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3) Problem on Rectangular element

1)Linear-Strain Triangular Element

The unknown nodal displacements

u1 
v 
 1
u 2 
 
 d1  v 2 
d  u 
 2  3
d 
d    3    3 
v
d 4  u 4 
d 5  v 4 
   
d 6  u 5 
v 
 5
u 6 
v 
 6

Displacement Function

Select a quadratic displacement function in each element

u ( x, y)  a1  a2 x  a3 y  a4 x 2  a5 xy  a6 y 2
v( x, y)  a7  a8 x  a9 y  a10 x 2  a11 xy  a12 y 2
The general displacement functions expressed in matrix form
 a1 
 
u  1 x y x 2 xy y 2 0 0 0 0 0 0   a 2 
      2  . 
 v  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 x y x xy y 2   
.
 
 12 
a
The coefficients a1 through a12 can be obtained by substituting the coordinates into u and v

 u1   a1 
u 2  1 x y1 x12 x1 y1 y12 0 0 0 0 0 0  a2 
   1
 
2 2
..  1 x 2 y 2 x 2 x 2 y 2 y 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 

..   . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
u    
0  a6 
   v6   0 06 06 06 60 6 06 1 x y x 2
2 2
1 x y x x y y 0 0 0 0 0

x1 y1 y12   a 7 
 1  1 1 1  
  . .
..  . . . . . . . . . . . 
 ..  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 x 5 y 5 x 52 x5 y 5

y 52   . 
    
 v 5  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 x 6 y 6 x 62 x6 y 6 y 62  a11 
v 6  a12 
From the below equations we can obtain the coefficients
d   X a
a  X 1 d 
we can obtain the general displacement expressions in terms of the shape functions and the nodal
degrees of freedom as

  N d 
N   M * X 1
Define the Strain Displacement and Stress Strain Relationships
The element strains are again given by

 u 
 
  x   x 
     y    v 
   y 
 xy   v u 
 x  y 
 
We can write the above equation as
 a1 
 a2 
0 1 0 2 x y 0 0 0 0 0 0 0   
   0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 x 2 y   
.
.
0 0 1 0 x 2 y 0 1 0 2 x y 0   
 
a 
 12 
We observe that above equation yields a linear strain variation in the element. Therefore, the
element is called a linear-strain triangle (LST). Rewriting the above Eq., we have

   M | a
where [M|] is the first matrix on the right side of above Eq.

we have   in terms of the nodal displacements as

   Bd
where [B] is a function of the variables x and y and the coordinates (x1, y1) through
(x6, y6) given by

B  M | X 1

Note that [B] is now a matrix of order 3X12. The stresses are again given by

 x   x 
   
 y   [ D]  y   [ D][ B]{d }
   
 xy   xy 

Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix

1 0  2 0  3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0
1 
[ B]  0 1 0  2 0  3 0 4 0 5 0  6 
2A 
 1  1  2  2  3  3 4 4 5 5 6  6 

where the β’s and γ’s are now functions of x and y as well as of the nodal coordinates, as is
illustrated for a specific linear-strain triangle The stiffness matrix is then seen to be a 12X12
matrix on multiplying the matrices as in the below formula

[k ]     [ B]T [ D][ B]dv

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2)4 Node Rectangular Element and B matrix derivation

 u1 
v 
 1
u 2 
 
v 
[ ]   2 
(e)

u 3 
 v3 
 
u 4 
v 
 4

[ F ( e ) ]8 x1  [k ( e ) ]8 x8 [ ( E ) ]8 x1

 F1x 
F 
 1 y 
[F ]   . 
 . 
 
 F4 y  8 x1

Polynomial function can be given as

u   1   2 x   3 y   4 xy
v   5   6 x   7 y   8 xy

The above equations can be written in the matrix form as below

 1 
 
 2
 3 
 
u  1 x y xy 0 0 0 0   4 
   
 v  0 0 0 0 1 x y xy  5 
 6 
 
 7 
 
 8

The above equation can be written in simple form as below

{ } =[X]{α}

{α}=[X]-1 { }

 1   1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0   u1 
    1 / a 0 0 0 1/ a 0 0 0   v1 
 2 
 3    1 / b 0 1/ b 0 0 0 0 0  u 2 
    
 4   1 / ab 0  1 / ab 0  1 / ab 0 1 / ab 0  v 2 
   
 5   0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  u 3 

 6   0  1/ a 0 0 0 1/ a 0 0  v3 
    
 7   0  1/ b 0 1/ b 0 0 0 0  u 4 

   0  1 / ab  1 / ab 1 / ab v 4 
 8  1 / ab 0 0 0

Strain can be given as below

 u 
 
  x   x   2  4 y 
   v   
     y     1   8 x 
   y     x     y 
 xy   v u   3 4 6 8 

 x  y 
 

The above strain can be rewritten as

1 
 
 2
 3 
0 1 0 y 0 0 0 0   
 
{ }  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 x   4 

0 0 1 x 0 1 0 y   5 
 6 
 
 7 
 
 8

Substituting {α} in terms of [X]-1 { }

   [ B]{ }
u1 
v 
 1 y y  
1
1 y y
 a  ab 0 0  0 0  u 2 

ab a ab ab  
1 x 1 x x x  v2 
[ B ]{ }   0  0  0 0  
 b ab b ab ab ab  u3 
 1  x 1 y

1 x

y x 1 y

x y  
v3
 b ab a ab b ab ab ab a ab ab ab   
u 4 
v 
 4

1 y y 1 y y 
a  ab
0
ab
0 
a ab
0
ab
0
 1 x 1 x x x
[ B]   0  0  0 0 
 b ab b ab ab ab 
1 x 1 y 1 x y x 1 y x y
 b  ab a

ab

b ab ab ab

a ab ab ab 

[k ]     [ B]T [ D][ B]dv

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 The derivation of the [B] can be done as above
3)Problem on Rectangular element

 b c  b c
4 ,  3 , 
 2 2 2 2

b c b c

1 ,  2 , 
 2 2  2 2 

Given a Rectangle with the origin at the center as shown in the above fig. and the coordinates are
also as mentioned.

The polynomial equations can be given as

u  1   2 x   3 y   4 xy
v   5   6 x   7 y   8 xy

1 
 
 2
 3 
 
1 x y xy 0 0 0 0   4 
{ }    
0 0 0 0 1 x y xy  5 
 6 
 
 7 
 
 8

The reduced form of above matrix is

u1  1 x1 y1 x1 y1  1 
u  1 x2 y 2   2 
 2  x2 y2
   
u3  1 x3 y3 x3 y3   3 
u 4  1 x4 y4

x4 y 4   4 
1
1  1 x1 y1 x1 y1  u1 
  1 x2 y2  u 
 2  x2 y2  2
   
 3  1 x3 y3 x3 y3  u3 
 4  1 x4 y4

x4 y 4  u 4 

After substituting the coordinates and solving the above matrix

1   1 1 1 1  u1 
   1 / b 1 / b 1 / b  1 / b  u 2 
 2 1 
   
 3  4   1 / c  1 / c 1 / c 1 / c  u3 
 4   
 1 / bc  1 / bc 1 / bc  1 / bc  u 4 

1
1  [u1  u2  u3  u4 ]
4
1
 2  [u1  u2  u3  u4 ]
4b
1
 3  [u1  u2  u3  u4 ]
4c
1
4  [u1  u2  u3  u4 ]
4bc

Substituting α1, α2, α3 & α4 in u

1
u [(b  x)(c  y )u1  (b  x)(c  y )u 2  (b  x)(c  y )u3  (b  x)(c  y )u 4 ]
4bc
Simillarly
1
v [(b  x)(c  y )v1  (b  x)(c  y )v2  (b  x)(c  y )v3  (b  x)(c  y )v4 ]
4bc
 u 
 
  x   x 
     y    v 
   y 
 xy   v u 

 x y 
 

   B 
u1 
v 
 1
u 
  (c  y ) 0 (c  y ) 0 (c  y ) 0  (c  y ) 0  2 
  
1 
       v2 
4bc 
0 (b x ) 0 (b x ) 0 (b x ) 0 (b x )  u 
  (b  x)  (c  y )  (b  x) (c  y ) (b  x) (c  y ) (b  x)  (c  y )  3 
 v3 
 
u 4 
v 
 4
Stiffness can be solved by following Eq.

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