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BVB Campus, Vidyanagar, Hubballi – 580 031, Karnataka, INDIA

Project Report on

Technical interventions on operation of petroleum


dispatch centre to minimize energy cost through the use
of solar energy

submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

Master of Technology
In

Energy Systems Engineering

Submitted by:

Avinash. P. Carneiro
(01FE15MES004)

Under the Guidance of


Internal Guide External Guide
Prof. P. P. Revankar Mr. Rajan. G
Associate Professor Station-In-Charge
KLE Technological University, Hubballi Petronet MHBL, Mangalore

School of Mechanical Engineering


2016-17
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BVB Campus, Vidyanagar, Hubballi – 580 031, Karnataka, INDIA

School of Mechanical Engineering

Certificate
Certified that the project work titled Technical interventions on operation of petroleum
dispatch centre to minimize energy cost through the use of solar energy, carried out
by Mr. Avinash. P. Carneiro, bearing SRN 01FE15MES004, a bonafide student of
School of Mechanical Engineering, KLE Technological University, Hubballi in
partial fulfilment for the award of Master of Technology in Energy Systems
Engineering during the year 2016-17. It is certified that all corrections/suggestions
indicated for Internal Assessment have been incorporated in the report deposited in the
school library. The project report has been approved as it satisfies the academic
requirements in respect of Project work prescribed for the said Degree.

Prof. M. B. Gorwar Dr. B. B. Kotturshettar Prof. B. L Desai


Guide Coordinator, Registrar
School of Mechanical Engineering,

External Viva-Voce

Name of Examiners Signature with Date

1.

2.

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Candidate Declaration

I hereby declare that the work contained in this report titled, Technical
interventions on operation of petroleum dispatch centre to minimize energy cost
through the use of solar energy, is original and has been done by me under the
supervision of Prof. P. P. Revankar. I have followed the guidelines provided by the
University for preparing the report. I conformed to the norms and guidelines given in the
ethical code of conduct of institute. Wherever materials have been used (data, theoretical
concepts, figures and text) from other sources, due credit has been given to them by citing
them in the text of report and giving their details in the references.

I further declare that I have not submitted this report either in part or in full to any
other university for the award of any degree.

Place: Hubballi Avinash. P. Carneiro

Date:

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Acknowledgement
Gratitude takes three forms-"A feeling from heart, an expression in words and a giving in
return". We take this opportunity to express our feelings.

I express my gracious gratitude to our guide Prof P. P. Revankar for his valuable
guidance and assistance. I am very thankful for his encouragement and inspiration that
made project successful.
I express my gracious gratitude to my guide Mr. Rajan. J, Station-In-Charge of Petronet
MHBL, Mangalore for his valuable guidance and assistance. I am very thankful for his
encouragement and inspiration that made project successful.
I would like to thank Dr. B. B. Kotturshettar, Co-Ordinator, School of Mechanical
Engineering, KLE Technological University, Hubli for providing the congenial
environment for research activities.
I would like to thank Prof. B. L. Desai, Registrar, KLE Technological University, Hubli
for inspiring me to pursue the research work.
My special thanks to Dr. P. G. Tewari, for his profound guidance throughout the PG
Program. I wish to thank Prof. R. S. Hosmath, Prof. M. B. Gorwar, and Prof. Rakesh
Tapaskar, for their constant support, encouragement, and guidance during project.
My special thanks to Mr. Selvakumar, Managing Director, Mr. G. P. Tantuway,
Deputy Manager of Operations, Mr. Sachin Jayaswal, Company Secretary & Hr In-
charge and Mr. Udaya Pai Manager (Operations & Management) of Petronet MHBL for
giving me an opportunity to complete my internship and project work in their reputed
organization.
The satisfaction of the successful completion of any task would be incomplete without the
help of family and friends.
It expresses my deep sense of gratitude to my family for their moral support and
understanding without which the completion of my project would not have been
perceivable.
I specially thank my friends with whom I shared my day to day experience and received
lots of suggestions that improved the quality of the work.
Finally, I would like to thank the Almighty for his presence in all the tough situations
with me.

Place: Hubballi Avinash. P. Carneiro

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Abstract
Electricity has become one of the basic needs these days because most of the
routine works of humans depend on electric power. Hence, the demand for electricity is
also increasing. Meanwhile, fossil fuels which are used to generate electric power is
getting depleted. The petroleum is a one of the major needs in a human life but
transporting the petroleum product to different places with the help of pipelines requires
enormous amount of energy to operate the petroleum dispatch center. The solar energy
has been a perennial source of energy to support all life on Earth and has been exploited
by mankind for various applications ever since the dawn of human civilization. The use
of solar energy for power generation through technology intervening devices like Solar
Photovoltaic (SPV) has been only a recent advent during the last 50 years, for which SPV
based energy, is considered as a non-conventional source of energy. The solar energy is
most abundantly available energy form on the earth, as against conventional energy
sources that are depleting in nature. The SPV conversion of solar irradiation into
electrical energy has proved to be a mature technology that can cater the energy demands
of residential and commercial buildings.

The presented research work gives a detailed design for grid connected SPV
system to deliver power supply and compensate L.T side load demand of the petroleum
dispatch centre. The study mainly includes analysis of energy usage of the H.T and L.T
side of dispatch station with focus on considering an option of implementing SPV based
power generation. The simulation of the power consumption calculation has been
calculated and verified by MATLAB. The process of computer simulation provided a
very effective means for system design and analysis as evidenced by the use of PV-
SYST. The design of the single line diagram for proposed plant has been carried out in
AUTOCAD modelling software.

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Table of Contents
Sl. No Contents Page No
Certificate ii
Candidate Declaration iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table Of Contents vi
List Of Figures viii
List Of Tables ix
Nomenclatures x
Chapter 1 Introduction 1-4
1.1 Energy sector in India 1
1.2 Statement of The Problem 2
1.3 Objectives of The Present Work 3
1.4 Scope of present work 3
1.5 Justification of present work 3
1.6 Limitations of The study 4
1.7 Organisation of Thesis 4
Chapter 2 Literature Survey 5-7
2.1 Reviews on Petroleum Sector 5
2.2 Reviews on Solar Energy 7
Chapter 3 Detailed Study of Petroleum Dispatch Center 8-14
3.1 Introduction to Petroleum dispatch center 8
3.2 Power consumption at Petronet MHBL 14
Chapter 4 Design of Solar PV System for Petroleum Dispatch Center 15- 32
4.1 System component sizing for grid tied solar PV system 21
4.2 Design of Solar PV system 22
4.3 Design of solar PV plant using PVSyst software 32
Chapter 5 Results and discussions 39-68
5.1 Simulation results of PV system 39
Conclusions 69
Scope of Future Work 69

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List of Figures
Fig. No Title Pg. No
3.1 Petroleum dispatch center – Petronet MHBL, Mangalore 11
3.2 Flow diagram of main line and booster pump power consumption 18
3.3 Input command window on MATLAB 20
3.4 Output result window on MATLAB 20
4.1 Schematic diagram of solar PV array of grid connected solar plant 26
4.2 Schematic diagram of D.C side of grid connected solar plant 28
4.3 Single line diagram of D.C side layout of grid connected solar plant 29
4.4 Schematic diagram of A.C side of grid connected solar plant 30
4.5 Single line diagram of A.C side layout of grid connected solar plant 31
4.6 PVSyst design parameters 34
4.7 PVSyst design of situation and meteo 34
4.8 Orientation variant of Petronet solar project 35
4. 9 PVSyst selections of array and sub-array 35
5.1 Solar paths at site on monthly basis 39
5.2 PV array behaviors for each loss effect 40
5.3 Array power distributions 40
5.4 Array voltage distributions 41
5.5 Array temperature distributions 41
5.6 Reference incident energy in collector plane 42
5.7 Incident irradiation distributions over collector plane 42
5.8 Balances and main results 43
5.9 Balances and main results of energy 43
5.10 Balances and main results of effective energy output 45
5.11 Ambient temperature 45
5.12 Meteo and incident energy considering global irradiation 47
5.13 Wind velocity 47
5.14 Effective incident energy (Transpose., IAM. Shadings) 50
5.15 Normalized productions for the year 51
5.16 Normalized productions for the year 52
5.17 Performance ratios PR 53
5.18 Daily system output energy 53

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5.19 System output power distributions 54
5.20 Energy uses – Energy injected into grid 54
5.21 Detailed system losses 56
5.22 Detailed inverter losses 58
5.23 Detailed inverter efficiency 58
5.24 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – April 60
5.25 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – August 61
5.26 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – December 62
5.27 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – January to June 63
5.28 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – July to December 64
5.29 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – Whole Year 65
5.30 CO2 emissions in PV systems for the duration of 10 years 66
5.31 CO2 emissions savings in PV systems for the duration of 30 years 67
5.32 CO2 emissions in PV systems for the duration of 30 years 67

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List of Tables
Table No. Title Pg. No.
3.1 H.T and L.T power consumption (Theoretical) 20
5.1 Effective incident energy (Transpose, IAM and shading) 49
5.2 Detailed system losses 56

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Nomenclature
P1 - Power required for the Main line pump while running single pump
P2 - Power required for the Booster pump while running single pump
P3 - Power required for the Main line pump while running dual pump
P4 - Power required for the Booster line pump while running dual pump
T1 - Avg. running hours of the Single pump
T2 - Avg. running hours of the Dual pump
E1 - Per day energy consumption of the Main line pump - Single pump
E2 - Per day energy consumption of the Booster pump - Single pump
E3 - Per day energy consumption of the Main line pump - Dual pump
E4 - Per day energy consumption of the Booster pump - Dual pump
PT - Total energy consumption per day
LT - L.T. side units
HT - H.T. side units
DC - Demand side charges for the month
TDC - Total demand charges for the month
DCU - Demand charges per unit
LTDC - L.T. side demand charges
ECM - Energy charges as per MRPL bill
TECM - Total Energy charges of the L.T side for the month
AETD - Additional Electricity tax on Energy demand
EECM - Energy Escalation charges as per the MRPL bill
TEEC - Total Energy Escalation charges of the L.T side for the month
TLTC - Total L.T charges for the month
HTDC - H.T side demand charges for the month
HECM - Total Energy charges of the H.T side for the month
AETD1 - Additional Electricity tax on Energy demand
HEEC - Total Energy Escalation charges of the H.T side for the month
THTC - Total L.T charges for the month
Ls - System loss
Lc - Collection loss
Yf - Produced useful energy
PR - Performance Ratio
IAM - Incidence Angle Modifier
GlobHor - Horizontal global irradiation
GlobInc - Global incident in coll. plane
GlobEff - Effective Global, corrected for IAM and shadings
T Amb - Ambient Temperature
EArray - Effective energy at the output of the array
E_Grid - Energy injected into grid
EffArrR - Effective Eout of array / rough area
EffSysR - Effective Eout of system / rough area
DiffHor - Horizontal diffuse irradiation
WindVel - Wind velocity

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GlobInc - Global incident in coll. plane
DifSInc - Sky Diffuse incident in coll. plane
Alb Inc - Albedo incident in coll. plane
DifS/Gl - Incident Sky Diffuse / Global ratio
GlobIAM - Global corrected for Incidence Angle Modifier (IAM)
GlobSlg - Global corrected for soiling
DiffEff - Effective Diffuse, corrected for IAM and shadings
ModQual - Module quality loss
MisLoss - Module array mismatch loss
OhmLoss - Ohmic wiring loss
EArrMPP - Array virtual energy at MPP
InvLoss - Global inverter losses
EACOhmL - AC ohmic loss
EOutInv - Available Energy at Inverter Output
EffInvR - Inverter efficiency (operating)
IL Oper - Inverter Loss during operation (efficiency)
IL Pmin - Inverter Loss due to power threshold
IL Pmax - Inverter Loss over nominal inv. power
IL Vmin - Inverter Loss due to voltage threshold
IL Vmax - Inverter Loss over nominal inv. Voltage

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Chapter 1
Introduction
Oil remains the world's leading fuel, accounting for one-third of the world's
energy consumption with around 1.6 million barrels per day consumed globally making
its transportation an important concern due to environmental issues. Petroleum
transportation utilizes autos, trucks, rails, tanker vessels and pipelines based on the
amount and the destination to be reached by the product.
Pipelines are used to transport oil from wells to refineries and storage
facilities due to their cost-effectiveness to move oil. The petroleum transportation through
pipelines over the long distance requires well designed pump sets, highly equipped
dispatch station and control station. The large amount of money has to be spent towards
the heavy electricity bills incurred at dispatch station due to continuous running. An
alternative option to reduce the high power consumption costs can be through adoption of
green energy.

The photovoltaic system is a reliable and clean source of electricity that can be
adapted to a variety of applications related to residence, industry and agriculture.
Photovoltaic plants are one of the most important renewable sources of energy, as they
are an effective solution to environmental problems.

1.1 Energy sector in India


The petroleum industry is one of the top six sectors in India and plays an
important role in decision-making in all other major sectors of the economy. Indian
economic growth is closely linked to energy supplies on account of which demand for oil
and gas will continue to grow. Oil consumption has increased at 3.3 per cent over the
period 2008-2016 with consumption of 4.0 Mb/d during 2016 on account oil imports
continuously increasing. The rapid economic growth leads to a higher output, which in
turn increases the demand for oil for production and transport with increasing income. In
2014, India was ranked fourth-largest energy consumer in the world, with oil and gas
accounting to 37% of its total energy consumption usage. The annual consumption was
around 3.85 Mb/day of oil and 50.6 billion cubic meters of liquefied natural gas(LNG).
India has proven oil reserves of 5.7 billion barrels and 1.4 trillion m3 of gas reserves, but
India remains a net importer of energy, due to the low production base. The Government
of India joined a holding organization – M/s. Petronet India Limited as single point nodal
office for transportation of oil based commodities through pipelines in the nation. In view
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of upgraded limit of MRPL from 3 MMTPA to 9 MMTPA a pipeline between Mangalore
and Bangalore turned into a need.
Power is one of the most important components of the infrastructure that is critical
to economic growth of the country. The development of an adequate infrastructure is
indispensable for the sustained growth of the Indian economy. India's energy sector is one
of the most diverse in the world. The demand for electricity in the country has risen
rapidly and is expected to rise further in the coming years. To meet the growing demand
of electricity in the country, a massive addition to the installed generating capacity is
required.
As of June 30, 2017, the country's solar market had a total cumulative capacity of
13.11 GW. India increased its solar-generation capacity for almost four times from 2,650
MW on 26 May 2014 to 12,289 MW on 31 March 2017. The state of Tamilnadu ranks
first in the India with the installed capacity of 1577MW, it also has 485MW in under
development. Rajasthan ranks second in the India with the installed capacity of
1,324MW; it also has 1205MW in under development. Gujrat ranks third in the India with
the installed capacity of 1100MW, it also has 300MW in under development. The state of
Karnataka ranks 8th in the country with the total installation of 510MW and 3375MW in
under development. With the target of 3375MW Karnataka has set to become an example
for the green energy sector.

1.2 Statement of Problem


The petroleum dispatch center requires enormous amount of energy to run the
pumps over long period of time resulting in high amount of CO2 emissions and high
electricity costs. The energy consumption at petroleum pipelines cannot be totally
avoided due to essential dependence on fossil fuels for our energy needs, however an
alternate source of energy can be used to operate majority of the dispatch
stationequipment. The solar power plant at the dispatch stations can provide power to the
control room, illumination needs of building and demands of major machineries and
equipment installed at the pump house and other stations. The proposed plant design
using computational technique and tools can cater to energy needs of all major equipment
with rating up to 440 V input. The use of renewable energy not only caters to the gap
between demand and supply but also clears the global carbon foot print linked to
conventional source of energy.

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1.3 Objectives of present work
The objectives of the present work includes,
 Study of Petroleum dispatch process with focus on pipelines and pumping station
in view of plant operation taking account of power consumption at High tension
(H.T) and Low tension (L.T)load connected to the plant.
 To perform computational analysis on the H.T and L.T side power consumption.
 To assess feasibility of Grid tied SPV power plant for L.T side of the station using
the PVSyst tool and simulate its operation.
 Formulate Single Line Diagram of SPV power plant.

1.4 Scope of present work


The scope of the present work includes the following
 The implementation of designed solar PV system at petroleum dispatch station as
an energy saving option.
 Study of the actual energy savings after the implementation can be conducted.
 The comparison study on the actual power consumption from the grid side H.T
and actual power consumption from designed solar plant for L.T side can be
conducted.
 An alternate proposal of higher rated solar power plant can be designed at
Petronet MHBL and generated power can be sold to state grid.

1.5 Justification of present work


The present energy sector has been mired for minimizing environmental damage
worldwide and efforts are directed towards use of clean energy that leave minimum
carbon footprint on environment. Solar energy has been identified as prominent contender
amongst the different renewable energy forms. The solar energy is best used to generate
power which is clean and green in nature. The solar energy exploitation has been a
successful program on large scale projects of kilo-watt and mega-watt scale. The major
disadvantage of solar PV systems is their low energy conversion efficiency and high
power generated cost. Hence majority of incident energy must be tapped effectively to
achieve maximum utilization. The present work is justified in the context of developing a
grid connected solar PV system for petroleum dispatch center which suffices the power
required for the L.T side equipment.

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1.6 Limitations of the study
 The power generated from the solar plant can only be used to run the devices
which are below 440 V i.e. L.T side of the dispatch center.
 The motors with the high ratings such as 30 A, 6.6kV, 750 kW cannot be
connected to the designed solar plant due to high starting current requirements.
 The power supplied by the system varies with time during a day depending upon
the sun shine and environmental conditions.
 The solar radiation available from the sun varies, so the energy available from PV
array also varies over the day and it affects the efficiency of the solar power plant.

1.7 Organization of Thesis


The project work details of the thesis are discussed under the following chapters:
Chapter 1 Introduction briefs on petroleum and solar sector in India. The objectives of the
project, statement of problem, justification of project work, scope of present work,
limitations of the study and organizations of thesis are presented.
Chapter 2 literature surveys includes brief of various research works carried out in the
field of petroleum dispatch center, petroleum sector, solar energy and energy saving
strategies.
Chapter 3 Detailed studies of petroleum dispatch center briefs about the different sections
of petroleum dispatch center like pumping station, pigging, substation and different
valves in petroleum pipelines. It also highlights the power consumption at petroleum
dispatch center.
Chapter 4 Design of PV system includes the study of energy consumption of details of
petroleum dispatch center. Brief design procedures of the MATLAB program to
differentiate H.T and L.T side consumption. It also includes the PV system design
considerations for the Petronet MHB limited. Designing of the solar plant on the PVSyst
design software and taking the design considerations for the inverter and modules on the
PVSyst software.
Chapter 5 results and discussions include the analysis of various loads and their usage
patterns for the case petroleum dispatch center. The analysis of loss flow diagrams, graph
representation of various output parameters of PVSyst. Conclusion and future scope
concludes on various findings of the present research work quantifying the savings of
energy and cost using photovoltaic technology and related references cited in present
research work are enlisted in the reference section.
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Chapter 2
Literature Survey
This chapter discusses about the reported work carried out in various fields of
petroleum pipelines and solar power plant sector.

2.1 Reviews on Petroleum Sector


Brandon J. Murrill et al., describe the new technologies such as hydraulic fractures and
horizontal drilling has significantly expanded production of natural gas and crude oil from
nonconventional formations. This boom in production has increased the investment in
new pipeline infrastructure to collect and transport these resources from the generation of
regions to the different consumers all over the place. Pipelines are a relatively safe means
of transporting oil and gas compared to other modes of transport but have the potential to
damage the environment by the dangerous substances they carry. The closeness of some
oil pipelines to the high population density areas is considered as very dangerous. This
report discusses safety of crude oil and natural gas transmission and gathering pipelines
and related facilities [1].
AbarasiHartet al., describe pipelines to be most convenient means of crude oil
transportation inspite of heavy crude and bitumen transport extremely challenging due to
its thickness, density and inability to flow freely. The enormous energy or high pumping
power required to overcome the high pressure drop in the pipeline due to its high
viscosity in the reservoir conditions. To reduce this high pressure drop and transport
costs, several technologies have been designed and proposed to improve the flow
characteristics of heavy crude oil and bitumen through pipelines. The review provides
direction for improvement and development of new technologies for the transport of
bitumen and heavy oil by pipelines [2].
Conrado Borraz-Sanchez et al., reported that optimization of pipeline network systems
for the transport and storage of natural gas through mathematical formulations. Oil
transport networks used in transmission or distribution of natural gas employ compressor
stations for providing energy required to overcome frictional pressure losses. This
research covers several approaches that help to a better understanding of the topic for the
future research and the study of the mathematical formulations and difficulties of the
equivalent optimization problems [3].
Kenneth P. Green et al., describe that transporting oil and gas by pipeline or rail is in
general quite safe. But when we compare the safety of oil and gas transport through pipes
and rails, taking into account the quantity of the product moving, the pipes turn out to be
16
on the much safer transportation method. Specifically, rail is found to be over 4.5 times
more likely to experience an occurrence when compared to pipelines. It explains that the
majority of the oil spills happen in the rail transportation system. The pipeline
transportation have very less amount of spills in the system. The vast majority of spills
occur in facilities, which may have secondary containment mechanisms and procedures
[4].
Taylor Jackson et al., Rising oil and natural gas production in the world is outpacing the
transportation capacity of our pipeline infrastructure. The study realize the massive
economic benefits of developing these oil sands, the problem of transportation needs to be
solved. At present the major concern of pipeline transport is sending oil to consumers by
modes of transport that pose higher risks of spills and personal injuries, such as rail and
road transport. The different sets of data by the investigation by US studies and our
analysis of Canadian data suggest that pipelines are the safest way to move oil compared
to railways or highways. Hence the pipeline is preferred over other transportation
methods [5].
LiuXu WangXiaoyu et al., describe that corrosion of oil and gas pipelines not only
reduces the life of pipelines, but also leads to serious disastrous incidents. Therefore,
research on the corrosion mechanism of oil and gas pipeline improved protection
technology. This document presents the mechanism of corrosion of the pipelines and the
current corrosion technique has been analyzed in detail. The corrosion on the inner side of
pipelines is caused by a series of chemical or electrochemical reactions. These reactions
mainly come from the contact between the inner side of the pipelines and the chemicals in
the oil and gas during the transport [6].
Sayed Ahmed Imran Bellar et al., explains that centrifugal pumps are widely used in
the petroleum industry. The pump performance decreases with higher viscosity and
greater surface roughness of the pump impeller. The impeller design parameters puts a
considerable influence on the performance of the pump.A flow simulation using
Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equation was performed by considering
different blade angles and impeller surface roughness to different petroleum products.
The study shows that the blade angles have major influence on the head, efficiency and
input power of the impeller for different liquids. Different parameters are observed with
higher surface roughness values [7].
Tan Mengqi et al., Oil and gas storage and transport pipelines play an important role in
the production, transportation and commercialization of petroleum products. This paper
examines the importance of enhancing the construction of gas pipelines and the transport
17
of oil and gas to the oil industry, highlighting the problems of pipelines and transport. Oil
and gas storage and transportation engineering contains the transportation, storage,
handling and delivery system. In order to meet the oil supply and demand, to ensure the
sustainable development of the economy, it should strengthen the construction of oil and
gas storage and transportation pipeline. At present, our country is in the peak period of
the development of oil and gas reserves, oil and gas storage and transportation technology
in our country is facing great challenges. This situation requires strengthening the
construction of oil and gas storage and transportation pipeline construction [8].
T.C. Pharris et al., Pipelines are used to move the oil from the wellhead to the collection
and processing plants and from there to the refineries and loading facilities of the tankers.
Product Pipelines sends refinery gas, diesel and diesel to local distribution facilities.Crude
oil is collected from field collection systems consisting of pipelines that move oil from
the wellhead to storage tanks and treatment facilities where oil is gauged and tested.From
the collection system, crude oil is sent to a pumping station, where the oil is delivered to
the pipeline. The booster pumps are located along the pipeline to maintain pressure and
allow the oil to flow. The booster pumps play a vital role to keep the continuous flow of
oil in the pipeline [9]

2.2 Reviews on Solar Energy


Shruti Sharma et al., describes that a reliable affordable energy is very important to the
nation’s economy and development. Sunlight is a renewable energy source that is free of
environmental pollution. It can easily compensate the energy generated from non-
renewable sources of energy such as fossil fuels and oil deposits within the earth. The
production of solar cells has undergone a variety of improvement steps. Silicon-based
solar cells were the first generation of solar cells grown in Si wafers.Further development
of thin films, dye-sensitized solar cells and organic solar cells improved the solar cell
efficiency. Development is generally hindered by costs and efficiency [10].
HemakshiBhoyeet al., demonstrates that the photovoltaic solar system is a very reliable
and clean source of energy, covering a wide range of applications such as residence,
industry and agriculture. Photovoltaic modules are outlined and calculated to meet a
given load. The size of photovoltaic modules exercise involves ensuring the size and limit
of various segments such as PV modules, batteries, and so on. The design of the
photovoltaic system also includes a decision on the configuration that must be satisfied to
meet the load requirements. Once the system design is decided, the size or capacity of the
individual components is calculated. A low quality component (such as a load controller)
18
may initially be more cost effective, but it is likely to be less efficient and may not last
long. On the other hand, a relatively expensive but higher quality component is
considerably better (energy savings and therefore costs) and may be able to recover its
long term costs [11].
Sharma B.D. et al., reported that photovoltaic and thermal solar power plants play an
important role in global energy supply. Solar radiation data is available through satellite
simulations and also from several other resources. The acquisition and simulation of data
is a complex process and may have inaccuracies of 3 to 20%. The most reliable data is
measured with accurate instruments. The performance (capacity utilization factor) CUF
depends on factors which includes solar radiation, climatic conditions, air velocity, apart
from the type and quality of the module, the angle of inclination. There are some losses
that cannot be completely avoided but can be reduced by a suitable design [12].
K.H. Husseinet al., briefs about comparing the incremental and instantaneous
conductance of the PV array for developing a new Maximum Power Tracking (MPT)
algorithm to track Maximum Power Operating Point (MPOP). The disadvantages of the
Perturb and Observe method have been studied and it has been demonstrated that the
incremental conductance algorithm successfully followed the MPOP even if atmospheric
conditions change continuously.ZhengShicheng et al proposed new method for MPPT
named CVT (Constant Voltage Tracking) with the analysis of characteristic curve and
operation theory of PV array. A new type of lower power photovoltaic (PV) system with
simple structure has been designed. This method has been verified by the PV charging
system and it has been shown that MPP of the PV array can be followed well by using the
charger controller [13].
Govinda R. Timilsin et al., Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent
years as both technological improvements, cost reductions and government measures to
support renewable energy have been developed. This investigation breaks down the
specialized, monetary and arrangement parts of sun powered vitality advancement and the
sending, while the cost of sun light based energy has declined quickly in the current past,
despite everything it stays substantially higher than the cost of ordinary vitality
advancements [14].
S. Yuvarajanet. al., briefs about the proposing of MPPT for a photovoltaic (PV) panel
using the open circuit voltage and short-circuit current of the PV array, a fast and accurate
maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm. The MPPT algorithm is valid under
various insulation, temperatures and degree of deterioration. The algorithm was verified
with MATLAB and the results obtained with the algorithm were very close to the
19
theoretical values in a different range of temperature and illumination levels. The
derivation of this MPPT algorithm was presented. It can be seen that the proposed
algorithm is faster than other MPPT algorithms and more accurate as approximation
methods that use the linearity between voltage at maximum power and open circuit
voltage [15].
HemakshiBhoye et al., describes that how to establish PV solar power plant design as
well as calculation of power generation, based on that to further recommendation and
techniques to reduce the cost of PV solar power plant. Solar PV system is known for the
environmentally friendly because it does not emits the carbon emissions while generating
the power. The establishment of green and sustainable development of solar PV power
plant will reduce the burden power demand of state electricity board. Hence the solar PV
system plays a vital role in the green energy sector and also in energy cost reduction [16].
M. H. Albadi et al, explains about determining the engineering standards and realistic
constraints of the solar PV design. Retscreen software was used to provide the necessary
data on cost and financial analysis to determine the annual output and the amount of
greenhouse gas reduction corresponding to the clean energy generated from solar PV
system. The power module was checked for the area required for installation of the
system; but after several studies it was found that the design of such a system in the given
roof area was not possible and was difficult to access due to limitations such as
separations, spacing distances and shading effects. From the financial viability results of
the project shows that production of electricity controls the feasibility of this project [17].

20
Chapter 3
Detailed Study of Petroleum Dispatch Center
This chapter deals about the description of petroleum dispatch center, equipment
used and power consumption calculation related to the reportedstudy.

3.1Introduction to Petroleum dispatch center


Oil refineries have objective to vary over as a great some portion of the barrel of
unrefined petroleum into transportation energizes which is monetarily down to earth.
Refineries create numerous gainful items be that as it may the high-volume beneficial
items are the transportation fuel gas, diesel and turbine (stream) powers, and the light
warming oils. In spite of the fact that items greasing up oils, refrigeration and transformer
oils, and petrochemical feed stocks are also profitable.
Normal unrefined petroleum contains around 84% carbon, 14% hydrogen, 1 - 3%
sulfur, and under 1% each of nitrogen, oxygen, metals, and salts. Unrefined oils are by
and large delegated paraffinic, naphthenic, or fragrant, in light of the overwhelming
extent of comparative hydrocarbon atoms. Blended - base crudes have differing measures
of each kind of hydrocarbon. Refinery unrefined base stocks normally comprise of blends
of at least two distinctive rough oils.
M/s Petronet MHB Limited (PMHBL) was incorporated on 31.07.1998 on
common carrier principle to provide petroleum product transportation facility from
Mangalore Refinery at Mangalore to the Oil Marketing Company Terminals at Hassan &
Devangonthi (Bangalore). It was a Joint Venture promoted by M/s Petronet India Ltd.,
and M/s Hindustan Petroleum Corp. Ltd. with 26% equity by each company. After
PMHBL underwent corporate debt restructuring in 2006, HPCL & ONGC are holding
29% equity each, consortium of nationalized banks is holding 34% equity and Petronet
India Ltd. is holding 8% equity in the Company. In August 2016, Petronet India Limited
sold its entire stake equally to HPCL and ONGC. At present the equity holding of HPCL
and ONGC is 32.72% each in PMHBL.

21
Figure 3.1 Petroleum dispatch center – Petronet MHBL, Mangalore
M/s Hindustan Petroleum Corp. Ltd. was the Project Management Consultants
(PMC) and M/s. Engineers India Ltd. (EIL) was the back-up consultants to HPCL (PMC)
for the implementation of the entire project. This project consists of 4 main Stations, 10
Sectionalizing valve stations, 1 Intermediate Pigging Station and 362.373 KMS long
20inch /24inch dia. pipeline which passes through 238 villages / 17 Taluks / 8 districts in
Karnataka and designed for transportation of petroleum products viz. Petrol, Diesel,
Kerosene, Naphtha, Aviation Fuel for catering to the requirement of different
consumption zones in Karnataka viz. Hassan, Mysore, Mandya, Tumkur, Chikmagalur,
Chitradurga, Shimogga, Bangalore, Kolar, Bellary and Raichur.
Authorization for laying, building, operating or expanding PMHBL multi product
pipeline under regulation 17(1) of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board
(Authorizing entities to lay, Build, Operate or expand petroleum and petroleum product
pipelines) regulations, 2010 has been obtained from PNGRB.

3.1.1 Different sections of Petroleum dispatch center


Pipes that transport products that are liquid at ambient temperatures and pressures
do not need to operate at high pressures to keep the product in a liquid state. The liquids
that evaporate at normal room temperature should be pumped and sent at higher
pressures. Petroleum pipelines are unique; they simultaneously transport a variety of
petroleum distillate products in a batch-wise manner. Petroleum products, which are
pumped in the same pipeline, are chemically compatible with each other but they differ in
physical properties like density. Some blends are produced at the interface of two
products that are introduced into the pipeline one after another. Operating methods allow

22
for minimizing the interface between products. Regardless of how the raw materials are
separated in the pipeline, all mixtures of raw materials are separated from the residual
streams further marketed as different products, product mixtures of lower quality than the
original products or restoring and crumbling each mixture into the two original petroleum
products. In some cases, a specially designed pig can be inserted between product batches
to reduce the amount of mixing.
a. Pumping station
Valves in pumping stations play a critical role in protecting high-cost and
operational-critical assets, including prime movers, pumps and control and measurement
systems. Valve failure will most certainly cause a process shutdown and could potentially
result in the destruction of critical infrastructure. As differential pressure is inherent to the
pumping station process, noise, vibration and cavitations will be persistent challenges that
need to be overcome. Noise must be mitigated in order to comply with industry
regulations, especially when pumping stations are close to a population center.
Every control valve in pipeline service whether it is a crude or gas must fight a
never-ending battle against impurities. The first is friction and wear on the valve that
could cause it to jam. The second is buildup can affect controllability, hindering the
valve’s performance causing reduced station efficiency and prompting an unscheduled
maintenance.
b.Metering Stations
Although fundamentally used to calculate volume, quality and consistency of
purpose objects and transport receipts, storage tank verification and item measurement
can be used with linear weight screens to confirm that the sincerity of the pipeline has not
been changed. Any inconsistency could spill some kind of frame. Often, there is some
"shrinkage" in the volume when the pipeline to tank and tank to pipelines are exchanged.
Frameworks and procedures are established to determine when the contraction is
observed outside the forecast estimates.
c.Valve Manifolds
The valves are inserted in vital areas along the main line to control the currents
and weights inside the pipe and to restrict tube sections in case of danger or crisis. All
valves require normal observation and maintenance for their smooth working. Alongside
pumps valve manifolds must be carefully checked and intermittently should be updated in
the tables and additionally they should be watched for decay and wear.

23
d.Valves
A valve is a device for separating or regulating the flow of gases, liquids and
sludge through pipe and pumping systems. The force required to actuate a valve can be
performed manually (by hand) or mechanically. Mechanical actuators of a valve are
generally actuated electrically or pneumatically. The actuators are controlled manually
(i.e. a technician pushing a button/switch) or by plant control system. Different types of
valves at Petronet MHBL include ball valve, butterfly valve, check (non return) valve and
pressure reducing valve.
e. Piping Manifolds
Depending on the plant, the presence of pipeline distributors can lead to a very
significant and complex operation at the source or destination of a pipeline. Because
many interstate pipelines have mixing plants at one end or the other, the manifolds in
which such mixing is performed may be complex. The blending facilities may also be
present within a pipeline in a centralized corridor.
f. Pigging
The pigging operation in pipelines serves the purpose of cleaning and inspection.
This operation ensures to have corrosion control, flow efficiency, line dewater after
hydrostatic testing and detect construction defects, Pigs are mainly classified into Utility
Pigs, In-Line Inspection Tools and Gel Pigs

3.2 Power consumption at Petronet MHBL


As the petroleum dispatch center runs continuously the power required to keep the
plant running is huge in amount. In order to design the solar PV system it is important to
differentiate the H.T and L.T side power consumption.

3.2.1 Power consumption Main line pumps and Boosterpump


When the Single pump is running, the rated current ratings are as below
Avg. Main line pump current while running, I1 = 31 A
Avg. Booster pump current while running, I2 = 17 A
When the Dual pumps are running the current ratings are as below
Avg. current of Main line pump while running, I3 = Main line pump 1 + Main line pump
2
I3 = 29 + 29 = 58A
Avg. current of Booster pump while running, I4 = 16A

24
Total power required for the Single pump

Power required for the Main line pump, P1  3 V I1 cos 


P1  3  6600  31  0.9  318.939 kW

Power required for the Booster pump, P2  3 V I 2 cos 


P2  3  6600  17  0.9  174.90 kW

Total power required for the Dual pump

Power required for the Main line pump, P3  3 V I 3 cos 


P3  3  6600  58  0.9  596.72 kW

Power required for the Booster pump, P4  3 V I 4 cos 


P4  3  6600  16  0.9  164.61 kW

Motor Running hours for April 2017 from daily reports Petronet MHBL,
Single pump (1 Main line pump + 1 Booster pump) = 376 h
Dual pump (2 Main line pump + 1 Booster pump) = 215 h

Avg. motor running hours per day for April 2017


Avg. running hours of the Single pump, T1 = 376/30 = 12.53 hrs
Avg. running hours of the Dual pump, T2 = 215/30 = 07.16 hrs
Per day energy consumption of the Single pump
Per day energy consumption of the Main line pump, E1 = Power × Time
E1  P1  T1
E1  318.939 12.53  3996.316 kWhr/day
Per day energy consumption of the Booster pump, E2= Power × Time
E 2  P2  T1
E 2  174.90 12.53  2191.497 kWhr/day
Per day energy consumption of the Dual pump
Per day energy consumption of the Main line pump, E3= Power × Time
E 3  P3  T2

E 3  596.72  07.16  4272.51 kWhr/day


Per day Energy consumption of the Booster pump, E4= Power*Time

25
E 4  P4  T2

E 3  164.61 07.16  1178.60 kWhr/day


Total energy consumption per day PT= E1+ E2+ E3+ E4

PT= 3996.316 + 2191.497 +4272.51 + 1178.60

PT= 11,638.923 kWh/day

i.e. Total H.T. units consumed for the day = 11,638.923Units/Day

Total H.T. units consumed for April 2017 = 11,638.923 × 30=3, 49,167.69 Units/Month

Total units consumed for April 2017 (Ref. MRPL bill April 2017) = 3, 76,314.2 Units

Total L.T. side units = Total units consumed for April 2017 (Ref. MRPL bill) -
Total H.T. units consumed for April 2017
(By subtracting the calculated H.T side Energy consumption units from the Total number
of unit consumption for the month, we will get the L.T side units.)
Total L.T. side units = 3, 76,314.2 - 3, 49,072.04
Total L.T. side units = 27,241.96Units
Total L.T side charges for April 2017
Total KVA rating of the Mangalore station = 890.4 kVA
Demand charges for April 2017 = Rs.200/kVA
Total demand charges for April 2017 = 890.4*200= 1, 78,080.00

Demand charges for per unit =


Total demand charges for April 2017
Total units Consumed for April 2017 (Ref. MRPL bill)
 178080.00  376314.4  0.47 Rs/Unit

L.T side demand charges for April 2017 = Total L.T. side units × Demandcharges per
unit
 27241.96  0.47  12803.72Rs

Energy charges as per the MRPL bill = 6.5Rs/unit


Total Energy charges of the L.T side for April 2017 = 27,241.96× 6.5
= 1, 77,072.74Rs

26
Additional Electricity tax on Energy demand = 17,707.27(10% of L.T side energy
charges of 1, 77,072.74)

Energy Escalation charges as per the MRPL bill = 0.06Rs/unit


Total Energy Escalation charges of the L.T side for April 2017 =
= 27,241.96 x 0.06
= 1634.51

Total L.T charges for April 2017 = L.T side demand charges + Total Energy
Charges of the L.T side + Electricity Tax
+ Fuel Escalation charges
=12,803.72 + 1, 77,072.74 + 17,707.27 + 1634.51
= 2, 09,218.24Rs.

27
Energy consumption calculation for the Main line pumps and Booster pump

28
Figure 3.2 Flow diagram of main line and booster pump power consumption

29
3.2.2 Power consumption study of Petronet MHBL
The last 3 months electricity bills are taken into the considerations for the power
consumption calculation of the petroleum dispatch center. Electricity bills are issued by
MRPL, Mangalore.
Table 3.1 H.T and L.T power consumption (Theoretical)
Month H.T L.T Total H.T L.T Total
And Units in Units in Units in Charges Charges in Charges in
Year kW kW kW In Rs. Rs. Rs.
Feb - 2017 296972.08 27787.92 324760.00 2402012.18 224758.22 2626770.4

Mar -2017 336652.52 25814.48 362467.00 2703757.35 207323.83 2911081.18

Jan - 2017 349167.69 27146.51 376314.20 2797191.67 218295.89 3015487.56

3.2.3 Results power consumption calculation for the Main line pumps
and
Booster pump on MATLAB

Results for March 2017

Figure 3.3 Input command window on MATLAB

The figure 3.3 shows the input command window for entering the input values for the
simulation of the power consumption calculation

30
Figure 3.4Output result window on MATLAB

The figure 3.4 shows the command window with the power consumption simulation
results for the particular month.

31
Chapter 4
Design of Solar PV System for Petroleum Dispatch
Center
This chapter deals with the design of the solar power plant based on theoretical
calculations and through PVSyst tool for the purpose of replacing the L.T load connected
to petroleum dispatch center.

4.1 System component sizing for grid tied solar PV system


The solar photovoltaic system includes several components depending on the type
of system, location and applications.The main components of solar photovoltaic systems
are solar charger, inverter, battery charger, auxiliary power supplies and loads
(appliances).
Major Components of PV System are PV Module,solar charge controller and inverter.
4.1.1System component description
a. Solar PV Module
It is a set of photovoltaic (PV) cells, also known as solar cells. To achieve a
required voltage and current, a group of photovoltaic modules known as photovoltaic
panels are wired in a large series called photovoltaic array. A PV module is an important
component of any PV system that converts sunlight directly into direct current (DC). The
photovoltaic modules can be connected in series or in parallel as per the required design
to provide voltage and current in a particular system.
b. Inverter
The inverter converts the DC output of the photovoltaic panels into a clean
alternating current for AC devices or is inserted into the grid system.The inverter converts
the DC output of the photovoltaic panels into a clean alternating current for AC devices
or is inserted into the grid. It converts DC power from solar modules into clean AC power
for AC devices. Inverter can be used in many applications. In the case of photovoltaic or
solar applications, the inverter can also be referred to as a solar inverter.In order to
improve the quality of the power output of the inverter, many topologies are integrated
into their design.

32
4.2 Design of Solar PV system
The designing procedure of solar PV system is as follows
1. Inspection of the site for the solar irradiation analysis.
2. L.T side power consumption at the Petronent MHBL (load requirement).
3. Selecting the components required for the system.
4. Determining the Inverter capacity.
5. Selection of the charge controller for the system.
6. Selection of the solar PV array as per the design configuration.
7. Orientation of the PV module direction and consideration of the land requirement.
8. Cost analysis of the proposed system.

Design of on grid SPV systemcan be done in following steps


 Calculation of the load.
 Estimation of number of PV panels.
 Inverter sizing
 Schematic layout drawings of the solar PV system

4.2.1 Load Calculation


The petroleum dispatch center has huge power consumption towards both the H.T
and L.T side. But taking into the consideration of the high H.T side and L.T side load
requirements it is noted that it requires high starting current for the motors on the H.T
side and unfortunately the designing of the SPV system for the H.T side is not possible
and not feasible. Hence the load considerations of the L.T side power consumption have
been taken into the considerations for the designing of the solar PV system.

The power consumption of the L.T side for the last 3 months is as follows.
March 2017 - 27,146.51 Units/Month
April 2017 - 25,814.48Units/Month
February - 27,787.92 Units/Month

As per the calculation it can be seen that the L.T side consumption varies from the 25,000
units to 28,000 units per month.
The highest L.T side consumption has been taken into the considerations for the SPV
design.
I.e. 27,787.92 = 28,000 units/month (round figure)
33
Total estimated L.T side units per month = 2, 80, 00,000 Wh (28,000kWh)
Total estimated units used per day = 934.333 kWh or 39 kWh per hour

As we know that petroleum dispatch center operates continuously day and night, the
estimated units per day power consumption includes the load demand for the whole day.
But the solar PV system can operate only during the day time with the abundant amount
of sun light. Hence solar PV system has been designed accordingly taking into the
considerations of the sun shine hours.
Total efficient sun shine hours per day = 6 hours
Total estimated units used per day = 39 kWh x 6 = 234 kWh/day
Multiplying the total units Watt-hours per day with 1.3 (the energy lost in the system to
get the total Watt-hours per day which must be provided by the panels.)
Total estimated units used per day = 234x1.3= 304.2kWh
The minimum plant that needs to be set up at Petronet MHBL, the petroleum dispatch
center is expected to be 304.2 kWh. Considering the land availability and the design of
the system the 316kWh plant has been proposed for the better results.

4.2.2 Solar array


Sizing of the array, energy requirement per day, average sunshine hours at the given
location and the system voltage has to be determined initially to begin with the design
procedure.
Solar PV module details
Manufacturer - Canadian Solar Inc. Model - CS6X - 310M
Nominal power - 310.0Wp Technology used – Si-
mono
Module size – 0.982 X 1.954 m2 Number of cells – 1 × 72
Vmpp – 36.8V Pmpp – 309.8 W
Impp – 8.42 A
Efficiency/module – 16% to 18%

34
The power used at the end use is less due to combined efficiency of the system
= Power output of a panel ×
Efficiency
= 310 × 0.17 = 52.7 W
Energy produced by one 310 Wp panel in a day
= Actual power output × 6 hours/day
= 52.7 × 6 = 316.2 Wh
Number of solar panels required to satisfy given estimated daily load =
Daily energy consumption
Daily energy produced by a panel
= 316kWh
316.2 Wh

= 999.36 modules (theoretical)

= 1000 modules (round figure)

4.2.3 Inverter sizing and characteristics


Total load connected to PV system = 316 kW
Inverters are available with different ratings for the different types of load demand of on
grid and off grid systems. As the proposed plan of solar plant is large, multiple set of
inverters are proposed in the design considerations. For the proposed plant of 316kW the
6 numbers of 50kW inverter has been chosen.

Inverter Characteristics
Model - Solar Inverter RPI M50A Manufacturer - Delta Energy
Minimum MPP voltage, Vmin – 200 V Max. MPP voltage, Vmax – 800 V
Nominal PV power, Pnom DC – 50 kW Max PV power, Pmax DC – 63kW
No. of string input – 10 No. of MPPT - 2
Nominal AC power, Pnom AC – 50 kWacMax DC power, Pmax DC -55kWdc

The inverter sizing has been done on the basis of array, each array have been allotted for
the each inverter

I.e. 316 kW/50 kW = 6.32

So total no. of 6 inverters are allotted for 6 arrays

35
Array arrangement

No. of modules to be connected in series – 17

No. of MPPT – 2

No of strings – 10 (5 strings each for one MPPT input)

Total no. of modules = 17 × 10 = 170 modules

Total no. of modules of the system = Total no. of modules × No. of inverter array

= 170 × 6 = 1020 modules (Reference – PVSyst software)

For the proposed 316 kW plant 1020 solar PV modules and 6 numbers 50 kW of inverters
with 2 MPPT input are required.

36
4.2.4 Solar PV array with Inverter

Figure 4.1 Schematic diagram of solar PV array of grid connected solar plant

37
 Figure 4.1 shows the single line diagram of PV array arrangement of grid connected
316 kW solar plant.
 The PV system contains an Inverter of 50kW capacity which has 2 MPPT inputs.
Each MPPT has 5 strings.
 17 numbers of solar modules are connected to the each string of the MPPT. Similarly
10 strings of 2 MPPT are connected to 17 numbers of solar modules respectively.
 The total number of 17 panels of 310WP results in 5.27kW of generation of power.
Similarly 10 strings of 5.27kW results in total production of 52.7kW.
 Figure 4.1 explains the layout diagram of 1 unit of the Inverter, similarly total number
of 6 inverter units are proposed in order to achieve the proposed production of
316kW.

38
4.2.5 Grid connected solar PV power plant (D.C side)

Inverter 2

50 kW Inv

Inverter 3

50 kW Inv

L.T. Panel

Inverter 4

50 kW Inv

Inverter 5

50 kW Inv

Inverter 6

50 kW Inv

Figure 4.2 Schematic diagram of D.C side of grid connected solar plant

39
4.2.6 D.C side layout ofsolar power plant

Figure 4.3Single line diagram of D.C side layout of grid connected solar plant

40
 Figure 4.2 and figure 4.3 shows the schematic diagram of the solar power plant where
the PV arrays are located on the support structure for the operation according to the
design constraints.
 From the PV array the generated DC power is further fed to the string/array combiner
box with the help of DC cables. In the string combiner box all the wires coming from
the different PV panels are connected and joint together for the easy operation of the
plant.
 Here the DC cables are used for the connection purpose because the generated power
on the PV panels is DC.
 From the combiner box further generated power is fed to the DC distribution box with
the help of DC cables.
 The surge protection devices are used in the combiner box and the DC distribution
box for the limitation of the voltage spikes in the system.
 From DC distribution box finally it is fed to the 50kW inverter, where the generated
DC power is converted into the AC power for the further operation.
 Further the converted AC power is fed to the L.T panel to the AC distribution box
with the help of the AC cables for the further connection.

4.2.7 Grid connected solar PV power plant (A.C side)

Figure 4.4 Schematic diagram of A.C side of grid connected solar plant

41
4.2.8A.C side layout ofsolar power plant

Figure 4.5 Single line diagram of A.C side layout of grid connected solar plant

42
 Figure 4.4 and figure 4.5 shows the schematic diagram of the solar power plant where
the generated AC power from the inverter is fed to the AC distribution box
 Further it is fed to the AC energy meter in the AC distribution box in order to
measure the generated AC power which has been injected to the grid.
 From the plant AC energy meter it will be further fed to the Main distribution board
of the system, where it will be fed to the L.T grid side of the system or to the
utilization purpose of the building and other utilities.

4.2.9Cost estimation of a PV system


a.Cost of arrays = No. of PV modules × Cost of each Module
=1020 x 13600= 1, 38, 72,000

b. Cost of Inverter = No. of PV modules × Cost of each Module


= 6 x5, 50,500= 33, 03,000

4.3 Design of solar PV plant using PVSyst software


PVSyst is a power modeling tool used by the solar industry for the energy harvesting of a
potential project site.Energy harvesting simulation is the result of the effects of various
parameters on the software.The parameters can be customized to produce an accurate result
in the system.PVSyst contains several solar PV models for easy understanding of the solar
energy production. However, it assumes a set of default parameters from the preset data
configurations. PVSystis efficient modeling tool can be used to predict the energyharvest
provided the recommendations in the modeling systems. It includes three types of major
parameterssuch as Simulation Model Level, System Level, and Module Level parameters. It
has a user friendly approach with a help guide to develop a project. PVsyst is able to import
meteo data from internet resources like Google map and many other different sources, as
well as the personal data can also be added.

43
4.3.1 Required computer configuration
Operating System:
 All Windows client versions currently supported by Microsoft: Vista/ 7/8/10 32/64 bit
 Other OS like MAC OS and LINUX are supported through the use of a virtual
machine running Windows (for example VirtualBox).
Other requirements:
 At least 1 GB of RAM
 At least 1 GB of free hard drive space
 Minimal screen resolution of 800 x 600 pixels (SVGA)

4.3.2 Design of 316kW solar plant for the Petronet MHBL


The following steps needs to be followed for the design of the plant on the PVSyst
 While designing the PVSyst simulation for the 316kW solar plant first “Project
design” option is selected.
 After selecting the project design in the “System” option the “Grid connected” option
is selected.
 The project name is given to the selected Grid connected project as shown in the fig.
4.6

44
Figure 4.6PVSyst design parameters
 By clicking on the Site and Meteo optionfurther work steps have been loaded and
configured.

Figure 4.7PVSystdesign of situation and meteo


 The figure 4.7 shows thefilled geographical data and meteo file for the assigned
project.
 The Meteo file is nothing but the co-ordinates of the assigned place where the solar
plant needs to be installed.

45
Figure 4.8 Orientation variant of Petronet solar project
 Infigure 4.8 the tilt angle of the system is selected for the land. Usually the tilt angle
is 12.39 degree for Karnataka but for better results it has been selected as 15 degree in
the simulation input.

Figure 4.9PVSystselections of array and sub-array


46
 Here the required planned power needs to be entered in the PVSyst software.
 Accordingly the PV module should is selected for the plant. The 310Wp Canadian
solar Inc is selected.
 The solar inverter is selected for the designed system, accordingly 50kW Delta
energy solar inverter with 2 MPPT output is selected.
 Then the next step the no. of modules should be connected in series along with the no.
of strings.
 Each MPPT has 5 strings each, totally 10 strings are selected. And each string can be
connected to the 17 no’s of solar modules.
 In the same way 6 sub arrays are selected for the designed 316 kWp plant.
 So in the “Global system summary” column we can see that total no. of modules are
selected as 1020 with the nominal PV power of 316kWp.
 Total 6 no. of inverters are selected and the required area for the system has been
calculated as 1957 m2
 So as per the designed plant the following ratings have been calculated in PVSyst,
Nominal PV power – 316kWp
Maximum PV power – 299kWdc
Nominal Ac power – 300kWac

4.3.3PVSyst simulation
The PVSyst simulation parameters are as follows
Project Name: GRID CONNECTED PROJECT AT PETRONET MHBL
Geographical Site -Mangaluru
Country - India
Situation - Latitude 12.9°N Longitude 74.8°E
Time defined as- Legal Time Time zone UT+5.5 Altitude 25 m
Meteo data –MangaluruMeteoNorm 7.1 – Synthetic
Simulation variant parameters
Collector Plane Orientation - Tilt 15° Azimuth 0°
Models used - Transposition
Horizon - Free Horizon
Near Shadings - No Shadings

47
a. PV Arrays Characteristics
(6 types of array defined)
PV module - Si-mono
Model - CS6X 310M
Manufacturer - Canadian Solar Inc.

Sub-array - "Sub-array #1"


Number of PV modules in series -17 modules
Number of PV modules in parallel - 10 strings
Total number of PV modules No. modules - 170
Unit Nom. Power - 310 Wp
Array global power Nominal (STC) - 52.7 kWp
Array global power at operating cond. - 46.7 kWp (50°C)
Array operating characteristics (50°C) U mpp- 551 V
Array operating characteristics (50°C) I mpp 85 A
Similarly for Sub-array -"Sub-array #2", "Sub-array #3", "Sub-array #4", "Sub-array
#5" and "Sub-array #6"
The ratings are
Number of PV modules in series -17 modules
Number of PV modules in parallel - 10 strings
Total number of PV modules No. modules - 170
Unit Nom. Power - 310 Wp
Array global power Nominal (STC) - 52.7 kWp
Array global power at operating cond. - 46.7 kWp (50°C)
Array operating characteristics (50°C) U mpp- 551 V
Array operating characteristics (50°C) I mpp 85 A
Therefore Total Arrays global power
Nominal (STC) -316 kWp
Total - 1020 modules
Module area - 1957 m²
Cell area - 1754 m²

48
b. Inverter characteristics
Inverter Model - Solar Inverter RPI M50A
Manufacturer - Delta Energy
Characteristics
Operating Voltage 200-800 V
Unit Nom. Power 50 kWac
Max. power (=>35°C) 55 kWac

Sub-array "Sub-array #1": No. of inverters 2 * MPPT 50 %: Total Power 50 kWac


Sub-array "Sub-array #2": No. of inverters 2 * MPPT 50 %: Total Power 50 kWac
Sub-array "Sub-array #3": No. of inverters 2 * MPPT 50 %: Total Power 50 kWac
Sub-array "Sub-array #4": No. of inverters 2 * MPPT 50 %: Total Power 50 kWac
Sub-array "Sub-array #5": No. of inverters 2 * MPPT 50 %: Total Power 50 kWac
Sub-array "Sub-array #6": No. of inverters 2 * MPPT 50 %: Total Power 50 kWac

Total No. of inverters - 6


Total Power - 300 kWac

49
Chapter 5
Results and Discussion
This section explains the details of results and simulation output which are carried out
from the PVSyst software. These results give overall idea of the energy harvest at the
selected site. The results carried out shows the energy production at the different time of the
year which are influenced and effected by the climatic conditions.

5.1 Simulation results of PV system


The results for PVsyst parameters and different conditions are plotted as below
Horizon – far shadings at Mangalore

Figure 5.1 Solar paths at site on monthly basis


The figure 5.1 shows the path of the Sun over a year.It shows the path of the sun on
the monthly basis which includes the shading effects with the considerations of 15o tilt angle.

50
5.1.1 Simulation results of PV array and collector plane
This section explains different results obtained for the PV array and Collector plane.
a. PV array characteristics

Figure 5.2 PV array behaviors for each loss effect


The figure 5.2 shows the array losses for 800W/m2, at the module temperature of 25o C the
Pmpp = 42.3kW and module mismatch loss is 2.9% and at module temp of 50.8o C the loss is
calculated as 11.3%. With the considerations of the global losses of 14.5% the resultant
Pmpp array is considered as 36.2kW

b.Distributionof power in a PV array

Figure 5.3Array power distributions


The figure 5.3 shows the power distributions of the array of the designed PV system. It
shows the effective power at the output of the array in kW and Energy in kWhr.
51
c. Array voltage distribution

Figure 5.4 Array voltage distributions


The figure 5.4 shows the voltage distribution takes place in the PV array based on the
irradiation. The more amount of voltage contributes towards the high amount of power
generation.

d. Array temperature distribution

Figure 5.5 Array temperature distributions


The figure 5.5 shows the array temperature distribution in the PV array of the designed PV
system, it shows average module temperature during the operating condition of thepower
plant.
52
5.1.2 Simulation results of meteo, incident energy and effective incident energy
This section explains different results obtained in the PVSyst for the incident energy
and effective incident energy for the collector plane and the system output
a. Reference incident energy

Figure 5.6Reference incident energy in collector plane


The figure 5.6 shows the incident energy in the collector plane for each month. Due to the
change in weather conditions we can see the variations in every month and average reference
incident energy is be expected to be 5.703 kWh/m2 day

b. Incident Irradiation distribution

Figure 5.7 Incident irradiation distributions over collector plane


The figure 5.7 shows the Incident irradiation distributions over collector plane of the
designed plant for - “global incident in collector plane(W/m2) Vs kWh/m2”. The overall sun
light falling on the collector plane can be seen the graph.
53
c. Monthly basis results considering global irradiation and incident energy
250

200

150
kWh/m2

100
GlobHor in kWh/m²
GlobInc kWh/m²
50
GlobEff kWh/m²

0
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Figure 5.8 Balances and main results

GlobHor - Horizontal global irradiation


GlobInc - Global incident in coll. plane
GlobEff- Effective Global, corr. for IAM and shadings

d. Monthly basis balances and results w.r.t. Energy


60000

50000

40000
kWh

30000

20000

10000

0
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Earray kWh 52280 47893 52755 45717 42560 30932 29754 33452 39995 45386 45806 51123
E_Grid kWh 50877 46597 51329 44550 41528 30293 29161 32742 39061 44260 44634 49783

Figure 5.9 Balances and main results of energy

EArray - Effective energy at the output of the array


E_Grid- Energy injected into grid
54
The figure 5.8 shows the balance and main results of the horizontal global irradiation, global
incident in collector plane and effective Global corrected Incidence Angle Modifier (IAM) of
designed system for the different months of the year.
 The horizontal global irradiation reaches the highest point of 208.2kWh/m2 in
March where the solar irradiance is expected to be at the peak level.
 Global incident in collector plane varies accordingly as per the climate change in
the respective months. We can see that it remains highest in March where its
quantity significantly decreases during the monsoon season.
 Global incident in collector plane again increases after August it reaches around
1742kWh/m2in December.
 Effective global corrected Incidence Angle Modifier (IAM) of designed system
also shows the same characteristics it performs really good in the summer season
but eventually it decrease in the June, July and August.

The figure 5.9 shows the balance and main results of the Effective energy at the output of the
array (EArray) and Energy injected into grid (E_Grid) of the designed system for different
months of the year. Here we can see that due to some losses the energy injected to the grid is
always little smaller compared to the energy at the output of the array.
 The highest tracked effective energy of the array (EArray) is 52755 kWh in
March where the lowest tracked energy is 29754 kWh in July.
 The highest tracked energy injected into grid (E_Grid) is 51329 kWh in March
where the lowest tracked energy is 29161 kWh in July.
 The figure 5.9 shows that the effective energy of the array is always remains
higher then energy injected into the grid. The some amount of system losses
results in the lesser amount of injected energy into the grid.

55
e. Monthly basis balances and results of effective energy output

13.4
13.2
13
12.8
Percentage %

12.6
12.4
12.2
12
EffArrR %
11.8
EffSysR %
11.6
11.4
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Figure 5.10 Balances and main results of effective energy output

EffArrR– EffectiveEout array / rough area


EffSysR– EffectiveEout system / rough area

f. Monthly basis Ambient temperature

30

29

28

27
°C

26

25 T Amb °C

24
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Figure 5.11 Ambient temperature

56
The figure 5.11shows the balance and main results of the Effective energy at the output of
the array (EffArrR) and Effective energy output of the system (EffArrR) of the designed
system for different months of the year. Here we can see that due to some losses the energy
system output is smaller compared to the energy at the output of the array.
 In general the efficiency of the PV module considered as around 15% to 18%. The
figure 5.11 shows that efficiency of the PV array remains lower during the high
sunshine period but eventually the efficiency increases during rainy season of the
year.
 It means that the high amount of sunshine during March, April and May puts high
amount of work load on the system which results in the high amount of power
generation. However the humidity and increase in temperature reduces the efficiency
of the solar array.
 In the time monsoon i.e. June, July, August even less amount of sunshine results in
the lower amount of power generation, but however it results in the increase in the
efficiency of the array.
 The similar concept applies for the effective energy output of the system. Figure 5.9
shows that the energy output at the array is always higher than the energy output of
the system. The losses in the system reduce the overall efficiency.

The figure 5.10shows the ambient temperature of the designed system. Here we can analyze
that the temperature varies in every month. The seasonal changes causesvariations in the
ambient temperature.
 The ambient temperature of the system varies and changes according to the seasonal
changes. The overall system temperature is tracked highest in April i.e. 29.10o C.
 We can see that reduction in the temperature during the monsoon months i.e. June,
July and August.

57
g. Monthly basis meteo and incident energy with consideration of global irradiation

250

200

150
kWh/m2

100

GlobHor in kWh/m²
50
GlobInc in kWh/m²
0
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Figure 5.12Meteo and incident energy considering global irradiation

GlobHor- Horizontal global irradiation


GlobInc- Global incident in coll. plane

h. The wind velocity

3.5

2.5

2
m/s

1.5

0.5 WindVel in m/s

0
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Figure 5.13 Wind velocity

58
The figure 5.11shows the results of meteo and incident energy of the designed system for the
different months of the year. It shows horizontal global irradiation and global incident in
collector plane.

 The figure 5.12 shows the meteo and incident energy, the meteo energy is nothing but
the energy which falls on the selected site. The PVSyst has the option to lad the
meteo from pre set data or the co-ordinates of the respective which place can be
selected with the help of Google map.
 The meteo and incident energy is the sunshine falling globally on the particular
selected place.
 It shows the horizontal global irradiation falling on the site for the various months of
the year.
 It also highlights the global incident energy on the collector plane for the different
months.

The figure 5.13shows the results of wind velocity for the different months which affects
themeteo and incident energy of the designed system.
 The wind velocity in the simulation results has been noted down as highest 3.0m/s in
July. It shows that as wind velocity will be high during rainy season the high wind
speed is expected to occur in July.

59
i. Monthly basis effective incident energy
Table 5.1 Effective incident energy (Transpose, IAM and shading)

The table 5.1shows the results of effective incident energy which includes the Transpose,
IAM (Incidence Angle Modifier) and shadings of the designed system for the different
months of the year.

GlobHor- Horizontal global irradiation


GlobInc- Global incident in coll. plane
GlobIAM- Global corrected for Incidence Angle Modifier (IAM)
GlobSlg- Global corrected for soiling
GlobEff- Effective Global, corr. for IAM and shadings
DiffEff- Effective Diffuse, corr. for IAM and shadings

60
250

200

150
kWh/m2

100 GlobHor in kWh/m²


GlobInc in kWh/m²
GlobIAM in kWh/m²
50 GlobSlg in kWh/m²
GlobEff in kWh/m²

0
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Figure 5.14 Effective incident energy (Transpose, IAM. Shadings)

The figure 5.14shows the results of effective incident energy which includes the Transpose,
IAM (Incidence Angle Modifier) and shadings of the designed system for the different
months of the year. It shows the comparison of the Horizontal global irradiation, Global
incident in collectorplane; Global corrected for incidence (IAM), Global corrected for soiling
and Effective Global, corr. for IAM and shadings. It shows that the effective incident energy
including transpose and shadings, it works as same for all the given parameters. There is no
high noticeable change in the system. The graph shows the low variations and small amount
of change in the selected parameters

61
5.1.2 Simulation results of system output and power distribution
This section explains different results obtained for the system output and distribution of
energy during different months
a. Normalized production at the plant

Figure 5.15 Normalized productions for the year


 The figure 5.15 we can see that normalized production of the plant with the produced
useful energy of Yf = 4.37kWh/kWp/day
 The normalized production graph highlights the system losses occurred in the plant,
theSystem loss (Ls) = 0.11kWh/kWp/day
 The normalized production graph also highlights the collection losses occurred in the
plant, the Collection loss(Lc) = 1.22 kWh/kWp/day

62
b. Normalized production and normalized loss factors

Figure 5.16 Normalized productions for the year


 The figure 5.16shows normalized production and normalized loss factors of the plant.
 The produced useful energy of the plant is, Yf = 76.7%
 The normalized production graph highlights the normalized system losses occurred in
the plant, the System loss (Ls) = 2% and Collection loss(Lc) = 21.3%

63
c. Performance Ratio of the system

Figure 5.17 Performance ratios PR


The figure 5.17 shows the performance ratio for the different months over the year. This
gives an overall idea about the continuous performance of the system.

d. Daily system output energy

Figure 5.18 Daily system output energy


The figure 5.18 shows the daily system output energy in kWhr of the designed plant for the
different months over the year. The continuous variations in the system output energy
highlights change in the weather and atmospheric changes in the different months.

64
e. System output power distribution

Figure 5.19 System output power distributions

f. Energy use and user’s needs

60000
Energy Injected Into Grid E_Grid

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
E_Grid 50877 46597 51329 44550 41528 30293 29161 32742 39061 44260 44634 49783

Figure 5.20Energy uses – Energy injected into grid

65
The figure 5.19 shows the system output power distributions of the designed plant. It shows
the overall system output of the plant i.e. the total energy which has been injected into the
grid or the energy which can be utilized.

The figure 5.20 shows the total energy use and user needs i.e. the total energy which has been
generated and fed to the grid side. The variations in the monthly energy injected in the grid
shows the different amount of irradiations over the year. The climatic and environmental
changes influences the irradiance sun shine factor which results in the different amount of
energy generation which is being fed to the grid.
 Considering the geographical sun shine effects the energy being fed to the system is
calculated in the PVSyst.
 From the pre set data the energy to be fed to the grid is expected to be highest I
March with the total generated power of 51329kWh.
 The energy fed to the grid in January and December stands second and third
respectively with the total amount of power 50877kWh and 49783kWh respectively.
 The energy fed to the grid in July is recorded as least with the total amount of
29161kWh, making it the smallest amount of energy expected to feed the grid.

66
5.1.3 Simulation results of system losses and
This section explains different results ofinverter losses and other system lossesin the
proposed plant.
a. Detailed overview of system losses
Table 5.2Detailed system losses

ModQual- Module quality loss MisLoss- Module array mismatch loss


OhmLoss- Ohmic wiring loss EArrMPP- Array virtual energy at MPP
InvLoss- Global inverter losses EACOhmL- AC ohmic loss

600

MisLoss in kWh
500
OhmLossin kWh
400 EACOhmL in kWh
kWh

300

200

100

0
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Figure 5.21 Detailed system losses


67
The figure 5.21shows the results of detailed system losses on a monthly basis which includes
the mismatch loss, ohmic wiring loss, inverter losses, ACohmiclosses.
 The energyloses in the system increase during the days when the high amount of sun
light is available during the year. The more amount of energy output leads to the high
amount of energy losses because of the high amount of power generation process.
 The above figure shows the graph curves for the module mismatch losses which
eventually resulted due to the interconnection of the multiple modules in the array.
 It also highlights the ohmic losses i.e. resistive losses in the system and also the graph
curve has been plotted for the global inverter losses.

68
b.Detailed overview of inverter losses
1400

1200

1000

800
kWh

600

400

200

0
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Inv Loss 1253 1159 1278 1050 931 579 540 641 837 1008 1049 1197
IL Oper 1247 1153 1272 1044 926 574 534 635 831 1002 1043 1191

Figure 5.22 Detailed inverter losses

c. Inverter efficiency

98.3
98.2
98.1
98
Percentage %

97.9
97.8
97.7
97.6
97.5
97.4 EffInvR…

97.3
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Figure5.23 Detailed inverter efficiency


69
The figure 5.22 shows the results monthly detailed inverter losses of the designed system for
the different months of the year. Here we can see that there is not much of a difference
between the Inverter Loss during operation and Global inverter losses.
 The global inverter losses graph curve (InvLoss) shows the overall lost energy in all
the inverters at continuous period of time. This includes the losses contributed during
operating andnon operating conditions of the inverter.
 The inverter loss during operating (IL Oper) shows the overall losses occurring
during the time of the operation of the inverter. These specific losses occur during the
time when the inverter converts the generated DC power into the usable AC power.
 Compared to the Global operating losses and Inverter loss during operating the
amount of energy lost is very small in amount, i.e. there is no much significant
difference in the IL Oper and InvLoss.

The figure 5.23 shows the results monthly detailed inverter efficiency of the designed system
for the different months of the year. Here we can see overall efficiency of the inverter which
stays above 97% throughout the year considering the variations irradiation variations for the
different months.

 The inverter efficiency graph curve shows the overall efficiency of the inverter during
the different season of the year for the continuous operating conditions.
 The efficiency of the graph is shown at its peak for July where the amount of sun
light reflecting on the solar panels will be less in amount which results in less amount
of DC power generation in the solar modules, which in turn effects the operation of
the inverter to converts the DC power into AC power.

5.1.4 Simulation results of Loss Diagram in PV system


In the PVsyst simulation results we can see the flow diagram of the detailed losses in the
system on the monthly basis for the selected meteo data. The pre selected and pre
definedPVsyst data helps to determine the overall losses and overall generated energy in the
system.

70
a.Energy loss details for April(summer season)

Figure 5.24 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – April


 The figure 5.24 shows the detailed losses of the system for April. In the designed
system the Horizontal global irradiation accounts for 190kWh/m2
 The global incident in collector plane accounts for the -1.8%, therefore the
horizontal global irradiation accounts for186.58kWh/ m2.
 The optical losses (shadings, IAM) and soiling losses contributes for -3.1% of the
total losses global irradiation respectively. This results in the 175.01kWh/ m2.
 The effective irradiance on collector plane is 205kWh/ m2*1957m2=345.62kWh.
 The array nominal energy can be calculated as 16.14% of the effective irradiance,
which results as 55.48MWh = 55MWh
 The array losses like (temp, module, quality, mismatch, resistance) contributes for
-17.5% losses, therefore total array virtual energy at MPP = 46MWh.
 Further considerations of -2.3% of losses on the total array virtual energy results
in the Available energy at Inverter output. Therefore the total available energy at
inverter output is 44.94MWh = 45MWh

71
 Further -0.3% AC ohmic losses are considered for calculating the total energy
injected to the grid, i.e. 44.86MWh = 45MWh

b. Energy loss details for August (monsoon season)

Figure 5.25 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – August


 The figure 5.25 shows the detailed losses of the system for August. In the
designed system the Horizontal global irradiation accounts for 135kWh/m2
 The global incident in collector plane accounts for the -3.3%, therefore the
horizontal global irradiation accounts for130.54kWh/ m2.
 The optical losses (shadings, IAM) and soiling losses contributes for -3.7% of the
total losses global irradiation respectively. This results in the 121.87kWh/ m2.
 The effective irradiance on collector plane is 122kWh/m2*1957m2=238.75kWh.
 The array nominal energy can be calculated as 16.14% of the effective irradiance,
which results as 38.43MWh = 38MWh
 The array losses like (temp, module, quality, mismatch, resistance) contributes for
-12.9% losses, therefore total array virtual energy at MPP = 33MWh.

72
 Further considerations of -1.9% of losses on the total array virtual energy results
in the Available energy at Inverter output. Therefore the total available energy at
inverter output is 32.73MWh = 33MWh
 Further -0.2% AC ohmic losses are considered for calculating the total energy
injected to the grid, i.e. 32.66MWh = 33MWh

c. Energy loss details for December (winter season)

Figure 5.26 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – December


 The figure 5.26 shows the detailed losses of the system for December. In the
designed system the Horizontal global irradiation accounts for 174kWh/m2
 The global incident in collector plane accounts for the +19.2%, therefore the
horizontal global irradiation accounts for207.48kWh/ m2.
 The optical losses (shadings, IAM) and soiling losses contributes for -2.6% of the
total losses global irradiation respectively. This results in the 196.39kWh/ m2.
 The effective irradiance on collector plane is 196kWh/m2*1957m2=384.92kWh.
 The array nominal energy can be calculated as 16.14% of the effective irradiance,
which results as 62.12MWh = 62MWh
 The array losses like (temp, module, quality, mismatch, resistance) contributes for
-17.5% losses, therefore total array virtual energy at MPP = 51.24MWh.

73
 Further considerations of -2.3% of losses on the total array virtual energy results
in the Available energy at Inverter output. Therefore the total available energy at
inverter output is 50.06 = 50MWh
 Further -0.3% AC ohmic losses are considered for calculating the total energy
injected to the grid, i.e. 49.90MWh = 50MWh

d. Energy loss detailsfrom January to June


January February

March April

May June

74
Figure 5.27 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – January to June
e. Energy loss detailsfromJuly to December
July August

September October

75
November December

Figure 5.28 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – July to December

f.Energy loss details for a whole year

76
Figure 5.29 Loss diagram for Petronet Solar Project – Whole Year
 The figure 5.29 shows the detailed losses of the system over the whole year. In
the designed system the Horizontal global irradiation accounts for 1989kWh/m2
 The global incident in collector plane accounts for the +4.7%, therefore the
horizontal global irradiation accounts for2082.48kWh/ m2.
 The optical losses (shadings, IAM) and soiling losses contributes for -3% of the
total losses global irradiation respectively. This results in the 1957.53kWh/ m2.
 The effective irradiance on collector plane is 1957.53kWh/m2*1957m2=
3830.88kWh.
 The array nominal energy can be calculated as 16.14% of the effective irradiance,
which results as 618.60MWh = 619MWh
 The array losses like (temp, module, quality, mismatch, resistance) contributes for
-13.7% losses, therefore total array virtual energy at MPP = 534.29MWh.
 The module quality loss of +0.4% contributes in the array virtual energy at MPP =
536.42MWh.
 Further considerations of -5.6% of losses on the total array virtual energy results
in the Available energy at Inverter output. Therefore the total available energy at
inverter output is 506.38 = 506MWh
 Further -0.3% AC ohmic losses are considered for calculating the total energy
injected to the grid, i.e. 504.86.90MWh = 505MWh

5.1.5 Simulation results of CO2 emissions in PV system

77
Figure 5.30 CO2 emissions in PV systems for the duration of 10 years
 Figure 5.30 shows the saved CO2 emissions of the PV system for the period of 10
years.
 A normal traditional system without solar PV emits 936g of CO2 per kWh. So for the
duration of the 10 years total amount of 3912.771 tons carbon emissions can be
stopped from emitting into the atmosphere by adopting the green energy.

78
Figure 5.31 CO2 emissions savings in PV systems for the duration of 30 years

Figure 5.32 CO2 emissions in PV systems for the duration of 30 years

79
Figure 5.31 shows the saved CO2 emissions of the PV system for the period of 30 years.A
normal traditional system without solar PV emits 936g of CO2 per kWh. So for the duration
of the 30 years total amount of 11694.095 tons carbon emissions can be stopped from
emitting into the atmosphere by adopting the green energy.
The simulation results of the PVSyst shows the normalized production of the plant for the
different loss factors. The result also highlights the variation in the total production for the
different months of the year due to climatic changes which affects the total irradiation of the
sun. The total estimated losses in the system like inverter losses andohmic lossesare related
to decrease the amount of power generation.

80
Conclusions
The following conclusions were drawn from the present study.
 The power consumption at different sections of the petroleum dispatch center was
studied as L.T side and H.T side load using MATLAB simulation program.
 The 316 kW Solar PV system has been proposed for the L.T side of the power
consumption that compensates for loss in electricity charges of the L.T side.
 The PV simulation tools used for analysis (PVSyst) is effective means for SPV
system design. The result indicates that proposed 315kW plant generates the
300kWac and requires 1957m2 of module area for the proposed plant.
 From the PVSyst simulation results the energy fed to the grid for the different months
have been calculated. The energy generated in March the total generated power of
51329kWh makes it highest amount of energy to be fed to the grid.The energy fed to
the grid in January and December stands second and third respectively in the table
with the total amount of power 50877kWh and 49783kWh respectively.
 The proposed plant contributes towards the green energy of the system which
contributes in stopping of carbon emissions. For the duration of the 10 years total
amount of 3912.771 tons carbon emissions can be stopped from emitting into the
atmosphere from the proposed solar plant.

Scope for Future Improvement


The present study can be extended to include
 Real time implementation of the designed system and its experimental study
 An alternative plan can be taken into consideration in order to compensate the H.T
side power consumption charges. The different site of land can be acquired and larger
grid connected solar plant of 3MW can be proposed. The revenue generated can be
utilized for the energy charges of the petroleum dispatch center (Petronet MHBL).
 Detailed estimation of component level design of solar PV system can be proposed.

81
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