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# Otto Cycles

Prob 1
Air flows into a gasoline engine at 95 kPa, 300 K. The air is then compressed with
a volumetric compression ratio of 8:1. In the combustion process 1300 kJ/kg of
energy is released as the fuel burns. Find the temperature and pressure after
combustion using cold air properties.
Solution:
Solve the problem with constant heat capacity.
Compression 1 to 2: s2 = s1 ⇒
k-1 0.4
T2 = T1 (v1/v2) = 300 × 8 = 689.2 K
k 1.4
P2 = P1×(v1/v2) = 95 × 8 = 1746 kPa
Combustion 2 to 3 at constant volume: u3 = u2 + qH
T3 = T2 + qH/Cv = 689.2 + 1300/0.717 = 2502 K
P3 = P2 × (T3/T2) = 1746 (2502 / 689.2) = 6338 kPa

P T
3 3
v
2 4
2
4
s 1
1 v s
Prob 2
A gasoline engine has a volumetric compression ratio of 9. The state before
compression is 290 K, 90 kPa, and the peak cycle temperature is 1800 K. Find the
pressure after expansion, the cycle net work and the cycle efficiency using
properties from Table A.5.

Compression 1 to 2: s2 = s1 ⇒ 4
k-1 0.4
T2 = T1 (v1/v2) = 290 × 9 = 698.4 K
k 1.4
P2 = P1× (v1/v2) = 90 × 9 = 1950.7 kPa
Combustion 2 to 3 at constant volume: v 3 = v2
qH = u3 – u2 = Cv(T3 – T2) = 0.717 (1800 – 698.4) = 789.85 kJ/kg
P3 = P2 × (T3/T2) = 1950.7 (1800 / 698.4) = 5027.6 kPa
Expansion 3 to 4: s 4 = s3 ⇒
k-1 0.4
T4 = T3 (v3/v4) = 1800 × (1/9) = 747.4 K
P4 = P3(T4/T3)(v3/v4) = 5027.6 (747.4/1800) (1/9) = 232 kPa
Find now the net work
1w2 = u1 - u2 = Cv(T1 - T2) = 0.717(290 – 698.4) = -292.8 kJ/kg

## 3w4 = u3 - u4 = Cv(T3 - T4) = 0.717(1800 – 747.4) = 754.7 kJ/kg

Net work and overall efficiency
wNET = 3w4 + 1w2 = 754.7 - 292.8 = 461.9 kJ/kg
η = wNET/qH = 461.9/789.85 = 0.585

P T
3 3
v
2 4
2
4
s 1
1 v s
Prob 3
To approximate an actual spark-ignition engine consider an air-standard Otto
cycle that has a heat addition of 1800 kJ/kg of air, a compression ratio of 7, and a
pressure and temperature at the beginning of the compression process of 90 kPa,
10°C. Assuming constant specific heat, determine :
the maximum pressure and temperature of the cycle, the thermal efficiency of the
cycle and the mean effective pressure.
Solution:
P T
3 3

2 4
2
4
1 v 1 v
s

## Compression: Reversible and adiabatic so constant s from

k
P2 = P1(v1/v2) = 90(7)1.4 = 1372 kPa
k-1
T2 = T1(v1/v2) = 283.2 × (7)0.4 = 616.6 K
Combustion: constant volume
T3 = T2 + qH/CV0 = 616.6 + 1800/0.717 = 3127 K
P3 = P2T3/T2= 1372 × 3127 / 616.6 = 6958 kPa
Efficiency and net work
ηTH = 1 - T1/T2 = 1 - 283.2/616.5 = 0.541
wnet = ηTH × qH = 0.541 × 1800 = 973.8 kJ/kg
Displacement and Pmeff
v1 = RT1/P1 = (0.287 × 283.2)/90 = 0.9029 m3/kg
v2 = (1/7) v1 = 0.1290 m3/kg
wNET 973.8
Pmeff = = = 1258 kPa
v1-v2 0.9029 - 0.129
Prob 4
A gasoline engine has a volumetric compression ratio of 8 and before
compression has air at 280 K, 85 kPa. The combustion generates a peak pressure
of 6500 kPa. Find the peak temperature, the energy added by the combustion
process and the exhaust temperature.
Solution:
Solve the problem with cold air properties.
Compression. Isentropic so
k
P2 = P1(v1/v2) = 85(8)1.4 = 1562 kPa
k-1
T2 = T1(v1/v2) = 280(8)0.4 = 643.3 K
Combustion. Constant volume
T3 = T2 (P3/P2) = 643.3 × 6500/1562 = 2677 K
qH = u3 - u2 ≈ Cv(T3 - T2)
= 0.717 (2677 – 643.3) = 1458 kJ/kg
Exhaust. Isentropic expansion so
T4 = T3/80.4 = 2677/2.2974 = 1165 K

P T
3 3

2 4
2
4
1 v 1 v
s
Prob 5
A gasoline engine has a volumetric compression ratio of 10 and before
compression has air at 290 K, 85 kPa in the cylinder. The combustion peak
pressure is 6000 kPa. Assume cold air properties. What is the highest temperature
in the cycle? Find the temperature at the beginning of the exhaust (heat rejection)
and the overall cycle efficiency.
Solution:
Compression. Isentropic so
k
P2 = P1(v1/v2) = 85 (10)1.4 = 2135.1 kPa
k-1
T2 = T1(v1/v2) = 290 (10)0.4 = 728.45 K
Combustion. Constant volume
T3 = T2 (P3/P2) = 728.45 × 6000/2135.1 = 2047 K
Exhaust. Isentropic expansion so
k-1
T4 = T3 / (v1/v2) = T3 / 100.4 = 2047 / 2.5119 = 814.9 K
Overall cycle efficiency is from Eq.11.18, rv = v1/v2
1-k -0.4
η = 1 − rv = 1 − 10 = 0.602
Comment: No actual gasoline engine has an efficiency that high, maybe 35%.
Prob 6
A for stroke gasoline engine has a compression ratio of 10:1 with 4 cylinders of
total displacement 2.3 L. the inlet state is 280 K, 70 kPa and the engine is running
at 2100 RPM with the fuel adding 1800 kJ/kg in the combustion process. What is
the net work in the cycle and how much power is produced?
solution:
Overall cycle efficiency is from r v = v1/v2
1-k -0.4
ηTH = 1 − rv = 1 − 10 = 0.602
wnet = ηTH × qH = 0.602 × 1800 = 1083.6 kJ/kg
We also need specific volume to evaluate
v1 = RT1 / P1 = 0.287 × 280 / 70 = 1.148 m3/kg
wnet wnet 1083.6
Pmeff = = = = 1048.8 kPa
v1 – v2 v (1 – ) 1.148 × 0.9
1
1 rv

## Now we can find the power from

. RPM 1 2100 1
W = Pmeff Vdispl = 1048.8 × 0.0023 × × = 42.2 kW
60 2 60 2
Prob 7
A gasoline engine takes air in at 290 K, 90 kPa and then compresses it. The
combustion adds 1000 kJ/kg to the air after which the temperature is 2050 K. Use
the cold air properties (i.e. constant heat capacities at 300 K) and find the
compression ratio, the compression specific work and the highest pressure in the
cycle.
Solution:
Standard Otto Cycle
Combustion process: T3 = 2050 K; u2 = u3 - qH
T2 = T3 - qH / Cvo = 2050 - 1000 / 0.717 = 655.3 K
Compression process
P2 = P1(T2 / T1)k/(k-1) = 90(655.3/290) 3.5 = 1561 kPa
CR = v1 / v2 = (T2 / T1)1/(k-1) = (655.3 / 290) 2.5 = 7.67
-1w2 = u2 - u1 = Cvo( T2 - T1) = 0.717(655.3 - 290) = 262 kJ / kg
Highest pressure is after the combustion
P3 = P2T3 / T2 = 1561 × 2050 / 655.3 = 4883 kPa

P T
3 3

2 4
2
4
1 v 1 v
s
Prob 8
A gasoline engine receives air at 10 C, 100 kPa, having a compression ratio of 9:1
by volume. The heat addition by combustion gives the highest temperature as
2500 K. use cold air properties to find the highest cycle pressure, the specific
energy added by combustion, and the mean effective pressure.
Solution:
P T
3 3

2 4
2
4
1 v 1 v
s

## Compression: Reversible and adiabatic so constant s from Eq.8.33-34

k
P2 = P1(v1/v2) = 100 (9)1.4 = 2167.4 kPa
k-1
T2 = T1(v1/v2) = 283.15 (9)0.4 = 681.89 K
Combustion: constant volume
P3 = P2(T3 / T2) = 2167.4 × 2500 / 681.89 = 7946.3 kPa
qH = u3 – u2 = Cvo(T3 - T2) = 0.717 (2500 – 681.89) = 1303.6 kJ/kg
Efficiency, net work, displacement and Pmeff
ηTH = 1 - T1/T2 = 1 - 283.15/681.89 = 0.5847
wnet = ηTH × qH = 0.5847 × 1303.6 = 762.29 kJ/kg
v1 = RT1/P1 = 0.287 × 283.15 / 100 = 0.81264 m3/kg,
v2 = v1/10 = 0.081264 m3/kg
wnet 762.29
Pmeff = = = 1055 kPa
v1 – v2 0.81264 - 0.081264
Prob 9
It is found experimentally that the power stroke expansion in an internal
combustion engine can be approximated with a polytropic process with a value of
the polytropic exponent n somewhat larger than the specific heat ratio k. Repeat
Problem 11.95 but assume that the expansion process is reversible and polytropic
(instead of the isentropic expansion in the Otto cycle) with n equal to 1.50.
See solution to 3 except for process 3 to 4.
T3 = 3127 K, P3 = 6.958 MPa
v3 = RT3/P3 = v2 = 0.129 m3/kg, v4 = v1 = 0.9029 m3/kg
Process: Pv1.5 = constant.
P4 = P3(v3/v4)1.5 = 6958 (1/7)1.5 = 375.7 kPa
T4 = T3(v3/v4)0.5 = 3127(1/7)0.5 = 1181.9 K

R 0.287
w = ⌠Pdv
1 2 ⌡ = 1-1.4(T2 - T1) = -0.4 (606.6 -283.15)= -239.3 kJ/kg

w = ⌠Pdv
3 4 ⌡ = R(T4 - T3)/(1 - 1.5)
= -0.287(1181.9-3127)/0.5 = 1116.5 kJ/kg
wNET = 1116.5 - 239.3 = 877.2 kJ/kg
ηCYCLE = wNET/qH = 877.2/1800 = 0.487
wnet
Pmeff = = 877.2/(0.9029 - 0.129) = 1133 kPa
v1 – v2
Note a smaller wNET, ηCYCLE, Pmeff compared to an ideal cycle.