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Acknowledgment

Would like to thanks Allah for bestowing divine blessing on us


to do this project. Also, I would like to take this opportunity to
express our profound gratitude and deep regards to my
supervisor Mr.Mohideen Abdul Kamal, Ms Reinad for this
exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement
throughout the course of this project.

Also , thank Mr.MohammedAttia for continuous support and


kind communication which had a great effects regarding to feel
interesting about what I was working on. However, it would not
have been possible without the kind support and help of all. I
would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. Finally, I
express my sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my
family and friend for giving timely advice in all the ways and in
all aspects and doing the project.
Abstract
Title:CRM in retail sector with special reference
Authors:AhoodAlmoqbali
Thuriyaalsuhkiri
Advisor: Mr.Mohideen Abdul kamal
MS. Reinad
Level:High Diploma Program
Keywords:Marketing, techniques, digital transformation,
communication companies.
Question:
Purpose: Making progress in sustainable business growth and
providing effective services.
MethodThis project is done as a qualitative research and with a
deductive approach since we have studied theories and then
done our own research. The data collected for this research
wastaken from previous courses and from the survey
distributed to the customer chosen to be a part of this
research.
Theoretical framework:contribution to national economic
development.
Empirical studies:The empirical studies consist of data
collected when the website of the companies have been
studied.
Table of contents:

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
 Abstract ………………………………………….
 Introduction…………………………………….
 Purpose /Need of study ……………………..
 Objective of the study………………………..
 Limitations of the study…................
 Scope of the study…................

CHAPTER-2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE


 Review of literature …...
CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1. Introduction
Telecommunications industry is one of the business domains, which is customer-
centered (Wills and Thomson, 2016). With the recent challenges facing the industry,
customers involved in this industry have played a critical role in addressing the
drawbacks facing the industry. Most telecommunications companies have recognized
the importance of their customers thus; in turn, they have strived in the recent years to
meet their customer’s needs. In pursuit to attain full customer satisfaction,
telecommunication companies in Oman such as Omantel, Ooredoo, and Awasr have
utilized various customer relationship management strategies (Ali and Mazin, 2017).
This research will identify the various practices employed by these companies and
suggest the most applicable strategies for effective implementation of Customer
Relationship Management (CRM) practices to Oman telecommunications companies.

1.1 Background of the Study


In a rapidly changing world, there have been new advanced forms of communication
as well as changing customer tastes. With the acceleration of global economic
integration, the current marketplaces have completely changed from production and
sales-oriented marketing to consumer-oriented marketing. In this case, improving the
competitiveness of the company is a key factor in the relationship with customers, as
Porter Drucker (1990) states, business is about winning and retaining customers.
Market competitiveness is closely related to customer service and high quality
satisfaction with the company's revenues, profits, and market share. Thus, in this case,
high quality customer services play an important role in the present era of business.
Anthony and Mathews (2012) asserts that, all companies are facing strong
competition thus; organizations need to recognize the importance of CRM. Taking a
broader view on this, it is evident that companies facing great competition are those in
the telecommunication industry. In addition, Miller and Shao (2014) mentioned that
the rapid development of computer technology, telecommunication technology and
network applications have influenced the process of CRM development causing its
acceleration day by day. Good CRM practices have led to the evolution of
information technology hence; the application of information has become possible.
Consequently, the customers have direct access to the enterprises and thus, can
conduct business by telephone, fax, internet, and other technical means. This has in
turn aided employees dealing directly with the customers in that they are in a position
to establish good customer relations fostering trade based on the customer demands in
an effective manner (Robin and Walter , 2013).
Therefore, it is crucial to understand the strategies employed by various
telecommunication companies in Oman and identifying the strengths and weaknesses
of each strategy in order to suggest applicable strategies that can be emulated and
incorporated by the companies for effective customer relationship management.

1.2 Purpose \Need of the Study:


In a rapidly changing world, there have been new advanced forms of
communication as well as changing customer tastes. With the acceleration of
global economic integration, the current marketplaces have completely changed
from production and sales-oriented marketing to consumer-oriented marketing.
In this case, improving the competitiveness of the company is a key factor in the
relationship with customers, as Porter Drucker (1990) states, business is about
winning and retaining customers.
Market competitiveness is closely related to customer service and high quality
satisfaction with the company's revenues, profits, and market share.
Thus, in this case, high quality customer services play an important role in the
present era of business.
Therefore, it is crucial to understand the strategies employed by various
telecommunication companies in Oman and identifying the strengths and
weaknesses of each strategy in order to suggest applicable strategies that can be
emulated and incorporated by the companies for effective customer relationship
management.

Statement of Problem
Over the years, Oman telecom industry has experienced new advanced forms of
communication as well as changing customer tastes. Following these recent trends in
the Oman telecom industry, there has been the urgency to establish how the
telecommunication companies in the Sultanate of Oman provide comprehensive
quality of services to their customers as well as the Customer Relationship
Management practices implemented by them.

Objectives of the Study:


The main aim of this study is to examine the key aspects in the telecommunication
companies and the impact on the CRM practices with a specific focus on Oman’s
telecommunication industry.
1. To identify and critically analyse the CRM practices in Oman’s
telecommunication companies.
2. To identify and critically evaluate the elements of effective CRM practices in
Oman telecommunications companies.
3. To investigate critically on the challenges and issues of CRM implementation
in telecommunication companies in Oman.
4. To propose a better CRM framework for Oman telecommunications
companies.

Scope and Limitations of the Study:

As indicated from the title, this study will venture on Customer Relationship
Management strategies used by Oman telecommunication companies. Hence, the
study will only be limited on telecommunication companies serving the Oman
nationalities and expatriates of Oman. In addition, the study will only focus on
customer relationship management as the only strategy in mitigating challenges facing
the telecommunication industry in Oman although it is known there exists other
factors affecting the industry.
CHAPTER: 2

Literature Review:
Khodakarami and Chan (2014) assert that, customers form a key part of business
development and thus there is need to ensure that they are highly engaged through
integration of a number of key practices, which provide an integral understanding
where it would be possible to understand the needs and preferences of customers in
the market. Therefore, customer satisfaction is a continuous aspect, which dictates the
level of engagement where it would be possible to understand important processes
that can be integrated within management to help in boosting the level of commitment
among customers (Anil and Sunder , 2011).
Employees plays an integral role in improving customer experience. Therefore, this
section of the paper provides a detailed literature review on customer relationship
management practices and how they influence both business and engagement within
the market (Khodakarami & Chan, 2014).
According to Orenga-Roglá and Chalmeta (2016), Customer Relationship
Management (CRM) can be defined as an institution’s policies where a customer
directs strategies, practices, and technologies used by companies intricately at the
attainment of utility and usage behaviours.
Many companies are considering integrating these practises within their operational
environment in order to keep track of customer preferences. However, it is important
to understand that many companies do not effectively understand the best practices,
which can be considered on evaluating CRM, (Wills and Thomson, 2016).
Therefore, there is a need to evaluate a greater focus on important aspects which
define organizational focus on these concepts. Organizations frequently employ the
use of CRM systems to gather and compile data relating to customers ranging from
different points of contact that are between the company and customer, (Anil and
Sunder , 2011).
Sources of such data include telephone, a company’s website, direct mail, live chat,
social media, and marketing materials. These systems are also designed to offer
detailed information pertaining to customer purchase history, their personal
information, concerns and buying preferences (Orenga-Roglá &Chalmeta, 2016)
Customers tend to have a greater level of focus on important elements which define
the level of engagement within their respective organizational setting, (Willams and
David , 2016). Managing corporate customer relationships is essential in creating a
highly transformed setting, (Anil and Sunder , 2011)where it is possible to
understand key aspects that need to be incorporated within business environment to
achieve a greater level of customer satisfaction. CRM practices require the use of
various tools and systems to ensure that organizations are fully focused on customer
needs and thus develop a competitive advantage over their competition by offering
customer-oriented services against previously emphasized methods such as a product-
focused orientation, Martin, G and Wills, R (2013). Omantel utilizes the use of
enterprise resource planning (ERP), a system designed to ensure that company’s
systems are fully integrated to enable effective performance. Due to the importance of
adopting a CRM system, the company viewed it as prudent to integrate an ERP
system in its processes to simplify internal business processes, which included the
manner in which customers were handled and the time of delivery between the times,
a customer ordered a product or service and time of delivery of such service, (Robin
and Walter , 2013).
Chapter-3
Theoretical Study
Customer Relationship Management Influential Factors
Value for Money
Omantel, previously known as General Telecommunication Company- GTO provide
service, uses Cost-Based approach for allocating price in its business units for all
products and services. This effective approach is most commonly applied in a
competitive telecom industry, (Ali and Mazin, 2017). The group's main activity is to
provide efficient telecommunication services. It works in two business segments:
Telecom department helps to provide operation and maintenance services for
payphone network. Broadband segment helps to provide internet and TV services
over cable. The group mainly operates in its domestic market though it has recently
expanded to include other nations within the region such as Kuwait (Omantel Final
Report, 2017).
Pricing:
Omantel charges premiere pricing because of its existing policy that involves price
differentiation in most of its business units (Khan and Kaddafi, 2015). Moreover, it
does not charge high prices for products and services offered. It also uses this form of
pricing for new products/services placement where it uses such features to determine
differentiation between its products and those offered by the competition and thus can
adequately gauge if its market presence is high or low (Haitham& Khan, 2016).
Competitive Pricing:
Recently, Ooredoo adjusted its charges to 20 baisa (1000th Unit of an Oman rial) each
minute in a move where it sought to become the cheapest telecommunications vendor
in Oman as the previous low was set at 25 baisa per minute to make a call. Pricing is
one of the mechanisms employed by other companies such as Awasr, which have
effective supply systems to enable them to offer products and services at an affordable
rate (Ali and Mazin, 2017)
.
Organizational Culture:
According to Nyadzayo and Khajehzadeh (2016), oorganizational culture plays an
integral role in shaping organizational focus on customer engagement practices. There
is significant need to ensure that the processes that are put in place create a highly
integrated operational environment. Organizational culture therefore dictates the
ability to integrate positive measures, which dictate customer engagement strategies
that are put in place (Wills and Thomson, 2016). The current organizational climate is
highly evolved where the focus has shifted from the previous closed cultural
engagement and focused on diversity within a corporate environment. Organizations
that are diverse are more appealing to a broad clientele, and thus different measures
have been integrated into work environment focusing on creating a profoundly
revolutionized workplace that can adapt to the changes that are being incorporated
within the workplace
The Elements of an Effective CRM Practices
CRM practices are crucial in defining organization operational environment since
they play an integral role in creating a higher level of focus where it is possible to
achieve a greater level of understanding (Willams and David , 2016). Every
organization therefore selects its own CRM practices based on the existing resources
and capabilities, which create a crucial environment where it is possible to achieve a
highly committed and engaged business organization within the market. The major
CRM practices include string feedback across public relations sectors, which include
both physical and online, cross training of employees, setting up workflows and make
changes based on experiences and market research (Ali and Mazin, 2017).
Awasr has significant focused on integration of strong feedback across its online
platforms where it has been having an 81% response, which have created a highly
transformed operational environment where the company has been able to improve
the number of its subscribers especially the youths. Ooredoo has strategically focused
on cross functional training of its employees in order to create a new experience in the
market. Omantel has integrated both strategic training of its employees as well as
online presence to address the diverse issues that its customers might be having (Ali
and Mazin, 2017).
Choudhury and Harrigan (2014) state that, in order to effectively understand the
influence of CRM within an organisational environment, it is important to understand
the CRM plan which provide focus on the underlying concerns regarding the best
possible practices or consider in making a decision on implementing CRM. Effective
CRM plan should be based strategies that the company. The strategic focus in this
case provides a greater focus on flexibility of the strategy that is adopted hence
creating a highly developed business environment (Khan and Kaddafi, 2015).
Customers are crucial in business development and thus the approach that is put in
place should be based on promoting positive customer’s traits, which can be
effectively handled by the company using the available resources (Willams and David
, 2016).
The ability of an organization to organize its operations to meet the existing market
demand is crucial in shaping the underlying business concepts wince it is possible to
achieve a higher level of understanding on the concepts that are discussed. Most
companies do not decently integrate CRM within business development since it is
possible to achieve a greater level of organizational engagement. The objective in this
case is to minimize the challenges that customers get when seeking to engage market
from a different source (Choudhury &Harrigan, 2014).
Awasr has integrated a more flexible management plan, which is more likely to have
a positive influence on the company performance based on the existing levels of
engagement. Omantel has integrated a new strategic plan, which has focused on
transforming its operational environment in order to achieve a highly competitive
advantage within the industry. Ooredoo on the other hand has remained stagnant
although its strategies are based on individual relations with customers where they
develop greater level of trust with customers (Ali and Mazin, 2017).
Armstrong et al. (2015) highlighted that customer relationship management strategic
capabilities are important strategies that are developed to create a highly diverse
operational setting where it was possible to achieve a greater level of success based on
customer engagement. These capabilities include technology, process, knowledge and
insight. Each capability plays a different role in creating a highly diversified business
environment where it is possible to achieve a higher level of success within business
environment (Marshal and Lucks , 2017). Technology in this case focuses on skills,
abilities and attitudes of individuals who manage the CRM; process includes the
strategic processes that the company uses to interact with its customers across diverse
markets in order to achieve a high level of customer satisfaction (Anil and Sunder ,
2011). Knowledge and insight are strategic approaches that a company uses to add
value to customer data in order to ensure that the have the much needed information
to help improve the existing relationship between the customer and the company.
Individual’s engagement provides a detailed understanding where it is possible to
achieve a highly integrated business environment (Armstrong et al., 2015).
Customer value proposition is a well-defined and developed marketing statement
(Taylor and Willson, 2017)that is related to a specific product or service, which shows
clearly, why customers would benefit from purchasing it. A customer value
proposition is therefore a key statement that most business organizations usually
develop to ensure that customers are well engaged in using a given service or product
that is offered by the business organization (Wills and Thomson, 2016). It highlights
why customers should prefer a given product or service that is being offered by a
given business organization in respect to other products in the market. Thus, it seeks
to provide a clear understanding of the benefits that a consumer is likely to have while
prioritizing the products and services that are being offered by the company.
Customer value proposition therefore headlines product or service based on a given
target audience (Chang, Wong & Fang, 2014).
Awasr, Omantel and Ooredoo have significant resources, (Ali and Mazin, 2017)which
means that they are able to integrate strategic elements, which define their overall
performance levels based on the changing telecommunication industry. Therefore, the
ability to organize resources creates a highly diversified business environment where
it is possible to achieve a greater level of organizational development (Khan and
Kaddafi, 2015). The level of organization within these companies varies significantly
depending on the level of engagement as well as the planning processes that have
been integrated within workplace to boost customer relations. (Nyadzayo &
Khajehzadeh, 2016).

The Challenges and Issues of the CRM Implementation


The application of CRM within the market environment is not always a simple task
since there is need to integrate crucial measures and concepts to ensure that the
process is very successful (Ali and Mazin, 2017). The underlying customers’ needs
must be effectively evaluated in order to create a highly engaged and transformed
operational environment where it is possible to achieve an improve level of
organizational success based on the approaches that are integrated (Khan and Kaddafi,
2015).
Managing the CRM application is the next challenging task when it comes to
implementing a CRM framework (Marshal and Lucks , 2017). It is important to
understand the importance of aligning CRM policy to a company’s culture once it has
been established. Employers in organizations where CRM practices have been
adopted such as Omantel, Ooredoo, and Awasr have illustrated that end users are
afforded the opportunity to perform menial tasks and daily operations when they use
the CRM application, which has already helped them, map their business operations.
(Robin and Walter , 2013) In such a case, companies can keep track of entire
departments via a single platform. As such, companies face many issues when trying
to find the right CRM partner. Such a party aids an organization to develop a
successful CRM project (Nyadzayo & Khajehzadeh, 2016).
There are a number of challenges that affect CRM business strategy, among them
being how to establish an evaluation plan. According to (Bull, 2003), in the recent
past there has been unending issues surrounding the implementation of the CRM
practices among many companies across various industries. When going for a
customer relationship management implementation if the different verticals of a
business are not integrated, end result will not be as expected. Most implementations
require customization for a smooth customer relationship management. Proficient
vendors make for a smooth integration between different functions and also work on
providing fixes to your company specific problems in their next software upgrade
(Marshal and Lucks , 2017).
Customer Relationship Management process works effectively by analysing data. All
old and incorrect data have to be cleared post implementation to ensure that the
purpose of customer relationship management implementation is not defeated (Taylor
and Willson, 2017). Customer Relationship Management process works effectively by
analyzing data. All old and incorrect data have to be cleared post implementation to
ensure that the purpose of customer relationship management implementation is not
defeated. According to (Bull, 2003), in case the company using the Customer
Relationship Management strategy is struggling to influence profitability after a
reasonable period of time, then the organization is clearly failing (Wills and Thomson,
2016). Organizations in this position should immediately consider changing direction
and adopt alternative strategies. The position for those organizations that have failed
may result in a series of circumstances that are hard to recover from (Willams and
David , 2016).
The leadership of the organization has a direct influence of the implementation of the
CRM practices (Ali and Mazin, 2017). The way the management handles its
employees in the organization by assigning roles and duties will have either a
negative or a positive response towards the organization’s vision over time and
developing that organization`s future leadership and organization culture. CRM
program implementation is a complex and resource consuming journey that requires
effective leadership environment to actualize (Robin and Walter , 2013). This is
because they have the power to motivate staff, monitor progress of the CRM
implementation, authorize and control expenditure, and influence the strategic
direction of the CRM program. In other words, leadership provides resources and
guides the overall direction the strategy takes. Leadership is wholly responsible for
overall success or failure (Anil and Sunder , 2011).
Another issue that affects the implementation of the customer relationship practices in
many companies is the integration of the smooth flow of satisfaction of the needs of
the consumers as well as the information concerning the clients. The various sections
in a company need to integrate so that there a connection between all the functions of
the business (Robin and Walter , 2013). Besides, collaboration between and among
departments is absolutely essential to minimize impact of changes to normalcy. To
overcome the challenges of implementing the customer relationship management
practices, it is vital to develop effective communication throughout the entire project
life to all employees. (Willams and David , 2016) This communication is also critical
due to changes in roles to prevent internal conflicts. For instance, the
telecommunication industry in Oman can choose the technologies that will meet
customer needs. Relationship technologies are the keys to successful and productive
relations with customers, and are important supporting mechanisms for an
organization to manage its customer relations (Anil and Sunder , 2011).
A well-defined CRM solution, based on a data warehousing system, enables
businesses to capture and analyze customer interactions and transactions, and reduce
the constant and continual movement of customers from one organization to another
(Willams and David , 2016). A comprehensive CRM practices can also help
companies better understand their requirements and changes in buying patterns and
lifestyle, and build long-term relationships of value to them. According to (Eden,
2017) Successful companies make the relationship something the customer values
more than anything else they could receive from the competition. Companies do this
by examining customer experiences, not only with transactions and demographics, but
also with every interaction, including a web site visit, a phone call to a contact center,
or a response from a direct mail campaign. Successful companies make the
relationship something the customer values more than anything else they could
receive from the competition (Khan and Kaddafi, 2015). Benefits of customer
relationship management implementation has to be communicated efficiently to
employees as failure to do so will result in passive resistance and less adoption rates
by them. The top management should assign accountability of the new system to the
various project heads (Marshal and Lucks , 2017).

Customer Relationship Management Framework


Information technology advancement, with a particular emphasis on the World Wide
Web, has been instrumental in enabling individuals to develop clear interaction
mechanisms with their customers (Robin and Walter , 2013). The Web has enabled
organizations to develop effective relationships with their customers than in previous
periods where offline communication was necessary. For example, in Omantel,
Ooredoo, and Awasr, websites have been put up to provide customers with an avenue
through which they can meet and interact with telecommunications vendors (Ali and
Mazin, 2017). A website, though informal to some point, allows customers to scope
out the company, as they decide on whether or not they are to continue conducting
business with the firm. In this manner, a firm should conduct due diligence on
prospects to provide enticing materials that are suited to their buying preferences(Ali
and Mazin, 2017). Combining the capability to respond to a customer’s requests
directly and affording customers a highly customized and interactive experience
ensures that companies prove a greater tendency to develop, nurture, and maintain
relationships of a long-term nature with their customers than in previous periods,
Marshal, G, and Donald, G (2012).
Improved online capabilities add to personal interactions afforded via call centers,
customer service representatives, and sales people (Marshal and Lucks , 2017).
Concurrently, companies may choose to reduce service costs by exploiting low Web
customer service costs where they provide low-quality services as they only permit
electronic contact with a customer. A web-based interaction service is flexible in that
it allows organizations to determine whom they wish to serve and what quality of
services to offer. This change in CRM has been deemed the new marketing ‘mantra’
with companies such as Omantel and Ooredoo developing CRM products which have
various features such as tracking customer behavior on websites and predicting future
buying moves in a bid to determine the most effective emails to send to such
individuals (Ali and Mazin, 2017).
Therefore, there is a need for organizations to understand customer behavior deeply
and have full alignment’ interests to focus on customers with a potential for bringing
in long-term profits (Sara and Zainab , 2016). This illustrates a different manner in
which the world-marketing scenario has recently been performing, further displaying
the importance of CRM products and services (Ali and Mazin, 2017). In the past,
marketers have been focused on getting new customers, either those who have not
purchased the product in the past or individuals who currently purchase the product
from a competitive faction (Ali and Mazin, 2017). Traditionally, such a scenario
would warrant extremely high levels of mass advertising. It would also be prudent to
use promotions that are price-oriented to suit customers. In a modern situation, such a
scenario is frowned upon and instead replaced by customer retention approach where
the focus is on keeping customers as opposed to getting new customers, Williams, H
and Naylosn, H (2017)
Companies are required to conform to a different set of tools to entice customers with
a different mindset to the newly introduced CRM approach. The primary advocate for
retention rather than acquisition as a proper business model for organizations is
Reichheld. A proponent of CRM, Reichheld illustrates that a rapid increase in profits
can arise from minimal increments in customer retention rates. As he developed his
concept, Reichheld claimed that a 5% boost in retention rate could be seen to
evidence close to 95% of the net present value derived from customers. McKinsey
also claimed that repeat customers bring in twice as much business as new customers
for an organization. As technology continues to improve, CRM-related products are
likely to be easily delivered as they have been seen to lead to boosted profits (Sara
and Zainab , 2016).
In this manner, it is important to emphasize on a couple of features such as customer
conversion, customer attraction, and customer retention as the basis of CRM
application (Khan and Kaddafi, 2015). As Reichheld and McKinsey state, the greatest
advantage in a company is elicited from retention investments. An increase in the
customer retention rate for companies is thus synonymous with a boosted level of
profit for the company in the end (Anil and Sunder , 2011).
(A)
1.Startegy development
process
2.Intgration process
3.Management process
4.Performance process

(C)
(B)
1.Enhance customer
1.Full systems value
integration
2.Share holder value
2.Employees awarness
&training 3.Enhance market share
3.Enhance culture 4.Improve customer
satisfaction
4.Management support

Customer relationship management framework.

The framework from figure 1.0shows thatthree steps required for better CRM process
which will lead to best outcomes. It‘s a salesforce contact software like the ones sold
by salesforce.com or telephone call centers for contact management or loyalty
programs hencethe above framework shows emerging practices and strategies of
CRM. The current situation in the telecom companies indicates that there is a lack of
different processes integration which should consider the organization strategy and
the overall performance. There is a culture gap which is one of the barriers in
improving the employees understanding and awareness of the CRM. Currently there
is not enough management support to the improvement of the CRM due the culture
gap and people understanding and awareness.
The above diagram is illustrating the suggested framework of the three
important steps to have a good CRM in companies after considering the current
situation:

The “A” are the steps and processes that need to be implemented at the
beginning, which is the alignment of the organization strategy and overall
performance. This will happen after the integration of systems and process.
The “B” is what you need to do, what sort of actions. This is the
implementation plan to reduce the culture gap by improving the employee’s
awareness and understanding with the support of the management team.

The “C” are the results after implementation of the first two steps like the
improvement of the customer satisfaction which will lead to gain more market share
and more satisfaction of the shareholders.

Chapter Summary
Customer relationship management is one of the basic aspects that an organization
must consider in creating a highly engaged workplace environment where it is
possible to achieve a greater level of organizational success. Employees form a key
part of business although they have varying preferences, which must be effectively
evaluated to create a highly integrated understanding on the outcomes.
Telecommunications companies that have been evaluated in this case Omantel,
Ooredoo and Awasr have adapted varying customer relationship strategy which focus
on achieving common objectives. This means that an organization must choose a
customer relationship management strategy based on its operational strategy as well
as organization objectives.
Chapter 4
Research Methodology
Introduction
According to (Markesan and Miller, 2017), research methodology is the procedure
used to gather information and data for the purpose of making business decisions.
They further said that the methodology which include publication researches,
interviews, surveys and other research techniques could include both present and
historical information. The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative
approaches whereby 30 respondents (Omantel, Oreedoo, and Awasr employees) took
part. Data were collected during the month of April 2019 in Muscat, Oman’s capital
city. This chapter described the nature of the report, the procedures of data collection
and the kind of data collected as well as the approaches used(Robin and Walter ,
2013).
Research Design
This study has adopted a descriptive research design that describes the characteristics
of the target audience. Besides, descriptive research is appropriate as it validates the
objectives of the study when handling a specific group of people. When conducting
any study, descriptive research allows the researcher to measure the significance of
the results obtained on the overall population under study, as well as the changes of
the respondent’s opinions, attitudes, and behaviours over time. According to Taylor
(2010), descriptive research involves comprehensive analysis, interpretations,
comparisons, and identification of trends in the relationships involved in the study.
Descriptive design was ideal because this study was carried out in a limited
geographical scope, hence, logistically easier and simpler to conduct considering the
limitations of this study. Therefore, this study has applied descriptive survey to
examine the key aspects in the telecommunication companies and the impact on the
CRM practices with a specific focus on the Oman’s telecommunication industry.
Target Population and Sampling Size
Target population in a research is the entire group of people or events that have the
same attributes that can be observed (Crewes, 2015). In this study, the researcher
targeted 30 participants in the telecommunications industry in Oman. The 30
respondents comprised of random Respondents’ Profile for Questionnaire
Sampling Technique
In a study, sampling procedure involves selecting of respondents from the whole
population to determine the characteristics of the participants. According to Dawson
(2014), the sampling technique should represent the more confident in representing
the whole population. The study adopted a random sampling technique because it
determined the sample that acted as the representative of the larger population.
Random sampling ensures that all individuals in the population have an equal chance
of being selected. In this study, the respondents who are the customers and employees
of Omantel, Oreedoo, and Awasr were selected randomly from the entire population
to participate in the study.

Data Collection Method


There are mainly two types of data collections. One is primary and second is
secondary data collection methods.
 Primary Method: - The primary data plays a crucial role in the research study.
It is treated as the backbone of the research study, Miller and Marshal, (2014).
The primary data for the study was collected through primary sources, like
Questionnaire, Interviews and direct-observations (Wills and Martin, 2011).
The questions the researcher asked are tailored to elicit the data that will help
her with her studies.
The questionnaire enabled the researcher to collect a lot of information with
less time. The questionnaires had closed ended questions with multiples to
answer. A closed ended questionnaire provides the respondents with a fixed
number of responses from which to choose the answers. The research also
used an interview with set of questions formulated in a way that the words will
be stated exactly when gathering information.
 Secondary Method: the secondary data collection also plays an important role
in any research study. Data collected by someone else for some other purpose
but being utilized by the investigator for another purpose is called secondary
data. Secondary data can be collected through books, journals, articles,
websites and old research papers. The study collected secondary data from
records of Omantel, Oreedoo, and Awasr records.

This chapter presented the research design and approach and the different sampling
techniques used. The chapter also presented the different data collection methods used
during the research phases with presentation of the timelines planned for data
collection. The chapter ended by very important section which the data analysis

The next chapter is going to reveal the results of the data collection and the analysis
processes involved. There will be detailed information on the presentation, analysis
and presentation of the data collected. All questions in both the questionnaire of the
customers and the employees will be analyzed focusing on the CRM practices in
Omantel, Ooredoo, and Awasr.
Chapter 4
Data Analysis and Presentation
Introduction
This chapter will detail the analysis and interpretation of data gathered during the
study. The researcher used retrospective study where SPSS was most suitable for data
analysis. Gathered data was studied and documents were used to answer the questions
communicated in the statement of the problem. The analytical procedures are
arranged according to the sequence of specific questions (Khan and Sunder , 2013).
Data Analysis
Once data has been collected in a research, the next procedure is to analyze the
gathered data. Data analysis is a systematic process of applying statistical techniques
to describe, illustrate and evaluate the various data collected. The goal of data analysis
is to find actionable insights that can inform decision making, (Hall and Mittal ,
2015). Using the collected data in this study, the researcher will use all the required
techniques to bring out a clear and vivid understanding of the variables of the study.
Besides, the study will document and analyze all the findings collected efficiently and
ensure that they have responded to the set objectives of the research, (Marshal and
Robin, 1998).
Presentation of the Data
The analyzed data was expected to yield qualitative and quantitative results. The
outcome of the study was presented in tables and pie charts. The researcher ensured
that the set of data gathered were in line with the objectives of the study (Martin and
Geffory , 2015).