temperature gauge

Performance
Assessment Performance Criteria Checklist
Method

Date Developed: Document No.


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Developed by:
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Gregory Marner A. Marilla
Performance Criteria Checklist 1.1-1

Criteria Yes No
Did the trainee…

x
Perform Vehicle Inspection as per manufacturer’s
specification.

x
Check Safety harness/devices and tools according to
the land transportation office (LTO)/ land
transportation franchising and regulatory board
(LTFRB) requirements.

x
Perform Warm up of light vehicle as per
manufacturer’s manual.

Perform OHS? x

Perform 5’s x

Date Developed: Document No.


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Gregory Marner A. Marilla
Observation Criteria Checklist 1.1-1

Criteria Yes No
Did the trainee…

x
Perform Vehicle Inspection as per manufacturer’s
specification.

x
Check Safety harness/devices and tools according to
the land transportation office (LTO)/ land
transportation franchising and regulatory board
(LTFRB) requirements.

x
Perform Warm up of light vehicle as per
manufacturer’s manual.

Perform OHS? x

Perform 5’s x

Date Developed: Document No.


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Gregory Marner A. Marilla
EVIDENCE PLAN

Qualification Title Driving NC II

Unit of Competency DRIVE LIGHT VEHICLE

Module Title DRIVING LIGHT VEHICLE

Ways in which evidence will


be collected (tick the box)

Third Party Report


Demonstration &
Observation &
Questioning

Questioning

Portfolio

Written
The evidence must show that the
candidate…
Must determine and performed vehicle
x x x
inspection as per manufacturer’s manual.
Identified and obtained the hand tools,
safety harness/devices in accordance with
x x x
LTO/LTFRB requirements.

Perform warm up light vehicle as per


manufacturer’s manual. x x x

Minor vehicle maintenance is performed in


accordance with manufacturer’s manual.

Vehicle records are maintained / updated in


accordance with workplace procedure.

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Gregory Marner A. Marilla
TABLE OF SPECIFICATION

Objectives/Content Percentage
Knowledge Comprehension Application
area/Topics of test

Vehicle is performed
as per 20% 10% 5% 35%
manufacturer’s
manual

Safety
harness/devices.
And tools are 25% 10% 0% 35%
checked according to
LTO/LTFRB
requirements

Warm up of light
vehicle is performed
as per 5% 5% 20% 30%
manufacturer’s
manual

TOTAL 50% 25% 25% 100%

Date Developed: Document No.


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Gregory Marner A. Marilla
ITEM DISTRIBUTION

Objectives/Content Knowledg # of test


Comprehension Application
area/Topics e item

Vehicle is performed as 4 2 1 7
per manufacturer’s
manual

Safety harness/devices.
5 2 7
And tools are checked
according to LTO/LTFRB
requirements

Warm up of light vehicle 1 1 4 6


is performed as per
manufacturer’s manual

TOTAL 10 5 5 20 Items

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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ITEM ANALYSIS

Name of Total Per Rem


score cent arks
Trainee
No. of Test Items
s

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18
19
20
1

9
Son 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 15 75% Passe
d
Gokou

Son 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 16 80% Passe


d
Gohan

Vegeta 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 14 70% Faile


d

Krililin 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 17 80% Passe


d

Majinbuu 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 15 75% Passe


d

Trunks 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 16 80% Passe


d

Andoid 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 85% Passe


d
18

Android 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 17 85% Passe


d
17

Master 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 15 75% Passe


d
pogi

Master 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 13 65% Faile


d
Lao

Videl 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 80% Passe


d

Tenshin 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 17 80% Passe


d
han

Kenshin 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 80% Passe


d
Himura

Voltes 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 16 80% Passe


d
Five

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Monkey 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 80% Passe
d
the Luffy

Zorro 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 100 Passe


d
%

Dende 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 100 Passe


d
%

Goten 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 100 Passe


d
%

Piccolo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 100 Passe


d
%

Yamcha 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 100 Passe


d
%

Tien 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 100 Passe


d
%
Shinhan

Raditz 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 100 Passe


d
%

Dabura 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 100 Passe


d
%

Mr. Popo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 100 Passe


d
%

Master 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 100 Passe


d
%
Kami

Total No. of 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Students 0 8 5 5 6 5 6 5 8 8 6 7 3 6
who got 5 5 5 8 7 0
correct
answer

Interpretati Ri Ri Ri E E Ri Ri E Ri E Ri E E E E D E E E E
on of the g g g g g g g
h h h
a a h h
a h
a h
a a a a if a a a a
difficulty of s s s s s s s s fi s s s s
t t t t t t t
the test D D D y y D D y D y D y y y y c y y y y
iff iff iff iff iff iff iff u
ic ic ic ic ic ic ic
ul ul ul ul ul ul ul lt
ty ty ty ty ty ty ty

Note No.1:
1 – Corresponds to the correct answer
0 – corresponds to the wrong answer

Note No.2: Determining the Passing Score

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Developed by:
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Formula: Total Raw Score ÷ Total No. of Items x 100
Passing Grade 15=75%
Note No.3: Determining the Difficulty of the test.
Item Difficulty= Number of students with correct answer
Total number of students
Interpretation

Range of Difficulty Index Interpretation Action


0.-0.25 Difficult Revise or Discard

0.26-0.75 Right Difficulty Retain

0.76-Above Easy Revise or Discard

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Developed by:
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Gregory Marner A. Marilla
WRITTEN TEST

Name: ___________________________ Date: _________________Score: ___________

A. Multiple Choices
Instruction: Choose the letter that correspond the correct answers.

1. ________are electrically-operated noise- makers used by the driver to


provide a loud warning signal.
a. Turn-signal lights c. Windshield wipers
b. Seat Belts d. Horns

2. ____ restrain the vehicle occupants if there is an accident.


a. Turn-signal lights c. Windshield wipers
b. Seat Belts d. Horns

3. _______are balloon-type devices that inflate automatically to protect the


driver (and front-passenger in some vehicles) if a front-end crash occurs.
a. Turn-signal lights c. Windshield wipers
b. Seat Belts d. Air Bags

4. ______ clean the windshield so the driver can see clearly while driving in
rain or snow.
a. Turn-signal lights c. Horns
b. Seat Belts d. Windshield wipers

5. _____ which indicate an intended change in direction by flashing lights on


the side toward which the turn will be made.

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Developed by:
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a. Turn-signal lights c. Windshield wipers
b. Seat Belts d. Seat Belts

6. ___are long-handled tool with fixed or adjustable jaws.


a. screw driver c. Hammer
b. Wrenches d. Pliers

7. _____ is a hand tool used for striking.


a. Hammer c. screw driver
b. Wrenches d. Pliers

8. Use the proper ____ to drive or turn screw.


a. screw driver c. Hammer
b. Wrenches d. Pliers

9. ____are hand tools with a pair of adjustable pivoted jaws for cutting or
gripping
a. Pliers c. Hammer
b. Wrenches d. screw driver

10. _______ are used to knock out rivets and pins.


a. Punches c. Hammer
b. Wrenches d. screw driver

B. Fill the blanks


1. ___________ is a ring shape components that surrounds a wheel rim to
transfer a vehicles load from the axles through the wheel to the ground and
to provide traction on the surface traveled order.
2. It is designed to safely breakdown and remove rust and scale deposits
from cooling system. It is called __________________.
3. It is designed for safety purposes. _________________
4. What memorandum states that EWD is mandatory accessory for all motor
vehicles except motorcycles and tricycles.__________________?
5. The car source of electrical energy. It supplies direct current to the
electrical components. It is called ______________________

Date Developed: Document No.


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6. This part of the BLOWBAGETS that human error is leading causes of
road accidents. _________________.
7. _____________ are devices or implement, especially one held in hand, used
to carry out a particular function.
8. _______________ is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed
natural gas or liquefied natural gas.
9. ________________ a mixture of gases that composes the atmosphere
surrounding earth.
10. Is a sound making device that can be equipped to motor vehicle, buses,
bicycle, trains and other types of vehicle is called ____________________.

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Developed by:
DRIVE LIGHT VEHICLE Revision # 00
Gregory Marner A. Marilla
Answer Key

A. Multiple Choice

1. D
2. B
3. D
4. D
5. A
6. B
7. A
8. A
9. A
10. A

B. Fill the Blanks

1. Tires
2. Cooling System Flush
3. Early Warning Device
4. Memorandum Circular N. VPT-2012-1609 or the revised rules on the
implementation of the Early Warning Device (EWD).
5. Battery
6. Self
7. Tools
8. Gas
9. Air
10. Horn

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Developed by:
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Performance Test

Specific Instruction for the Candidate

Qualification DRIVING NC II

Unit of Competency DRIVE LIGHT VEHICLE

General Instruction: Follow the standard procedure in conducting vehicle


pre-starting and warm-up.

Specific Instruction:

1. Vehicle inspection is perform as per manufacturer’s


manual

2. Check safety harness/devices and tools according to


LTO/LTFRB requirement.

3. Perform warm up light vehicle as per manufacturer’s


manual.

Your Trainer will evaluate your performance

Note: Always observe OH & S.

List of Tools:

Hand Tools/safety harness/devices/EWD

List of Equipment:

1. Private Car

2. Owner Type Jeep/PUJ/PUV

3. Taxi Cab

List of Materials:

Consumable materials and spare parts such as:

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
DRIVING NC II Page 56 of
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Developed by:
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 Rags

 Fan Belts

 Wheel Cap

 Fuse

 Electrical Tapes

 Brake Fluid

 Motor Oil

 Spare Tire

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
DRIVING NC II Page 57 of
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Developed by:
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Performance Criteria Checklist for Performance Test

Name: ______________________ Date of Assessment: ____________


CRITERIA YES NO
Did you….
1. Perform vehicle inspection according to
manufacturer’s Manual?
2. Check safety harness/devices and tools according
to LTO/LTFRB requirement?
3. Perform warm up light vehicle as per
manufacturer’s manual?
4. Minor vehicle maintenance is performed in
accordance with manufacturer’s manual?

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Developed by:
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QUESTIONING TOOL
Satisfactory
Questions to probe the candidate’s underpinning knowledge
response

Extension/Reflection Questions Yes No


1. Before checking your vehicle, what is the first thing you will
ensure in the station you are using?  

2. Why is it important to know the simple way of checking you


vehicle?  

Safety Questions
3. Why do we need to follow safety rules?  
4. Why is it important to wear Personal Protective Equipment?  
Contingency Questions
5. What are you going to do if the tools are not available?  
6. What are you going to do if you forgot what tools are you  
going to use?
Job Role/Environment Questions  
7. How can you contribute for the environmental safety?  
8. Why we need to segregate waste materials?  
Rules and Regulations  
9. What are basic things to do to ensure that your Vehicle is  
functioning?
10. What are the considerations to be follow in making your  
own vehicle technical report?
The candidate’s underpinning  Satisfactory  Not
knowledge was: Satisfactory

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Developed by:
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Gregory Marner A. Marilla
Expected Answer for Questioning Tool
Satisfactory
Questions to probe the candidate’s underpinning knowledge
response

Extension/Reflection Questions Yes No


1. Before proceeding to other ways of checking your vehicle,
check first the light if it is functional then you will therefore  
conclude that the battery is functional.
2. Knowing the simplest way in checking your vehicle gives an
immediate diagnosis so that you can immediately resolve the  
problem on your own
Safety Questions
3. to avoid Accident in the workshop  
4. to prevent ourselves from accident  
Contingency Questions
5. Borrow to your co-trainee or to your trainer  
6. Ask the trainer if what material is going to use.  
Job Role/Environment Questions  
7. By properly disposing waste materials such as Brake pads  
etc. and properly recycle the engine oil and other recyclable
materials.
8. Follow the correct segregation waste  
Rules and Regulations  
9. Always double check the lights, batteries, brakes and other  
parts of the vehicle components before you go on a trip.
10. In writing a report specifically vehicle inspection you must  
consider these questions: What is the report about? Who are
you writing for? How long can the report be? Following these
consideration, you can generate an accurate and sufficient
technical report.
The candidate’s underpinning  Satisfactory  Not
knowledge was: Satisfactory

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Gregory Marner A. Marilla
Inventory of Training Resources
Qualification Title: DRIVING NC II

Resources for Skills practice of Competency #1


______________________________
 Supplies and Materials As per TR As per Remarks
Inventory

Soap 5 Boxes 5 Boxes Complete

Shampoo 5 Liters 5 Liters Complete

Gear Oil 10 Liters 10 Liters Complete

Air Freshener 20 Pieces 20 Pieces Complete

Polish 10 Pieces 10 Pieces Complete

Distilled Water 10 Liters 10 Liters Complete

Fan Belt 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Wheel Cap 8 Pieces 8 Pieces Complete

Fuse 10 Pieces 10 Pieces Complete

Electric Tape 4 Rolls 4 Rolls Complete

Brake Fluid 2 Liters 2 Liters Complete

A/C Belt 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

P/S Belt 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Coolant 10 Liters 10 Liters Complete

Additives 10 Liters 10 Liters Complete

Relay 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Fender Cover 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete


 Tools As per TR As per Remarks
Inventory

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Developed by:
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Gregory Marner A. Marilla
Mop 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Basket 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Pail 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Polisher 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Broom 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Hose 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Cross Wrench 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Mechanical Pliers 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Long Nose Pliers 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Glove 25 pairs 25 pairs Complete

Apron 25 pairs 25 pairs Complete

Goggles 25 pairs 25 pairs Complete

Plastic Boots 25 pairs 25 pairs Complete

Combination Wrench 4 Sets 4 Sets Complete

Screw Driver (Flat and Phillips) 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Early Warning Device 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Jack 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Spare Tire 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Flashlight 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Emergency Light 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete


Device/Trouble Light

Dunce Pin 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Tire Gauge 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Creeper 4 Pieces 4 Pieces Complete

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
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Developed by:
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 Equipment As per TR As per Remarks
Inventory

Car Complete

Jeepney Complete

Vacuum Pump Complete

Steam Cleaner Complete

Air Compressor Complete

Note: In the remarks section, remarks may include for repair, for
replenishment, for reproduction, for maintenance etc.

Prepared By: GREGORY MARNER A. MARILLA

Date Developed: Document No.


October 2018 Issued by:
DRIVING NC II Page 63 of
64
Developed by:
DRIVE LIGHT VEHICLE Revision # 00
Gregory Marner A. Marilla
WORKSHOP LAYOUT

24
Sq
.
M
et
er

54 Sq Meter
200
.

Sq.
Meter

400 Sq. Meter

LEGEND:

- TRSAH BINS

- FIRE EXTINGUISHER

- MEDICINE CABINET

Date Developed: Document No.


54 Sq. Meter
October 2018 Issued by:
DRIVING NC II Page 64 of
64
Developed by:
DRIVE LIGHT VEHICLE Revision # 00
Gregory Marner A. Marilla