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QUESTION

OCT09Q2
The distance (/) and bearing (β) of a line RS were independently measured and recorded as
/ = 167.85m ± 0.07m
β = 55° 33' 26" ± 05"
The latitude (lat) and departure (dep) of the line can be determined from the following model
lat = l x Cos (β)
dep = l x Sin (β)
You are required to compute the standard deviation for the latitude and departure of line RS based on
LOPOV in matrix form. Determine and clearly show the values (in three decimal places) of: 25M
a) Partial derivative matrix A
b) Variance-covariance matrix of observations
c) Variance-covariance matrix of latitude and departure
d) Standard deviation for latitude and departure

ANSWER

a) Partial Derivative matrix A


Distance, l = 167.85 + 0.07 m
Bearing, β = 55° 33' 26" ± 05"

Latitude = l Cos β
Departure = l Sin β

1. Differentiate,
 
 
= Cos β = Sin β

 
 
= - l Sin β = l Cos β

2. Calculate Matrix A

Cos β  l Sin β Cos 55° 33 26"  167.85 Sin 55° 33 26"!
Matrix A = = 
Sin β l Cos β Sin 55° 33 26" 167.85 Cos 55° 33 26"
0.566 138.424
=" &
0.825 94.933
AT =

b) Variance – Covariance matrix of observations

Calculate Σy

()² ()β
=' , 2
(β) +-./-/01 ²
Σy

0.07² 0
=' 0" 2
0 +-./-/01 ²
Σy

c) Variance – Covariance matrix of latitude and departure

T
ΣNE = A Σy A

0.566 138.424 0.07² 0 0.566 138.424


=" &3 4" &
0 1 ² 0.825
5"
0.825 94.933 + 94.933
206265
0.002 0.002
=" &
0.002 0.003

σ² N = 0.002 σNE = 0.002


σ² E = 0.003 σEN = 0.002

d) Standard Deviation for Latitude and Departure

Latitude = l Cos β
= 167.85 (Cos 55° 33' 26")
= 94.933 + √σN
= 94.933 + 0.045

Departure = l Sin β
= 167.85 (Sin 55° 33' 26")
= -138.424 + √Σe
= -138.424 + 0.055