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Wing Design

Required Formulas:

1. 𝑊 = 𝐿 = ∗ 𝜌 ∗ 𝑉 ∗ 𝑉 ∗ 𝑆 ∗ 𝐶𝐿 , where V= Cruise velocity , S = Reference Area

CL= Coefficient of lift
2. Area of wing , S = W/ (W/s) , where (W/s) = wing loading in N/m2

3. 𝑀𝐴𝐶, 𝐶 = 23 ∗ 𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑜𝑡 ∗ (1+𝛌+

1+𝛌
𝛌^𝟐
), where λ= Taper ratio= Ctip /Croot

4. Span = 𝑏 = √𝑆 ∗ 𝐴𝑅 , where AR = Aspect Ratio

5. Chord = 𝑐 = 𝑆/𝐴𝑅

SM = = , where Xnp = neutral point location

& Xcg = Centre of gravity location from leading edge of the wing.

11. CMo for aircraft = - CMalpha * ɑtrim, where ɑtrim = Trim angle of attack.

13. CMo(a/c) = 𝐶𝑀𝑎𝑐𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑔 + (𝑋𝑐𝑔 − 𝑋𝑎𝑐) , where Xac = Location of

aerodynamic centre from leading edge of the wing.

CMa(a/c) = ∗ (𝑋𝑐𝑔 − 𝑋𝑎𝑐) − 𝜂 ∗ ∗ 𝑙𝑡 ∗ 𝐶𝐿ɑ𝑡 ∗ 1 − ,

∗ ɑ
Where η = Tail volume efficiency, lt= length of tail arm, CLat =Lift curve slope for
tail, St = Reference area of Horizontal tail, 1 − = Effect of downwash
ɑ

18. Horizontal Tail Volume Ratio VH : 𝑉𝐻 =

19. Vertical tail Volume Ratio: 𝑉𝑣 = , where Svt = Reference area of

vertical tail, lv= Tail arm length for vertical tail.

20. Directional Stability Derivative: 𝐶𝑛ᵦ𝑣 = 𝑉𝑣 ∗ 𝜂𝑣 ∗ 𝐶𝑙ɑ𝑣 ∗ 1 + ,

ɑ

Where ηV= Vertical tail volume efficiency, CLav =lift curve slope for vertical tail

21. Empirical relation to find product of Vertical tail volume efficiency and effect of
sideslip angle (σ) :

𝜂𝑣 ∗ 1 + = 0.724 + 3.06 ∗ + 0.009 𝐴𝑅𝑤 + 0.4

ɑ 𝚲
Generalized steps to wing design
1. Set up the mission requirements.
Such as Weight Class, Range, Cruise Velocity, Endurance, cruising height etc.
2. Calculate Coefficient of design lift. (Using formula 1).
3. Fix the Aspect Ratio value.
4. Consider range of wing loading and try to arrive at geometric parameters for the
wing. After the iterations fix a value of wing loading and arrive at value of Area of
wing (Using formula 2).
5. If we consider a rectangular wing, we can get value of span and chord (Using
formula 4 & 5).
6. Fix the value of Trim angle of attack and Zero lift angle of attack.
7. Oswald’s Efficiency factor can be calculated using formula 8.
8. Using Coefficient of lift obtained from step 2, we can calculate value of lift curve
slope for wing (Using formula 6).
9. Using Wing’s CL alpha, we can calculate Lift curve slope for the aerofoil (Using
formula 7).
10. Aerofoil can be selected by comparing the calculated lift curve slope of aerofoil
and zero lift angle of attack from a list of wind tunnel data.
11. After selection of aerofoil we will have various values of the selected aerofoil (such
as CLo, CLMax, ɑstall, Cdo, CMac).
12. We can arrive at CLo for wing using formula 9.
13. CMalpha for aircraft can be calculated using static margin formula 10.
14. CMo for aircraft & CMac for wing can be calculated using empirical relation in
formula 11 & 12 simultaneously.

15. Centre of Gravity and neutral point location :

Xac is considered to be at quarter chord i.e. C/4
Using formula 13, we can arrive at Value of Xcg from leading edge of the wing.
Using formula for Static margin i.e. formula 15, we get value of Xnp from leading
edge of the wing.
16. Horizontal tail Design :
Effect of downwash on tail, tail volume efficiency are assumed & Aspect ratio for
tail is calculated using formula 17.
17. We will try to develop a relation between CL alpha for tail, St and lt using moment
analysis due to employment of tail. (Using formula 14).
18. Now we will consider a suitable value for tail volume ratio (generally 0.6~0.8) &
also fix the area ratio of tail and wing (generally 0.1~0.25) and arrive at value of
length of tail arm i.e. lt. (Using formula 18).
19. Using Step 17, we can arrive at CL alpha for tail and move on to selection of aerofoil
for tail design.
20. Vertical tail Design:
Vertical tail volume efficiency are assumed & Aspect ratio for tail is considered to
be 1.5. Value of tail volume ratio Vv is also fixed to be a constant value based on
historical data (generally 0.03~0.08).
If we give taper to the vertical tail then MAC can be calculated using formula 3.
21. Reference Area for vertical tail can be calculated from formula 19 i.e. formula for
vertical tail volume ratio.
22. Directional Stability derivative can be easily calculated using formula 20 &
empirical relation of formula 21).
23. Control Surfaces Integration: (Aileron, Elevator, Rudder)

The Value for planform geometry of these surfaces are calculated using ratios
using historical data and their inclination is also decided accordingly.