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DEEMA AT TABK LQ1 LOCATION W/S: 05/04/2941

28th July 2008

INTRODUCTION
At the request of Noble Denton (Abu Dhabi), Noble Denton Consultants Ltd (NDCL) have
performed an assessment of the installation of the Deema, a LeTourneau 150 class design
jack-up unit, at the TABK LQ1 location.
The analyses have considered a number of scenarios in order to establish the optimum
approach to installation at the location where punchthrough or rapid penetration is
possible. The analysis has been carried out assuming that the unit is to achieve the
targeted seabed footing reaction of 2,295 tonnes (5,060 kips), and with the legs penetrated
to 4.3m, the penetration at which punchthrough may be anticipated (see Figure 4).
The assessment has focused on the rate of buoyancy pick up with hull tilt compared to the
predicted load penetration curve. However, structural checks have also been undertaken
using AISC capacities and safety factors. No load factor was applied, as the loadings are
considered to be reasonably well understood.

DESCRIPTION OF THE UNIT


GENERAL
The Deema is a LeTourneau 150 design jack-up unit with 3 triangular 3-chorded ‘K’-
braced truss legs and cylindrical spudcans / footing tanks.
The legs are elevated and lowered by means of an opposed-pinion, electrically powered
rack and pinion jacking system. The legs are guided through the hull by rigid guide
structures located near the base of the hull and at the top of the jack-frame.

DIMENSIONS
Principal dimensions are summarised in Table 1.
Table 1: Principal dimensions.

Length of Hull (m) 60.83


Breadth of Hull (m) 55.47
Depth of Hull (m) 8.07
Leg Length (m) 82.75
Longitudinal Leg Spacing (m) 40.23
Transverse Leg Spacing (m) 41.45
[1]
Leg Chord Spacing (m) 9.41
Leg Bay Height (m) 2.56
Spudcan Effective Diameter (m) 10.67
Distance from spudcan tip to maximum
4.27
bearing area (m)
[1]
Chord spacing from work-point to work-point

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DEEMA AT TABK LQ1 LOCATION W/S: 05/04/2941
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WEIGHTS
The hull lightship weights and leg weights assumed in this study are based on rig
information recently received for this unit, under cover of Gautam Hiranandani’s email on
14th May 2008, and are detailed in Table 2.
Table 2: Hull and Leg Weights.

Hull Lightship Weight (tonnes) 3,367


Variable Deck Load (tonnes) 899
Weight of Single Leg, Including Spudcan (tonnes) 476
LCG (wrt centroid of the legs) (m) 0.00
TCG (wrt centroid of the legs towards the port leg) (m) -0.18

ELEVATING AND HOLDING SYSTEM


The Deema is elevated by means of an electrically driven pinion system that is braked off
during elevated operations. Capacities and stiffnesses are summarised in Table 3
Table 3: Leg Jacking System

Number of pinions per leg 12


Capacities per pinion:
Design Holding Capacity (tonnes) 408
Ultimate Holding Capacity (tonnes) 885
Vertical pinion stiffness (tonnes/m) 16,072

PRELOAD CAPACITY
Our analysis has been based on a preload jacking reaction of approximately 1,876 tonnes
per leg, with a seabed footing reaction of approximately 2,295 tonnes (5,060 kips).
The punch-through assessment is based on a leg-by-leg preload installation procedure,
accounting for preload ballast on one single leg only, and all other preload tanks remaining
empty.

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DEEMA AT TABK LQ1 LOCATION W/S: 05/04/2941
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SOIL CONDITIONS
GENERAL
Geotechnical information is presented in summary format only, with more detailed
explanation presented in EFax-01 dated 12th June 2008.
Noble Denton Consultants Ltd (NDCL) has been supplied with soil parameters at LQ1
which were derived from platform pile driving tests in close vicinity (Ref. [3]). Site specific
soil data or borehole logs were not available for the present assessment. It must be
stressed that the soil parameters used are on the basis of parameters interpreted by
others and no soil test results or strength data points have been supplied. The present
assessment assumes that these values are representative, however by their very nature a
significant degree of uncertainty is inherent in the input parameters and resulting load-
penetration curves. The results of the present analyses should therefore be viewed as
indicative and are necessarily conservative.
On the basis of the supplied information, the soils present at the LQ1 location are
estimated to comprise 3.5m (11ft) of calcarenite overlying 2.5m (8ft) of “mud” which has
been interpreted here as soft clay. This is underlain by 5m (16ft) of dense sand and
further calcarenite to 40m (131ft) below the seabed surface. The mud layer suggested
from the site data would indicate the potential for rapid spudcan penetrations to occur
during preloading, however the preload at which this would occur will depend upon the
exact strength of the mud layer which is unknown.
The soil stratigraphy and corresponding parameters are summarised in Table 4.

FOOTING PENETRATION ANALYSIS


ANALYSIS PARAMETERS
The main soil parameters and terminology used in the spudcan penetration analyses are:
SAND : effective angle of internal friction, φ′
submerged unit weight, γ′
CLAY : undrained shear strength, su (or cu)
submerged unit weight, γ′
Silts are analysed either as loose sand or as soft clay, depending upon the behavioural
characteristics of the silt. Where a range of parameters has been considered, L defines
the lower bound values and U defines the upper bound values.
DESIGN SOIL PROFILES
Table 4 summarises the soil stratigraphy and corresponding soil properties for the LQ1
location.
Table 4: Summary of soil stratigraphy and properties at the LQ1 Location
Depth (m) Soil Properties
Top of Base of
Layer unit unit Description γ' (kN/m3) su (kPa) φ' (°)
1 0.0 3.5 CALCARENITE 10.0 500L / 1000U -
2 3.5 6.0 Soft CLAY 8.0 20L / 100U** -
3 6.0 11.0 Very dense SAND 9.0 - 30 / 35U
L

4 11.0 >11.0 CALCARENITE 10.0 500L / 1000U -


**
assumed value

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The water depth at the LQ1 location is understood to be approximately 30.5m (100ft).

FOOTING PENETRATION ANALYSIS


Footing penetration analyses have been performed for the Deema at the LQ1 location
using the preloading and footing geometry details presented earlier in this report and using
the soil profile information summarised in Table 4. The footing penetration analysis has
been performed using the approach recommended by SNAME T&RB 5-5A (Ref.[1]).
Results from the spudcan penetration analysis are summarised in Figure 3.
The resulting load-penetration curve for the Deema shown in Figure 3 indicates that final
spudcan tip penetrations in the range of 1.6 to 10.3m (5 to 34ft) are predicted to occur for
a preload footing reaction of 2,295 tonnes (5,060 kips) at the LQ1 location. The Leen jack-
up rig was previously installed at this location, however due to the differences in spudcan
geometries between the Leen and Deema units, careful consideration has to be given to
the bearing pressures applied. The equivalent penetrations and preload footing reactions
for the Leen’s previous installation are shown alongside the predicted load-penetration
curve in Figure 3 after incorporating these differences in applied preload and spudcan
geometry.
The previously measured spudcan penetration data therefore suggests that rapid spudcan
penetrations are not anticipated for the Deema at the LQ1 location with a final tip
penetration of 2.4m (8ft). However, the base of the Leen’s spudcans is virtually flat, in
contrast to the pointed conical spudcan base of the Deema’s spudcans which may assist
in penetrating the soils present at LQ1, and may therefore cause rapid penetrations to
occur. Due to the spudcan geometry and lack of suitable site investigation data at the LQ1
location it is not possible to determine with any certainty the load level at which the rapid
leg penetrations may occur. Consequently preloading should be performed on a leg-by-
leg basis with the hull as close as possible to the water surface, preferably at positive draft.
The bow leg should be preloaded first in order that any unexpected spudcan penetrations
result in hull movements away from any adjacent structures.

PREVIOUS JACK-UP UNIT EMPLACEMENTS & SPUDCAN-FOOTPRINT


INTERACTION
NDCL is aware that the Naashi barge was previously installed at the LQ1 location,
however we do not hold any information with respect to the rig’s preload bearing pressure
or spudcan geometry in order to make use of the penetration data measured during its
installation. In 2006, the Leen jack-up unit was installed at the LQ1 location and achieved
final tip penetrations of between 0.16 and 0.3m (1ft).
As we do not have specific information regarding the presence of any pre-existing spudcan
footprints, we are unable to comment on the potential for spudcan-footprint interaction at
the LQ1 location.
It is however recommended that any footprints or uneven areas of seabed be avoided
wherever possible in order to minimise any such interaction effects. The current study
assumes that the Deema will be emplaced on undisturbed soil away from seabed
disturbances.

SCOUR
Scour is not expected to be problematic for the Deema at the LQ1 location due to the
predicted embedment in calcarenite which is a low strength rock. However, it is
recommended that regular monitoring of the foundation conditions be carried out as a
matter of good practice.

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DEEMA AT TABK LQ1 LOCATION W/S: 05/04/2941
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LIMITATION
The analyses and interpretation presented in this report have been based on the limited
data for the LQ1 location provided by Noble Denton (Abu Dhabi). Should the soil
conditions at the location be found to differ from the assumed soil model, it is important
that the author of this report is contacted so that analyses and interpretation presented
herein can be reviewed as necessary.

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DEEMA AT TABK LQ1 LOCATION W/S: 05/04/2941
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INSTALLATION ANALYSIS - Punch-Through


Methodology
The loading and response analyses reported herein were performed using Noble Denton's
jack-up analysis computer program JUSTAS, with the loadings on the lower legs resulting
from tilt and buoyancy simulated by means of a constant current. The loads due to hull
weight, hull buoyancy and leg weight above the hull were simulated by means of the
weight and centre of gravity for the components normal to the deck, and through addition
of conductor wave loads (applied using the drilling loads module in JUSTAS) for the
components parallel to the deck. In all cases the analyses were carried out quasi-statically
considering the legs to have pinned footings.
The hydrostatics (buoyancy loads and the location of the centre of buoyancy), accounting
for leg wells and slot were calculated using the Noble Denton GENSTAB program. A
screenshot of the model used is presented in Figure 1.
This assessment is based on the unit being preloaded for a single-leg preloading
condition, such that the seabed leg reaction on the preloaded leg was 2,295 tonnes.
Whilst the required preload footing reaction is calculated to be achievable at 1½ ft draught
for each of the aft legs, the information received suggests there is insufficient preload
tankage to achieve the required full preload footing reaction on the bow leg. We have
therefore considered the aft leg punchthrough to occur whilst at 1½ft draught, and the bow
leg punchthrough to occur at zero airgap.

Figure 1 - Genstab model used to determine the hull buoyancy

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DEEMA AT TABK LQ1 LOCATION W/S: 05/04/2941
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Results
The increase in buoyancy with trim, and restoring moment increase with trim is presented
in Figures 2 (a) and (b) respectively, for both the bow and stern (port) leg punch-through
conditions.

Buoyancy pick-up Moment pick-up

5,000 120,000

4,500

Righting Moment (tonnes-m)


100,000
4,000
Buoyancy (tonnes)

3,500 80,000

3,000
60,000
2,500
2,000
40,000
1,500
1,000 20,000

500
0
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
0 2 4 6 8 10
Trim (degrees) Trim (degrees)

0' Draught - Bow Down 1.5' Draught - Port Down 0' Draught - Bow Down 1.5' Draught - Port Down

a) Buoyancy v/s tilt b) Righting moment v/s tilt (about axis


through non punch-though legs at keel)
Figure 2: Buoyancy results for bow and stern (port) leg punch-through

Results show the increasing levels of buoyancy and righting moment pick-up for increasing
levels of trim for the bow and aft legs at the draughts considered. Although it has been
found that typically the stern legs are found to be more critical, in this case, the pre-
punch-through draught of the stern legs allows for greater buoyancy pick-up than when at
zero airgap, as is the case for the bow leg, see Figure 2a.
The effect of buoyancy on the leg reaction during punchthrough has been over-plotted on
load-penetration curves as presented in Figure 4.
When assessing the leg strength, the potential for leg-splay was also considered, whereby
the punch-through leg moves away from the other legs i.e. it tends to move vertically or
outward, rather than in an arc about an axis joining the other two footings, (representative
of the non-splaying condition). Full leg-splay represents the case whereby the bending
moment in the punch-through leg is shed completely, and will generally correspond to the
punch-through leg moving further from the rotation axis than the vertical. Typically the leg
bending moments are of similar magnitude in all three legs, so the moment in the non-
punch-through legs could increase by up to 50% (in our terminology, this corresponds to a
leg-splay factor of 1.5). In previous studies it has been considered that the punch-through
leg is unlikely to move outward from the vertical, thus providing a leg-splay limit with a
factor of less than 1.5, however this condition is considered to provide conservative
results.
A first-pass check of the leg and holding system strength during the punchthrough event
indicates that load levels are anticipated to remain within allowable, even when allowing
for load redistribution due to leg-splay.

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CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS


The punch-through analyses shows that, should the punchthrough event be realised
during installation of the Deema at the TABK LQ1 location, the buoyancy pick-up is such
that the hull is anticipated to reach equilibrium at relatively low angles of trim. This is
based on a cautious approach being adopted for preloading as per the following
recommendations.
• Reduce the hull draft to 0 ft, (rapid leg penetrations are not anticipated at any leg
during this phase).
• Preload the Bow spudcan only to achieve the target preload and to ensure any
movement is away from any adjacent structure. Dump and level as required. Leg
runs are not anticipated unless the soil strength falls below the lower bound.
• Jack down to 1.5ft draught and preload the Port spudcan only to achieve the target
preload, accounting for the additional load required to counteract the hull buoyancy.
Dump and level as required. Leg runs are not anticipated unless the soil strength is
close to the lower bound
• Whilst maintaining 1.5ft draught, preload Starboard spudcan only to achieve the
target preload, accounting for the additional load required to counteract the hull
buoyancy. Dump and level as required. Leg runs are not anticipated unless the
soil strength is close to the lower bound.
A suitable limit angle should be predetermined, beyond which jacking should not take
place with any preload on board. It is also recommended that RPDs are closely monitored
and careful recordings of the actual load-penetration response be kept up to date to
enable comparisons between the recorded response and the predicted behaviour for
assessment of footing performance.
First-pass checks of the leg and holding system strength during the punchthrough event
indicate that load levels are anticipated to remain within allowable, even when allowing for
load redistribution due to leg-splay.
Although significant rapid penetration is not expected if the procedure outlined above is
followed, should it occur, it is recommended that jacking to level is not undertaken until
such time as the preload has been dumped/pumped out. We have not undertaken any
specific recovery analysis, but anticipate that the "up-hill" legs should then remain braked
whilst the hull is raised up the punch-through leg. The constraints and controls required to
safeguard the punch-through leg would need to be determined from further study.

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References
[1] SNAME T&RB 5-5A (Jan 2002). ‘Guideline for Site Specific Assessment of Mobile
Jack-Up Units’, Technical and Research Bulletin 5-5A.
[2] Noble Denton ‘Self Elevating Platforms - Guidelines for Elevated Operations’
No: 0009/NDI Rev 3 dated 7th December 2007
(available at: http://www.nobledenton.com/co_guide.htm)
[3] Total TEP/DD (unknown date). Extracts of various soil stratigraphies.
[4] Noble Denton Consultants Ltd (8th July 2008) ’05-04-2941 Efax-01 - Deema @
TABK LQ1’

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DEEMA AT TABK LQ1 LOCATION W/S: 05/04/2941
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Deema at LQ1, offshore Abu Dhabi, Persian Gulf


SPUDCAN PENETRATION ANALYSIS

Location Details Spudcan Geometry


Name : LQ1, offshore Abu Dhabi, Persian Gulf
Coordinates : unknown N, unknown E (unknown)
Depth of water : 30.5 m (100 ft) 100
30.5
Jack-up Unit Details
Name : Deema
Design : LeTourneau 150

Calculated Spudcan Reactions at the Predicted Tip Penetration


Preload reaction : 2,295 tonnes (5,060 kips) 2,295 5,060
Stillwater reaction : 1,841 tonnes (4,059 kips) 1,841 4,059

Expected Spudcan Tip Penetration 2.4 m (8 ft) 2.4 8

Average Soil Properties Used in Spudcan Penetration Analysis


Starting Average Soil Properties
Layer Soil type
γ' (kN/m ) φ' ( )
Depth (m) 3 o
cu top (kPa) cu bot (kPa)
1 0.0 CALCARENITE 10.0 750.0 750.0 -
2 3.5 "MUD" 8.0 60.0 60.0 -
3 6.0 SAND 9.0 - - 32.5
4 11.0 CALCARENITE 10.0 750.0 750.0 -
5 - - - - - -
6 - - - - - -
7 - - - - - -
8 - - - - - -

Spudcan Penetration Curve


Vertical foundation load during preloading (tonnes)
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
0 0

5
2

10
Spudcan tip penetration (ft)
Spudcan tip penetration (m)

4 Expected spudcan tip penetration


= 2.4 m (8 ft) 15
Range = 1.6m (5ft) to 10.3m (34ft)

6 20

25
Spudcan stillwater reaction

8
Spudcan preload reaction

Lower Bound
30
Average
10
Upper Bound
35
Leen in 2006

12
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
Vertical foundation load during preloading (kips)
spud_pen v1.3 Soils Database Ref. 10 W.S. 05/04/2941 Calc: DHE Appvd: MJRH Date: 25-Jul-08

Figure 3: Footing penetration analysis summary for the Deema @ TABK LQ1

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DEEMA AT TABK LQ1 LOCATION W/S: 05/04/2941
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Deema at LQ1, offshore Abu Dhabi, Persian Gulf


SPUDCAN PENETRATION ANALYSIS

Location Details Spudcan Geometry


Name : LQ1, offshore Abu Dhabi, Persian Gulf
Coordinates : unknown N, unknown E (unknown)
Depth of water : 30.5 m (100 ft) 100
30.5
Jack-up Unit Details
Name : Deema
Design : LeTourneau 150

Calculated Spudcan Reactions at the Predicted Tip Penetration


Preload reaction : 2,295 tonnes (5,060 kips) 2,295 5,060
Stillwater reaction : 1,841 tonnes (4,059 kips) 1,841 4,059

Expected Spudcan Tip Penetration 2.4 m (8 ft) 2.4 8

Average Soil Properties Used in Spudcan Penetration Analysis


Starting Average Soil Properties
Layer Soil type
γ' (kN/m ) φ' ( )
Depth (m) 3 o
cu top (kPa) cu bot (kPa)
1 0.0 CALCARENITE 10.0 750.0 750.0 -
2 3.5 "MUD" 8.0 60.0 60.0 -
3 6.0 SAND 9.0 - - 32.5
4 11.0 CALCARENITE 10.0 750.0 750.0 -
5 - - - - - -
6 - - - - - -
7 - - - - - -
8 - - - - - -

Spudcan Penetration Curve

Vertical foundation load during preloading (tonnes)


0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
0 Lower Bound 0
Average
Upper Bound
Leen in 2006 5
Punchthrough at Full Preload
2
Bow Leg Punch-through (0' Draught)
Port Leg Punch-through (1.5' Draught)
10
Spudcan tip penetration (ft)
Spudcan tip penetration (m)

4
15
Punch-through
spudcan tip
6 penetration 20
= 4.3 m (14 ft)

25
8
Spudcan stillwater reaction

Spudcan preload reaction

30

10
35

12
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
Vertical foundation load during preloading (kips)
spud_pen v1.3 Soils Database Ref. 10 W.S. 05/04/2941 Calc: DHE Appvd: MJRH Date: 25-Jul-08

Figure 4: Footing penetration analysis summary for the Deema @ TABK LQ1
showing Punch-through at full preload

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