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Diunggah oleh OPTICALMIMOOFDM

A Two-Stage Frequency-Offset Estimation Scheme for OFDMA System

- Final Report
- Effect of Carrier Frequency Offset on SER of OFDM System
- OFDM Optical
- Secant Method Based ML estimation of Carrier Frequency Offset in OFDM system
- Optimization of Inter-satellite Link (ISL) in Hybrid OFDM-IsOWC Transmission System
- PAPR Reduction in OFDM by Addition of DC Value
- Advantages of Sc-fde Over Ofdm
- Robust Frequency Synchronization For
- Papr Final
- Blind Estimation of Carrier Frequency Offset in Multicarrier Communication Systems
- Performance Analysis of OFDM
- OFDM – Orthogonal Frequecy Division Multiplexing _ 5amperes
- Lifi's Information
- Published Paper
- Spectral Efficiency of OFDM Systems With Random Residual CFO
- nccce_150
- Multi-Carrier Equalization by Restoration of RedundancY (MERRY) for Adaptive Channel Shortening in Multi-Carrier Systems
- Final Report
- Chapter 1
- DSP Log - Peak to Average Power Ratio for OFDM

Anda di halaman 1dari 6

Mostafa.Moh1, Abdel Fadeel Gamal 2, I.I.Ibrahim2

1

Electronics and Communication Department, Faculty of Engineering, EL shorouk Academy,

Cairo, Egypt.

Muhamed_mostafe@yahoo.com

2

Electronics and Communication Department, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University,

Cairo, Egypt.

gam_hel@yahoo.com

iiibrahim@softhome.net

AbstractــــIn OFDMA multiple access wireless communication of active users and, their corresponding subchannels, which

systems, carrier frequency offsets between the transmitter and limits its application. Throughout this paper, we will refer to

the receiver tend to destroy the orthogonality among subcarriers, the algorithm in Ref. [6] as the Cao-Tureli-Yao (CTY)

and hence, introduces intercarrier interference. A two-stage scheme. In the present paper we focus on the CFO estimation

frequency offset estimation algorithm based on subspace

in the uplink of interleaved-OFDMA systems. We propose a

processing is proposed. The main advantage of the proposed

method is that it can obtain the CFOs of all users simultaneously two-stage CFO-estimation algorithm based on subspace

using only one OFDMA block. Compared with previously known processing which maintains the advantage of estimating the

methods, our system is seen not to have a relatively low CFOs of all users simultaneously using only one OFDMA

implementation complexity, but is also suitable for random block without the need for any a priori information.

subchannel assignment.

II. SYSTEM MODELING

Key words

Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA); In this section, we introduce the signal model for the

Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO); Normalized Root Mean interleaved-OFDMA uplink following [6]. Consider an

Square Error (NRMSE). OFDMA system with N subcarriers and M users, where each

SS communicates with the BS through an independent

I. INTRODUCTION multipath channel. Suppose that the N subcarriers are divided

into Q subchannels, and each subchannel has P = N/Q

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple-Access (OFDMA) is subcarriers. For the interleaved subcarrier assignment, the q-th

selected as the physical-layer technology for the IEEE subchannel is composed of subcarriers with indexes

802.16/WiMAX family of standards[1,2], and is pursued as {q, Q + q,…… .,(P-1 )Q + q}, q = 0,1,… ,Q-1 .

the potential candidate for future mobile communication

systems.In OFDMA, subcarriers are assigned to different users Let superscript (.) ( m ) denotes the m-th user. Fig.1 depicts the

for parallel data transmission, and frequency guard- bands transmitter structure for the m-th user, with

between adjacent users are achieved. Moreover, s (m) = [ S 0(m) S1(m) " S P(m)−1 ] denoting the information block that the

in an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, sub

carrier not employed, there by a high spectral efficiency is m-th user will transmit during one OFDMA block. This block

being achieved. Moreover, in an Additive White Gaussian is first mapped into a set of N modulation symbols: {X i(m) }iN=0−1 ,

Noise (AWGN) channel, subcarrier orthogonalities prevent where,

Inter Carrier Interferences (ICI) as well as Multi User ⎧S (m) , i = pQ + q ( m )

Interferences (MUI). But, OFDMA inherits the Weakness ⎪

X (m) = ⎨ g,p (1)

of OFDM, i.e., being sensitive to Carrier Frequency Offset g,i

⎪⎩0, otherwise

(CFO) induced by Doppler effects and/or poor oscillator

Alignments this, would, in turn, destroys the orthogonality And p = 0 ,1,…… P-1 , and q (m ) denotes the subchannel index

among subcarriers, resulting in ICI and MUI. In order for of user m. For a data bearing subcarrier, the modulation could

OFDMA to achieve a desirable performance, it has to have be a phase shift keying (PSK) or quadrature amplitude

strict frequency synchronization between the Subscriber modulation (QAM). For virtual subcarriers, the modulation

Station (SS), and the Base Station (BS) over both the uplink as symbols are effectively zero padded in the IFFT. For pilot

well as the downlink. As a result, CFO estimation schemes subcarriers, the modulation symbols are pilot symbols or

have become a major task in the OFDMA system. In Ref.[6], training symbols used for channel estimation purpose. The

Cao, etal. studied the CFO estimation for the uplink of the CP(Cyclic prefix) is, then, added to avoid inter-block

interleaved-OFDMA system, and proposed a CFO-estimation interference (IBI) caused by multipath fading. As a result, the

algorithm based on the signal structure. The main advantage of Baseband signal transmitted from the m-th user can be

this estimation algorithm is that, it can estimates the CFOs of represented as follow

all users simultaneously using only one OFDMA block.

However, it requires a priori information such as the number

L(m)

− j 2 πiΔfτl(m)

H (m)

p = ∑ αl(m)e (6)

l =1

samples at the receiver are given by,

M −1 P −1

Υ ( n) = ∑ ∑ H p( m ) S p( m ) e j 2π ( iΔf ) nT s

m = 0 p =0

M −1 P −1

(7)

= ∑∑H (m)

p

S e(m)

p

j ( 2π / N ) ni

,

m =0 p =0

the m-th user and the uplink receiver. For practical purposes,

the absolute value of Δf ( m ) should be less than half of

OFDMA subcarrier spacing.

Following [4], the presence of {Δf (m) }m=1 changes the signal

M

M P −1

Υ ( n) = ∑ ∑ H p( m ) S p( m ) e j ( 2π / N ) n ( i +ε

(m)

)

(8)

m =1 p =0

(m)

x (m) = ∑ ∑ X F (t )

Δf ( m )

g = −∞ i = 0

g,i g,i ε (m) = (9)

(2) Δf

∞ P −1

= ∑ ∑ S F

(m)

(t ) Where ε (m) is defined as the normalized CFO of the m-th user.

g,p g,i

g =0p=0

A. The Interleaved OFDMA Signal

Note that Fg,i(t) is given by,

In this subsection, the signal representation of the interleaved

⎧e j 2 π (iΔf )(T − gT ) ,

cp b

gT ≤ t ≤ (g + 1 )T OFDMA uplink is presented. Suppose the N subcarriers are

Fg,i (t) = ⎨ b b

(3) divided into Q sub-channels and, each sub channel has

⎩0 , otherwise P = N/Q Subcarriers. For interleaved subcarrier assignment, a

sub-channel, {q}, is composed of subcarriers with index set

Where Δf is the subcarrier spacing, T is the length of CP

cp {q, Q + q, …, (P - 1)Q + q} , q = 0, 1, …, Q - 1.

and T = T + T is the duration of one OFDMA block,

b cp

B. Single user signal, and its effective CFO

T = 1 / Δf . Assuming that the signals are transmitted through

a slowly time-variant multipath fading channel, i.e. fading For the purpose of derivation, assume that the system has one

coefficients are assumed to be constant during one OFDMA user only, M, which is assigned to sub-channel {q}. After

block. The channel can be characterized as follows, removal of the CP, the received N signal samples can be

L( m )

written as follows,

h ( m ) (τ , t ) = ∑ α ( m ) (t )δ (t , τ ( m ) ) (4) P −1 j

2π

( pQ + q +ε ( m ) ) n

l = 1

l Υ ( m ) ( n ) = ∑ H p( m ) S p( m ) e N

p=0

(m )

(10)

where L is the total number of paths, α l(m ) and τ l(m ) , are j

2π

( q +ε ( m ) ) n P −1 j

2π

pn

the complex gain and time delay of the l-th path respectively.

=e N

∑H

p =0

(m)

p =0

(m)

S e

p

N

At the (uplink) receiver, the signal of one OFDMA block is Where n=0, 1… N-1. It is important to note that,

the superposition of signals from all M active users. Assume (m)

Υ ( m ) ( n + P ) = e j 2 π ( q +ε ) / Q Υ ( m ) ( n ) , (11)

all m-users are synchronized in time, the received (sampled)

Moreover,

signal in the absence of noise can be written as (m)

M L( m ) Υ ( m ) ( n + νP ) = e j 2πν ( q+ε ) / Q Υ ( m ) ( n ), (12)

Υ ( nTs ) = ∑ ∑ α l

(m)

( nTs )x

( m) ( m)

( nTs − τ l ) (5) Where ν is an integer. Equations (11), and (12), indicate that

m =1 l =1

Where Ts = T / N is the sampling interval. Consider the the received N-signal samples of one OFDMA block from the

m-th user, {Υ ( m ) ( n )}nN=−01 , have a special periodical structure

signal of one OFDMA block, and let H p( m ) denotes the

every P samples. Let R denotes the number of periods within

frequency response of the i-th subcarrier for the m-th user’s the N signal samples. We have R = N/P = Q .The number of

channel during one OFDMA block,

periods is, the number of sub-channels. {Υ ( m ) ( n )}nN=−01 Can thus at the receiver. {Υ ( m ) (n)}nN=−01 can also be arranged into

be arranged into a Q × P matrix a Q × P matrix, Y, in the same fashion as (13). From (14) and

⎡ Y( 0 ) ... Y(P − 1 ) ⎤ (16), the following relationship holds,

⎢ Y(p) ... Y( 2 P − 1 )⎥

M

Υ = ∑ Y ( m ) = VS + W = V {UΘ( BFp )} + W (17)

Υ=⎢ ⎥ m=1

⎢ ⎥

⎣Y(N-P) ... Y(N − 1 ) ⎦ Q× P ⎡ u (1) ⎤ ⎡ b (1) ⎤

(13) ⎢ ( 2) ⎥ ⎢ ( 2) ⎥

u ⎥ b ⎥

U =⎢ B=⎢

and (10), can be expressed concisely as,

⎢ # ⎥ ⎢ # ⎥

{

Υ (m) = υ (m) u(m)Θ(b(m)Fp ) + W . } (14) ⎢ (m) ⎥ ⎢ (m) ⎥

in (14) Θ represents Schur product, or element by element ⎣⎢u ⎦⎥ M × P ⎣⎢b ⎦⎥ M × P

product. F is a P × P IFFT matrix given by,

p

[

V = v (1) , v ( 2) , " v ( m ) ] is a vandermonde matrix

with the following format,

⎡1 1 1 1 ⎤

⎢1 e j 2Pπ 2 π ( P −1)

j P ⎥ ⎡ 1 1 1 1 ⎤

" e ⎢ e j 2πθ ⎥

Fp = ⎢ ⎥ j 2πθ ( 2 ) j 2πθ ( m )

(1)

⎢ e " e ⎥

⎢# # % # ⎥

⎢ 2 π ( P −1)

j P j

2 π ( P −1)( P −1)

⎥ ⎢ # # % # ⎥

⎣1 e " e P

⎦ ⎢ j 2π (Q−1)θ ⎥

(1)

j 2π (Q−1)θ ( 2 ) j 2π (Q−1)θ ( m)

b (m) = [H 1(m) X 1(m) H 2(m) X 2(m) " H P(m) X P(m) ]. finally, S is a m × P matrix and its m-th row is given by,

Also [Y (m)( 0 ), Y (m)( 1 )," , Y (m)(P − 1 )] .

(m) (m)

υ ( m ) = [1 e j 2πθ " e j 2π ( Q−1)θ ]T

and III. CFO ESTIMATION ALGORITHM

[

u ( m ) = 1 e j 2πθ / P " e j 2π ( P−1)θ / P

(m) (m)

W is Q × P AWGN matrix. Each element of W is a Gaussian propose a two-stage CFO-estimation algorithm based on

random variable with zero-mean and variance σ 2 where the subspace processing in order to estimate the CFOs of all users

using only one OFDMA block.

superscript (.)T denotes transpose and θ ( m ) is given by

q (m) + ε (m) A. Definition of the CFO spectrum

θ (m) = (15)

Q

From Eq.(14), Y is similar to the data model of the MUSIC

and is defined as the effective CFO of the m-th user. As will

be shown later, the proposed algorithm estimates the effective algorithm in the multi-antennas receiving system, and ν (m )

CFO rather than the normalized CFO directly. The effective has the same structure as the array steering vector .Let

CFO has one important property. Different users have distinct y l , sl , wl denote, the l-th column of Y, S, W, respectively

effective CFO’s. From its definition, we can show that if one where l=1,2,…,P, and we have y l = Vsl + wl .The covariance

user occupies sub-channel{q}, the range of its effective CFO

matrix of y l is given by,

q − 0.5 q + 0.5

is ( , ) , since the range of ε ( m ) is (−0.5,0.5) . Ψ = E[ y l ylH ] = VΦ V + σ 2 I (18)

Q Q

because different users occupy different subchannels, their where E[.] signifies the expectation, (.) represents the H

effective CFO’s fall in a non-overlapping ranges. Hermitian operation, Φ = E[ sl slH ] is the covariance of sl ,and I

is a Q×Q identity matrix. From Eq.(18), it is known that Ψ is

C. Multiple user signal, and its effective CFO a Hermitian matrix, and its eigenvalues are all positive, real

numbers. Let λ1 ≥ λ2 ≥ " ≥ λQ denote the Q eigenvalues of Ψ

From (8), at the uplink receiver, the remaining N superposed

signal samples of one OFDMA block after the removal of CP in descending order. Based on the subspace processing

are given by, technique [9], we find that {θ ( m ) }mM=1 corresponds to the M

of PCFO (θ ) ,

M P −1

Υ (n) = ∑ ∑ H p( m ) S p( m ) e j ( 2π / N )( pQ + q

(m)

+ε ( m ) ) n

(16) largest values which is given by

m =1 p =0

1

where the m-th user is assigned to sub-channel q. In (16), we PCFO (θ ) = 2

(19)

H H

assume signals from different users are synchronized in time a (θ )U zU z a (θ )

where a (θ ) = [1 e j 2πθ " e j 2π ( Q−1)θ ] , U z is Q × (Q − M )

matrix composed of the Q − M eigenvectors corresponding to

λM +1 , ", λQ and the subspace spanned by U z is the noise

subspace of Ψ . As PCFO (θ ) is a function of the effective CFO,

we define PCFO (θ ) as the CFO spectrum according to the

definition of Direction-Of-Arrival (DOA) spectrum in the

MUSIC algorithm. With a large number of columns in Y, the

covariance matrix Ψ can be estimated by

ˆ = 1 ΥΥ H = 1 ∑ y y H

P

Ψ l l

(20)

P P l =1

Therefore, Û z ,the estimation of U z ,can be derived by

introducing eigen decomposition to Ψ̂ .

From Eq.(19), estimation of {θ ( m ) }mM=1 corresponds to the m-th Fig .2 Flowchart of the proposed two-stage CFO-estimation algorithm based

on subspace processing

largest peaks of PCFO (θ ) .Cao,etal. proposed a CFO-estimation

algorithm based on the signal structure[6].The main advantage

of the estimation algorithm in [6], is that it can estimate the

CFOs of all users simultaneously using only one OFDMA

block. However, it requires apriori information such as the

number of active users and, the occupied subchannels, which

limits its application. In the case of random subchannel

assignment, the number of users and the occupied subchannels

are unknown to the uplink receiver, thus an accurate peak- Fig.3 The relation between the effective CFOs and the subchannel indexes

search in the CFO spectrum over the range

θ ∈ [(0 − 0.5) / Q, (Q − 1 + 0.5) / Q ] is required in the CTY Where qˆ ( m ) is the estimate of q (m ) , and ⎣X ⎦ denotes the integer

method [6], which is computationally very expensive. To equal to or less than X. Because the number of active users

solve this problem, we propose a two-stage CFO-estimation and occupied subchannels can be estimated, the proposed

algorithm based on subspace processing in this paper. The algorithm is suitable for systems with random subchannel

flowchart of the algorithm is shown in Fig.2 assignment.

In summary, the algorithm is similar to the MUSIC algorithm,

1) Coarse Estimation and the steps of the coarse-estimation stages are described as

follows:

First, we introduce SVD (Eigen decomposition) to Ψ̂ . Then Step 1: arrange the received signal samples into matrix form

the number of users can be estimated by means of the AIC [8], Y;

or the MDL [9], criterion using the Eigen values of Ψ̂ .After ˆ = ΥΥ H / P ;

Step 2: calculate the covariance matrix Ψ

knowing the user number, the coarse estimation of {θ ( m ) }mM=1 ,

Step 3: introduce eigen-decomposition to Ψ̂ ;

{θˆ ( m ) }mM=1 can be derived by performing the coarse peak-search Step 4: estimate the number of users M̂ by using the AIC or

in the CFO spectrum, PCFO (θ ) with the MDL criterion and obtain Û z with the eigenvectors

θ ∈ [(0 − 0.5) / Q, (Q − 1 + 0.5) / Q ] , where the increment of θ is of Ψ̂ ;

θinc = 0.1/Q .From Eq.(15), we can obtain the relation formula Step 5: find the M̂ largest peaks of PCFO (θ ) over the range

between the effective CFO and the subchannel index of the m- θ ∈ [(0 − 0.5) / Q, (Q − 1 + 0.5) / Q ] in order to obtain the coarse

th user, which is given by,

θ ( m)Q = q ( m) + ε ( m) , m=1,2,…,M (21) estimations {θˆ ( m ) }mM=1 , where the increment of θ in each round is

Fig.3 illustrates the relation between {θ ( m ) }mM=1 where the arrows θinc = 0.1 / Q ;

Step 6: estimate users’ subchannels according to Eq.(22).

represent the occupied subchannels. Since ε ( m ) ∈ (−0.5,0.5) ,the

subchannel index of the m-th user can be estimated via, 2) Fine Estimation

qˆ ( m ) = [θˆL( m ) Q + 0.5] (22) In this stage, the fine peak-search is performed in the CFO

spectrum PCFO (θ ) with

TABLE 2

θ ∈ [(qˆ ( m ) − 0.5) / Q, (qˆ ( m ) + 0.5) / Q ] , m = 1,2,..., Mˆ , and, hence, SIMULATION PARAMETERS

the accurate estimations of all the CFOs can be obtained. The Uplink Band Width (BW) 20MHz

increment of θ in each round is θ inc = 0.001 / Q . Modulation QPSK

The steps for the fine-estimation stage are summarized as Number of subcarriers (N) 2048

follow:

Subcarrier spacing (Δƒ) 11.16kHz

Step 1: select user m from M̂ users;

Step2: find the largest peak of PCFO (θ ) in Useful symbol duration (T) 89.6 μs

θ ∈ [(qˆ ( m ) − 0.5) / Q, (qˆ ( m ) + 0.5) / Q ] , in order to obtain Cyclic prefix length 256

(m)

A. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm

Step 3: calculate Δfˆ ( m ) using Eq.(23);

First, let's verify the effectiveness of the proposed two-stage

Δfˆ ( m ) = εˆ ( m ) Δf = (Qθˆs( m ) − qˆ ( m ) )Δf (23) CFO-estimation algorithm. The number of subchannels and

Step 4: return to Step 1 until all the CFOs Of M̂ users are users are Q=16 and M=4, respectively, the occupied

estimated. subchannels are [0 ,2, 4, 6] and the normalized CFOs are

[0.15 0.05 -0.15 -0.05] .

C. Computational Complexity Analysis Fig.4 shows the CFO spectrum obtained using the two-stage

peak-search. Fig.5 depicts the enlarged CFO spectrum of all

The dimensions of a(θ) and U z are Q×1 and Q×(Q−M), users, where the solid curve represents the CFO spectrum

respectively. The computation of PCFO (θ ) requires, obtained in the first stage, and the dotted curves indicate the

f (Q, M ) = 2Q (Q − M ) + Q = 2Q − 2QM + Q complex

2 CFO spectrum obtained in the second stage. The vertical

dashed lines show the positions of the subchannels From Fig.4

multiplications. The coarse and the fine estimation stages need

and Fig.5, it can be seen, that the spectrum-peaks correspond

respectively 10Q + 1 and 1001M cycles for peak searching.

to the occupied sub channels and the effective CFOs of all

Thus the two-stage CFO-estimation algorithm needs users. The corresponding estimations of the normalized CFOs

[1001M + (10Q + 1)] f (Q, M ) complex multiplications. using the proposed method are [0.150 0.049 - 0.150 - 0.050] ,

In contrast, the CTY method proposed in [6], needs which are close to their exact values. The accuracy and

(1000Q + 1) cycles if the number of users and the occupied effectiveness of the proposed CFO estimation algorithm have

subchannels are unknown. So it requires (1000Q + 1) f (Q, M ) thus been demonstrated.

complex multiplications. Table 1, lists the computational

complexities of the CTY method and compare it with the B. Normalized Root Mean Square Error

proposed method for certain values of N, Q, and M. As can be

shown, the proposed two-stage method has much lower The Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE), of the

computational complexity. estimates is always used to quantify the performance of the

TABLE I CFO estimation, and it is defined as,

NUMBER OF COMPLEX MULTIPLICATIONS (N=2048) 1 π M

User Q=16 Q=32 E NRMSE =

Mπ

∑

ρ

∑ [εˆρ

=1 m =1

(m)

− ε ρ( m ) ]2 (24)

Number

CTY Two-stage CTY Two-stage

Where M is the number of users, Π is the total number of

4 6.40 × 10 6

1.67 × 10 6

58.37 × 10 6

7.89 × 10 6

10

8

6

4

Peak value

2

10

0

10

This section presents the simulation model we have used to

validate our findings. The transmission parameters of the -2

10

OFDMA-uplink are selected according to the IEEE 802.16d/e

[1,2], and are summarized in Table-2 below. In the simulation -4

10

model, the interleaved subcarrier assignment is employed. -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6

Effective CFO

0.8 1 1.2

4 -1

10 10

CTY method (M=12)

3 Two-stagemehod (M=12)

10 CTY method (M=8)

Two-stage method (M=8)

2 CTY method (M=4)

10 -2

10 data6

1

P e a k v a lu e

ENRMSE

10

0

10

-3

10

-1

10

-2

10

-4

-3 10

10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

-0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 SNR (dB)

Effective CFO

Fig.6 Normalized RMSE versus SNR

Fig.5 Enlarged CFO spectrum of all users

1

channel for each user. The NRMSE is computed after

averaging over all participating users for 500, independent

Monte Carlo test. In Fig.6, the NRMSE is plotted

Average CPU times (s)

0

10

observe that the proposed two stage CFO-estimation

algorithm has a NRMSE performance similar to the CTY 10

-1

is less than 1% of the subcarrier spacing. If the SNR is low,

for example, 3dB, the NRMSE is around 2% of the subcarrier -2

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Number of user (M)

C. Computational Complexity

References

[1] Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems, IEEE Std.

Fig.7 shows a comparison of the computational complexities 802.16d, June 2004.

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