Anda di halaman 1dari 29

# Heat transfer through fins

Dr Becky Selwyn
r.selwyn@bristol.ac.uk

Background

##  Fins used to increase heat transfer from a surface to the

surrounding fluid by increasing the surface area

 Used for:
 Heat sinks
 Heat exchangers

a fin.

##  Apply relevant boundary conditions and solve to find

the temperature profile in the fin.

##  Assess and compare performance from finned surfaces

to non-finned surfaces.

## 4 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Contents of Topic 3

 Background
 3.1: Derivation of general fin equation
 3.2: Prismatic fins
 3.3: Solving the general fin equation for prismatic fins
 3.4: Fin performance

## 6 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Derivation of general fin equation
Consider a fin of varying cross sectional area, with no
internal heat generation. Thermal conductivity is constant.

Hot surface,Tb

## z y Surrounding fluid, T∞ Assume 1D conduction

x
7 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Energy balance
Energy balance on a small element of the fin:
dQconv

## Qx dAs In steady conditions:

𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 = 𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣
Ac(x)

dx Qx+dx
z y

x
8 MENG31101: Heat Transfer
Energy balance
The heat transfer by convection is given as:
𝑑𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣 = −ℎ𝑑𝐴𝑠 𝑇∞ − 𝑇

𝑑𝑄𝑥
𝑄𝑥+𝑑𝑥 = 𝑄𝑥 + 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥

## As the area, Ac, varies with x, Fourier’s law gives:

𝑑𝑇 𝑑 𝑑𝑇
𝑄𝑥+𝑑𝑥 = −𝑘𝐴𝑐 −𝑘 𝐴𝑐 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

## General fin equation

Conservation of energy gives:
Net heat transfer Qx  Qx  dx  dQconv
by conduction
Substituting known expressions for conduction and
convection gives:
𝑑 𝑑𝑇
𝑘 𝐴𝑐 𝑑𝑥 = −ℎ𝑑𝐴𝑠 𝑇∞ − 𝑇
𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥
Expanding the left hand side using the product rule, and
rearranging gives the general fin equation:
𝑑2 𝑇 1 𝑑𝐴𝑐 𝑑𝑇 1 ℎ 𝑑𝐴𝑠
+ − 𝑇 − 𝑇∞ = 0
𝑑𝑥 2 𝐴𝑐 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝐴𝑐 𝑘 𝑑𝑥

## 10 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

General fin equation
General fin equation

𝑑2 𝑇 1 𝑑𝐴𝑐 𝑑𝑇 1 ℎ 𝑑𝐴𝑠
2
+ − 𝑇 − 𝑇∞ = 0
𝑑𝑥 𝐴𝑐 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝐴𝑐 𝑘 𝑑𝑥

## After solving the general fin equation to find the

temperature field, the heat transfer through the fin can be
found using Fourier’s law

Prismatic fins

## 12 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Prismatic fins

By definition, for
prismatic fins:
 Cross sectional area is
constant:
𝑑𝐴𝑐
=0
𝑑𝑥

 Surface area is
perimeter times length
𝐴𝑠 = 𝑃𝑥

## General fin equation:

𝑑2 𝑇 1 𝑑𝐴𝑐 𝑑𝑇 1 ℎ 𝑑𝐴𝑠
+ − 𝑇 − 𝑇∞ = 0
𝑑𝑥 2 𝐴𝑐 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝐴𝑐 𝑘 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝐴𝑠
=𝑃
𝑑𝑥

simplifies to:
𝑑 2 𝑇 ℎ𝑃
− 𝑇 − 𝑇∞ = 0
𝑑𝑥 2 𝑘𝐴𝑐

## 14 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Solution: uniform cross sectional area
To simplify the solution we can introduce the variable
‘excess temperature’:
𝜃 𝑥 = 𝑇 𝑥 − 𝑇∞

ℎ𝑃
𝑚2 = Units: m-2
𝑘𝐴𝑐

## As T∞ is constant, substitution into the simplified fin

equation gives:
𝑑2 𝜃
2
− 𝑚2 𝜃 = 0
𝑑𝑥
15 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

## Solution: uniform cross sectional area

𝑑2 𝜃
− 𝑚2 𝜃 = 0
𝑑𝑥 2
The general solution to this linear, homogeneous, 2nd order
differential equation is:
𝜃 𝑥 = 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑚𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −𝑚𝑥

## This can be solved when two boundary conditions are

known – usually one at the fin base and one at the fin tip.
Once θ is known, heat transfer is calculated using Fourier’s
law.

## 16 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Alternative derivation of prismatic
fin equation

## 17 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Alternative derivation
Start with the general conduction equation and apply it to
the fin:
𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇
𝑘𝑥 + 𝑘𝑦 + 𝑘𝑧 + 𝑞𝑔 = 𝜌𝐶𝑝
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑡

𝜕 2 𝑇 𝑞𝑔
+ =0
𝜕𝑥 2 𝑘

𝜕 2 𝑇 𝑞𝑔
+ =0
𝜕𝑥 2 𝑘

## Heat transfer leaving the fin (i.e. convection) is a negative

internal heat generation:
𝑑𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣 = −ℎ𝑑𝐴𝑠 𝑇∞ − 𝑇 = −𝑞𝑔 𝐴𝑐 𝑑𝑥
Surface Volume
area

## So we have an expression for qg:

ℎ 𝑑𝐴𝑠
𝑞𝑔 = − 𝑇 − 𝑇∞
𝐴𝑐 𝑑𝑥
19 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

## Substitution of the convection term and simplification for

prismatic geometry leaves:
𝑑 2 𝑇 ℎ𝑃
− 𝑇 − 𝑇∞ = 0
𝑑𝑥 2 𝑘𝐴𝑐

𝑑2 𝜃
2
− 𝑚2 𝜃 = 0
𝑑𝑥

## 20 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Prismatic fin solutions

## 21 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Prismatic fin

Ac
d 2
2
 m 2  0
dx

Qb  x   C1e mx  C2 e  mx
L

x
22 MENG31101: Heat Transfer
Boundary conditions

 x   C1e mx  C2 e  mx
BC1:
 Known base temperature, Tb
Ac

BC2 options:
 Infinitely long fin
Qb  Adiabatic fin tip
 Known fin tip temperature, TL
L  Convection at fin tip

x
23 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

## Useful trig identities

e x  e x
sinh  x  
sinh  x   cosh  x 
2 d
e  ex
x
cosh  x  
dx
cosh  x   sinh  x 
2 d
sinh  x 
tanh  x  
dx
cosh  x 

## 24 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Prismatic fin solution (1)

## Temperature at base of fin is known:

 0  Tb  T   b TL≈T∞

## Fin length is ‘very long’ and tends

towards infinity: Tb
L
L  0

## 26 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Solve  x   C1e  C2e for constants
mx  mx

## At the fin base:

𝜃 0 = 𝑇𝑏 − 𝑇∞ = 𝜃𝑏
𝜃𝑏 = 𝐶1 + 𝐶2
𝐶1 = 𝜃𝑏 − 𝐶2
At the infinitely long tip:
𝜃 𝐿 = 0 = 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑚𝐿 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −𝑚𝐿
0 = 𝜃𝑏 − 𝐶2 𝑒 𝑚𝐿 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −𝑚𝐿
𝜃𝑏 𝑒 𝑚𝐿
𝐶2 = 𝑚𝐿 𝑒 𝑚𝐿
𝑒 − 𝑒 −𝑚𝐿 = →1
2 sinh 𝑚𝐿
27 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Temperature distribution
Sub C1 then C2 into 𝜃 𝑥 = 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑚𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −𝑚𝑥 :
𝜃 𝑥 = 𝜃𝑏 − 𝐶2 𝑒 𝑚𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −𝑚𝑥
𝜃 𝑥 = 𝜃𝑏 − 𝜃𝑏 𝑒 𝑚𝑥 + 𝜃𝑏 𝑒 −𝑚𝑥
𝜃 𝑥 = 𝜃𝑏 𝑒 −𝑚𝑥
TL≈T∞
θ

Tb Known θb
θL→ 0

x
28 MENG31101: Heat Transfer
Heat transfer
In steady conditions, heat transferred through fin must be
equal to heat entering fin base by conduction.

## Applying Fourier’s law at the base gives total heat transfer

through the fin:
d
Qb  kAc
dx x 0

Qb  kAc m b e  mx  mkAc b
x 0

## 29 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Prismatic fin solution (2)

## Temperature at base of fin is

known:
 0  Tb  T   b

## Fin tip is adiabatic – i.e.

Q=0
no/negligible heat transfer at Tb
the tip:
d
0
dx x L

## 32 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Solve for constants
From known temperature at base of fin:
 0  Tb  T   b

 b  C1  C2

## From adiabatic fin tip:

d
0
dx x L

C1me mL  C2 me mL  0

Known θb
θ

Tb Q=0 Zero
temperature
cosh mL  x 
 x    b x
cosh mL 

## Apply Fourier’s law at the base of the fin:

sinh mL  x 
Qb  kAc b m
cosh mL  x o
Qb  mkAc b tanh mL 
34 MENG31101: Heat Transfer
Prismatic fin solution (3)

temperature

## Temperature at base of fin is known:

 0  Tb  T   b TL

## Temperature at tip of fin is known:

Tb
 L   TL  T   L

## 36 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Solve  x   C1e  C2e for constants
mx  mx

## BC1: At the fin base:

 0  Tb  T   b

 b  C1  C2 C1   b  C2

## BC2: At the fin tip:

 L    L

 L  C1e mL  C2 e  mL  b e mL   L
C2 
e mL  e  mL
37 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

TL Known θb
θ

Tb
Known θL

 x  
sinh mL 

## Apply Fourier’s law at the base of the fin:

 L m cosh mx    b m cosh mL  x 
Qb  kAc
sinh mL  x 0

 b cosh mL    L
Qb  kAc m
sinh mL 
38 MENG31101: Heat Transfer
Prismatic fin solution (4)

## Temperature at base of fin is known:

 0  Tb  T   b Ac

## Energy balance assuming convective

heat transfer from fin tip:
Tb Qconv
hAc T L   T   kAc
dT
dx xL

d
h L   k
dx xL

## 40 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Solve for constants
From known temperature at base of fin:
 0  Tb  T   b

 b  C1  C2

## From convection at fin tip:

d
h L  k
dx xL

  
h C1e mL  C2 e  mL  km C2 e  mL  C1e mL 
41 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

## Temperature distribution and heat transfer

Ac Known θb
θ

Qconv
Tb

x
cosh mL  x   h mk sinh mL  x 
 x    b
cosh mL   h mk sinh mL 
Apply Fourier’s law at the base of the fin:
sinh mL   h mk  cosh mL 
Qb  mkAc b
cosh mL   h mk sinh mL 

## 42 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Worked example 8
A very long fin, 5 mm in diameter, has its base maintained at
100°C.
It is exposed to air at 25°C with a heat transfer coefficient
of 100 W/m2K.
a) Find the temperature distribution along the fin if the
material is aluminium (k=180 W/mK).
b) Find the heat loss through the fin.
c) How long must the fin be for the infinite length
assumption to be correct to within 1%?

## 43 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Worked example 9 (Q2 June 2013)
A simple soldering iron (length L, diameter d) consists of a
metallic rod with a plastic handle. The metallic rod is
wrapped uniformly with a very thin electrical resistance
wire which generates heat (Q W/m2). The thermal
conductivity of the rod is k.
1. Show that the general conduction equation can be simplified as
follows:
𝜕2𝜃 4
− ℎ𝜃 − 𝑄 = 0
𝜕𝑥 2 𝑘𝑑
2. Show that the temperature at the tip is given by:
𝑄 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ 𝑚𝐿
𝜃𝐿 =
ℎ ℎ
+ 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ 𝑚𝐿
𝑚𝑘

Fin performance

Fin performance

## Some fin designs better than others.

How would you design fins to improve heat transfer here?

## 48 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Performance depends on:
 Fin material properties – thermal conductivity
 Construction – whether fin is stuck to surface or machined
from one piece of material
 Geometry of fins
 Position of fins
 Boundary conditions

## 49 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Fin effectiveness
How much more heat is transferred with a fin?
Fin effectiveness is given by:
Heat transfer
Qactual _ fin
 fin  through fin
Qno _ fin
Heat transfer from
surface without fin

Qactual _ fin
 fin  Convection from
hAc b area at base of fin if
fin wasn’t there

## 50 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Increasing fin effectiveness
Heat transfer through infinitely long fin is:
Qactual _ fin  Qb  mkAc b
So fin effectiveness for an infinitely long fin is:
mkAc b kP
 fin  
hAc b hAc
Improve effectiveness by:
 Increasing thermal conductivity (better material)
 Increasing ratio of perimeter to cross sectional area (thin fins)
 Placing fins on e.g. gas instead of liquid side of heat exchanger
(for lower heat transfer coefficient)

## 51 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Fin efficiency
Is the heat transfer through the fin as good as it could be?
Fin efficiency is given by:
Actual heat transfer
Qactual _ fin
 fin  through fin
Qmax_ fin
Maximum possible
heat transfer
through fin, if whole
length was at base
temperature
Qactual _ fin
 fin 
hAs b Convection from
whole surface of fin
if all at base
temperature
52 MENG31101: Heat Transfer
Increasing fin efficiency
For a fin with an adiabatic tip:

## Qactual _ fin  Qb  mkAc b tanh mL 

Efficiency becomes:
mkAc b tanh mL  tanh mL 
 fin  
hAs b mL

ηfin→0 when L →∞

## 53 MENG31101: Heat Transfer

Multiple fins
Consider an array of fins.
N = number of fins

As = surface area of
one fin

Ae = exposed
Tb
surface area of base

At = total surface
area of fins and base:
At  NAs  Ae
54 MENG31101: Heat Transfer
Overall surface efficiency
Overall surface efficiency takes into account multiple fins on
a surface: Actual heat transfer through
Qtotal whole surface (base + fins)
o 
Qmax_ total Maximum possible heat
transfer through whole surface

## Maximum possible heat transfer, Qmax_total, occurs if base

and whole length of fins maintained at base temperature
Qmax_ total  hAt b

## Actual heat transfer is sum of heat transfer through fins and

heat transfer through exposed surface of base:
Qtotal  Qactual _ fins  Qbase
Qtotal  N fin hAs b  hAe b

## Substitution gives overall surface efficiency:

N fin hAs b  hAe b
o 
hAt b

o  1 
NAs
1  fin 
At
56 MENG31101: Heat Transfer
Worked example 10
An engine cylinder is made from an aluminium alloy (k=186
W/mK). It is 0.15 m long with an external diameter of 50
mm. 5 annular fins are cast onto the cylinder at equal
spacings (each is 5 mm thick and 20 mm long, with an
efficiency of 95%).
Typical operating conditions are: engine cylinder is at 500 K,
surrounding air is at 300 K, heat transfer coefficient is 50
W/m2K.
Find the increase in heat transfer due to the fins.