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Anda di halaman 1dari 72

– Electromechanical (motor)

– Electro-optical (phototransistor)

– Electrothermal

– Electro-mechano-acoustic (loudspeaker,

microphone)

• Measurement Systems and Controls

Systems

• Here we focus on strictly electrical systems

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 1

• Electrical components are described in

terms of their voltage / current relations.

• Classification:

– Network vs. field concept

– Passive vs. active device

– Linear (proportional) vs. digital (on-off) device

• Network vs. Field Classification

– Essentially that of lumped vs. distributed

parameters

– Based on wavelength / physical size criterion:

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 2

• If the physical size of a device is small compared to

the wavelength associated with signal propagation,

the device may be considered lumped and a network

model employed.

• Wavelength = (velocity V of wave propagation) /

(signal frequency f)

• The velocity of propagation for electrical waves in

free space is 186,000 miles / second.

• Example:

– Audio Systems: 20 to 20,000 Hz frequency range

– λ = (186,000 miles/sec) / (20,000 cycles/sec) = 9.3

miles/cycle

– Typical resistor or capacitor < 1 inch long

– Audio electrical systems can be treated with the lumped-

parameter (network) approach

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 3

– The wavelength / physical size concept is

applicable to any physical system which

exhibits wave propagation, e.g., mechanical

vibrating systems, acoustic systems.

– In treating electrical elements we will take

strictly the lumped (network) approach and

eliminate the consideration of high-frequency

phenomena. This restriction is not a severe

one.

• Passive vs. Active Devices

– Distinction is based on energy considerations

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 4

– Resistors, capacitors, and inductors are not

sources of energy in the sense of a battery or a

generator. They are called passive elements

since they contain no energy sources.

• It is true that capacitors and inductors can store

energy, but some energy source was needed initially

to charge the capacitor or establish the current in the

inductor.

• Resistors dissipate into heat all the electrical energy

supplied to them.

– Basic Active Elements are energy sources:

• Batteries (electrochemical source)

• Generators (electromechanical source)

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 5

• Solar cells (electro-optical source)

• Thermocouples (thermoelectric source)

– When these basic sources are combined with a

power modulator, the transistor, we obtain

active devices called controlled sources, whose

outstanding characteristic is the capability for

power amplification.

• The transistor does not itself supply the power

difference between the input and output; it simply

modulates, in a precise and controlled fashion, the

power taken from the basic source (battery, etc.) and

delivered to the output.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 6

– The combinations of transistors with their

power supplies are called active devices.

Because of their amplification capability, they

are the fundamental base of all electronic

systems.

• The single most useful active linear device is the

operational amplifier.

• It is now considered an inexpensive circuit element.

• Its ease of application makes it a basic building

block for many different types of useful circuits.

• While an op-amp is not strictly an element (it

contains resistors, transistors, etc.), it is treated like

a component or element.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 7

• Linear (proportional) vs. Digital (on-off)

Devices

– Digital electronic devices perform on-off

switching-type functions needed to implement

the logic operations required in digital

computation.

• +2 V to +5 V represents ON state

• 0 V to +0.8 V represents OFF state

– Digital devices are very tolerant of noise

voltages and need not be individually very

accurate, even though the overall system can be

extremely accurate.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 8

– Digital devices are small, cheap, and fast.

– In linear devices, the specific waveform of

input and output signals is of vital importance.

– In digital devices, it is simply the presence

(logical 1) or absence (logical 0) of a voltage

within some wide range that matters; the

precise value of the signal is of no

consequence.

– Like op-amps, digital devices are not really

elements, as they contain resistors, transistors,

diodes, etc.; however, they are treated as basic

building blocks.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 9

– Since a properly functioning digital system

operates in the realm of arithmetic rather than

differential equations, its modeling, analysis, and

design do not fit the pattern of linear system

dynamics and thus we do not treat digital elements

per se.

– We can, however, model those aspects of

computer behavior that influence the performance

of the overall computer-aided system. These

aspects have to do mainly with:

• Sampling

• Quantization

• Computational Delays

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 10

The Resistance Element

e

mathematical model: i=

R

– Strict linearity between e and i

– Instantaneous response of i to e or e to i

– All electrical energy supplied is dissipated into

heat

• Real resistors

– Non-ideal (not exactly linear)

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 11

– Impure – they exhibit some capacitance and

inductance effects which make themselves

known only when current and voltage are

changing with time.

– A steady-state experiment will reveal

departures from ideal behavior, but will not

reveal impurity of a resistor.

• Definition of Resistance R (ohms) and

Conductance G (siemens)

e i

R @ G @

i e

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 12

• Instantaneous electric power P

2

e e

ei = i ( iR ) = i R = e

2 2

P @ = = e G

R R

– Power is always positive; the resistor always

takes power from the source supplying it.

– Since the resistor cannot return power to the

source, all the power supplied is dissipated into

heat.

– Electric power (watts) is the heating rate for

the resistor.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 13

– Internal heat generation causes the resistor

temperature to rise.

• When the resistor temperature is higher than that of

its surroundings, heat transfer by conduction,

convection, and radiation causes heat to flow away

from the resistor.

• When the resistor gets hot enough, this heat transfer

rate just balances the e 2 /R heat generation rate and

the resistor achieves an equilibrium temperature

somewhere above room temperature.

• In a real resistor this temperature cannot be allowed

to get too high, or else the R value changes

excessively or the resistor may actually burn out.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 14

• Instantaneous dynamic response is

characteristic of a pure resistance element

(zero-order dynamic system model).

– Sinusoidal transfer function i 1

(iω ) = ∠0

°

e R

prevents the instantaneous step response,

the perfectly flat amplitude ratio, and the

zero phase angle.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 15

– Since practical systems always deal with a

limited range of frequencies, if a real resistor

behaves nearly like a pure/ideal model over its

necessary range, the fact that it deviates

elsewhere is of little consequence.

• Resistance elements can be pure without

being ideal.

– Useful nonlinear resistors are semiconductor

diodes and the Varistor ( a semiconductor

element with a symmetrical e/i relation of

approximate 4 th-power shape (i ≈ Ke 4 ).

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 16

Resistance Element

e = Ri

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 17

• Resistors in series and parallel

– If the same current passes through two or more

resistors, those resistors are said to be in series , and

they are equivalent to a single resistor whose

resistance is the sum of the individual resistances.

– If the same voltage difference exists across two or

more resistors, those resistors are said to be in

parallel and they are equivalent to a single

resistance whose reciprocal is equal to the sum of

the reciprocals of the individual resistances.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 18

The Capacitance Element

medium (insulator or dielectric) form a capacitor.

q ( coulombs )

C ( farads ) @

e ( volts )

• Charging a Capacitor

– Process of removing charge from one conductor and

placing an equal amount on the other.

– The net charge of a capacitor is always zero and the

“charge on a capacitor” refers to the magnitude of the

charge on either conductor.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 19

• In a pure and ideal capacitance element, the

numerical value of C is absolutely constant for all

values of q or e .

• Real capacitors exhibit some nonlinearity and are

contaminated by the presence of resistance and/or

inductance.

• Mathematical Model

1 de 1 dq 1 de

e= q ⇒ = = i ⇒ i=C

C dt C dt C dt

e t t

1 1 1

de = i dt ⇒

C

∫ de = C ∫ ( i )d t ⇒ e − e0 =

C ∫ ( i ) dt

e0 0 0

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 20

i

( D ) = CD

e

Operational Transfer Functions

e 1

(D ) =

i CD

• Energy Stored

– The pure and ideal capacitance stores in its electric field all

the electrical energy supplied to it during the charging

process and will give up all of this energy if completely

discharged, say by connecting it to a resistor.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 21

– The work done to transfer a charge dq through a

potential difference e is (e)dq. The total energy stored

by a charged capacitor is:

q q 2 2

q q Ce

∫ ( e )dq = ∫ C dq = 2C = 2

0 0

charge was built up.

amount of charge is taken from one plate and

supplied to the other by way of the circuit external

to the capacitor.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 22

Capacitance Element

de

i=C

dt

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 23

Approximate and Exact

Impulse Functions

its derivative is the unit

impulse function with a

strength (or area) of one unit.

does produce the correct result.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 24

• A step input voltage produces a capacitor current

of infinite magnitude and infinitesimal time

duration. Real physical quantities are limited to

finite values.

– A true (instant rising) step voltage cannot be achieved.

– A real capacitor has parasitic resistance and inductance

which limit current and its rate of change.

– Thus, a real capacitor will exhibit a short-lived (but not

infinitesimal) and large (but not infinite) current spike.

• Impulse functions appear whenever we try to

differentiate discontinuous functions.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 25

The Inductance Element

magnetic field. If a coil or other circuit lies within

this field, and if the field changes with time, an

electromotive force (voltage) is induced in the

circuit.

• The magnitude of the induced voltage is

proportional to the rate of change of flux d f /dt

linking the circuit, and its polarity is such as to

oppose the cause producing it.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 26

• If no ferromagnetic materials ( e.g., iron) are

present, the rate of change of flux is proportional

to the rate of change of current which is producing

the magnetic field.

• The proportionality factor relating the induced

emf (voltage) to the rate of change of current is

called the inductance .

• The presence of ferromagnetic materials greatly

increases the strength of the effects, but also

makes them significantly nonlinear, since now the

flux produced by the current is not proportional to

the current.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 27

• Thus, iron can be used to get a large value of

inductance, but the value will be different for

different current levels.

• The pure inductance element has induced voltage

e instantaneously related to di/dt , but the relation

can be nonlinear.

• The pure and ideal element has e directly

proportional to di/dt ( e = L di/dt ), i.e., it is linear

and free from resistance and capacitance.

• A real inductor always has considerable

resistance. At DC and low frequencies, all real

inductors behave like resistors, not inductors.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 28

• At high frequencies, all real devices (R, C, L)

exhibit complex behavior involving some

combination of all three pure elements.

• Thus, real inductors deviate from the pure/ideal

model at both low and high frequencies, whereas

R and C deviate mainly at high frequencies.

• One can expect real inductors to nearly follow the

pure model only for some intermediate range of

frequencies and, if the inductance value is small

enough to be achieved without the use of magnetic

material, the behavior may also approximate the

ideal (linear).

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 29

• Self-Inductance and Mutual-Inductance

– Self-inductance is a property of a single coil, due to the

fact that the magnetic field set up by the coil current

links the coil itself.

– Mutual inductance causes a changing current in one

circuit to induce a voltage in another circuit.

– Mutual inductance is symmetrical, i.e., a current

changing with a certain di/dt in coil 1 induces the same

voltage in coil 2 as would be induced in coil 1 by the

same di/dt current change in coil 2. This hold for coils

in the same circuit or in separate circuits.

– The induced voltage in circuit A due to current change

in B can either add or subtract from the self -induced

voltage in A. This depends on actual geometry.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 30

e A = eA 1 + e A 2

di A di B di A

= L1 ± M B/A1 ± M A2/A1

dt dt dt

di A di B di A

+ L2 ± M B/A2 ± M A1/A2

dt dt dt

di A

= ( L1 + L 2 ± M A 2 / A 1 ± M A 1 / A 2 )

dt

di B

+ (± M B / A 1 ± M B / A 2 )

dt

M A 2 / A 1 = M A 1 / A 2 = mutual inductance of coils 1 and 2

L 1 = self-inductance of coil 1

L 2 = self-inductance of coil 2

M B/A1 = mutual inductance of coils B and A 1

M B / A 2 = mutual inductance of coils B and A 2

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 31

• Energy Stored

– The pure and ideal inductance stores energy in its

magnetic field. The energy stored, irrespective of how

the current i is achieved, is:

di

Power = ei = L i

dt

t i 2

di i L

Energy = ∫ iL

dt

dt = ∫ ( Li )di = 2

0 0

– If we connect a current-carrying inductor to an energy-

using device (e.g., resistor) the inductor will supply

energy in an amount i 2 L/2 as its current decays from i

to 0. During this decay process, i if originally positive

stays positive, but di/dt (and thus e) becomes negative,

making power negative.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 32

Inductance Element

di

e=L = LDi

dt

i 1

(D ) =

e LD

i 1 1

(iω ) = = (−i)

e iω L ωL

1 °

= ∠ − 90

ωL

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 33

• At very low frequencies, a small voltage

amplitude can produce a very large current and

thus an inductance is said to approach a short

circuit in this case.

• At high frequencies, the current produced by any

finite voltage approaches zero, and thus an

inductance is said to approach an open circuit at

high frequencies.

• For a capacitance, the reverse frequency behavior

is observed: the capacitance approaches a short

circuit at high frequencies and an open circuit at

low frequencies.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 34

• One can often use these simple rules to quickly

estimate the behavior of complex circuits at low

and high frequency. Just replace L’s and C’s by

open and short circuits, depending on which

frequency you are interested in.

• Remember for real circuits that real L’s always

become R’s for low frequency.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 35

Electrical Impedance

simple voltage/current relation called resistance

for resistors.

• It can be applied to capacitors, inductors, and to

entire circuits.

• It assumes ideal (linear) behavior of the device.

• Electrical impedance is defined as the transfer

function relating voltage and current:

e e e

Z ( D ) @ (D ) Z ( iω ) @ ( iω ) Z (s) @ (s )

i i i

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 36

• The impedances for the pure/ideal electrical elements

are: ZR ( D ) = R Z R ( iω ) = R

1 1

ZC (D ) = Z C ( iω ) =

CD iω C

ZL ( D ) = LD Z L ( iω ) = i ω L

• The impedances for the pure/ideal mechanical

element are: f

ZB (D ) @ (D ) = B Z B ( iω ) = B

v

f 1 1

ZS ( D ) @ ( D ) = Z S ( iω ) =

v C SD iω C S

f

ZM ( D ) = (D ) = MD Z M ( iω ) = iω M

v

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 37

Impedances

Of

Mechanical & Electrical

Elements

force ⇔ voltage

velocity ⇔ current

damper ⇔ resistor

spring ⇔ capacitor

mass ⇔ inductor

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 38

• Impedance is most useful in characterizing the dynamic

behavior of components and systems.

• It is also useful in the solution of routine circuit

problems.

Ae

Z= ∠ φ = M ∠ φ = M cos φ + iMsin φ = Z R + iZ X

Ai

R @ Z R = resistive impedance

X @ Z X = reactive impedance

• If Z X is a positive number, the reactive impedance is

“behaving like an inductor” and is called inductive

reactance; if negative, it is called capacitive reactance.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 39

• Given R and X, one can always compute the

magnitude and phase angle of the impedance:

2 2 −1 X

M = R +X φ = tan

R

amplitude ratio and phase angle of voltage with

respect to current, if the impedance of any circuit

(no matter how complex) is known (from either

theory or measurement), and either voltage or

current is given, we can quickly calculate the

other.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 40

• The rules for combining series or parallel

impedances are extensions to the dynamic case of

the rules governing series and parallel static

resistance elements.

– If the same flow passes through two or more

impedances, those impedances are said to be in series,

and they are equivalent to a single impedance whose

impedance is the sum of the individual impedances.

– If the same effort difference exists across two or more

impedances, those impedances are said to be in parallel

and they are equivalent to a single impedance whose

reciprocal is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the

individual impedances.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 41

Electromechanical Analogies

mathematical behavior identical to that of another,

but physically different, signal, element, or system

is called an analogous quantity or analog.

• Analogous quantities: force ⇔ voltage

velocity ⇔ current

damper ⇔ resistor

spring ⇔ capacitor

mass ⇔ inductor

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 42

• Force causes velocity, just as voltage causes

current.

• A damper dissipates mechanical energy into heat,

just as a resistor dissipates electrical energy into

heat.

• Springs and masses store energy in two different

ways, just as capacitors and inductors store energy

in two different ways.

• The product (f)(v) represents instantaneous

mechanical power, just as (e)(i) represents

instantaneous electrical power.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 43

• Recommendation:

– Model systems directly rather than try to force

“mixed-media” systems into, say, an all-

mechanical or all-electrical form.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 44

φ= ∫ ( e )dt

e ∫ φ

q

e= C R e = iR L φ = Li

C

q ∫ i

q= ∫ ( i )dt

General Model Structure for Electrical Systems

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 45

p= ∫ ( f )dt

f ∫ p

f = Kx K B f = Bv M p = Mv

x ∫ v

x= ∫ ( v )dt

General Model Structure for Mechanical Systems

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 46

The Operational Amplifier

• Op-Amps are possibly the most versatile linear

integrated circuits used in analog electronics.

• The Op-Amp is not strictly an element; it contains

elements, such as resistors and transistors.

However, it is a basic building block, just like R,

L, and C.

• Uses include:

– Constant gain multiplication

– Impedance buffering

– Active filters

– Analog-digital interfacing

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 47

• The op-amp has has two inputs, an inverting input

(-) and a non-inverting input (+), and one output.

The output goes positive when the non-inverting

input (+) goes more positive than the inverting (-)

input, and vice versa. The symbols + and – do not

mean that that you have to keep one positive with

respect to the other; they tell you the relative

phase of the output.

Inverting +V

A fraction of a millivolt Input -

Output

between the input

terminals will swing Non-Inverting

Input +

the output over its full

-V

range.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 48

• Operational amplifiers have enormous voltage

gain (10 6 or so), and they are never used without

negative feedback.

• Negative feedback is the process of coupling the

output back in such a way as to cancel some of the

input. This does lower the amplifier’s gain, but in

exchange it also improves other characteristics,

such as:

– Freedom from distortion and nonlinearity

– Flatness of frequency response or conformity to some

desired frequency response

– Predictability

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 49

• As more negative feedback is used, the resultant

amplifier characteristics become less dependent on

the characteristics of the open-loop (no feedback)

amplifier and finally depend only on the properties

of the feedback network itself.

RF

Basic Inverting Op - A m p

V in +V

- V out

RF R in

Gain = +

R IN -V

RF

V O U T = − V IN

R IN

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 50

• A properly designed op-amp allows us to use

certain simplifying assumptions when analyzing a

circuit which uses op-amps; we accept these

assumptions “on faith.” They make op-amp

circuit analysis quite simple.

• The so-called “golden rules” for op-amps with

negative feedback are:

– The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to

make the voltage difference between the inputs zero.

The op-amp “looks” at its input terminals and swings

its output terminal around so that the external feedback

network brings the input differential to zero.

– The inputs draw no current (actually < 1 nA).

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 51

• Simplifying Assumptions:

– The op-amp’s gain A is infinite

– Z i is infinite; thus no current is drawn at the

input terminals

– Z o is zero; thus e o = A(ei2 – e i1 )

– The time response is instantaneous

– The output voltage has a definite design

range, such as ± 10 volts. Proper operation is

possible only for output voltages within these

limits.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 52

Differential Input

Amplifier

(if ei2 is connected to

ground, it is called

single-ended)

A = amplifier gain

Z i = input impedance

Z o = output impedance

Simplified Model

(based on simplifying

assumptions)

(Amplifier requires connection

to DC power)

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 53

• Basic Op-Amp Cautions

– In all op-amp circuits, the “golden rules” will be

obeyed only if the op-amp is in the active region, i.e.,

inputs and outputs are not saturated at one of the supply

voltages. Note that the op-amp output cannot swing

beyond the supply voltages. Typically it can swing

only to within 2V of the supplies.

– The feedback must be arranged so that it is negative;

you must not mix the inverting and non-inverting

inputs.

– There must always be feedback at DC in the op-amp

circuit. Otherwise, the op-amp is guaranteed to go into

saturation.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 54

– Many op-amps have a relatively small maximum

differential input voltage limit. The maximum voltage

difference between the inverting and non-inverting

inputs might be limited to as little as 5 volts in either

polarity. Breaking this rule will cause large currents to

flow, with degradation and destruction of the op-amp.

– Note that even though op-amps themselves have a high

input impedance and a low output impedance, the input

and output impedances of the op-amp circuits you will

design are not the same as that of the op-amp.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 55

Coefficient

Multiplier

or

Inverter

Rarely used by itself, the

op-amp is usually

combined with passive Integrator

elements, mainly resistors

and capacitors.

Summer

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 56

• To analyze op-amp circuits we use two basic

electrical circuit laws, Kirchhoff’s voltage loop and

current node laws, together with the op-amp

simplifying assumptions.

• Let’s analyze the coefficient multiplier circuit:

iR = iR eo −eo

i fb e1 + − eo

A = A

e 1 − e i1 e i1 − e o

= Ri R fb

Ri R fb

R fb

e o = − Ae i1 eo = − e1 if A = ∞

Ri

• Of course A cannot be infinite, but it can be, say, 106

volts/volt, and then this is a good approximation.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 57

• Why not use the op-amp directly as an amplifier

since it has more than enough gain?

– The op-amp gain can be relied upon to be very large

but cannot be relied upon to be an accurate stable value.

– The gain A is guaranteed to be, say, in the range 1 to 5

million V/V.

– As long as A is large enough, our approximation is

valid.

– Also note that in the multiplier example, the accuracy

and stability depends on the values of the two resistors

and not on the value of A, as long as A is large enough.

– Using op-amps, we can construct circuits whose

performance depends mainly on passive components

selected to have accurate and stable values.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 58

• A is called the open-loop gain , while e o /e 1 in the

example is called the closed-loop gain , which in

this case due to the circuit configuration, is

negative.

• Since A may be treated as infinite, the voltage e i1,

the summing junction voltage, can always be

treated as zero in those op-amps where the

positive input is grounded. The summing junction

is known as virtual ground , since its voltage is for

all practical purposes zero, the same as true

ground, whose voltage is exactly zero.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 59

• When op-amps don’t ground the positive input

(differential input), the difference (ei2 – e i1) is

taken to be practically zero.

• Using these assumptions, we can analyze the

integrator circuit as follows:

e1 − 0 d

iR = = iC = C (0 − e o ) = −CDe o

R dt

1 1

eo = −

RCD

e1 = −

RC ∫ e 1 dt

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 60

• Similarly, for the summer circuit:

i1 + i2 + i3 = iR fb

e1 − 0 e2 − 0 e3 − 0 0 − eo

+ + =

R1 R2 R3 R fb

R fb R fb R fb

eo = − e1 + e2 + e3

R1 R2 R3

e o = − ( e1 + e 2 + e 3 ) if R fb = R 1 = R 2 = R 3

fundamental operations for solving differential

equations, op-amps have many other uses.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 61

• Examples are high-pass filters, low-pass filters,

band-pass filters, band-reject filters, lead

controllers, lag controllers, lead-lag controllers,

approximate integrators and differentiators.

Z i and Z o represent

arbitrary impedances

e1 − 0 0 − eo

i1 = = i fb =

Z i (D ) Z fb ( D )

eo Z fb ( D )

(D ) = −

e1 Z i (D )

eo − R 2 C 1D

(D ) =

e1 ( R 1C 1D + 1 )( R 2 C 2 D + 1 )

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 62

• Deviations of Real Op-Amps from Ideal

Assumptions

– Effect of non-infinite gain A

• For the multiplier circuit

eo − eo

e1 + − eo

A = A

Ri R fb

R fb 1 R fb

eo = − e1 1 + +

Ri A A R i

R fb /R i rarely exceeds 10 3 ; thus the error upper limit is from

about 10 -5 to 10 -1 . If one selects precision resistors so as to get

a precise e o/e 1, if the gain A is too low, the ratio will be

inaccurate.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 63

– Offset voltage

• Offset voltage refers to the fact that if e 1 is made zero by

grounding it, e o will not be exactly zero, due to imperfections

in the amplifier.

• The best values of offset voltage e os are the order of 30 µ V

over a temperature range 0f –25 to +85 ° C, with a temperature

coefficient of about 0.2 µ V/ ° C.

• Op-amps can be trimmed using some additional circuitry with

adjustable resistors to eliminate this offset.

– Bias Current

• Bias current is the small current that flows in the amplifier

input leads, even when no input voltage is applied.

• Values of ib1 can be as small as 75E-15 amps at 25 °C, and

would never exceed ± 4 pA.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 64

– Non-infinite Input Impedance and Nonzero Output

Impedance

• Analysis shows that the effect of non-infinite input impedance

is equivalent to a loss of open-loop gain A, the effective value

being given by:

A

A eff =

R i R fb

1+

R 1 ( R i + R fb )

• A similar effect is produced by nonzero output impedance (R L

is a load resistance representing the input resistance of any

device which would be connected to the op-amp circuit):

A

A eff =

R2 R2

1+ +

R fb RL

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 65

• Input resistances are in the range of 10 6 to 10 13 ohms while

output resistances are the order of 100 ohms.

– Speed of Response

• The speed of response is specified in several different ways.

One method considers the closed-loop frequency response

when the op-amp is connected as coefficient multiplier. The

fastest op-amps will have this frequency response flat to about

500 MHz when the input resistance and feedback resistance

are set equal, i.e., a closed-loop gain of 1. For a closed-loop

gain of 20, the flat range of amplitude drops to about 80 MHz.

• Another method uses settling time after a step input is applied.

Times to settle within 1, 0.1, and 0.01% of the final value may

be quoted. The settling time is typically a few nanoseconds.

– Power Limitations

• Most op-amps supply only limited electrical power at their

output terminals, e.g., ± 10 volts and 0.05 amps.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 66

R fb

Offset Voltage e o = e os 1 +

R i

Bias Current e o = − i b1 R fb

Non-infinite Input

Impedance and Nonzero

Output Impedance

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 67

General Circuit Laws

which apply to all electrical circuits.

• Just as Newton’s Law is basic to the

analysis of mechanical systems, so are

Kirchhoff’s Laws basic to electrical circuits.

• One needs to know how to use these laws

and combine this with knowledge of the

current/voltage behavior of the basic circuit

elements to analyze a circuit model.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 68

• Kirchhoff’s Voltage Loop Law

– It is merely a statement of an intuitive truth; it

requires no mathematical or physical proof.

– This law can be stated in several forms:

• The summation of voltage drops around a closed

loop must be zero at every instant.

• The summation of voltage rises around a closed

loop must be zero at every instant.

• The summation of the voltage drops around a closed

loop must equal the summation of the voltage rises

at every instant.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 69

• Kirchhoff’s Current Node Law

– It is based on the physical fact that at any point

(node) in a circuit there can be no accumulation

of electric charge. In circuit diagrams we

connect elements (R, L, C, etc.) with wires

which are considered perfect conductors.

– This law can be stated in several forms:

• The summation of currents into a node must be zero.

• The summation of currents out of a node must be

zero.

• The summation of currents into a node must equal

the summation of currents out.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 70

• In mechanical systems we need sign

conventions for forces and motions; in

electrical systems we need them for

voltages and currents.

• If the assumed positive direction of a

current has not been specified at the

beginning of a problem, an orderly analysis

is quite impossible.

• For voltages, the sign conventions consist

of + and – signs at the terminals where the

voltage exists.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 71

• Once sign conventions for all the voltages

and currents have been chosen, combination

of Kirchhoff’s Laws with the known

voltage/current relations which describe the

circuit elements leads us directly to the

system differential equations.

Mechatronics K. Craig

Physical Modeling - Electrical 72

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