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MODULE-III

LOW COST ROAD


OR
LOW VOLUME ROAD

Prof. Ujjval J Solanki


Department of Civil Engineering,
Darshan Institute of Engineering and Technology-RAJKOT
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Contents
Types of pavement
Factors affecting selection of pavements
Functions of pavement Components
Low cost Road/ Low Volume Road
Classification of low cost road
Earthen road
Soil stabilization
Gravel Road
WBM Road
High Cost Road/ High Volume Road
Bituminous Road
Cement Concrete Road
Joints in CC Road
Joint sealing, Filler

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Types of Pavement
Flexible Pavement
Why it is Flexible?
Load transfer pattern- Grain to grain
Temperature stresses?.. No

Rigid pavement
Why it is Rigid ?
Load transfer pattern
Temperature stresses? Yes

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Difference: Flexible and Rigid Pavement
FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT RIGID PAVEMENT
 Load transfer by grain  Load transfer by slab
to grain action.
 Low flexural strength  High flexural strength
 No temperature  Produced temp.
stresses
stresses.
 Excessive load it may
 Excessive load- local crack and rupture
depression.  Design by IRC-58-
 Design by IRC-37- 2011.
2012

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Load transfer

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Factors affecting selection of pavement

Flexible OR Rigid ?
Depends on
Type and intensity of traffic- Heavy axle load – Rigid
batter
Fund for construction and maintenance- High cost for
rigid
Type of Subgrade soil- Clay
Drainage
Equipment – Hot mix plant / Concrete mixture plant
Rainfall
Temperature – Rigid pavement – temp stresses in
rigid
Time for completion- Rigid pavement-28 day curing.

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Functions of Pavement components

Components
Subgrade
Sub base
Base course
Bituminous binder course
Wearing course

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Functions of Pavement components

Components
Subgrade The load is transferred by the sub-grade
effectively to the earth mass.
Sub base and Base course : Is used to disperse the
upcoming loads to large area through a finite
thickness, so as to increase the load bearing capacity.
Stability and density, Provide Drainage
Binder course : Stability, Density, Resistance to
weathering, Transfer load, Protect from Frost action

Surface course: Smooth riding, Water proof surface,


Transfer wheel load to binder course, Reduce friction

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LOW COST ROAD/ LOW VOLUME ROAD

Low cost
Low construction coat and Maintenance cost

Made for Low traffic.


Low volume:500 ton/day ( Max 1/3rd Bullock cart,
or slow moving and truck max – 5 Ton

Construction : Maximum use of locally available


road material
Rural Roads-
PMGSY- Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna

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LOW COST ROAD- Standards

Route,ROW, Formation level, Drainage,


HGD, Bridges
Above all should be upgraded in future
Increase in traffic – possible to strengthen in
stages
As per IRC ROW – Land width in mt

Sr. Type of Road Type of Area


No Plain and Open Area Rolling/Built up area
Normal Range Normal Range
1 ODR 15 15-25 15 15-20
2 VR 12 12-18 10 10-15
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Classification of Low cost Road

Category
1. Earthen Road – Stabilized road
2. Gravel Road
3. Kunkar Road
4. Moorum Road
5. Water Bound Macadam

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Stabilized Road- What is stabilization?

Soil stabilization: Definition


Soil Stabilization is the alteration
of soils to enhance their physical
properties.
Stabilization can increase the shear
strength of a soil and/or control the
shrink-swell properties of a soil,
thus improving the load bearing capacity
of a sub-grade to support pavements
and foundations.
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Soil stabilization

Objective/ Necessity of soil


stabilization

Principles of soil stabilization


• Evaluate existing soil
• Deciding process of stabilization
• Designing of stabilized mix
• Compaction
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Soil stabilization: Methods

1. Mechanical Stabilization
Base course:Sand-50% PI-5 to7,
2. Cement Stabilization ( 5 to 14 %)
3. Lime stabilization ( 2 to 10 %)
4. Bitumen stabilization (Cohesive- 4 to 7%,
Sandy soil 4 to 10 %)
5. Chemical stabilization ( CaCl2 – 0.5%,NaCl2-
1%, Sodium silicate -0.1 to 0.2%,
6. Electrical stabilization- electro osmosis
7. Lime- Fly ash stabilization
(Fly ash- 10 to 20 % , Lime 3 to 7% )

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Construction of Water Bound macadam
Road (WBM) – IRC-19-1977
John Macadam – England
WBM: Consists of crushed agg. which are
mechanically interlocked by rolling and the
voids in the aggregates are filled with
screening and binding material with the help
of water.
Layer thickness 7.5 to 10 cm
Camber: 1 in 48
Materials used in WBM
1) Coarse aggregates
2) Screenings
3) Binding material
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WBM:Coarse Aggregates:Abrasion,Impact, Flakiness
Gradin Aggregate Size Sieve % Passing by
g range size weight
100 100
1 90 to 40 mm
80 65-85
63 25-40
40 0-15
20 0-5
80 100
2 63- to 40 mm
63 90-100
50 30-70
40 0-15
20 0-5
63 100
3 50 to 20 mm
50 95-100
40 35-70
20 0-10
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WBM: Screening material grading

Gradin Aggregate Size Sieve % Passing by


g range size weight
12.5 100
A 12.5 mm
10 90-100
4.75 10-30
0.150 0-8
10 100
B 10 mm
4.75 85-100
0.150 10-30
Screening :Used to fill voids in compacted layer of Coarse aggregates
Same material used for screening
Grading requirement is as above table Type –A and B

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WBM: Binding Material

Binding Material

Fine grained material


Moorum
Fine dust
Required Plasticity Index : 4 to 9

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Construction of Water Bound macadam

Step wise construction process:


Steps Work
1 Preparation of foundation for receiving WBM Course
2 Lateral confinement of aggregates
3 Spreading coarse aggregates
4 Rolling
5 Application of Screening
6 Sprinkling and Grouting
7 Application of Binding Material
8 Setting and Drying

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WBM Road

Advantages

Disadvantages

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Earthen Road OR All weather Road

Important Points

Camber
Formation level Height
Consolidate for one monsoon

Advantages
Disadvantages

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HIGH COST ROAD
 High Construction Cost &
 High maintenance cost

 Pavement
 FlexiblePavement- Bituminous
 Rigid Pavement- Concrete

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Flexible Pavement
 Construction Practice
 Layers-
 Bituminous Binder Course
 Wearing Course

Prime Coat
Tack Coat
Binder Course
Wearing Course

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Flexible Pavement
 Prime Coat
 Single coat of low viscosity–Slow/Medium setting
emulsion
 Plug the Capillary voids
 Harden the surface- Binding dust
 Promote adhesion- Non bituminous- Bituminous

 Rate of spraying - 6 to 15 Kg/ 10 Sq. mt.

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Application of
Prime coat over
WBM/WMM

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Application of Tack
Coat over DBM
2 to 3 Kg/ 10 Sq. mt

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Flexible Pavement-
Thin wearing course
Seal coat- Wearing course
Very Thin surface – on Binder course

IRQP- Improvement of Riding quality


Repair existing surface
Develop skid resistance

Two Types
Premixed seal coat Liquid seal coat

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Flexible Pavement-
Thin wearing course
Premixed seal coat  Liquid seal coat
Low rainfall  Heavy Rainfall
1.7 mm passing and  Type A
1.18 mm retained.
 11.2 mm passing-2.36
mm retained
 Binder:9.8 Kg/ 10 sq.mt
Binder : 6.8 Kg/ 10 sq.
 Type B
mt
 2.36 mm passing-0.18
mm retained
 Binder: 6.8 Kg/ 10 sq.mt

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Flexible Pavement-Binder Course
Penetration Macadam
Dense Bituminous Macadam ( DBM 1 and 2)
Built Up spray Grout ( BUSG)
Bituminous Macadam ( BM)

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Penetration Macadam
Thickness 50 to 75 mm
Material required : Coarse aggregats
Key aggregates
Bitumen
Construction Procedure
1. Preparation of existing surface
2. Spreading the coarse aggregates
3. Rolling
4. Bitumen application
5. Spreading of key aggregates
6. Seal coat
7. Opening of traffic

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Bituminous Pavements

Advantages
Low cost- Construction, Maintenance
Waterproof surface
Smooth and durable surface
Open and quick traffic
Stage development possible

Disadvantages
Excess bitumen damage performance
Viscosity important parameter
Lower life span
Life cycle cost - Higher

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Cement Concrete Road- IRC-15 and 58

Advantages
Excellent riding surafce
Good visibility at night
Low maintenance cost
More useful life span
Not affected by weather and temperature, dustless
Disadvantages
High cost- Construction, Maintenance
Construction require expert supervision
Joints are weakness
Curing-28 days, No stage construction

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Cement Concrete Road- IRC-15 and 58

 Rigid pavements can be classified into four types:


1. Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP),
2. Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP),
3. Continuous reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP), and
4. Pre-stressed concrete pavement (PCP).

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Cement Concrete Road- IRC-15 and 58

 Rigid pavements can be classified into four types:


1. Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP),

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Cement Concrete Road- IRC-15 and 58

 Rigid pavements can be classified into four types:


2 Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP),

3 Continuous reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP)

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Cement Concrete Road- IRC-15 and 58

 Rigid pavements can be classified into four types:


1. Pre-stressed concrete pavement (PCP).

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Cement Concrete Pavement

 Construction aspect – Two major points


1) Casting of concrete slab
2) Construction of Joints

Cement concrete slab casting methods


1) Alternate bay method 2)Continuous bay method

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Cement Concrete Pavement

 Construction procedure
1. Preparation of subgrade and sub base
2. Placing form/ shuttering
3. Batching of materials and mixing
4. Transportation and placing of concrete
5. Compaction and Finishing
6. Floating and straight edging
7. Curing
8. Opening of traffic after 28 days

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Cement Concrete Pavement

 Construction procedure
1. Preparation of subgrade and sub base
2. Placing form/ shuttering
3. Batching of materials and mixing
4. Transportation and placing of concrete
5. Compaction and Finishing
6. Floating and straight edging
7. Curing
8. Opening of traffic after 28 days

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Joints in C.C. Pavement –IRC-15

 Types of Joints
1. Expansion Joints
Relieving compression stresses
2. Contraction Joints
Relieving tensile stresses
Prevent formation of irregular cracks
Relieve stresses due to warping
3. Warping or Longitudinal Joints
Relieve stresses due to warping
Used to longitudinal joints dividing the pavement into
lanes.

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Joints in C.C. Pavement –IRC-15

 Types of Joints
1. Expansion Joints
Relieving compression stresses
2. Contraction Joints
Relieving tensile stresses
Prevent formation of irregular cracks
Relieve stresses due to warping
3. Warping or Longitudinal Joints
Relieve stresses due to warping
Used to longitudinal joints dividing the pavement into
lanes.

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Expansion Joints

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Contraction Joints

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