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1)IP ROUTING:- is an umbrella term for the set of protocols that determine the path

that data follows in order to travel across multiple networks from its source
to its destination. Data is routed from its source to its destination through a
series of routers, and across multiple networks. The IP Routing protocols
enable routers to build up a forwarding table that correlates final destinations
with next hop addresses.

These protocols include:

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)


IS-IS (Intermediate System - Intermediate System)
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

IP routing is the process of sending packets from a host on one network to another
host on a different remote network.
This process is usually done by routers. Routers examine the destination IP address
of a packet , determine the next-hop address,
and forward the packet. Routers use routing tables to determine a next hop address
to which the packet should be forwarded.

3)ACCESS CONTROL LISTS:-


Access control lists (ACLs) perform packet filtering to control the movement of
packets through a network.
Packet filtering provides security by limiting the access of traffic into a
network, restricting user and device access to a network,
and preventing traffic from leaving a network. IP access lists reduce the chance of
spoofing and denial-of-service attacks, and allow dynamic,
temporary user-access through a firewall.

4)VIRTUAL FIREWALLS:-
A virtual firewall is a firewall device or service that provides network traffic
filtering and monitoring for virtual machines (VMs) in a virtualized environment.
Like a traditional network firewall, a virtual firewall inspects packets and uses
security policy rules to block unapproved communication between VMs.
A virtual firewall is often deployed as a software appliance.

Virtual firewalls are commonly used to protect virtualized environments because


they are the least expensive and the most portable due to
the ease of moving a virtual firewall from cloud to cloud. A virtual firewall may
be a good fit for smaller organizations that work outside a corporate network
due to the mobility of the system. A virtual firewall is also simple to upgrade and
maintain.