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# Fluid is a substance that cannot remain at rest under action of any shear force.

## Fluid is a substance which offers no resistance to change of shape.

3. Practical fluids (a) are viscous (b) possess surface tension (c) are compressible (d) possess all the above
properties .

s4. In a static fluid ,eat pro- equal to only normal stresses can exist.

## 85. A fluid is said to be ideal, if it is inviscous and incompressible.

An ideal flow of any fluid must fulfill the following largely Continuity equation .

## The volumetric change of the fluid caused by a resistance is known as compressibility .

8.9. Liquids (a) cannot be compressed (b) occupy definite volume (c) are not affected by change in
pressure and temperature (d) are not viscous (e) none of the above.

## 8.10. Density of water is maximum at 4°C .

8.11. Mass density of liquid (p) is given by p=Mass /Volume Metric ,p=metric/m sq.,p= kg sec^2/m^4.

8.12. The value of mass density in kg sec/m for water at 0°C is 101.9 .

8.14. Property of a fluid by which its own molecules are attracted is called cohesion .
8.15. Mercury does not wet glass. This is due to property of liquid known as surface tension.

8.16. The property of a fluid which enables it to resist ten sle stress is known a cohesion .

8.17. Property of a fluid by which molecules of different hinds of fluids are attracted to each other is

## 8.19. Specific weight of water in S.I, units is equal to 9.81 x 10 ^3 ,N/m^3 .

8.20. When the flow parameters at any given instant re- main same at every point, then flow is said to
be uniform .

## 8.21.static Which of the following is demensio less ? specific gravity.

8.22. The normal stress in a fluid will be constant in all directions at a point only if it is at rest.

8.23. The pressure at a point in a fluid will not be same in all the directions when the fluid is viscous and
moving.
8.24. An object having 10 kg mass weighs 9.81 kg on a spring balance. The value of 'g' at this place is 10
m/sec^2.

8.25. The tendeney of a liquid surface to contract is due to the following property surface tension.

8.26. The surface tension of mercury at normal temperature compared to that of water is more .

8.27. A perfect gas (a) has constant viscosity (b) has zero viscosity c) is incompressible d) is of theoretical
interest Ans . non of the above

8.28. For very great pressures, viscosity of most gases and liquids shows erratic behaviour .

8.29. Fig. 8.1 shows four curves A, B, C, D on viscous shear stress versus velocity gradiunst ot ot luids,
viz., newtonian, non-newtonian and ideal, er at o an ideal solid. For ideal solid, the curve applicableis
dwater at o is equ ic) 2700 21,000 s. The increa 8 (a) increa b) increa el decrea d) decre 2 la) an gradient

Fig. 8.1 (a) A (c) C (e) none of the above. (b) B d) D (e) new t e) newte t. Surface t 8.30. In Fig. 8.1, for
ideal fluid, curve applicable is (a) A (e) c (e) none of the above. (b) B d) D a) acts line b) is als 8.31. In Fig
8.1, for newtonian fluid, curve applicableis(cisa (a) A (e) C e) none of the above. (b) B (d) D d) decr e) has
L2. The str 8.32. In Fig. 8.1, for non-newtonian luid, curve applicablea) line is (a) A (e) C e) none of the
above. (b) B (d) D (c) hyp (e) non 3. A liqui

## 8.35. The bulk modulus of elasticity with increase in pressure increases .

Bulk modulus of elasticity increases with pressure .

## Ans. all of the above

The value water at ordinary pressure and temperature in kg/ of the coefficient of compressibility for cm
is equal to 21,000 .

## 40. Surface tension has the units of new tons/m .

41. Surface tension acts in the plane of the interface normal to any line in the surface .

## . &42. The stress-strain relation of the newtoneon fluid is linear .

&43. A liquid compressed in cylinder has a volume of 0.04 m at 50 kg/cm2 and a volume of 0.039 m3 at
150 kg cm2 The bulk modulus of elasticity of liquid is 4000 kg/cm2 .

## Kinematic viscosity is dependent upon density .

135 8.46. Units of surface tension are (a) energy/unit area (b) distance .
847. Which of the following meters is not associated with viscosity ?Orsat .

## 8.48. dynamic viscosity =kinematic viscosity x density.

el gravity- specific gravity x denaity d) kinematic viscosity dynamic viscosity x density (e) hydrostatic
force surface tension x gravity

## 8.49. Dimensions of surface tension are

ML0T(-2).

8.50. For manometer, a better liquid combination is one having higher surface tension .

8.51. If mercury in a barometer is replaced by water, the height of 3.75 em of mercury will be following
cm of water 51 cm .

## 8.52. Alcohol is used in manometer, because its vapour pressure is low.

8.53, Increase in pressure at the outer edge of a drum of radius R due to rotation at co rad/sec, full of
liquid of density p will be P×w^2R^2/2.

8.54. The property of fluid by virtue of which it offers re misistance to shear is called (a) surface
tension(b) adhesion (c) cohesion (e) all of the above. d) viscosity 8.55. Choose the wrong statement (a)
fluids are capable of flowing (b) fluids conform to the shape of the containing vessels
136 c) when in equilibrium, fluids cannot sustair OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS AND AN tangential forces
d) when in equilibrium, fluids can sustain shear forces e) fluids have some degree of compressibility and
offer little resistance to form. 8.56. The density of water is 1000 kg/m at (a) 0°c (c) 4'C (e) all
temperature. (b) 0'K (d) 20 C 8.a7, Iie is the specifie weight of liquid and h the depth of any point from
the surface, then pressure inten- sity at that point will be c) wlh (e) Jwh b wh d) hlw 8.58. Choose the
wrong statement (a) Viscosity of a fluid is that property which determines the amount of its resistance to
a shearing force 6) Viscosity is due primarily to interaction between luid molecules (c) Viscosity of liquids
decreases with increase in temperature d) Viscosity of liquids is appreciably affected by change in
pressure e) Viscosity is expressed as poise, stoke, or saybolt odd 3 3L0 seconds 8.59. The units of
kinematic viscosity are a) metres per sec (b) kg sec/metre (c) newton-sec per metre per metre d)
newton-sec e) none of the above 8.60. The ratio of absolute viscosity to mass density is known as (a)
specific viscosity(6) viscosity index (c) kinematic viscosity (d) coefficient of viscosity (e) coefficient of
compressibility 8.61. Kinematic viscosity is equal to a) dynamic viscosity/density (b) dynamic viscosity x
density (c) density/dynamic viscosity (d) /dynamic viscosity x density (e) same as dynamic viscosity 8.62.
Which of the following is the unit of kinematic viscosity ? (a) pascal (c) stoke (e) none of the above (b)
poise (d) faraday 8.63. A one dimensional flow is one which (b) is steady uniform low (a) is uniform flow
(c) takes place in straight lines (d) involves zero transverse component of flow e) takes place in one
dimension. 8.64. Alcohol is used in manometers because (a) it has low vapour pressure (6) it is clearly
visible

36 ORJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS AND (C) it has low aurface tension d) it can provide Jonger column due
to low denai (e) is provides suitable meniscua 8.65. A pressure of 25 m of hesd of water is equal to (a)25
kNm c) 2500 kN/m e) 12.5 kN/m 1b) 246kN/ d 2.5 kNim 8.66. Specifie weight of sea water is more that
of purehe s00 kg water because it contains (a) dissolved air c) suspended matter d) all of the abuve )
heavy water (b) dissolved salt 8.67. IF850 kg liquid occupies volume of one cubic then 0.85 represents its
a) specifie weight (e) specifie gravity e) note of the above. (b) specific mase r the body specifie density
1.8 R.6R. V0.0022is the equation to determize kine- matic viscosity of liquids by a) Redwood viscometer
b) Engler viscometer (c) Saybolt universal viscometer d) Newton viscometer (e) none of the above r
centre of 8.63. Pre surface of a liquid teads to contract to the small est possible area due to force of a)
surface tension (b) visconity (c) frictiorn d) adhesion. ag body are a the meta (d) cohesion 8.70. A bucket
of water is hanging from a spring balance. An iroa piece is suspended into water without touch- ing sides
of bucket from another support. The spring balance reading will (a) inerease c) remain same id)
increase/decrease depending on depth of 5i the cent must lie da rightin i all the a pone of Prise is the da
9 310N (b) decrease immersion (e) unpredictable. a suríace 8.71. Falling drops of water become spheres
due to the o buoyan property of a) adhesion (e) surface tension e) compressibility b) cohesion viacosity s
the cen metace 8.72. A liquid would wet the solid, if adhesion forces a tbe cen booyan compared to
cohesion forces are a) less (c) equal (d) less at Jow temperature and more at high4 centre (b) more
pressu temperature (e) there is no such criterion spne ot The buoya o mas o 8.73. If cohesion between
molecules of a fluid is greater than adhesion between fluid and glass, then the free level of fluid in a
dipped glass tube will be (a) higher than the surface of liquid (b) the same as the surface of liquid a ise
frer t is clearly visible
ULICS AND FLUID MECHANICS e) lower than the surface of liquid unpredictable () none of the above, 137
t in the immersed body through which the s74. The point the t ztant pressure of the liquid may be taken
to act A7. The poin itable is known as (a) meta centre (e) centre of buoyancy e) none of the above. tb)
centre of pressure (d) centre of gravity s The total pressure on the surface of a vertical iluice s5, ate 2 mx
1 m with its top 2 m surface being 0.5 m below the water level will be (a) 500 kg (c) 1500 kg ie) 4000 kg
(b) 1000 kp (d) 2000 k rs. The resultant upward pressure of a fluid on a float. S.ie ing body is oqual to the
weight of the fluid diaplaced by the body. This definition is according to (a) Buoyaney (b) Equilibrium of a
loating body c) Archimedes principle d) Bernoulli's theorem (e) Metacentric principle s77. The resultant
upward pressure of the fluid on an immersed body is called a) upthrust (e) centre of pressure d) all the
above are correct tb) buoyancy e) none of above is correct \$.78. The conditions for the stable
equilibrium of a loat- ing body are (a) the meta-centre should lie above the centre of oda, 9 310 N
angingf gravity (b) the contre of bunyancy and the centre of gravity must lie on the same vertical line (c)
a righting couple should be formed (d) all the above are correct dependinz )none of the above is correct
8.79. Poise is the unit of (b) capillarity d) shear stress in fluids (a) surface tension (c) viscosity rbecome
gtes (e) buoyancy 8.80. Metacentric height is given as the distance betweer a the centre of gravity of the
body and th metacentre (b) the centre of gravity of the body and the centre c solid, if she rces sn
buoyancy (c) the centre of gravity of the body and the centre pressure (d) centre of buoyancy and
metacentre e) none of the above. b ma ratur8.81. The buoyancy depends on (a) mass of liquid displaced
(b) viscosity of the liquid (o) pressure of the liquid displaced (d) depth of immersion (e) none of the
above uid and

8.82. The centre placedheofgravity of the volume of the liquid dis- by an immersed body is called (a)
meta-centre (c) centre of buoyaney (b) centre of pressure (d) centre of gravity e) none of the above.
8.83. A piece of metal of specific gravity mercury of specific gravity 13.6, what fraction ot it it volume is
under mercury? (a) the metal piece will simply float over the (b) the metal piece will be immersed in
mercury by half (e) whole of the metal piece will be immersed with its top surface just at mercury level
(d) metal piece will sink to the bottom e) none of the above 8.84. The angle of contact in case of a liquid
depends upon (a) the nature of the liquid and the solid (b) the material which exists above the free
surface of the liquid (c) both of the above (e) none of the above Free surface of a liquid behaves like a
sheet and tends to contract to smallest possible area due to the (a) force of adhesion (b) force of
cohesion (c) force of friction e) none of the above (d) any one of the above 8.85. 1t (d) force of diffusion
8.86. Rain drops are spherical because of (a) viscosity (c) surface tension forces (d) atmospheric pressure
(e) none of the above. (b) air resistance 8.87. Surface energy per unit area of a surface is numeri- cally
equal to (a) atmospheric pressure (b) surface tension (c) force of adhesion (d) force of cohesion (e)
viscosity The capillary rise at 20'C in a clean glass tube of 1 mm bore containing water is approximately
(a) 1 mm (c) 10 mm (e) 30 mm. 8.88. (b) 5 mm (d) 20 mm 8.89. The difference of pressure between the
inside and outside of a liquid drop is (a) p-Txr (c) p T/2 (e) none of the above. d) p 27hr 8.90. If the
surface of liquid is convex, then (a) cohesion pressure is negligible (b) cohesion pressure is decreased (c)
cohesion pressure is increased (d) there is no cohesion pressure e) none of the above. 8.91. To avoid
vaporisation in the pipe line, the pipe line over the ridge is laid such that it is not more than (a) 2.4 m

138 OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS AND AN (c) 10.0 m above the hydraulic gradient (d) 5.0 above the
hydraulie gradient (e) none of the above 8.92. To avoid an interruption in the flow of a syphon, an air
vessel is provided (a) at the inlet (c) at the summit d) ay any point between inlet and outlet (e) none of
the above (b) at the outlet 8.93. The vapour pressure over the concave surface is (a) less than the vapour
pressure over the plane surfnce (b) equal to the vapour pressure over the plane surface (c) greater than
the vapour pressure over the plane surface (d) zero e) none of the above. 8.94. The property by virtue of
which a liquid opposes rela- tive motion between its different Inyers is called (a) surface tension (c)
viscosity (e) cohesion. (b) co-efficient of viscosity (d) osmosis 8.95. The process of diffusion of one liquid
into the other through a semi-permeable membrane is called (a) viscosity (c) surface tension e)
diffusivity (b) osmosis d) cohesion Ola 9 310 N 8.96. The units of dynamic or absolute viscosity are (b) kg
sec/metre (a) metres per sec (c) newton-sec per metre2 d) newton-sec2 per metre (e) none of the above
8.97. The dimensions of coefficient of viscosity are a) ML IT1 (C)MILIT1 b) M-LT-1 8.98. The continuity
equation is connected with (a) viscous/unviscous fluids (b) compressibility of fluids (c) conservation of
mass (d) steady/unsteady flovw (e) open channel/pipe flow 8.99. The rise or depression of liquid in a
tube due to sur- face tension with increase in size of tube will (a) increase (b) remain unaffected c) may
increase or decrease depending on the characteristics of liquid (d) decrease (e) unpredictable. 8.100.
Liquids transmit pressure equally in all the direc- tions. This is according to (a) Boyle's law (c) Pascal's law
e) Chezy's equation. (b) Archimedes principle (d) Newton's formula a) poth (b) and (c)(e) it move

38 FLUID ter is u OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS atmospheri pr 8.101. Capillary action is due
to the (b) cohesion of the l (a) surface tension (e) adhesion of the liquid molecules and molecules on the
surface of a solid d) all of the above e) none of the above. bich of the t entu lrain level 8.102. The rise or
fall of head 'h' in a eapillary tube of d of ibe t hot wire ar e pitot tube Which of the ameter 'd'and liquid
surface tension a' and s weight te' is equal to ring sp a Veaturime hot wire a 8.103. Newton's law of
viscosity is a relationship betweencometer pitot tube. a) shear stress and the rate of angular
distortionpres (b) shear stress and viscosity (c) shear stress, velocity and viscosity (d) pressure, v (e)
shear stress, pressure and rate of stmosphe dl very low p distortion angular ow 8.104. The atmospheric
pressure with rise in altitude de Which of the sure flow on t a Venturim (a) linearly (b) first slowly and
then steeply (c) first steeply and then gradually d) all of the The speed of 9 310N d) unpredictable e)
none of the above. 8.105. Pressure of the order of 10-10 torr can be measured by p (rati (a) Bourdon
tube (c) micro-manometer (d) ionisastion gauge (e) McLeod gauge (6) Pirani Gauge R (gas e 8.106.
Operation of McLeod gauge used for low pressure D measurement is based on the prineiple of (a) Gas
law (c) Charle's law (e) McLeod's law VERT The speed o al pressure b) Boyle's law d) Pascal's law 8.107.
An odd shaped body weighing 7.5 kg and occupyinge) absolute e density 0.01 m volume will be
completely submerged ina fluid having specifie gravity of t Speed of so (c) 0.8 (d) 0.75 8.108. In an
isothermal atmosphere, the pressure (a) decreases linearly with elevation (b) remains constant (e) varies
in the same way as the density increases exponentially with elevation (e) unpredictable. Fow mate ice
plates 8.109. Mercury is often used in barometer because (a) it is the best liquid (b) the height of
barometer will be less (e) its vapour pressure is so low that it may be pproxima 500 2000 e) 10000.
neglected (d) both (b) and (c)(e) it moves easily Daic c) increa

AND FLUID MECHANICS 139 ua Barometer ie uned to rn presaure in pipes, chsnnels ete ) atmaspherie
pressure tul very low pressure urenie of presure between two points rh the folloying instrument ean be
used for ube ot d rmeterb) plate Which of sE speed of a wnibmarine moving in e) het wire anemometer
(h Orifice plate det sea7 ul het wire anemometer (d) rotameter iz) pitot tube Which of the following
instrument can be used for 7 measuring rpeed ot an aeroplane 7 iai Venturimeter (e) hot wire
anemometer (d) rotameter e) pitot tube. (b) Orifice plate etween 1 herometer is used to measure b ( a)
pressure in pipe, channels ete h) atmospheric pressure (e) very low pressures n difference of pressure
between two points angular ie) now wlich of the following instruments is used to mea- de il ue f flow on
the application of a) Venturimeter ie) nozzle e) all of the above Bernoulli': theorem ? (b) Orifice plate id)
pitot tube 1s, The speed of sound in a perfect gas is given by (ratio of specific heat eapacities) R(gas
constant)x T (absolute temp) <116. The speed of sound in a ideal gas varies directly as ith al pressure c)
density e) absolute temperature. (b) temperature d) modulus of elasticity pying in a K117. Speed of
sound in water is equal to a) Kbulb modulus b) Ka oidensity (d) Kio (e) a/k K18. Flow maters based on
obstruction principle like ori fice plates can be used with Reynold's number upto approximately (a) 500
(c) 2000 (e) 10000, (b) 1000 () 4000 19, Dynamic viscosity of most of the liquids with rise in temperature
a) increases (c) remains unaffected e) none of the above be (b) decreases d) unpredictable

139 8.120. Dynamic viscosity of most of the gases with rise in temperature (a) increases (e) retmains
unaffected (d) unpredictable b) decreases e) none of the aboye 8.121. A metal with specific gravity of a
losting in a fluid of same specific gravity a will a) aink to bottom (b) float over fluid (c) partly immersed
bh fulned with top surfsce at Buid surface (e) none of the above 8.122. Which curve is applicable for the
newtonian fluid in Fig. 8.22 Curve A Shear rate Fig- 8.2 (a) eurve A (b) curve B d) curve D e) curve C (e)
none of the above 8.123. Euler's dimensionless number relates the following (a) inertial force and gravity
(b) viscous force and inertial force (c) viscous force and buoyancy force (d) pressure force and inertial
foree e) pressure force and viscous force Fig. 8.3 shows the capillarity action in circular glass tubes for
various liquids 8.124. Capilary rise or depression Fig. 8.3 For mercury, following curve holds (a) curve A
(c) curve C (e) none of the above. (b) curve B (d) curve D

140 8.125. For tap water, following curve holds (Refer Fig. 8.3) ORJECTIVE TYPE O (a) curve /A (c) curve C
(e) none of the above. (b) curve B (a) curve D 8.126. For distilled water at very low temperature follow-
ing curve holds Refer Fiz 8.3) (a) curve A (c) curve C (e) none of the above. For distilled water at higher
temperature, following curve holds (Refer Fig. 83) (a) curve A (c) curve C (e) none of the above. (b) curve
B (d) curve D 8.127. (b) curve B (d) curye D 8.128. Manometer is used to measure (a) pressure in pipes,
channels etc. (b) atmospheric pressure (c) very low pressure (d) difference of pressure between two
point (e) velocity 8.129. Which of the following manometer has highest sen sitivity ? (a) U-tube with
water (b) inclined U-tabe (c) U-tube with mercury (d) micro-manometer with water e) displacement type
8.130. In order to increase sensitivity of U-tube mano- meter, one leg is usually inclined by angle 8.
Sensiti- vity of inclined tube to sensitivity of U-tube is equal to (a) sin e sin 0 (c) cos (e) tan cos o 8.131.
Working principle of dead weight pressure gauge tester is based on (a) Pascal's law (b) Dalton's law of
partial pressure c) Newton's law of viscosity (d) Avogadro's hypothesis (e) Second law of thermodynamic.
8.132. The resultant of all normal pressures acts (a) at eg. of body (c) vertically upwards (b) at centre of
pressure (d) at metacentre e) vertically downwards 8.133. Centre of pressure compared to c.g.is (b)
below it (a) above it (c) at same point id) above or below depending on area of body (e) none of the
above. 8.134. Metacentric height is the distance between the metacentre and a) water surface (b) centre
of pressure (c) centre of gravity (d) centre of buoyancy (e) none of the above.

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS AND ANSW 8.136. The resultant upward pressure of the fuid on an
immersed body due to ita tendency to uplift the rub merged body is called (a) upthrust (c) buoyancy (e)
centre of pressure. b) reaction d) metacentre 8.136. The centre of pressure of a surface subjected to
fluidch pressure is the point (a) on the surface at which resultant preasure acts tb) on the surface at
which gravitational fore (c) at which all hydraulic forces meet (d) similar to metacentre e) where pressure
equivalent to hydraulie thrust will act. ing 8.137. Buoyant force in (a) the remultant force acting on a
floating body (b) the resultant force on a body due to the fluid surrounding it (e) equal to the volume of
liquid displaced (d) the force necessary to maintain equilibrium ofa submerged body (e) none of the
above Tbe 8.138. The horizontal component of buoyant force in (o (a) negligible (b) same as buoyant
force (c) zero (d) "buoyant force" x tan 60 e) none of the above (a) u 8.139. The force of buoynney is
dependent on (a) mass of liquid displaced (b) viscosity of fluid e) surface tension of fluid (d) depth of
immersion (e) centre of pressure. If the sur 8.140. The line of action of the buoyant force acts through ie
&The locat merged i (a) centroid of the volume of fluid vertically above the body (b) centre of the
volume of floating body (o) centre of gravity of any submerged body d) centroid of the displaced volume
of fluid e) none of the above. 8.141. Centre of buoyancy is the (a) centroid of the displaced volume of
fluid (b) centre of pressure of displaced volume (c) c.g. of floating body (d) does not exist (e) none of the
above. depth 8.142. A body floats in stable equilibrium (a) when its meatcentric height is zero (b) when
the metancentre is above c.g (c) when its c.g. is below it's centre of buoyancy (d) metacentre has nothing
to do with position of surf para turface c.g. for determining stability (e) none of the above.

AND FLUID MECHANICS weighing 3 kg in air was found to weigh 2.5 s APsben sabmerged in water. Its
speciie gravity is a) 1 ici 7 ie 12 A vertical wall is subjected to (b) 5 di 6 to liquid (of . ace then total
pressure on wall per unit length is Eace. (a) wh c) 3 total pressure on the wall in above case acts at
following distance from liquid surface 145 The 3 3 d) h atus. The total pressure on a horizontally
immersed sur- face (of surface area A) with its cg at a depth (a) e-A b)w- 4147. If the surface in above
case is inclined at angle e with the liquid surface, then total pressure on the immersed surface will be (b)
HA cos c) mAF sin e c) HA sec 8 8145. The location of resultant force acting on a body sub- merged in
water (Ec. depth of centre of pressure) will be o depth of the centroid of the surface, A area . Ia-MI of the
surface about an axis lying in the surface, passing through its centroid, and parallel to the free surface. 9.
The centre of pressure for a vertically immersed surface lies at following distance fromeg. (a) 6 below (b)
1 above

8.150. The depth of centre of pressure for an immersed surface liquid sur- length is face inclined at
angle t with the liquid surface lies at following distance from Igsinsq.t/Ahg below.

8.151. The total pressure force on a plane area is equal to se acts at the area multiplied by the intensity
of pressure at the centriod, if (a) the area is horizontal (b) the area is vertical (e) the area is inclined

8.152. A square surface 3 m x 3 m lies in a vertical line in water with its upper edge at water surface. The
hydrostatic force on square surface is 13500 kg.

The depth of the centre of pressure on a vertical angular gate 8 m wide and 6 m high, when the water
surface coincides with the top of the gate, is 3.

8.154. If the atmospheric pressure on the surface of an oil tank (sp. gr. 0.8) is 0.2kg/cm2, the pressure at
a depth of 50 m below the oil surface will be 6 metres of water column .

8.155. Metacentre is the point of intersection of buoyant force and the centre line of body .

8.156. Choose the statemen (a) The horizontal component of the hydro-static the and in force on any
surface is equal to the normal force on the vertical projection of the surface centre of pressure for the
vertieal projection on any surface is equal to the weight of the (b) The horizontal component acts
through the mersed

(c) The vertical component of the hydrostatic force volume of the liquid above the area .

## D)Centre of pressure acts at a greater depth than centre of gravity.

8.157. For a body floating in a liquid the normal pressure vel tai exerted by the liquid acts at all points on
the surface of the body .

8.158. Choose the statement (a) any weight, floating or immersed in a liquid, is acted upon by a buoyant
force (b) Buoyant force is equal to the weight of the liquid 6.167. For displaced c) The point through
which buoyant force acts is me called the centre of buoyaney (e) Relative density of liquids ean be
determined by means of the depth of flotation of hydrometer.

8.159. According to the principle of buoyancy a body totally or partially immersed in a fluid will be lifted
up by a force equal to weight of the fluid displaced by the body.

8.169. displaced by the body When a body floating in a liquid, is displaced slightly it oscillates about (a)
cg. of body (c) centre of buoyancy (e) liquid surface.

## 8.160. b) centre of pressure (d) metacentre 8.170. Ch

8.161. Buoyant force is the resultant force on a body due to the fluid surrounding it .

## 8.162. Ratio of inertia force to surface tension is known as Weber's number.

B.163. A ship whose hull length is 100 m is to travel at 10 m/sec. For dynamic similarity, at what velocity
should a 1:25 model be towed through water ?2 m/sec .

8.164. A model of a reservoir is drained in 4 mts by openin the sluice gate. The model scale is 1: 225.
How lone should it take to empty the prototype? 4x root (225) minutes .

8.165. A model of torpedo is tested in a towing to velocity of 25 m/sec. The prototype is expe used ?
tain a velocity of 5 m/sec. What model scale has tain a velocity of 5 m/sec. What moda 1:5.
8.166. Ratio of inertia force to elastic force is known as Mach number .

8.167. For a floating body to be in stable equilibrium metacentre should be (a) below the centre of
gravity (b) below the centre of buoyancy (c) above the centre of buoyancy (d) between c.g. and centre of
(e) above the centre of gravity pressure .

8.168. For a floating body to be in equilibrium (a) meta centre should be above c.g (b) centre of
buoyancy and c.g, must lie on same vertical plane (c) a righting couple should be formed and. all of the
above .

8.169. The two important forces for a floating body are buoyancy, gravity.

8.170. Choose the statement (a) The centre of buoyancy is located at the centre of gravity of the
displaced liquid (b) For stability of a submerged body, the centre of gravity of body must lie directly
below the centre of buoyancy (c) If c.g. and centre of buoyancy coincide, the submerged body must lie at
neutral equilibrium for all positions (d) For stability of floating cylinders or spheres, the c.g. of body must
lie below the centre of buoyancy .

## 8.171. Centre of pressure on an inclined plane is below the centroid .

An open vessel of water is accelerated up an inclined plane. The free water surface will make an angle
in opposite direction t inclination of inclined plane .

173.the line of action of the buoyant force acts through the centroid of the displaced volume of the fluid
.

Resultant pressure of the liquid in the ease of an immersed body acts through centre of pressure.
The centre of gravity of the volume of the liquid dis- laced by an immersed body is called centre of
buoyancy.

## Differential monometer is used to measure difference of pressure between two points .

The pressure in the air space above an oil (sp, gr. 0.8) surface in a tank is 0.1 kg/em. The pressure at 2.5
m below the oil surface will be 3 metres of water column.

The time oscillation of a floating body with increase in metacentric height will be lower.

## 73. In an immersed body, centre of pressure is below be centre of gravity .

180. The normal stress is same in all directions at a point in a fluid when there is no motion of one fluid

131.

## l e) Local atmospheric pressure is always below standard atmospheric pressure

(d) A barometer reads the difference between local and standard atmospheric pressure

## 8.182. Gauge pressure is equal to absolute pressure- atmospheric pressure.

8.183. The equation of continuity of flow is based on the principle of conservation of mass .

8.184. For measuring flow by a venturimeter, it should be in any direction and in any location
8.185. Total pressure on a 1mx 1m gate immersed verti- cally at a depth of 2 m below the free water
surface will be 1000 kg .

## 8.187. Rotameter is a device used to measure flow .

Flow of water in a pipe about 3 metres in diameter can be measured by pitot tube.

8.189. True one-dimensional flow occurs when the direction and magnitude of the velocity at all points
are identical.

(b) the velocity of successive fluid particles, at any point, is the same at successive periods of time (e)
the magnitude and direction of the velocity do not change from point to point in the fluid ) the fluid
particles move in plane or parallel planes and the streamline patterns are identical in each plane (e)
velocity, depth, pressure etc, change from point to point in the fluid flow

ONS ANr

144 8.190. An ideal flow of any fluid must satisfy continuity equation .

8.191. In the case of steady flow of a fluid, the acceleration of any fluid particle is zero.

8.192. The depth of centre of pressure in a rectangular lamina of height h with one side in the liquid sur
face is at 2h/3.
8.193. Non uniform flow occurs when velocity, depth, pressure, etc, change from point to point in the
fluid flow.

8.194. During the opening of a valve in a pipe line, the flow is unsteady .

8.195. Uniform flow occurs when size and shape of the cross section in a particular length remain
constant.

8.197. Steady flow occurs when the velocity of successive fluid particles, at any point, is the same at
successive periods of time.

8.198. The flow which neglects changes in a transverse direction is known as one dimensional flow .

8.199. The flow in which each liquid particle has a definite oe shere t path and their paths do not cross
each other is called streamline flow .

8.200. The flow in which, conditions do not change with tie The le at any point, is known a steady flow .

8.201. The flow in which the velocity vector is identical and direction at every point, for any given given
a no co Which of ia d more magnetic instant, is known as uniform flow .
8.202. The flow in which the particles of a fluid attain such velocities that vary from point to point in
magnitude and direction as well as from instant to instant, is known turbulent flow .

8.203. Which of the following is Chezy's formula for deter- mining flow in open channel ? V=C√mi.

8.204. Venturimeter is used to measure flow of fluids in pipes when pipe is in any position.

Which of the following is the Manning's formula for determining flow in open channel? A.

206. The length of divergent portion of venturimeter in comparision to convergent portion is more.

## 8.213. Two dimensional flow occurs when

the fluid particles move in plane or parallel nes and the streamline patterns are identical in each plane.

8.214. In case of rectangular lamina with side in liquid sur face having depth h, the depth of centre of
pressure will be

2h/3.

8.215. A piece of metal of specific gravity 7 floats in mer- cury of specifie gravity 13.6. What fraction of
its vol- ume is under mercury? 0.515 .

8.216. A piece of wood having weight 5 kg floats in water with 60 % of its volume under the liquid . The
specific gravity of wood is 0.6 .

8.217. Three vessels of inverted pyramid, semi-spherical, V-trough shapes having same volume and same
height are to be emptied by an equal area opening Times for emptying in order will be

## semi-sphere, V-trough, inverted pyramid.

8.218. The velocity of jet of water travelling out of opening in a tank filled with water is proportional to
root h .

8.219. In a free vortex motion, the radial component of ve- locity everywhere is zero .

8.220. In a forced vortex, the velocity of flow everywhere within the fluid is non-zero finite .

8.221. The region between the separation streamline and the boundary surface of the solid body is
known as wake .

## 8.222. For hypersonic flow, the Mach number is greater than 4.

10. 8.223. The upper surface of a weir over which water flows is known is sill .

8.224. Normal depth in open channel flow is the depth of flow corresponding to (b) unsteady flow
uniform flow .

8.225. Velocity distribution in the turbulent boundary layer all follows following law logarithmic .

8.226. Uniform flow occurs when the magnitude and direction of the velocity dos not change from point
to point in the fluid .

## 8.228. Hydrometer is used to determine specifiec gravity of liquids .

8.229. The total energy of each particle at various places in gravity the case of perfect incompressible
fluid flowing in of remains constant.

8.230. According to Bernoulli's equation for steady ideal fluid flow the energy is constant along a
streamline but may vary across streamlines .

8.231. The equation of continuity holds good when the flow (a) is steady (c) velocity is uniform at all the
cross sections (b) is one dimensional .

8.232. Mach number is significant in supersonics, as with projectiles and jet propulsion.

## Froude number is significant in

simultaneous us motion through two fluids where re is a surface of discontinuity, gravity forces, and
wave making effect, as with ship's hulls .

supersonics, as with projectile and jet propulsion full immersion or completely enelosed fow, as with
pipes, aireraft wings, nozzles etc ic) d) all of the above e) none of the above

All the terms of energy in Bernouli's equation have dimension of (a) energy ic) mass e) time. (b) work d)
length

## 5. Reynolds number is significant in

full immersion or completely enclosed flow, as with pipes, aircraft wings, nozzles etc.

36. The fluid forces considered in the Navier Stokes equation are gravity, pressure and viscous .

(c) pressure, viscous and turbulent le) none of the above. (a) smooth and streamline flow b) gravity,
pressure and turbulent ticle at rateo f ressidle ud idi gravity, viscous and turbulent kep

## 237. A large Roynold number is indication of may is highly turbulent flow .

The friction head lost due to the flow of a viscous of m throughout ines uation fox luid through a circular
pipe of length L and dia- meter d with a velocity , and pipe frietion factor f

For pipes, laminar flow occurs when Roynolds num- ber is less than 2000 .

In order that flow takes place between two points in a pipeline, the differential pressure between these
points must be more than (a) frictional force surface friction (b) viscosity (c) surface friction
8.241. At the centre line of a pipe following under prestress under pressure where the velocity gradient
is zero, the shear stress will be could be any value.

8.242. The pressure in Pascals at a depth of 1 m below the free surface of a body of water will be equal
to 9810 Pa.

8.243. The expression for relation between the gauge pres sure p inside a liquid droplet (i.e. difference of
pres sure between the inside and outside of a liquid drop) of diameter d and the surface tension pd/4.

Two pipe systems can be said to be equivalent, when the following quantites are same friction loss and
flow.

For pipes, turbulent flow occurs when Reynolds num-ber is more than 4000 .

## 8.246. Bernoulli equation deals with the law of conservation of energy.

8.247. A hydraulic press has a ram of 15 em diameter and plunger of 1.5 em. It is required to lift a
weight of 1 tonne. The force required on plunger is equal to 10 kg .

## 8.248. Cavitation is caused by low pressure.

8.249. Cavitation will begin when the pressure at any location reaches an absolute pressure equal to the
saturated vapour pressure these of the liquid.

8.250. Principle of similitude forms the basis of designing models so that the result can be converted to
prototypes.

For similarity, in addition to models being geometrically similar to prototype, the following in both eases
should also be equal all the four ratios of inertial force to force due to viscosity, gravitation, surface
tension, and elasticity .
8.252. If V is the mean velocity of flow, then according to Darcy-Weisbach equation for pipe flow, energy
los over a length of pipe line is proportional to

Vsq.

## Froude number is ratio of inertial force to gravitation force

The non-dimensional factor governing viscous or fric- tional resistance is Mach number .

## Mach number is the ratio of inertial force to gravitation force.

8.258. Mach number greater than unity implies that the low is subsonic .

8.259. The component of the force of the fluid on the body fac (which is generally inclined to the
direction motion of the body) parallel to the directions motion is called drag.

8.260. The rate of change of moment of momentum represent torque applied by the fluid .

## 8.261. Reynolds number is the ratio of intertial force to viscosity .

8.262. The energy loss in flow through nozzle as compared venturimeter is more.
8.263. Weber number is the ratio of intertial force to surface tension .

## 8.266, Separation of flow occurs when pressure gradient changes abruptly .

8.267. In laminar flow friction resistance is dependent on (a) area of surface in contact (b) (area of
surface in contact)sq. c) Varea of surface in contact di (area of surface in contact)2

## the following is not a dimensionaless para Reynolds number kinematic viscosity .

when a boundary layer leaves a surface and curves up into a vortex or whirloop, it is known as
separation .

## A dimensionless combination of AP,p. tQ is AP of e)none of the above.

72. Orifice is an opening with closed perimeter and of regular form ratio e through which water flows.

## 73. The average value of coefficient of velocity is of the order of 0.97 .

74. The coefficients of discharge, velocity and contraction Cd, Cv and Cc, are related as Cd=Cc×Cv.

275. The actual velocity at vena contract a for flow through an orifice from a reservior of height H
=Cv×√2gh.

276. The ratio of actual discharge to theoretical discharge through an orifice is a) CADs (b) C/C d) c C (e)
C/c K7 The value of coefficient of discharge in comparison to coefficient of velocity is (a) more (c) same
(b less

149 d) moreless depending on flow e) unpredictable 8.278. For frictionless nuid, the contraction co for
Borda's mouthpiece is (a (b) 0.5 (d) 0.97 e) 0.8 8.279. A mouthpiece can't be used under very large head
because of (a) creation of vortex at vena contracta (b) cavitation problem at vena contracta (e) large
variation of discharge d) erratic flow (e) contraction becomes too high. 8.280. A fluid jet discharging from
a 100 mm diameter ori fice has a diameter 80 mm at its vena contracta. The coefficient of contraction is
(a) 0.8 (c) 0.2 (e) 0.36 (b) 1.25 (d) 0.64 8.281. In order that no shock wave develops when flow is taking
place through a converging diverging tube Mach number at exit should be (c) 1 (e) there is no such
criterion. (b) <1 d) not critical 8.282. Weir in an opening (a) with closed perimeter and of regular form
through which water flows (b) with prolonged sides having length of 2 to 3 diameters of opening in thick
wall (c) with partially full flow (d) in hydraulic structure with regulation provision (e) none of the above.
8.283. The region downstream from the streamline where separation takes place from the boundary is
known ns a) wake (e) drag (e) boundary layer separation (b) lift (d) cavitation 8.284. Choose the wrong
statement about flow nets (a) now nets are drawn to indicate flow patterns in case of one dimensional
flow (b) flow net consists of a system of streamlines so spaced that the rate of flow is the same between
each successive pair of lines (c) flow net consists of another system of lines normal to the streamlines
and so spaced that the distance between the normal lines equals the distance between adjacent
streamlines d) an infinite number of streamlines are required to describe completely the flow under
given boundary condition (e) It is usual practice to use a small number of such streamlines, as long as
acceptable accuracy is obtained.

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTION 8.285. Continuity equation for a compressible fluid is A area V-velocity ( pa
density ) Pi Pa 8.286. The continuity equation (a) is based on Bernoulli's theorem (b) expresses relation
between work and energy (c) expresses relation between hydraulic para- meters of flow (d) relates the
mass rate of flow along a streamline (e) is used to determine flow by pitot tube. 8.287. Equation of
continuity of flow is based on the prin- ciple of conservation of (a) mass (c) momentum (e) hydraulic
pressure. (b) force (d) energy 8.288. Bernoulli's theorem deals with the conservation of (c) momentum
(e) hydraulic pressure (d) energy 8.289. The drag coefficient for laminar flow varies as pro- portional to
(a) Re (c) Relz (e) Re2 (b) Re-1 (d) Re 12 (where Re Reynolds number), 8.290. Continuity equation for an
incompressible fluid is ( A # area ) (V-velocity, p density P1 P V1 A, A 8.291. For maximum discharge
through a circular open channel, the ratio of depth of flow to diameter of chan- nel should be (a) 0.9 (c)
0.65 (e) 0.95 (6) 0.5 (d) 0.85 8.292. An air vessel is usually provided at the summit of ta syphon in order
to (a) regulate the flow (b) increase discharge (c) avoid interruption in flow d) increase velocity (e)
increase height of syphon. 8.293. The flow at critical depth in an open channel is (b) minimum (d) half of
normal flow (a) maximum (c) zero (e) flow becomes turbulent (e) critical.

OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 8.294. Tube is an opening (a) with closed perimeter and of
regular form through which water flows (b) with prolonged sides having length of 2- diameters of
opening in thick wall (c) with partially full flow (d) in hydraulic structure with regulation provision (e)
none of the above. 8.295. Highest efficiency is obtained with following chan- nel sectiorn (a) circular (c)
rectangular e) trapezoidal (b) triangular (d) quadrant 8.296. For best hydraulic rectangular cross-section
of an open channel, its depth should be equal to (a) width (b) 2 width width 2 (d) Vwidth (e) width. 8
8.297. A triangular section in open channel flow will be most economical when the vertex angle at the
triangle base point is (a) 30° (c) 60 e) 120 (b) 45 (d) 90 8.298. The discharge over a V-notch weir is
proportional to (a) h32 (c) h12 (e) h- 52 (b) h52 (d) h-32 8.299. The motion of a fluid is vortex if each
particle of the fluid moves in a circular path with the speed which (a) is constant (b) is directly
proportional to distance from centre (c) varies as square of distance from centre (d) varies inversely as
the distance from centre (e) varies inversely as square of distance from centre

8.300. Time required to empty uniform rectangular tank is proportional to its (a) height H (c) H2 (b) H (d)
Haz

## 8.301. The laminar sub-layer acts as an insulating medium .

8.302. A mouth-piece can't be used for emptying tanks with large heads because cavitation occurs at
vena contracta .

## value of coefficient of velocity for a upon friction at the oriface.

The contraction of area for flow through orifice in tank depends on a) shape of orifice (b) size of orifice
307. In an external mouthpiece. value of coefficient of dis charge, if pipe is flowing full, will be 1.

8.308. The horizontal component of force on a curved sur face is equal to the

## force on a vertical projection of the curved surface.

The vertical component of pressure force on a sub- merged curved surface is equal to weight of liquid
vertically above the curved surface and extending upon the free surface.

310. A block of ice floating over water in a vessel slowly melts in it. The water level in the vessel will will
remain constant.

## head loss due to friction in open channels.

8.312. The hydraulic radius in the case of an open channel with great width is equal to depth of channel.

## 8.313. In open channel corresponding to critical depth, the discharge is maximum .

8.314. If a water tank partially filled with water is being carried on a truck moving with a constant-
horizon tal acceleration, the level of the liquid will remain the same at both the sides of the tank .

8.315. The discharge over a sharp-edged rectangular notch of width w and depth h is equal to 3 3 3 15
15

8.316. The discharge through an orifice fitted in a tank can be increased by fitting a short length of pipe
to the outside .
8.317. When the depth of water in an open channel is greater than the critical depth then flow is said to
be tranquil.

8.318. When the depth of water in an open channel is less than the critical depth, then flow is said to be
torrential .

8.320. The rise of liquid along the walls of a revolving cylinder above the initial level is the same as the
depression of the liquid at the axis of rotation.

8.321. When a liquid rotates at constant angular velocity about a vertical axis as a rigid body, the
pressure varies as the square of the radial distance .

8.322. Total pressure on the top of a closed cylindrical vessel completely filled with liquid, is directly

8.323. If the particles of a fluid attain such velocities that velocities vary from point to point in magnitude
and direction, as well as from instant to instant, the flow is said to be turbulent flow .

8.324. The included angle of triangular notch for maximum discharge its 90 .

## 8.326. The discharge through a rectangular-notch weir varies as H^3/2.

8.327. The discharge over a sharp-edge triangular notch having included angle of 20 and depth of h is
given by the formula 20 4972 15 15 3 (e) none of the above
8.328. The discharge in a Sultro weir varies as proportional to H.

## 8.331. If flow in an open channel is gradually varied, then flow will be

8.332. The width of the weir with end contraction is less than the width of channel .

8.333. The function of surge tank is to relieve the pipe line of excessive pressure produced by water
hammer .

The discharge of broad crested weir I'd maximum if head of water on the the downstream side of weir
as compared to the head on the upstream side of to two-third

8.335. The Cipoletti weir functions as if it were a following circula notch without end contractions
rectangular notch.

## 8.336. Maximum discharge over broad crested weir is 1.71Ca L.H.

8.337. Cipoletti notch is designed as trapezoid with its sides sloping 1 horizontal and 4 vertical .

Choking in pipe flow implies the specified mass flow can't occur .

In the case of flow through parallel pipes head loss in each pipe is same..

## 341. For a laminar flow Newton's law of viscosity is of importance.

8342. The most economical section of circular channel for maximum discharge is obtained when (a)
depth of water 0.95 d (b) wetted perimeter-2.6 d e) hydraulic mean depth 0.29 d Ans. any one of the
above( d # dia , of circular section )

## 1143. The flow in venturiflume takes place at atmospheric pressure .

44. Hydraulic diameter used in place of diameter for non- circular ducts is equal to 4A/m.

## 45. Any fluid flow follows continuity equation.

The velocity distribution in the turbulent boundary layer follows logarithmic law.

153 R.147. Laminar flow occurs in pipes, when Reynolds number in less than 2000 .

H.348. Which of the following pipe bends will introduce maximum head loss ? 90 bend R.

.349. In pipes larger than 25 mm, carrying water, the laminar flow rarely exists.

8.350. The path of jet discharging from bottom opening in a tank full of water will be parabola with its
vertex at the opening .
8,351. Borda's mouthpiece in a short cylindrical tube projecting inward having length of 1/2 diameter.

## 8.354. The discharge through a syphon spillway is equal to Caxax2 .

8.355. An air vessel is provided at the summit in the syphon in order to avoid interruption in the flow.

8.356. A fluid flow taking place continuously round a curved path about a fixed axis of rotation, is known
as vortex flow.

8.357. When a liquid rotates at constant angular velocity about a vertical axis as a rigid body, the
pressure varies as the square of the radial distance.

8.358. In a free vortex motion each particle moves in a circular path with a speed varying inversely as
the distance from the centre

8.359. The critical velocity as velocity above which the flow ceases to be streamlined

8.360. The rise of liquid along the walls of a revolving cylinder as compared to depression at the centre
w.r.t. initial level is same .

8.361. In a forced-vortex motion (l rotation of fluid, moving as a solid, takes place about an axis.

. 8.362. When a fluid flows in concentric circles, it is known as free cylindrical vortex now .
8.363. In a free vortex motion, the tangential velocity of the water particles is proportional to 1 /r .

8.364. A right-circular cylinder open at top is filled with water and rotated about its vertical axis at a
speed that half the liquid spills out. The pressure at

## 8.365. An ideal fluid is frictionless and incompressible .

8.366. The total pressure on the top of a closed cylindricals or vessel of radiusr filled with liquid is
proportional to

1/r sq.

8.367. The general equation of continuity for three dimena)rest sional flow of a compressible fluid for
steady flow is b) unif 0 u, e and to are components of dire d) the velocity in x, y andz direction. ou de (e)
non Euler's assump (a) flow (b) flow (c) flow d flov (e) flov u6. Euler's of liqui dp du du w e) none of the
above.

## 8.368. Reynolds number for non-circular cross-section is V.4P/ V

8.369. If a mouthpiece is running full at the outlet, the vacuum created at vena-contracta increases
velocity of jet .

Vertical distribution of velocity in an open channel or laminar flow can be assumed as Parabolic.

Vetical distribution of velocity in an open channel the above, for turbulent flow can be assumed
logarithmic.
Most economical channel section is one for whiclh the following parameter is maximum for a given cross
sectional area discharge.

The most economical section of a rectangular channel for maximum discharge is obtained when its
depth is equal to half the breadth .

374. One dimensional flow is one which neglects changes in a transverse direction .

8375. Euler's equation for motion of liquids is based on the assumption that the flow is homogeneous
and incompressible.

8.376. Euler's equation in the differential form for motion of liquids is given by

Ans.

## For an irrotational flow, 0 is the equa tion given by Laplace .

u, u, w are the components of the velocity u of a moving particle, then the equation d dy da represents
an equation of three dimensional flow .

8.379. In case of a two dimensional fnow the components velocit will consist of a series of hyperbolic
arcs .

8.380. In case of a two dimensional flow, if the components ofvelocity are given by u -axv by, the point
where no motion occurs, is known as

a) critical point (c) stagnation point (d) stationary point ans .none of the above (b) neutral point

8.381. For pipe flows, at constant head, capacity is propor tional to (pipe dia)^2.5 (d) .

8.382. For pipe flows, at constant capacity, head is propor- tional to 1/d^5. (pipe diameter).
8.383. 10 m of water column is equal to 100 kN/m2 .

8.384. As pump speed increases, its NPSH (net positive suc- tion head requirement may
increase/decrease depending on other.

## For pipe flows, at constant diameter, head is propotional to flow ^2.

8.386. For pipe flow, at constant diameter, capacity is pro- portional to root head.

8.387. The pressure in pipes for fluids flowing is propor- tional to 1/d^5.

8.388. Friction factor for pipes depends on (a) rate of flow (c) viscosity ans.all of the above. (b) fluid
density (d) pipe roughness

8.389. In order to replace a compound pipe by a new pipe, the pipes will be equivalent when following
are same for both the pipes loss of head and flow .

8.390. The head loss in case of hot water flow through a pipe compared to cold water flow will be less .

## 8.391. The frictional resistance of a pipe varies approximately as vsq.

8.392. According to Darcy's formula, loss of head due to friction in the pipe is 4flv^2/ gd .

8.393. Ifd diameter of nozzle, D e diameter of pipe, 1 - length of pipe and f # Darcy 's coefficient of
friction for pipe, then for maximum power transmission of power, d should be equal to (d^5/8fl)^1/4.
8.394. To replace a pipe of diameter D by n parallel pipes of diameter d, the formula used is
d=D/n^(2/5).

8.395. For a flow to be rotational, the velocity the plane of area should be equal to the twice the
angular velocity vector .

8.396. Head loss in a flowing fluid is experien ue to (a) friction at surface (b) change of direction (c)
change of section of passage (d) obstruction in passage ans. all of the above

8.397. Loss of head due to friction in a pipe of uniform i diameter with viscous flow is equal to 16/Re.

8.398. Power transmitted through a pipe is maximum when the loss of head due to friction is one-third
of the total head supplied .

8.399. If l1, l2,l3 , etc. be the lengths and d1, d 2, d3 etc. be the diameters of the parts of a compound
pipe, thern length L and diameter D of a uniform equivalent will be related as under pipe

8.400. Time of flow from one tank in which water level is h, to another tank having level h, will be
proportional to h132- h232.

## 8.401. Maximum efficiency of transmission of power through a pipe is 66.66%.

If the pressure at the inlet of a pipe is 90 kg/cm2 and the pressure drop over the pipe line is 10 kg/em?,
the efficiency of transmission is 66.6 % .

## The hydraulic mean depth for a circular pipe of dia- d/4.

Hydraulic gradient is equal to head loss due to friction /total length of channal.
05. The total frictional resistance to fluid flow is independent of pressure .

4406. The ratio of the hydraulic radius of a pipe running full of water to the hydraulic radius of a square
sec- tion of a channel whose side is equal to the diameter of the pipe, is 3/4.

8407. Velocity of pressure waves due to pressure disturbances imposed in a fluid is equal to root of Bulk
modulus (E)/ density .

3408. The velocity of fluid particle at the centre of pipe section is maximum .

8409. Steady flow occurs when conditions do not change with time at any point .

8410. Uniform flow occurs at every point the velocity vector is identical, in when magnitude and
direction, for any given instant.

157 (d) conditions do not change with time at any point (e) none of the above. flow? (a) flow through an
expanding tube at an increasing

8.411. Which of the following represents steady uniform rate flow through a long pipe at constant rate

8.412. In the case of turbulent flow shear stresses are more compared to laminar flow.

8.413. For a siphon to work satisfactorily, the minimum pressure in the pipe as compared to vapour
pressure of liquid should be more .
8.414. Water hammer in pipes occurs due to someone hitting the pipe with a hammer .

8.415. If a liquid in a pipe suddenly undergoes a change in velocity by AV and if p is density of liquid and
c is the velocity of pressure wave or speed of sound in liquid, then change in pressure experienced
equals pc/Av.

Which of the following represents unsteady non-uni- form flow? flow through an expanding tube at an
increasing .

## 8.417. Critical depth of a channel is equal to vsq/g.

.418. In a short cylindrical external mouthpiece, the vena- contracta occurs at a place which is at a
distance equal to one-fourth the diameter of the orifice from the outlet of orifice .

## 8.421. Equation of continuity results from the principal of conservation of mass .

8.422. Hydraulic grade line for any flow system as compared to energy line below .

8.423. Which curve in Fig. 84 shows the correct nature of distribution of stress at a cross section in a
horizon tal circular pipe under steady flow conditions? curve A.

8.424. The magnitude of water hammer depends on (a) length of pipe (b) elastic properties of pipe
material (c) rate of stoppage of flow (d) all of the above .

8.425. The magnitude of water hammer does not depend upon temperature of fluid .
b) length of pipe (c) elastic properties of pipe material (d) time of valve closure (e) rate of stoppage of
fhow

Which of the following represents unsteady uniform flow ? flow through a long pipe at decreasing rate.

8.426. rate (b) flow through an expanding tube at constant rate (c) d) low through a long pipe at
constant rate (e) all of the above.

## OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

8.427. A weir in which the downstream water level of the weir nappe is higher than the crest, is called
submerged weir.

8.428. Discharge through a totally submerged orifice is directly proportional to the square root of the
difference in elevation of water surface .

8.429. The upper surface of the weirover which water flows, is known as sill .

8.430. Which of the following represents steady non-uni- form flow ? flow through an expanding tube at
constant rate .

8.431. Drag is defined as the force component exerted on an immersed object, the component acting in
direc- tion parallel to flow direction .

8.432. Pressure drag as per boundary layer theory is function of shape of the body separation of flow .

## 8.433. Profile drag is equal to pressure drag+ friction drag .

8.434. Bluff body is the body of such a shape that pressure drag as compared to friction drag is more .
8.435. A body is said to be provided optimum amount of streamlining when profile drag is minimum.

The flow of any fluid ,real or ideal The flow of any fluid, real or ideal, must fulfill the following al
Newton's law of viscosity.

Turbulent flow generally occurs for cases involving ter flows, sh (a) very slow motions (b) very viscous
fluids el very narrow passages .

In turbulent flow a the shear stresses are generally larger than in a similar laminar flow .

## The continuity equation relates mass rate of flow along a streamline.

(a) requires that Newton's secoand law of thotion be satisfied at every point in luid b) relates the
momentum per unit volume for two points on a streamline (c) expresses the relation between energy
and work d) (e) none of the above equation relates a) conservation of mass and momentum (b) energy
and work c) frictional losses (d) mass rate of flow along a streamline e) shear stress in turbulent flow
ressure a) states that energy is constant along a streamline (b

43. The continuity equation in fluid flow states that the net rate of inflow into small volume must be
zero .

8.444. Head loss in turbulent flow in n pipe varies approximately as square of velocity .

## 8.445. The losses in open channel vary as proportional to vsq.

8.446. The losses due to sudden expansion are expressed (V1-V2)sq./2.

## 8.447. The losses due to sudden contraction are expressed by 0.5V1sq/2g.

8.448. The depth of water below the spillway and after hydraulic jump are 1 m and 6 m respectively. The
head lost will be 1.04 m .

8.449. The velocity distribution for flow between two fixed parallel plates is zero at the plates and
increases linearly to the midplane .

8.450. Bernoullis theorem is applicable for perfect incompressible fluid flowing in continuous streams .

8.451. The shear stress in a fluid flowing in a round pipe is zero at the wall and increases linearly.

. 8.452. (a) Hydraulie grade line should always be above the centre line of conduit (b) Hydraulic grade
line ahould always be below the centre line of conduit e) Hydraulie grade line should always the parallel
to the centre line of conduit .

8.453. A liquid jet from a nozzle exposed to atmosphere traverses along parabolic path .

8.454. In Iaminar flow through a round tube, the discharge varies inversely as the viscosity.

8.455. If p is density of fluid, then pressure of fluid due to water hammer is directly proportional
to1/root p.

8.456. The magnitude of rise of pressure due to water hammer in a rigid and non-elastic pipe carrying
water of density p and bulk modules k will be equal to root

K/p.
8.457. Separation occurs when the boundary layer comes to rest .

## area divided by wetted perimeter .

8.460. pressure loss is more and the cost is low nozzle has same accuracy as venturing pressure loss in
both the same.

(c) pressure loss in both is same d) venturimeter has no restriction on availabilis of straight length e)
nozzle has no restriction on availability of straight length.

## 8.461. Rotameter is used to measure flow .

8.462. The most economical section of a trapezoidal chan- nel for maximum discharge is obtained when
(a) hydraulic depth half of depth (b) half of top width- sloping side (c) length at perpendiculars from
centre of top diffe width to bottom and sloping sides are equal .

8.463. When venturimeter is inclined, then for a given flow it will show same reading .

8.464. The vertical component of force on a curved surface submerged in a static liquid is equal to the

## weight of the liquid above the curved surface .

8.465. Two pipe lines at different pressures, Pa and pi, each carrying the same liquid at specific gravity S,
are ity S, resulting in the level differences h,h, and connected to a U-tube with a liquid of specific gravath
Codes: as shown in the figure,

h1s1+h2s2+h3s1.
8.4. The difference in pres sure head between points A and B in terms of head b) ci of water is In a pt the
po the na pipe w a) 36 e) 24 due to s, a) (H c) H Fig.

## 8.4 1. A dim and D

In turbomachinery, the relevant parameters are vol- ume flow rate, density, viscosity, bulk modulus, pres
sure difference, power consumption, rotational speed and a characteristie dimension. According to
Buckingham pi (n) theorem, the number of indepen- dent non-dimensional groups for this case is 6 .

## 4. Webber number -surface tension.

69. In a pipe flow, the head lost due to friction of 6 m. If the power transmitted through the pipe has to
be the maximum, then the total head at the inlet of the pipe will have to be maintained at 18 m.

70. If H is the total head at inlet and h, is the head lost due to friction, efficieney of power transmission
through a straight pipe is given by (H-h1)/H.

A dimensionless group formed with the variables o density), o (angular velocity), u (dynamie viscosity
and D (characteristic diameter) is

PwDsq./u.

## 8.472.A. G is above M -unstable

B. G and M coincide- C. G is below M 1. Stable equilibrium 2. Unstable equilibrium 3. Floating body 4.
Neutral equilibriunm Codes: A BCD (a) I 324 (b) 3 4 (c) 2 3 41 (d) 2 41

8.473. For fully developed laminar flow through a pipe the volumetric flow is given by (symbols have the
usual meaning 202) (a) Rdp d) R.dip 324 16 dz

A Prandtl Pitot tube was used to measure the velocity of a fluid of specific gravity S. The differential
manometer, with a fluid of specific gravity S connected to the Pitot tube recorded a level difference as h.
The velocity V is given by the expression. 8.474. S, S,

Fig. 8.6 8.475. The expression (p + pgz + po /2) commonly used to express Bernoulli's equation, has units
of total energy per unit volume.

8.476. Match List I with List II and select the correct List I List II Properties of fuids) (Definition /Results)
A Ideal fluid 1. Viscosity does not change with rate of deformation 2. Fluid of zero viscosity 3. Dynamic
viscosity 4. Capillary depression 5. Kinematic viscosity 6. Capillary rise. B. Newtonian fluid D. Mercury in
glass Codes: A BCD (a) 1 4 6 (b) 1 23 4 (e 2 3 (d) 5 4

8.477. List I gives the different items related to a boundary layer while List II gives the mathematical
expres- sions, Match List I with List II and select the cor- rect answer using the codes given below the
lists: (symbols have the usual meaning). List I List II B. Displacement thickness 2. 1 C. Momentum
thickness 3. U D. Energy thickness 4.1 1-E Codes: A BCD (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 1 4 3 2 (d) 1 2 43

A laminar boundary layer occurs over a flat plate at zero incidence to the flow. The thickness of boundary
layer at a section 2 m from the leading edge is 2 mm The thickness of boundary layer at a section 4 m
from the leading edge will be (a) 2 x (2P mm (c) 2 x (2j40 mm 8.478. (b) 2 x (2)12 mm (d) 2 x (2)1uS mm.
8.479. The model of a propeller, 3 m in diameter, cruising at 10 m/s in air, is tested in a wind tunnel ona
1:10 scale model. If a thrust of 50 N is measured on the model at 5 m/s wind speed, then the thrust on
the prototype will be (a) 20,000 N (c) 500 N For solid sphere falling vertically downwards under gravity in
a viscous fluid, the terminal velocity. V varies with diameter 'D' of the sphere as (a) Vi Di for all diameters
(6) 2,000 N (d) 200 N. 8.480.
62 OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS (b) V,D for all diameters (co) V, Dz for large D and Vi-D for
amall ID (d) V " D for large D and Vi-Di2 for small D 8.481. In the region of the boundary layer nearest to
thesio wall where velocity is not equal to zero,the vincos (a) of the same order of magnitude as the
inertial te orcea are (b) more than inertial forcen (c) less than inertial forces (d) negligible 8.482. Which
one of the following statementa is correet ? Hydrodynamie entrance length for (a) laminar flow is greater
than that for turbulent flow tb) turbulent flow is greater than that for laminar ch flow e) laminar flow is
equal to that for turbulent flow.List I (d) n given flow can be determined only if the Farame Prandtl
number is known 8.483. Match List I with List II and select the correct: ped l Brake power C List I List II A.
Reynolds Number 1. Film coefficient, pipe Calorifie vn B. Prandtl Number2. Flow velocity, acoustic C.
Nusselt Number 3, Heat capacity, dynamic3 diameter, thermal conductivity velocity viscosity, thermal 3
Exhaust emis conductivity 4. Flow velocity, pipe diameter, kinematic viscosity larre metacer e improves st
ncillation le impairs sta aaillation s has no effec Codes: A B CD 8.484. A rectangular water tank, full to the
brim, hasits re length, breadth and height in the ratio of 2:1:2 The ratio of hydrostatic forces at the
bottom to that at any larger vertical surface is hr an irrotati (b) 1 (d) 4 nd the strean parallel to rthogonal
(c) 2 8.485. Mateh List I (fluid properties) with List II (related terms) and select the correct answer List I
List II A. Capillarity B. Vapour pressure C. Viscosity D. Specific gravity 1, Cavitation 2. Density of water. 3.
Shear forces. 4. Surface tension. List-I Codes: A B C meter (a) VDia for all diameters

AND FLUID MECHANICS ch List I with List II and selecet the correct 163 List I List II force)Dimenxionless
niumbera) Compressibility force 1. Euler number C Surface tension force 3. Mach number 5. Weber
number B Gravity force 2. Prandtl number D. Viscous force 4. Reynolds number. Codes: A B 3 tb) ic) ntext
of performance evaluation of L.C. En Let, In the con te gine, match List I with List II and select the correct
Parameter) Equipment for measurement) 2. Electrical tachometer answer List I List II A. Brake power B.
Engine speed (B.H.P.) 1. Bomb calorimeter. s 2 F 1 Heat C. Calorific value of fuel 3. Hydraulic
dynamometer 4. Flame ionisation D. Exhaust emissions detector Codes: A B c C D (b) 4 21 3 188. A large
metacentric height in a vessel a) improves stability and makes periodic time to oscillation longer b)
impairs stability and makes periodic time of oscillation shorter ic) has no effect on stability or the
periodie time of oscillation id improves stability and makes the periodic time of oscillation shorter 18.
For an irrotational flow, the velocity potential lines and the streamlines are always (a) parallel to each
other (b) coplanar e) orthogonal to each other d) inclined to the horizontal. Match List-I with List-II and
select the correct answer using the codes given below the Listas: 0 List-II List-I Measuring device)
(Parameter measured A. Anemometer B. Piezometer C. Pitot tube D. Orifice 1. Flow rate 2. Velocity 3.
Static pressure 4. Difference between static and stagnation

163 Codes: A (c) 2 3 4 1 (d 4 3 1 8.491. Flow separation is caused by (a) reduction of pressure to local
vapour pressure b) a negative pressure gradient. (c) a positive pressure gradient. d) thinning of boundary
layer thickness to zero 8.492. The normal stress is the same in all directions at a point in a fluid only
when (a) the fluid is frictionless (b) the fluid is frictionless and incompressible e) the fluid has zero
viscosity and in at rest d) one fluid layer has no motion relative to an adjacent layer 8.493. A house-top
water tank is made of flat plates and is full to the brim. Its height is twice that of any side The ratio of
force on the bottom of the tank to that on any side will be (a) 4 (c) 1 (b) 2 (d) 12. 8.494. Aright-circular
cylinder, open at the top is filled with liquid of relative density 1.2. It is rotated about its vertical axis at
such a speed that half the liquid spills out. The pressure at the centre of the bottom will be (a) zero (b)
one-fourth of the value when the cylinder was full (c) half of the value when the cylinder was full (d) not
determinable from the given data 8.495. Match List-I with List-II regarding a body partly submerged in a
liquid and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists List-I List-II A Centre of pressure
1. Point of application of the weight of displaced liquid 2. Point about which the B. Centre of gravity body
starts oscillating when tilted by a small angle 3. Point of application of C. Centre of buoyancy hydrostatic
force D. Metacentre 4. Point of application of hht of the body Codes: A B (a) 43 12 (c) 34 1 2 (d 42 1
8.496. A bucket of water hangs with a spring balance. Ifan iron piece is suspended into water from
another

164 OBJECTIVE TYPE QUES support without touching the sides of the bucket, the spring balance will
show (a) an increased reading (b) a decreased reading (c) no change in reading d) increased or decreased
reading depending on the depth of immersion. 8.497. If the surface tension of water-air interface is 1
mm diameter will be (a) 0.146 N/m (b) 73 N/m (d) 292 N/m2 (c) 146 N/m 8.498. The velocity in laminar
flow becomes equal to the average velocity at following radius from the centre of a pipe (of readius r c)
ro/3 eters of these pipes in descending order will be (c)A>B> C d) 2rd3 1g 8.499. Figure 8.7 shows three
pipes. The equivalent diam- (b) B>A C (d)A>C>B L/2 L/2 Square Triangle Fig. 8.7 8.500. A large stone
weighs 100 kg in air, and when it is immersed in water, it weighs 60 kg. Its specific weight is (a) 1500
kg/m (c) 2500 kg/m (b) 2000 kg/m (d) 3000 kg/m 8.501. It is desired to predict the pressure drop in a
large air duct. A model is constructed with linear dimen- sions one-tenth those of the prototype, and
water is used as the test fluid. If water is 1000 times denser than air and has 100 times the viscosity of
air, de- termine the pressure drop in the prototype for the condition corresponding to a pressure drop of
1 kg/ em2in the model. (a) 0.001 kg/em2 (c) 0.1 kg/em2 (b) 0.01 kg/em2 (d) 10 kg/em3 8.502. A model
of the hull of a ship is to be constructed to determine the drag characteristics of the ship in a towing
tank. If the hull model is made 3 m long and ship is taken to be 300 m long, at what speed the model be
operated to obtain data for ship operating at 100 km/hr. Towing tank is filled with sea water compared to
prototype mode. The speed and force on model will be (e) supereritical (d) data is insufficien

FLUID MEC of flo ORJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS AND AWE ib) 0.1, 10-* (d) 0.01, 10 8 timen (a) 0,01, 10 (c)
0.1, 10 K.503. In the design of deep-diving submersibles, the ma. and maximum strength for preseure
The ideal choice for this purpose would be as per following part of Fig. 8.8 Vessel of revolution
Intersecting spheres Conical vessel Elipsoidal vessel Thick cylinder Fig 8.8 (a) A b)8 (b) B (e) C (e) E (d) D
8.504. Fig 8.9 shows the relative values of absolute viscosity of some important liquidsgases and how
these vary with temperature. The curves applicable for air glycerin, crude oil and water respectively are
Fig. 8.9 (a) D, A, B, C e)A, D, B. C (e) D.A. C, B A channel is 4 m wide and 2 m deep. The rate of flow is 20
m/sec. The flow is (a) suberitical (e) supercritical (b) C, B.A, D d) B, C.D.A 8.505. be (b) eritical d) data is
insufficient.

If the depth of flow over a V-notch is doubled, the flow will increase (a) 2 times (c) 4.8 times A
trapezoidal open channel has the cross-section as shown in the given Fig. 8.10. In order to have maxi-
mum hydraulic efficiency, the hydraulic radius, R and the length of the side, I should be. (b) 4 times (d)
5.6 times (a) d and 2 d respectively (b) a and d respectively (o) d and 2 d Tespectively the ma- oyancy
\$507 l choice 2 part of (d) and 2d respectively. Fig. 8.10 sity
156 OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS AND ANSW 8.388. Friction factor for pipes depends on (a) rate of flow
(c) viscosity (e) all of the above. (b) luid density (d) pipe roughness 8.389. In order to replace a
compound pipe by a new pipe the pipes will be equivalent when following are same for both the pipes
(a) length and flow(6) diameter and tlow (c) loss of head and flow (d) length and loss of head (e) loss of
head and velocity 8.390. The head loss in case of hot water flow through a pipe compared to cold water
flow will be (a) same (e) less (d) more or less depending on range of temperatures e) unpredictable (b)
more 8.391. The frictional resistance of a pipe varies approxi mately as a) velocity of flow () (b) 02 (c) vo
(e) unz d) 8.392. According to Darcy's formula, loss of head due to fric- tion in the pipe is gd lu gd 4u
where f : Darcy 's coefficient , l- length of pipe, vvelocity of liquid flow d diameter of pipe 8.393 . If d
diameter of nozzle , D diameter of pipe , I length of pipe and f-Darcy's coefficient of friction for pipe, then
for maximum power transmission of power, d should be equal to 87 8.394. To replace a pipe of diameter
D by n parallel pipes of diameter d, the formula used is ( a ) d # , 44.4 %