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UNIVERSISTI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING TECHNICAL REPORT

NAME : ALIN ATHIRAH BINTI ZIAD

COURSE : BEKP

YEAR :3

TRAINING PERIOD : 27 JUN 2016 – 2 SEPTEMBER 2016

INDUSTRY NAME : PERUNDING IMS


INDUSTRIAL TRAINING TECHNICAL REPORT

AT

PERUNDING IMS SDN BHD

Period of Training:

27 JUN 2016 – 2 SEPTEMBER 2016

Submitted by:

ALIN ATHIRAH BINTI ZIAD

This Technical Report for Industrial Training is submitted to

Faculty of Electrical Engineering,

Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

In partial fulfilment for Bachelor of Electrical Engineering (Power Industry)

Faculty of Electrical Engineering

Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

(09/2016)

ii
ABSTRACT

This industrial training gives many skills and knowledge about the electrical industry.

As students, we are very lucky to have an opportunity to know all the electrical equipment. It

is a good chance to be an engineer in the future. Sense of responsibility and friendly need to

shown by the students to technicians and people surroundings. After finished the industrial

training, students give an opportunity to transfer an ideas that have learned in the company

and create a good industrial training technical report. This report contains the objective and

scope for this industrial training followed by the company background. For chapter 2, the

training activities were explained clearly during 10 weeks at Perunding IMS. The conclusion

shows that the objective of industrial training was achieved.

iii
ABSTRAK

Latihan industri ini memberikan kemahiran dan pengetahuan mengenai industri

elektrik. Sebagai pelajar, kita amat bertuah kerana mempunyai peluang untuk mengetahui

semua peralatan elektrik. Ia adalah peluang yang terbaik untuk menjadi seorang jurutera pada

masa hadapan. Sikap tanggungjawab dan peramah oleh pelajar hendaklah ditonjolkan kepada

juruteknik dan orang ramai di sekeliling. Selepas selesai latihan industri, pelajar di beri

peluang untuk memindahkan idea-idea yang telah dipelajari di syarikat tersebut dan hasilkan

laporan teknikal latihan industry. Laporan ini mengandungi objektif dan skop latihan industri

diikuti oleh latar belakang syarikat. Untuk bab 2, aktiviti-aktiviti latihan telah diterangkan

dengan jelas semasa 10 minggu di Perunding IMS. Kesimpulannya menunjukkan bahawa

objektif latihan industri telah dicapai.

iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

An appreciation given to the Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for giving

an opportunity to all students Year 3 in Bachelor of Electrical Engineering (Power Industry)

for having an Industrial Training course. This Industrial Training will be held for 10 weeks. In

this way, students will be exposed to the working environment.

First and foremost, thanks to En Azhan bin Ab Rahman as a visiting supervisor. He

gives a lot of guide to me to handle this industrial training and to complete my industrial

training technical report.

Thank you also goes to Perunding IMS for having welcomed me to have an Industrial

Training for 10 weeks starts on 27 June until 2 September 2016. My utmost gratitude goes to

my supervisor during this Industrial Training, En Muhammad Suffian Khairi Bin Mamat for

his support, sharing his knowledge and guidance through this 10 weeks training.

Finally, thank you to all the staff in Perunding IMS for their cooperation. All the staff

also gives a lot of guidance to me to lead this Industrial Training with successful.

v
LIST OF FIGURE

Figure1.1: Logo of Perunding IMS 3

Figure1.2: Organizational Chart 5

Figure2.1: SOA List for Electrical Power Supply 9

Figure2.2: Floor Plan for PCA Department 10

Figure2.3 : RDE from each view 10

Figure2.4: Lux Calculation 11

Figure2. 5: SOA List for Electrical Light 12

Figure2. 6: SOA List (ELV) 12

Figure2.7: Layout for apartment 16

Figure2.8: Minimum of Cross-sectional Rating 21

Figure2.9: Cable size for each DB 24

Figure2.10: Voltage Drop 25

vi
LIST OF TABLE

Table2. 1: Load Rating 16

Table2. 2: TCL and MD Calculation 16

Table2.3: TCL and MD calculation 17

Table2.4: Total MD for Group Factor 20

vii
CONTENTS

ABSTRACT iii
ABSTRAK iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v
LIST OF FIGURE vi
LIST OF TABLE vii
CHAPTER 1
BACKGROUND 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Objective 1
1.3 Scope of Training 2
1.4 Industry Background 3
1.5 Organizational Gantt Chart 5
CHAPTER 2
TRAINING ACTIVITIES 6
2.1 Task 1 6
2.2 TASK 2 13
2.3 TASK 3 20
CHAPTER 3
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 26
3.1 Conclusion 26
3.2 Recommendation 26
REFERENCES 28
ATTACHMENT A
ATTACHMENT B
ATTACHMENT C
CHAPTER 1

BACKGROUND

1.1 Introduction

Industrial training has been prescribed for 10 weeks starts on 27 June until 2 September

2016 that must be taken by students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). The

company should be chosen by student that related to the electrical engineering such as M&E

Consultant, Maintenance and others. For this opportunity, I was choosing Perunding IMS

which is M&E Consultant at Kota Bharu, Kelantan that focused on designing the electrical

and mechanical services. This company was established since 1992 as a private sector and

become one of the best companies at Kelantan.

The main purpose of this industrial training is to show the real working environment

and can use the skills and knowledge after finished this training. In other hands, students can

learn how to communicate with staff and able to be friendly with the people surroundings.

Students have to show a good ethics during the industrial training. The skills are very useful

of the workforce required by the public or private sector.

1.2 Objective

This industrial training need to be performed by each student and it is very important for

students to gain acknowledgement for degree course. The objectives of industrial training are:

i. To expose students to engineering practices in the industrial sector under the

supervision of experienced engineer

1
ii. Able to do a task assigned by the supervisor and need to be complete based on the date

line given with the teamwork

iii. Able to manage a problem properly when do a task given

iv. Able to learn new things about electrical engineering and can apply the theories that

have learnt by students during the lecture sessions.

v. Students able to cultivate a positive attitude and always alert to make a decision

clearly

vi. Ability to communicate with the public and can have an experience of the working

environment with a good ethics.

1.3 Scope of Training

In Perunding IMS, the scopes for industrial training are:

i. Learn about the flow of Project Tender

ii. Studied about the services that provide in the drawing focused on the electrical

services

iii. Complete the Schedule of Accommodation (SOA) list refer to the Room Data

Elevation (RDE)

iv. Studied and calculated the Total Connected Load (TCL) and Total Maximum Demand

(MD)

v. Proposed the cable size that should be used based on the calculation

2
1.4 Industry Background

Figure1.1: Logo of Perunding IMS

PERUNDING IMS provides professional services in the field of Electrical and

Mechanical Engineering Services. Established in 1992 by the founder, Ir. Ismail Mohamed

Salleh, the firm has since progressed and is actively involved in building services industry.

Ir. Ismail Mohamad Salleh, a professional electrical engineer, started his career as an

Electrical Engineer with Lembaga Letrik Negara, LLN (now called Tenaga Nasional Berhad,

TNB) in 1975. In 1981 he joined a well-established consulting firm, Zaidun-Leeng Sdn Bhd

as a Senior Electrical Engineer. In 1985 he formed up a M&E consulting firm under the name

of Ismail dan Rakan-Rakan. Upon leaving Ismail dan Rakan-Rakan Ir. Ismail together with Ir.

Khairuddin Sidek established Perunding IMS.

Ir. Khairuddin Sidek, a professional mechanical engineer, also started his career with

LLN in 1974 as a mechanical engineer. In 1980 he joined a consulting engineering firm,

Jurutera Perunding S.E.A, as a director (Mechanical) and in 1992 help to set up Perunding

IMS.

In 2002, Ir.Yim Hon Wa, a professional mechanical engineer with more than 2 years

of working experience specializing in air-conditioning mechanical ventilation, fire protection,

hydraulic systems and other mechanical building services, joined the firm as a associates

partner in the firm by merging his consulting firm, Perunding IBS with Perunding IMS.

3
Mr.Yim is involved as the M & E consultant in one of the biggest shopping complex in

Malaysia, One Utama Plus in Kuala Lumpur.

The partners, associates and engineers under the employment of the firm have long

services records as consulting engineers and have undertaken and completed the design and

implementation of M&E services for various types of projects like hotels, hospitals, office

complexes, housing development, airplane hangars, shopping complexes, factories and

infrastructure works [1].

4
1.5 Organizational Gantt Chart

The organizational chart of the company as shown in figure 1.2


Ir. Ismail Mohamed Salleh
PRINCIPAL

Ir. Nik Azhar Ismail Ir. Nohaimi Ismail Ir. Abd. Aziz Kadir Ir. Yim Hon wa
ASSOCIATE Eng. SENIOR ELEC Eng. PARTNER ASSOCIATE Eng.

Mazlan Hassan
SENIOR PROJECT MANAGER

M. Suffian Khairi Mamat Ir. Tg. Ahmad Nazem Tg. Abd Rahim
ELEC. ENGINEER SENIOR MECH. Eng.

Ruqaimi Rabbani Abdullah Faizal Kamat


ELEC. ENGINEER Nik Aida Nik Abd. Razak MECHANICAL Eng.
HEAD OF HR & FINANCE

Alin Athirah Bt Ziad


PRACTICAL STUDENT Mohd Redzuan Saleh
SENIOR MANAGER Mech.
Masruha Mohd Zin
TECHNICAL CLERK

M. Hanif Hassan Norazira Aziz Shahrul@Osman Yusoff


ASST. ELEC. COOR ASST. ELEC. COOR MECHANICAL COOR

Noramylia Abdullah
ADMIN EXECUTIVE Mohd Raziman Razek
ASST. MECH. COOR

Wan Mastura Wan Ahmed Amran Mohd Yusof


GENERAL CLERK GENERAL WORKER
Figure1.2: Organizational Chart

5
CHAPTER 2

TRAINING ACTIVITIES

2.1 Task 1

 Title

Schedule of Accommodation (SOA)

- Hospital Dungun

 Background

Schedule of Accommodation (SOA) is a list of type, number and size of the

area required for each building such as school, hospital, apartment and the technical

required for each space [2]. List of SOA was divided into three categories which are

electrical power supply, electrical light, and extra low voltage (ELV). All this

equipment should be fulfilled referred to the room data elevation (RDE) that was draw

by architect. In the RDE layout, all the equipment, worktop and the requirement

needed should be draw by the architect request from client. So, the electrical engineer

will know the electrical services that should be provide in each room space.

For electrical power supply, the power supply socket was divided into three

which are Normal (N), Essential (E) and Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS). The

essential socket will provide power to the equipment that need to be operating when

the grid of supply is lost. The UPS takes its power from two or more source

simultaneously. It is directly from AC mains and charging a storage battery in the

same time [3]. So, the power always provided and the equipment running without

6
interruption that is suitable for hospital used especially ICU and operation theatre

department.

The bedhead/pendant socket, medical equipment socket, equipment socket and

general socket was divided in each category to be more details in provided the socket.

The beadhead/pendant power supply usually used in the hospital. For the data socket

which is for laptop, the power supply that need is 2 units for neutral and 1 unit for

essential. The direct terminator usually used for x-tray equipment.

For electrical light, we need to provide type of lighting and also the lux design

by calculate the lux for each room. In lighting design, the engineer has to ascertain

that the design provides adequate lighting. The level of illumination and type of light

used should be referred to the Electrical Work Brief (Attachment A) from JKR

because it is different for every room. The quantity of light are refer to the calculation

and also depends on the room. The quantity of light will be produced from lux

calculation.

In SOA, the electrical service for hospital also include the ELV which are

Fireman Emergency Announcement, Fireman Communication System (intercom),

Intercom and Two Way Radio Communication System, SMATV, Nurse Call System,

Digital Call System, Master Clock System, Audio-Visual Equipment, Conference

Equipment and Teleconference System. All the equipment will be provided for each

room by referred to the brief for ELV shows in Attachment A that was explained

clearly the function and the specific room that need to install.

 Equipment

i. Room Data Elevation (RDE) drawing

ii. Layout drawing

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iii. SOA list

iv. Laptop

 Procedure

i. For quantity of socket supply, the room area was measured from the RDE

layout. ( 10𝑠𝑞 2 = 1 socket )

ii. The type of socket was provided based on the equipment in that room

iii. To supply the quantity and types of lighting for each area, the lux was

calculated

iv. In lux calculation, the area (𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ × 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ), ceiling (height), and workbench

(height) was measured from the RDE for each room

v. Mounting (height) was calculated by using the formula:

𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 − 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑐ℎ ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡

vi. Room index was calculated by using the formula:

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎
( )
(𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ × 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ) × (𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡)

vii. The value of utilization factor (U.F) was referred to the catalogues based on

the light used

viii. The lumen, lux design was referred to the brief from JKR (Attachment A)

ix. The maintenance factor (MF) was assumed on the average, 0.8-0.9

x. The design quantity was calculated by using the formula:

𝐿𝑢𝑥 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 × 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎


( )
𝑈𝐹 × 𝑀𝐹 × 𝐿𝑢𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑛

xi. The quantity installed was referred to the design quantity

xii. The lux produce was calculated by using the formula:

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𝐿𝑢𝑥 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛
( × 𝑄𝑢𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑖𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑑)
𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑦

xiii. The ELV equipment was decided based on the RDE and brief from JKR

 Result

Figure 2.1 below shows the SOA list for electrical power supply. The power

supply will be decide by our engineer that it should be provide or not referred to the

room from RDE layout shows at figure 2.2. So, the quantity of power supply is

depends on the area and equipment installed in that room. Our engineer also provides

the height of socket that should be installed by the technicians. The yellow highlight is

the example to show the calculation based on the RDE.

Quantity of power supply (Height)

Figure2.1: SOA List for Electrical Power Supply

9
Equipment

ELV Lighting

General socket
(with height)

Figure2.2: Floor Plan for PCA Department


For figure 2.3, it shows the RDE layout from view A, B, C and D that already

draw by architect. It will be easier for us to see the room and can decide the electrical

component that should be used. Besides that, the engineer will know the height of

ceiling, mounting and workbench that already labelled in figure 2.3 to calculate the

lux calculation.

Mounting(height) Ceiling(height)

Workbench

Figure2.3 : RDE from each view

10
The lux calculation can be calculated based on the RDE in figure 2.3. The

ceiling height for this building is 3m. For workbench, it depends on the worktop for

every room. For example, if the room provide a worktop the workbench is 0.7m or

0.5m while if there is no worktop it will be zero. Then, the UF will be referring to the

catalogues. The lighting and lux design was choose based on the electrical works brief

(Attachment A). The value Lux Design and Lighting Design Lumen will affect the

lighting quantity. Figure 2.4 shows the lux calculation and the yellow highlight is the

example that referred to the RDE shows above. So, the PCA room will install 3 units

of 2x28 T5 Recessed Mounted C/W Prismatic Controlen light.

Figure2.4: Lux Calculation

After complete the lux calculation, the type of light and value of lux was

transferred to the SOA list for electrical light part showed at figure 2.5.

11
Figure2. 5: SOA List for Electrical Light

For the last part in SOA is Extra Low Voltage System (ELV) which is the

equipment that will be provide depends on each room shown in figure 2.6. Usually,

for nursing area, many equipment needed for nurse used. For example for nurse call

and voice intercom are very important to link with the patients.

Figure2. 6: SOA List (ELV)

12
 Conclusion

The RDE layout is very important to do a SOA by referring the area and

equipment needed by the client. So, it will be more easily to provide the electrical

services. After finished, the electrical draft man will draw the electrical services that

need to be installed in real life as shown in figure 2.1 with provide the socket, lighting

and ELV.

2.2 TASK 2

 Title

Load Estimation and Transformer Rating

- Panchor Apartment

 Background

The total load estimation is very important to know the total supply for each

building or house. So, the basic electrical calculations that should be applied is

calculate the Total Connected Load (TCL) and Maximum Demand (MD). Total

Connected Load (TCL) is the electrical and mechanical load (in kW) that will connect

to the particular area. In other hand, Maximum Demand (MD) is the total kW that

actually contributes the total power used in one time after applying the diversity factor

(df) based on the TCL [4]. This MD also will be declared to the utility provider and

utility bill. The diversity factor recognize that the whole load does not equal depends

upon equipment characteristic and the peak demands of the customers by the different

type of service such as residential, commercial and industrial. The example for

lighting point and ceiling fan is 0.8 because only 80% will switch ON in one time but

13
for the lift and Booster Pump become 1 because it will operate evert time. Group

factor is used for the buildings that provide many units such as apartments and

shoplot.

When the maximum apparent power of the installation has been determined, a

suitable rating for the transformer can be decided. The power factor that used of the

installation is usually 0.8-0.85. The transformer sizing is divide into two which is

single and double chamber. For single chamber, the rating used is 1000kVA while

double chamber is 2000kVA. The total load for the area should be at least 70% of a

transformer and the rating should be proposed based on the calculation that was

produced.

 Equipment

i. Layout drawing of Panchor Apartment

ii. Laptop

 Procedure

i. The area for each department for nine floor was calculated

ii. Based on the area for each department, the electrical services such as lighting

point, 13A switch socket outlet, air-condition and other was provided

iii. The rating load for an electrical service was assumed referred to Tenaga

Nasional Berhad

iv. Total connected load (TCL) and maximum demand (MD) was calculated using

the formula below:

𝑇𝐶𝐿 = 𝑄𝑢𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑦 × 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑(𝑘𝑊/𝑒𝑎𝑐ℎ)

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑇𝐶𝐿 × 𝑑𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

14
v. Diversity factor was determined based on the frequent that used by the

consumers in one time

vi. The total MD was added for each floor

vii. For more detail, the management floor and apartment was divided because the

group factor (for building) are different based on the electrical equipment used

viii. Group factor was determined referred to the equipment used by the consumers

ix. The new MD was calculated by using the formula:

𝑀𝐷 = 𝑇𝐶𝐿 × 𝑑𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 × 𝑔𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑝 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

x. The total for new MD was added based on the total management floor and

apartment

xi. The total MD (kW) was converted to apparent power (kVA)by times with

value of power factor, 0.85

xii. The transformer rating that need to used was calculated based on the formula:

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 (𝑘𝑉𝐴)
𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑒𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 =
% 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑒𝑟

xiii. The rating of transformer can be decided.

 Result

Figure 2.7 below show the one of the room’s area for Panchor Apartment that

was design by the architect. The electrical engineer need to install the electrical

services depends on the area of the room space. The electrical services such as lighting

point, ceiling fan, switch socket outlet and air-condition while the mechanical services

are lift and booster pump.

15
Figure2.7: Layout for apartment
Table 2.1 shows that load rating that should be used to calculate the TCL. The

load rating is from the specification of Tenaga Nasional Berhad. The table 2.2 is the

total of TCL and MD for each area that provide many electrical services such as

apartment, kindergarten, lobby and playground.

Table2. 1: Load Rating [5]

Electrical Services Load Rating, kW


Lighting Point 0.06
Switch Socket 0.25
Ceiling Fan 0.06

Table2. 2: TCL and MD Calculation

Apartment A
Description Qty kW/each TCL kW Df kWMD
Lighting Point 22 0.060 1.32 0.80 1.06
A/C 2 1.500 3.00 1.00 3.00
Ceiling Fan 6 0.060 0.36 0.80 0.29
13A SSO 19 0.250 4.75 0.60 2.85
Water Heater 1 3.000 3.00 0.80 2.40
Total Estimate 12.43 9.59

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Kindergarten
Description Qty kW/each TCL kW Df kWMD
Lighting Point 9 0.060 0.54 0.80 0.43
Ceiling Fan 2 0.060 0.12 0.80 0.10
13A SSO 6 0.250 1.50 0.60 0.90
Total Estimate 2.16 1.43

Lobby
Description Qty kW/each TCL kW Df kWMD
Lighting Point 9 0.060 0.54 0.80 0.43
A/C 1 1.500 1.50 1.00 1.50
13A SSO 6 0.250 1.50 0.60 0.90
Total Estimate 3.54 2.83

Playground
Description Qty kW/each TCL kW Df kWMD
Lighting Point 12 0.060 0.72 0.80 0.58
Total Estimate 0.72 0.58

Then, table 2.3 shows the total TCL and MD from ground floor to 9th floor.

Need to be considered that the apartment has 202 units for ten floors and 132 lighting

point for five floors at driveway. The quantity of electrical service was provided by

the engineer based on the area of the room. The total TCL is 2985.51 and total MD is

higher which is 2406.16 because times with diversity factor. Diversity factor is a value

that was assumed based on the range given from Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) for

each electrical service which is the frequent of the consumer used.

Table2.3: TCL and MD calculation


Qt TCL MD
L W Sq. Ft. Description kW/each df
Floor y (kW) (kW)
Lighting Point 5 0.06 0.30 0.80 0.24
Emergency
Porch 9 7.9 71.1
Light 1 0.02 0.02 1.00 0.02

Ground Keluar sign 1 0.02 0.02 1.00 0.02


Lighting Point 1 0.06 0.06 0.80 0.05
Control Room 4.4 3 13.2 A/C 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
13A SSO 2 0.25 0.50 0.60 0.30

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Lighting Point 1 0.06 0.06 0.80 0.05
Management
4.4 4 17.6 A/C 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Office
13A SSO 1 0.25 0.25 0.60 0.15
Lighting Point 9 0.06 0.54 0.80 0.43
Hall 11 11.2 123.2 A/C 2 1.00 2.00 1.00 2.00
13A SSO 12 0.25 3.00 0.60 1.80
Lighting Point 2 0.06 0.12 0.80 0.10
MSB Room 5.4 3.4 18.36
13A SSO 2 0.25 0.50 0.60 0.30
Lighting Point 2 0.06 0.12 0.80 0.10
Genset Room 4.4 6 26.4
13A SSO 2 0.25 0.50 0.60 0.30
TNB Double Lighting Point 3 0.06 0.18 0.80 0.14
11.8 5.6 66.08
Chamber
13A SSO 2 0.25 0.50 0.60 0.30
Lighting Point 1 0.06 0.06 0.80 0.05
TNB Cable Box 8.2 1.8 14.76
13A SSO 1 0.25 0.25 0.60 0.15
Utility Room 3.5 1.5 5.25 Lighting Point 1 0.06 0.06 0.80 0.05
Household Waste 4.6 8.4 38.64 Lighting Point 1 0.06 0.06 0.80 0.05
House Keeping 3.5 2.44 8.54 Lighting Point 1 0.06 0.06 0.80 0.05
Lift 3 12.00 36.00 1.00 36.00
WR Pump 1 188.00 188.00 1.00 188.00
HR Pump 1 8.00 8.00 1.00 8.00
CW Booster
Pump 1 25.00 25.00 1.00 25.00
TOTAL 268.16 265.63

Qt TCL(k
L W Sq. Ft. Description kW/each df MD(kW)
Floor y W)
Lobby 15 13 195 Lighting Point 9 0.060 0.54 0.80 0.43
Lighting Point 9 0.060 0.54 0.80 0.43
First Surau 4.4 3 13.2 A/C 1 1.000 1.00 1.00 1.00
13A SSO 3 0.250 0.75 0.60 0.45
Parking Lighting Point 22 0.060 1.32 0.80 1.06
TOTAL 4.15 3.37

Qt TCL(k
L W Sq. Ft. Description kW/each df MD(kW)
Floor y W)
Driveway Lighting Point 22 0.060 1.32 0.80 1.06
Second
TOTAL 1.32 1.06
TOTAL (2-6) 6.60 5.28

kW/eac TCL(k
L W Sq. Ft. Description Qty df MD(kW)
Floor h W)
Seven Driveway Lighting Point 22 0.06 1.32 0.8 1.06
WR Pump 1 188.00 188.00 1.00 188.00
TOTAL 189.32 189.06

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Qt TCL(k
L W Sq. Ft. Description kW/each df MD(kW)
Floor y W)
Apartment 8.6 12.2 104.92 10 124.30 95.94
Kindergarten 8.6 10.4 89.44 1 2.16 1.43
Eight
Gymnasium 12.3 9.15 112.115 1 3.54 2.83
Playground 25.6 26.4 675.84 1 0.72 0.58
TOTAL 130.72 100.78

Qt TCL(k
L W Sq. Ft. Description kW/each df MD(kW)
Floor y W)
Apartment 8.6 12.2 104.92 12 149.16 115.13
Nine
TOTAL 149.16 115.13
TOTAL (9-24) 2386.56 1842.048
TOTAL LOAD 2985.51 2406.16

After that, the electrical services for management floor and apartment should

be divided because the value of group factor is different shows in table 2.4. This total

of MD should be times with group factor because it has many unit of room in the

building compare to bungalow house. In the apartment, the group factor for water

heater is low which is only 40% consumer used the water heater in a certain time. For

management floor, the group factor was assumed as 80% of usage. The total load for

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
apartment is equal to 5.95kW for each apartment by using the formula .
𝐴𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡

It shows that this apartment is still in the range of load, (5kW) for urban area referring

to TNB [6].

For this apartment building, the transformer rating should be providing for

single or double chamber. From the total load in apparent power, the percentage of

transformer was divided by 80%. So, the rating transformer is equal to two which is

double chamber will be used.

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Table2.4: Total MD for Group Factor

Floor Unit kW/each TCL kW Df kWMD gf kWMD(gf)


MANAGEMENT FLOOR
Lighting Point 139 0.06 8.34 0.80 6.67 0.80 5.34
13A SSO 37 0.25 9.25 0.60 5.55 0.80 4.44
A/C 6 1.50 9.00 1.00 9.00 0.80 7.20
Ceiling Fan 2 0.06 0.12 0.80 0.10 0.80 0.08
Lift 3 12.00 36.00 1.00 36.00 0.80 28.80
WR Pump 1 188.00 188.00 1.00 188.00 0.80 150.40
HR Pump 1 8.00 8.00 1.00 8.00 0.80 6.40
CW Booster Pump 1 25.00 25.00 1.00 25.00 0.80 20.00

APARTMENT
Lighting Point 4444 0.06 266.64 0.80 213.31 0.70 149.32
13A SSO 3838 0.25 959.50 0.60 575.70 0.70 402.99
A/C 404 1.50 606.00 1.00 606.00 0.60 363.60
Water Heater 202 3.00 606.00 1.00 606.00 0.40 242.40
Ceiling Fan 1212 0.06 72.72 0.80 58.18 0.70 40.72
TOTAL 1199.03
TOTAL 2337.51 1421.69
TOTAL (kVA) 1672.57
Chamber(80%) 2.09

 Conclusion

The transformer rating that needed is double because the total (kVA) is below

than 2000kVA. So, as M&E, we should propose the total load clearly to make a good

decision. The diversity factor and group factor will affect the total MD. If the usage of

water heater is increase, the total load produce will be high. So, it should be decrease

to make the total load is still in the range.

2.3 TASK 3

 Title

Cable Size and Voltage Drop

20
- Kolej Islam Antarabangsa SultanIsmail Petra (KIAS)

 Background

Cable sizing is a process of selecting appropriate sizes for electrical power

cable conductors. Cable sizes are typically described in terms of cross-sectional area.

The selection of cable is important because it has to consider the cable size, cable type

and surrounding conditions. The cable types divide by two which is copper conductor

and aluminium conductor. In considering of cable, many procedures that should be

emphasized which is the correction factor that affects the ability of a cable to lose

heat, number of circuit in cables and voltage drop. Suruhanjaya Tenaga was provided

the guidelines for electrical wiring in residential buildings that should be followed. For

the certain application, Suruhanjaya Tenaga was provided the cable size with the

material used show in figure 2.8.

Figure2.8: Minimum of Cross-sectional Rating [7]

For voltage drop, if the total of voltage drop is greater than the permitted

limits, it is advisable to increase the cross-section of the conductors which is cable size

until the voltage drop is below the specified value. Whenever current flows through a

cable, there will be a voltage drop across it. The condition is the higher the current

flow, the higher the voltage drop.

21
 Equipment

i. IEE Wiring Regulation ( Seventeenth Edition )

ii. Layout drawing

iii. Microsoft Excel

 Procedure

i. The relevant information that is required in sizing calculation was collected

ii. The total connected load (TCL) and maximum demand (MD) was calculated

referring to the drawing. (The calculation for TCL and MD same as task 2.2)

iii. The total load, (kW) from maximum demand was converted into total current,

(A) by using the formula below:

= 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 × 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑟 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑒 𝑝ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑒

o For single phase = 5A

o For three phase = 1.64A

iv. The current for circuit breaker was proposed based on the total current for each

distribution board.

v. By using IEE Regulation (Attachment B), the cable current and cable size was

referred

vi. The formula below was achieved:

Iload < 𝐼𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑖𝑡 𝑏𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑟 < 𝐼𝑐𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒

vii. In the calculation, the correction factor and voltage drop was considered that

must not exceed 4% of the supply voltage.

o For single phase = 9.6V from 240V

o For three phase = 16.6 from 415V

viii. The voltage drop was measured based on the drawing, from MSB to DB.

22
ix. The distance was measured by using the scale given and the distance was

recorded.

x. The voltage drop was calculated by using the formula:

𝐼𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑖 𝑏𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑟 × 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 × 𝑉𝐷(𝑚𝑉)


=
1000

𝑉𝐷(𝑉)
%𝑉𝐷 = × 100
415 𝑜𝑟 240

 Result

The item for electrical equipment is referring from the schematic that was

provided for each distribution board shows in Attachment C and list in the table using

the Microsoft Excel. For this project, the selection of cable size for DB is referring

based on the Attachment B which is use the copper conductor. For lighting point,

ceiling fan and switch socket outlet, it was referred to the rating given. Before the

selection of cable size, the TCL and MD was calculated show in figure 2.9. The

calculation for TCL and MD are same as task 2.2. Figure 2.9 also show the total

current and cable size for distribution board and electrical that suitable to use.

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DB HALL (A)
NO. ITEM QTY LOAD (kW) TCL DF MD Iload< Icb< Icable cable (mm2)
1 Emergency Light 2.00 0.02 0.04 1.00 0.04 6 1.5
2 Keluar Sign 4.00 0.02 0.07 1.00 0.07 6 1.5
3 2X36W Bare Channel Light Ftg. 16.00 0.07 1.15 0.80 0.92 6 1.5
4 15A SPN Socket Outlet (A/C) 4.00 3.00 12.00 1.00 12.00 19.68 20 32 4
5 13A SPN Switch Socket Outlet 10.00 0.25 2.50 0.50 1.25 2.05 15 24 2.5
Total Load 15.76 14.28
Total Current 25.85 23.42 23.42 60 89 25

DB HALL B
NO. ITEM QTY LOAD (kW) TCL DF MD Iload< Icb< Icable cable (mm2)
1 Emergency Light 3.00 0.02 0.05 1.00 0.05 1.5
2 Keluar Sign 6.00 0.02 0.11 1.00 0.11 1.5
3 1X36W Bare Channel Light Ftg. 20.00 0.04 0.72 0.80 0.58 1.5
4 2X36W Bare Channel Light Ftg. 4.00 0.07 0.29 0.80 0.23 1.5
6 13A SPN Switch Socket Outlet 19.00 0.25 4.75 0.50 2.38 3.9 15 24 2.5
5 15A SPN Socket Outlet (A/C) 6.00 3.00 18.00 1.00 18.00 29.52 30 41 6
Total Load 23.92 21.34
Total Current 39.23 35.00 35 60 89 25

DB LEC1
NO. ITEM QTY LOAD (kW) TCL DF MD Iload< Icb< Icable cable (mm2)
1 Emergency Light 12.00 0.02 0.22 1.00 0.22 1.5
2 Keluar Sign 2.00 0.02 0.04 1.00 0.04 1.5
3 1X36W Bare Channel Light Ftg. 7.00 0.02 0.13 0.80 0.10 1.5
4 2X36W Bare Channel Light Ftg. 11.00 0.07 0.79 0.80 0.63 1.5
5 15A SPN Socket Outlet (A/C) 11.00 1.20 13.20 1.00 13.20 21.65 20 32 4
1.00 2.80 2.80 1.00 2.80 4.59 20 24 2.5
6 13A SPN Switch Socket Outlet 12.00 0.25 3.00 0.50 1.50 2.46 20 24 2.5
Total Load 17.37 18.49
Total Current 28.49 30.32 30.32 60 89 25

DB C1
NO. ITEM QTY LOAD (kW) TCL DF MD Iload< Icb< Icable cable (mm2)
1 Emergency Light 8.00 0.02 0.14 1.00 0.14 1.5
2 Keluar Sign 2.00 0.02 0.04 1.00 0.04 1.5
3 1X36W Bare Channel Light Ftg. 12.00 0.04 0.43 0.80 0.35 1.5
4 1X36W Wall Mounted Bare Channel Light Ftg. 10.00 0.04 0.65 0.80 0.52 1.5
6 13A SPN Switch Socket Outlet 6.00 0.25 1.50 0.50 0.75 1.5
Total Load 2.76 1.79
Total Current 4.53 2.94 2.94 30 36 6

DB LEC
NO. ITEM QTY LOAD (kW) TCL DF MD Iload< Icb< Icable cable (mm2)
1 Emergency Light 1.00 0.02 0.02 1.00 0.02 1.5
2 Keluar Sign 1.00 0.02 0.02 1.00 0.02 1.5
3 2X36W Bare Channel Light Ftg. 6.00 0.07 0.43 0.80 0.35 1.5
4 15A SPN Socket Outlet (A/C) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.64 15 24 2.5
5 13A SPN Switch Socket Outlet 12.00 0.25 3.00 0.50 1.50 2.46 15 24 2.5
Total Load 4.47 2.88
Total Current 7.33 4.73 4.73 30 36 6

DB CG
NO. ITEM QTY LOAD (kW) TCL DF MD Iload< Icb< Icable cable (mm2)
1 Emergency Light 9.00 0.02 0.16 1.00 0.16 1.5
2 Keluar Sign 2.00 0.02 0.04 1.00 0.04 1.5
3 1X36W Bare Channel Light Ftg. 47.00 0.04 1.69 0.80 1.35 1.5
5 13A SPN Switch Socket Outlet 2.00 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.25 1.5
Total Load 2.39 1.80
Total Current 3.92 2.95 2.95 30 36 6

TOTAL MSB
NO. ITEM TOTAL MD TOTAL MD (CURRENT) Iload< Icb< Icable cable (mm2)
1 SSB 55.90 91.68 91.68 150 207 95
2 GROUND FLOOR 40.31 66.10
TOTAL 96.21 157.78 157.78 200 239 120

Figure2.9: Cable size for each DB

Before the installation of cable size, the voltage drop also should be calculated

referred to the distance for one point to the other point (Attachment C). The

percentages for voltage drop shows in figure 2.10 below was not exceed more than 4%

which is can be proceed.

24
Figure2.10: Voltage Drop

 Conclusion

The cable size and voltage drop should be considered clearly because it should

be protected from overcurrent and the protection needed to prevent damage for

electrical equipment. The sequence of

𝐼𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 < 𝐼𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑖𝑡 𝑏𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑘𝑒𝑟 < 𝐼𝑐𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 was achieved based on the calculation that have done.

25
CHAPTER 3

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

3.1 Conclusion

I was very thankful to Perunding IMS because give me a chance to undergo the industrial

training. There are many new experiences that I get along this industrial training period. In

this situation, I was exposed to the industrial sector and learn how to face a real working life

after graduate from Universiti TeknikaMalaysia Melaka.

During the period of industrial training, there are many skills and knowledge that I learn

based on the task assigned by the supervisor with the teamwork. The supervisor always gives

a guide to do a calculation, choose a right component that we need and others. The supervisor

give an opportunity for me to do an ongoing project by do a calculation and prosed the type of

cable, rating of transformer and others. The problem was clearly solved if anything happens

during handle the tasks given by ask the supervisor and try to figure out the solutions by me.

All the theory that has already learnt in the lecture was applied. Based on what I have learn, as

an engineer, we have always need to make a right decision clearly and always think the

reasons what will happened in the future in deciding the problems.

3.2 Recommendation

For the suggestion and recommendation, based on my opinion, this industrial training

need to be continued for student because it gives many benefits to students to be an engineer

26
and gain knowledge. The university should extend the period of industrial training and give

more time to students to learn new things in the company.

Based on the experience in 10 weeks, many input that I get from my supervisor and

staff. Based on the learning, I was interested to propose a project for my Final Year Project

which is design the load supply by reduce the usage of consumers. So, it will be improved the

rating of transformer that was provide in the building and the maximum demand can be

reduce.

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REFERENCES

[1] http://www.perundingims.com

[2] http://www.dtonline.org/vle/mod/lesson/view.php?id=184

[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_supply

[4] http://miorzaini.blogspot.my/2010/10/how-to-calculate-maximum-demand-and.html

[5] Tenaga Nasional Berhad,Design, Estimating and Drawing Procedures

[6] Tenaga Nasional Berhad, November 2012, Low Voltage Planning Guidelines

[7] Suruhanjaya Tenaga, 2008 edition, Guidelines for Electrical Wiring in Residential

Buildings

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