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Influence of Deck Longitudinal Prestressing

on Cable-Stayed Bridges
Mohamed Hasan, Asst. Lecturer; Arab Academy For Science, Technology And Maritime Transport—Construction and Building
Dept., Aswan, Egypt; Eehab Khalil, Assoc. Prof., Construction Research Institute National Water Research Center—Structural
Dept., Cairo, Egypt; Walid Attia, Prof.; Akram Turkey, Prof.; Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University—Structural Dept., Giza,
Egypt. Contact: m.shakour@aast.edu
DOI: 10.2749/101686615X14210663188817

Abstract and a central cable plane combined


with a box-shaped deck, constructed
In prestressed concrete (PC) cable-stayed bridges, the accuracy of calculating the partially of prefabricated elements.
cable initial force and its iterations for dead load zero deflection criteria depends Sunshine Skyway bridge, USA, with
on several variables. The combination of deck tendon longitudinal configura- a 366 m main span was designed on
tion, deck vertical profile, rigid pylon–deck connectivity and elastomeric bearings the principles initially presented in
supporting the deck is a unique one that influences cable force distribution in Brotonne bridge.3 This system was
this type of bridge. This structural assembly is presented in two three-dimen- recommended instead of an alterna-
sional (3D) finite element models. A lumped-sum main girder (spine model) and tive one of a composite deck with two
a detailed 3D shell element model are introduced. The mutual effects of cable cable planes along the roadway edges.4
forces and deck longitudinal prestressing are investigated implementing two Similar design features were adopted
different boundary conditions. The study clarifies the degree of contribution of in Centennial (second Panama) bridge
deck longitudinal prestressing in reducing the quantity of stay cables. It improves with a 420 m crossing span.
bridge global performance with the contribution of transverse and inverted V
prestressing from the upper to the lower flanges of the deck. Bridge structural systems vary accord-
ing to the connectivity between deck,
Keywords: cable-stayed bridges; prestressing degree; cable tension; pylon–deck pylon upper portion and pylon lower
connection; elastomeric bearings. portion (pier). Cable-stayed bridges
with pylons rigidly connected to the
decks have a high-strength capacity
under ultimate loads.5 There is a lack
Introduction parameters of cable-stayed bridge ele- of studies related to such types of PC
ments on the overall structural behav- cable-stayed bridges.
Both cable-stayed bridges and con- iour of the bridge.2 The permanent state of stress in a
tinuous girder bridges have their own
The combination of a central cable cable-stayed bridge subjected to dead
definite behaviour with respect to
plane with a prestressed concrete (PC) loads is determined by tension forces
superimposed loads. In the case of con-
box-girder and pylons is an economical in the cables, which are quantified so
tinuous girders, the geometric require-
and aesthetically acceptable solution that bending moments in girders and
ments at the supports are costly.
for short and medium span bridges. pylons are reduced to the least pos-
Introducing a cable-stayed supporting
In multi-stay bridges, closely spaced sible. There are different methods to
system reduces such requirements at
cables support the whole length of the determine initial forces in stay cables,
the supports without any major loss
deck approaching the pylons in order such as simply supported beam,6
in stiffness for the main span. It is cus-
to avoid large negative moments and continuous beam on rigid supports7
tomary to have a continuous pylon for
stiff bearings at the pylons. Normally, a and optimization technique.8 A new
cable-stayed bridges as a support for
bridge is supported by two cable planes method of force equilibrium was pre-
the deck. When introducing intermedi-
along the deck edges. In some medium sented to determine the optimum ini-
ate bearings into the pylon, the global
span bridges, one plane of the cables tial cable forces in a PC cable-stayed
behaviour of such a hybrid bridge
is used along the deck centerline for a bridge for a given deck profile under
system requires extensive analysis, as
slender aesthetic single pylon. A box- its dead load with deck prestressing.
shown later.
girder with sufficient torsional rigidity The proposed method achieved deck
The interaction between cables, girder is required to achieve bridge stability bending moments approaching a con-
and pylons is discussed in a compre- under wind and unsymmetrical loads. tinuous beam behaviour rather than a
hensive parametric study.1 A model is Such a girder must be rigidly sup- large-span simply supported one.9
proposed to examine the influence of ported at the pylons to resist twisting The method of a continuous beam
geometrical, mechanical and physical moments and as such stay cables may on rigid supports is a suitable design
be connected further away from the method for PC cable-stayed bridges
pylons, leaving an unsupported deck because the redistribution of internal
Peer-reviewed by international ex- length. forces caused by concrete creep can
perts and accepted for publication
by SEI Editorial Board The application of a multi-cable sys- be reduced. In practical engineer-
tem in a PC cable-stayed bridge was ing applications, the choice of any of
Paper received: October 15, 2014 first introduced in Brotonne bridge, the above methods is dependent on
Paper accepted: April 9, 2015 France, with a main span of 320 m designer preference and experience.10

292 Scientific Paper Structural Engineering International 3/2015


The structural deformations and inter- from the end of the side-span to unbounded. Box-girder bridges hung
nal forces are calculated after min- reach their maximum at the pylons. up by a central row of cables require
ute changes in forces are applied for Unfavourable moments are formed additional longitudinal prestressing
every cable. The vectoral changes in under unsymmetrical live loads and because the stiffness of such girders
deformations and internal forces are concentrated vehicle loads along the causes more straining moments.
defined as influence vectors. The influ- deck.11 The most critical segments are
Transverse prestressing is required
ence matrices of cable forces can be at mid-main-span and at the end of
to reduce section dimensions for the
formed where the governing equations the side-span because these sections
existing large transverse bending
compose a solvable standard linear are subjected to tensile stresses under
moments and to counteract relatively
programming problem. live load cases. Full longitudinal pre-
large torsional stresses, especially
stressing is needed only over a certain
towards the pylons.12 A new method-
length in mid-main-span with cables
Deck Prestressing running along both edges of the deck.
ology was proposed to determine the
in Cable-Stayed Bridges prestressing forces of cables of extra-
Sections near the pylons are highly
dosed bridges in comparison with
compressed and do not need addi-
Cable tensions cause compression those of cable-stayed bridges. Based
tional prestressing while some pre-
along the deck. It is necessary to on the contribution of stay cables and
stressing is required for sections at the
understand the distribution of bend- concordant prestressing tendons in
end of the side-span.
ing moments and compression forces reducing the deck bending moments
along the deck to determine the criti- The degree of prestressing is usually under dead load, the use of the stay
cal sections that need longitudinal determined on the basis of the service- cables and prestressing materials was
prestressing (see Fig. 1). Deck com- ability limit state according to various evaluated.13 It has to be noted that
pression forces increase gradually design standards. Tendons are placed in longitudinal prestressing in extradosed
from mid-main-span and, conversely, the top and bottom slabs, bounded or bridges cannot be eliminated.

Main Structural Features


Desired moment due to dead load of Aswan Cable-Stayed Bridge
Aswan Bridge belongs to the same
family as the Brotonne and Sunshine
bridges and is a structural system with
a prestressed deck, a rigid pylon–
deck connection and a non-rigid
pier connection. The main cable-
Envelope of bending stayed bridge is 500 m long with a
moments due to live load
48.83+76.17+250+76.17+48.83 m span
arrangement (Fig. 2).
The cast-in-place segmental deck is
suspended from 14 pairs of stay cables
arranged in a central layer and sup-
MDL + LL
ported by two pylons. Parallel strand
cables vary in cross-sectional area from
9900 to 16350 mm2 and have an ulti-
Axial compression
mate tensile strength of 1860 MPa. The
box-girder is of a single cell trapezoi-
dal section 3.3 m high and 24.3 m wide,
with a thin 220 mm top slab. The bridge
Zones require prestressing has a vertical alignment varying from
3% inclination at both ends, reaching a
Fig. 1: Straining actions of conventional cable-stayed bridges with concrete deck sections horizontal alignment at mid-span. The

500.0
48.83 76.17 250.0 76.17 48.83
17.58 13 × 7.81 m
8 × 2.0 m
51.7 5 × 2.5 m

20.8

21.2 External
Internal

Continuity Cantilever tendons Continuity Cantilever tendons Continuity


tendons tendons tendons

Fig. 2: Schematic diagram showing the general configuration of deck prestressing tendons at the Aswan Bridge example (unit: m)

Structural Engineering International 3/2015 Scientific Paper 293


Aswan cable-stayed bridge has three Large displacement effects play an were determined with the method of
distinct features: important role in instances such as continuous beam on rigid supports
alternate loading in large spans and/or except for tension in the first and last
1. The pylon emerges rigidly from the erection stages, so they were neglected cables where the simply supported
deck and the deck is totally sup- in this study. beam method was adopted because of
ported on elastomeric bearings on the unreasonable force values obtained
The Newton–Raphson iteration method
the two main piers. For the other from the former method.
was employed to solve the equilibrium
four side piers, pot bearings have
equation of the nonlinear system with Cable forces were adjusted to keep the
been implemented (Fig. 3).
40 iterations per step to achieve conver- deck profile almost deflection-free (±3
2. The bridge has one of the widest PC
gence.15 The initial tensions of cables mm) under permanent loads exploiting
decks for a one-plane cable-stayed
bridge,14 where the box-section is
supported by inverted V-struts at 24300
650 650 7500 2500
the cable anchorages (Fig. 3). 2500 7500 1500 1500
3. There are a large number of deck
prestressing cables along 500 m in
various locations (Fig. 2).
(a) Upper and lower continuity 3300
tendons along the main and side
spans.
(b) Cantilever tendons above each
main pier.
(c) External tendons above the
770 900 900 770
lower flange of the box-section
in the main span. 700
(d) Cyclic tendons joining every

E
two consecutive construction
stages. 800 38.66º

E
100
(e) Vertical tie-down tendons fixing R=1870 4043
the deck to the side piers. 400
100 100 5054 5054
Numerical Modelling 2 tendon 13C15
and Analysis E Section of precast strut
Tendon geometry for precast strut

To capture the full behaviour of the


Fig. 3: Main deck cross-sections (unit: mm). Solid section between pylon and pier
deck, plate-membrane (shell) ele- showing elastomeric bearings (top); typical section showing the inverted V-strut and
ments were modelled in comparison tendon (bottom)
to a spine model (deck as one single
frame element) with global stiffness
characteristics similar to those of the Element A (m2) J (m4) Ix (m4) Iy (m4)
true box-girder (Table 1). Many struc- Solid deck section 39.441 108.125 41.387 860.615
tural details that control the solution Typical deck section 14.560 54.000 22.407 530.730
reliability were included in the former
Pylon 14.1 25.959 44.048 12.575
model, such as longitudinal and trans-
Precast strut 0.348
versal distribution of tendons, rigid
pylon–deck connectivity, elastomeric A = cross-sectional area; J = torsion constant; Ix = moment of inertia about x-axis; Iy = moment of
inertia about y-axis
bearings and the inverted V-strut–ten-
don system (Fig. 4). To widen the scope Table 1: Section properties
of the analysis, the mentioned finite
element (FE) model was modified to
represent a common boundary con- Solid section
dition (free pylon–deck connection)
where the pylon is fixed to the ground
and the deck is free to rotate about the
transverse axis, free to translate longi-
tudinally and constrained against ver-
tical translation in comparison to the Elastomeric
model of Aswan Bridge. bearings
Typical
Ernst modulus with actual stress taken section
into consideration under sequential
load cases was adopted for the cable
modelling. P-Delta interaction was
included to reflect the actual behav- Main
Precast strut pier
iour of pylons, deck and precast
inverted V-struts under compression. Fig. 4: Finite element model of bridge components

294 Scientific Paper Structural Engineering International 3/2015


a nonlinear-static application; then Methodology unit weight triples the deck prestress-
deformation loads were iteratively ing tendon unit weight.19
applied (100 iterations per stage) until The sophisticated model investigated
the target tension was achieved with the degree of contribution of deck
a relative convergence tolerance of longitudinal prestressing in saving stay Results and Discussions
0.002.16 Because of the elastic sup- cables and improving bridge global
performance. First, the bridge was The results of two pylon–deck connec-
ports of the pylons, the cables forces
analysed with the design prestressing tion cases with different boundary con-
were adjusted in sight of the value of
ratio, according to AASHTO LRFD18 ditions are discussed. Cable tension,
vertical movement at the pylons (4
and conforming to cracking require- deck deformations, straining actions
mm) as a guided deflection along the
ments (Table 3). A parametric study and strand quantity are presented for
whole deck. Commonly, the prestress-
was performed according to ACI 318 a rigid pylon–deck connection case.
ing losses for cables range from 10 to
Cable forces and strand quantity are
15%.17 Based on the data presented taking the design deck prestressing
(100% deck longitudinal prestress- the only mentioned results regarding a
in Table 2, both short- and long-term
ing) as a reference value. The effects free pylon–deck connection.
losses were calculated for longitudi-
nal, transversal and inverted V-tendon of four prestressing ratios (0, 50, 100,
prestressing. The inverted V prestress- 200%) of deck longitudinal prestress- First Case: Cable-Stayed Bridge
ing resulted in larger losses than ing were examined maintaining a with Rigid Pylon–Deck Connection
usual (30% in this case study) mainly constant transverse, inverted V and
tie-down prestressing with the original Concerning stay cables at the side span
because of anchorage slip (short length
tendon configuration. under dead load effect, and as a result
of tendon) and friction losses (moder-
of increasing deck prestressing from 0
ate angle of deviation).Analysis cases
Steel quantities of strands in both stay to 200%, both cable groups near the
were arranged according to cable ten-
cables and deck longitudinal tendons pylons and those in between the two
sioning stages to capture the stiffness
were surveyed for each prestressing side piers show a remarkable decrease
matrix after every stage as an initial
case. In order to avoid inaccuracy in from 4 to 16% in tensile forces with
condition for the next stage:
comparison, cable areas were adjusted respect to the deck prestressing ratio.
• Own weight (including cable ten- to maintain the same tensile stresses Cables in the middle of the side span
sion, tie-down and inverted V and, consequently, a constant effec- do not show a clear change in forces
prestressing). tive stiffness of stays in all prestress- with respect to the change in longitu-
• Transverse prestressing. ing cases. Steel quantities of deck dinal prestressing because this zone
• Longitudinal prestressing. prestressing were proportioned to is free of tendons. The cable just adja-
• Permanent loads (pavement, curbs cable quantities, as illustrated in Table cent to the middle pier is subjected to
and concrete parries). 4. A cyclic tendon quantity of 64.72 t a higher tension than the previous and
• Distributed and concentrated live was included as a constant in all cases later cables, as shown in Fig. 5. Tie-
loads (Egyptian code for load including non-prestressed decks to ful- down prestressing tendons connect the
calculations). fil segment integrity. It was reasonably deck to the intermediate piers to resist
assumed that the cost of the stay cable an uplift force of 4820 kN in the case
of live loads acting on the main span.
Concerning stay cables at the main
Steel grade 1860 MPa span under dead load effect, tension in
Stress at anchorage 1488 MPa the cables adjacent to the pylons does
Modulus of elasticity 195 000 MPa not show a clear change in forces with
Strand type Super - low relax respect to deck prestressing. This zone
Nominal diameter 15.7 mm (150 mm2) is lightly prestressed. Cables support-
Curvatures friction coefficient 0.05 ing the middle third of the main span
Wobble friction coefficient 0.001 (1/m)
show a remarkable decrease in ten-
sile forces (4.5–19%) with respect to
Anchorage slip 0.006 (m)
the deck prestressing ratio and cable
Table 2: Deck prestressing tendons specifications location (Fig. 6).

Percentage of Critical section near pylon Critical section at mid-span Type of section Degree of
longitudinal. Case of at mid-span prestressing
prestressing loading Upper fibre Lower fibre Upper fibre Lower fibre ACI 318 AASHTO LRFD
D −6.4 −11.8 −16.3 −9.3
200 Uncracked Full
D+L −3.7 −24.7 −19.4 −3.7
D −5.9 −10.6 −9.7 −6.0
100 Uncracked Full
D+L −3.2 −23.5 −12.8 −0.4
D −5.5 −10.1 −4.8 −2.9
50 Uncracked Partial
D+L −2.0 −21.9 −8.9 +2.3
D −5.2 −9.5 −1.65 −0.44
0 Transition Non prestressed
D+L −1.1 −20.0 −5.2 +5.4
( − ) = compression stress; ( + ) = tensile stress; D = self-weight + superimposed load + prestressing; L = live load at main span.
Table 3: Flexural stresses in box- section under service loads (N/mm2)

Structural Engineering International 3/2015 Scientific Paper 295


The minimum calculated quantity of of 200%, stay cable quantities are A constant deck section along the
strands (stay cable + deck prestress- reduced by 10.23% while total cable bridge is required to avoid construc-
ing tendons) is obtained at zero deck quantities increase by 23.47%. For tion difficulties, but excessive deck
prestressing with minimum cables for 100% and 200% deck prestressing, prestressing would need special provi-
cyclic tendons only. With the imple- there is a negligible increase of 1.08% sions for the lateral stability of the top
mentation of 100% deck prestressing, and 1.9% in the total cost of strands, and bottom slabs. During design activi-
the stay cable quantity decreases only respectively (Table 4). The weight of ties, it is recommended to limit the
by 4.98% (25.6 t), with a noticeable tendons required for 100% deck pre- deck prestressing ratio to the degree
increase of 11.86% in the total cable stressing represents 32.52% of cable that creates a maximum compression
quantities. With a deck prestressing weight and 10.84% of cable cost. force along the bridge less than the
value near the pylons. Deck sections
Initial tension Zero deck prestressing 50% deck prestressing under the effect of 100% longitudinal
100% deck prestressing 200% deck prestressing prestressing are subjected to a semi-
uniform compression force (9565 kN)
9 required to counteract tensile stress
in the sections at mid-span, especially
under live load cases. Under full load,
8 100% deck prestressing causes a negli-
Cable force (MN)

gible reduction of 2.5% in pylon axial


7
forces while the maximum deck axial
force is increased by 10.4% (Fig. 7).
Under dead loads, the bending
6
moment diagram of a non-prestressed
deck reveals an excellent adjustment
5 of tension in cables, where the deck
behaves as if it was continuously sup-
ported with cables. An acceptable
4 moment distribution is reached under
Side span
100% deck prestressing because ten-
Fig. 5: Cable force distribution under dead loads—side span don anchorages were placed at the
segment in between every two con-
secutive cables, as seen along the deck
Initial tension Zero deck prestressing 50% deck prestressing
100% deck prestressing 200% deck prestressing
in Fig. 8. However, sharp transitions
9 are noticed at certain sections along
the moment diagram, mainly sections
X and Y. Every abrupt change in
8 moment reflects a rough curtailment
of tendons along the deck where there
is a reduction of about 10.2 and 20.3%
Cable force (MN)

7 at sections X and Y, respectively.


Although a rigid pylon–deck connec-
6
tion attracts large moments under
different load cases, typical deck sec-
tions adjacent to the pylons do not suf-
5 fer any excessive tensile stresses as a
result of the accumulated compression
forces (Fig. 9).
4 Deck vertical displacement is a result
Main span
of both stay cable effects and deck lon-
Fig. 6: Cable force distribution under dead loads—main span gitudinal prestressing where camber

Total cost
Percentage of Tendons Cables (multiples of cable
longitudinal quantity (t) quantity (t) Weight (%) Cost (%) unit wt. cost)
prestressing Rigid Free Rigid Free Rigid Free Rigid Free Rigid Free
0 64.72 514.73 512.46 12.57 12.63 4.19 4.21 536.3 534.03
50 111.89 502.11 501.07 22.28 22.33 7.43 7.44 539.41 538.37
100 159.06 489.1 32.52 10.84 542.12
200 253.4 462.05 464.25 54.84 54.58 18.28 18.19 546.52 548.72
Rigid: rigid pylon-deck connection case; Free: free pylon-deck connection case; Weight % = tendons quantity / cables quantity; Cost % = 0.33 ×
weight %; Total cost = (cables quantity + 0.33 tendons quantity) ×cost of cable unit wt.
Table 4: Quantity of deck tendons and stay cables

296 Scientific Paper Structural Engineering International 3/2015


(a) (b)

11425 11098

9863 11005

Axial force under dead loads Axial force under dead loads
Self wt. + superimposed DL Self wt. + 100% deck prestressing + superimposed DL

13200 12874

11460 12658 9565

Axial force under full load


Axial force under full load
Self wt. + 100% deck prestressing + superimposed DL
Self wt. + superimposed DL + LL on main span only
+ LL on main span only
Non prestressed deck Deck with 100% prestressing
Fig. 7: Axial force diagram under main load cases (kN)—half elevation. (a) Non prestressed deck and (b) deck with 100% prestressing

(a) (b)

4745 6694
6030

4413 4676
Y X
Bending moment under self wt. Bending moment under prestressing
Self wt. + 100% deck prestressing

420 815 2474


2939 3193
1340

Y X
Bending moment under dead loads Bending moment under dead loads
Self wt. + superimposed DL Self wt. + 100% deck prestressing + superimposed DL

13094
12853
8131

Y 8342
7160 X
Bending moment under full load Bending moment under full load
Self wt. + superimposed DL Self wt. + 100% deck prestressing + superimposed DL
+ LL on main span only + LL on main span only
Non prestressed deck Deck with 100% prestressing
Fig. 8: Bending moment diagram under main load cases (kN/m.)—half elevation. (a) Non prestressed deck and (b) deck with 100%
prestressing

increases linearly with respect to the of camber caused by stay cables. A loads. Table 5 shows that the deck is
increase in deck prestressing. Under longitudinal prestressing of 100% has subjected to a camber value of 207 mm
200% deck prestressing, a 142 mm a negligible influence on deck deflec- with no effect of superimposed loads
camber is noticed, representing 203% tion after being adjusted under dead and a deflection of 333 mm with live

Structural Engineering International 3/2015 Scientific Paper 297


Percentage Self wt. (camber Longitudinal
of longitudinal caused by cable Transverse prestressing Dead Full load Camber caused by
prestressing tension) prestressing (Total camber) load (D + L) deck prestressing Camber (%)
0 +202 +202 +202 −3 −330 0 –
50 +170 +173 +205 −4 −331 35 20.6
100 +136 +139 +207 −5 −333 71 52.2
200 +70 +73 +212 −6 −337 142 203
(+) = camber; (−) = deflection.
Camber caused by deck prestressing = total camber – camber caused by cable tension.
Camber % = camber caused by deck prestressing / camber caused by cable tension.
Table 5: Vertical displacement at mid-span under different load cases (mm)

load effect. Tension in stay cables and


the overall response of the bridge are
not influenced by transverse prestress-
ing although it improves the deforma-
tion of the upper slab and its cantilever.

Second Case: Cable Stayed Bridge


with Free Pylon–Deck Connection
According to the deck prestress-
Top view ing ratio and cable location, there is
a semi-constant decrease of about
Bottom view 9.96% in cable forces at the side span
and a gradual decrease in cable forces,
–11.0 –10.2 –9.3 –8.5 –7.6 –6.8 –5.9 –5.1 –4.2 –3.4 –2.5 –1.7 –0.8 0.0
reaching 13.3% at the main span, as
seen in Fig. 10.
2
Fig. 9: Normal stresses under dead loads (N/mm )—longitudinal
On implementation of 100% deck
Zero deck prestressing - free deck 200% deck prestressing - free deck prestressing, stay cable quantities
100% deck prestressing - free deck decrease by 4.56% (23.4 t), with a
noticeable increase of 12.3% in the
9 total cable quantities. For 200% deck
prestressing, stay cable quantities are
reduced by 9.4% while total cable
8
quantities show an increase of 24.34%.
Cable force (MN)

It is noticed that at 100 and 200% deck


7 prestressing, the total cost of strands is
negligibly increased by 1.51 and 2.75%,
6 respectively, as shown in Table 4.

5 Conclusions
Two FE models of Aswan cable-stayed
4 bridge were utilized to investigate
Side span the mutual effect between stay cable
forces and deck longitudinal prestress-
Zero deck prestressing - free deck 200% deck prestressing - free deck ing, where all structural details were
100% deck prestressing - free deck
9 properly modelled. The performance
is improved clearly based on results in
Tables 3 and 5. Force distribution along
8 deck in Fig. 7 is completely different
with longitudinal prestressing where
Cable force (MN)

such an increase in compression domi-


7 nates over small increase in moment
(moment increase is due to rough cur-
6
tailment of tendons as explained in
the text). Based on the analysis of the
results, the following conclusions are
5 drawn:

1. The reduction in stay cable forces


4 as a result of increasing deck longi-
Main span
tudinal prestressing depends on the
Fig. 10: Cable force distribution under dead loads (free pylon–deck connection) prestressing degree, cable location

298 Scientific Paper Structural Engineering International 3/2015


and boundary conditions. In the live loads (after adjustment), deck pylon connections. J. Bridge Eng. ASCE 2014; 19:
rigid pylon–deck connection case, deflection was not influenced by lon- 15–33.
cables between the two side piers gitudinal prestressing. [6] Podolny W, Scalmi J. Construction and Design
and those opposite to them in the 6. Tension in stay cables and the global of Cable-Stayed Bridges. John Wiley & Sons:
main span showed a remarkable response of the bridge are not influ- New York, 1983.
decrease in tensile forces (4–19.5%). enced by transverse prestressing [7] Walther R, Houriet B, Lsler W, Moia P. Cable-
Cable forces in the free pylon–deck although it improves the degree of Stayed Bridges. Thomas Telford: London, 1988.
connection case have a semi-con- deformation of the upper slab and [8] Kim JC, Chang SP. Determination of initial
stant decrease of about 9.96% along enhances stress distribution across shape and fabrication camber for cable-stayed
the side span and a clear gradual the deck. bridges using initial member force. Korean Soc.
decrease reaching 13.3% at the Civil Eng. 1999; 19(1–3): 377–386.
A higher degree of prestressing is
main span. [9] Chen DW, Au FTK, Tham LG, Lee PKK.
required for precast deck segments to
2. The total weight of tendons required Determination of initial cable forces in pre-
avoid partial opening of joints under
according to design (100% deck stressed concrete cable-stayed bridges for given
the ultimate limit state, especially if
prestressing) represents 32.52% of design deck profiles using the force equilibrium
unbounded external tendons are used. method. Comput. Struct. 2000; 74: 1–9.
cable weight and only 10.84% of
A supplementary study is required to
cable cost. When duplicating deck [10] Han DJ, Yan Q. Cable force adjustment
investigate the role of deck prestress-
prestressing, the total cost of strands and construction control. In Bridge Engineering
ing under cable loss. It is recommended
(deck tendons + cables) was negligi- Handbook, Chen WF, Duan L (eds). CRC Press:
to implement deck prestressing to Boca Raton, FL, 2000; pp. 1539–1542.
bly increased by 1.9 and 2.75% for
improve the global performance of
rigid and free pylon–deck connec- [11] Svensson H. Cable-Stayed Bridges/40 Years
small and medium span cable-stayed
tion bridges, respectively. Such an Experience Worldwide. Ernst & Sohn: Berlin,
bridges and to study its efficiency in 2012.
increase would be compensated by
the case of longer spans using high-
the expected reduction in deck ordi- [12] Leonhardt F. Cable-stayed bridges with pre-
performance materials.
nary reinforcement. stressed concrete. PCI J. 1987; 32(5): 8–28.
3. The selection of the suitable pre- [13] El Shenawy EA. Form Finding for Cable-
stressing degree should be given Acknowledgements Stayed and Extradosed Bridges. Berlin Technical
due consideration by the designer. University: Berlin, 2013.
The upper limit in deck prestress- Special thanks to members of the Japan
International Cooperation Agency (JICA) [14] Bakhoum MM. Bridge engineering in
ing is that which creates a maximum Egypt. In Handbook of International Bridge
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