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# Electrical System Elements

## • Application areas include:

– Electromechanical (motor)
– Electro-optical (phototransistor)
– Electrothermal
– Electro-mechano-acoustic (loudspeaker,
microphone)
• Measurement Systems and Controls
Systems
• Here we focus on strictly electrical systems
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 1
• Electrical components are described in
terms of their voltage / current relations.
• Classification:
– Network vs. field concept
– Passive vs. active device
– Linear (proportional) vs. digital (on-off) device
• Network vs. Field Classification
– Essentially that of lumped vs. distributed
parameters
– Based on wavelength / physical size criterion:

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 2
• If the physical size of a device is small compared to
the wavelength associated with signal propagation,
the device may be considered lumped and a network
model employed.
• Wavelength = (velocity V of wave propagation) /
(signal frequency f)
• The velocity of propagation for electrical waves in
free space is 186,000 miles / second.
• Example:
– Audio Systems: 20 to 20,000 Hz frequency range
– λ = (186,000 miles/sec) / (20,000 cycles/sec) = 9.3
miles/cycle
– Typical resistor or capacitor < 1 inch long
– Audio electrical systems can be treated with the lumped-
parameter (network) approach
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 3
– The wavelength / physical size concept is
applicable to any physical system which
exhibits wave propagation, e.g., mechanical
vibrating systems, acoustic systems.
– In treating electrical elements we will take
strictly the lumped (network) approach and
eliminate the consideration of high-frequency
phenomena. This restriction is not a severe
one.
• Passive vs. Active Devices
– Distinction is based on energy considerations

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 4
– Resistors, capacitors, and inductors are not
sources of energy in the sense of a battery or a
generator. They are called passive elements
since they contain no energy sources.
• It is true that capacitors and inductors can store
energy, but some energy source was needed initially
to charge the capacitor or establish the current in the
inductor.
• Resistors dissipate into heat all the electrical energy
supplied to them.
– Basic Active Elements are energy sources:
• Batteries (electrochemical source)
• Generators (electromechanical source)
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 5
• Solar cells (electro-optical source)
• Thermocouples (thermoelectric source)
– When these basic sources are combined with a
power modulator, the transistor, we obtain
active devices called controlled sources, whose
outstanding characteristic is the capability for
power amplification.
• The transistor does not itself supply the power
difference between the input and output; it simply
modulates, in a precise and controlled fashion, the
power taken from the basic source (battery, etc.) and
delivered to the output.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 6
– The combinations of transistors with their
power supplies are called active devices.
Because of their amplification capability, they
are the fundamental base of all electronic
systems.
• The single most useful active linear device is the
operational amplifier.
• It is now considered an inexpensive circuit element.
• Its ease of application makes it a basic building
block for many different types of useful circuits.
• While an op-amp is not strictly an element (it
contains resistors, transistors, etc.), it is treated like
a component or element.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 7
• Linear (proportional) vs. Digital (on-off)
Devices
– Digital electronic devices perform on-off
switching-type functions needed to implement
the logic operations required in digital
computation.
• +2 V to +5 V represents ON state
• 0 V to +0.8 V represents OFF state
– Digital devices are very tolerant of noise
voltages and need not be individually very
accurate, even though the overall system can be
extremely accurate.
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 8
– Digital devices are small, cheap, and fast.
– In linear devices, the specific waveform of
input and output signals is of vital importance.
– In digital devices, it is simply the presence
(logical 1) or absence (logical 0) of a voltage
within some wide range that matters; the
precise value of the signal is of no
consequence.
– Like op-amps, digital devices are not really
elements, as they contain resistors, transistors,
diodes, etc.; however, they are treated as basic
building blocks.
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Physical Modeling - Electrical 9
– Since a properly functioning digital system
operates in the realm of arithmetic rather than
differential equations, its modeling, analysis, and
design do not fit the pattern of linear system
dynamics and thus we do not treat digital elements
per se.
– We can, however, model those aspects of
computer behavior that influence the performance
of the overall computer-aided system. These
aspects have to do mainly with:
• Sampling
• Quantization
• Computational Delays
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 10
The Resistance Element

## • Pure and ideal resistance element has a

e
mathematical model: i=
R
– Strict linearity between e and i
– Instantaneous response of i to e or e to i
– All electrical energy supplied is dissipated into
heat
• Real resistors
– Non-ideal (not exactly linear)

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 11
– Impure – they exhibit some capacitance and
inductance effects which make themselves
known only when current and voltage are
changing with time.
– A steady-state experiment will reveal
departures from ideal behavior, but will not
reveal impurity of a resistor.
• Definition of Resistance R (ohms) and
Conductance G (siemens)
e i
R @ G @
i e

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 12
• Instantaneous electric power P
2
e e
ei = i ( iR ) = i R = e
2 2
P @ = = e G
R R
– Power is always positive; the resistor always
takes power from the source supplying it.
– Since the resistor cannot return power to the
source, all the power supplied is dissipated into
heat.
– Electric power (watts) is the heating rate for
the resistor.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 13
– Internal heat generation causes the resistor
temperature to rise.
• When the resistor temperature is higher than that of
its surroundings, heat transfer by conduction,
convection, and radiation causes heat to flow away
from the resistor.
• When the resistor gets hot enough, this heat transfer
rate just balances the e 2 /R heat generation rate and
the resistor achieves an equilibrium temperature
somewhere above room temperature.
• In a real resistor this temperature cannot be allowed
to get too high, or else the R value changes
excessively or the resistor may actually burn out.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 14
• Instantaneous dynamic response is
characteristic of a pure resistance element
(zero-order dynamic system model).
– Sinusoidal transfer function i 1
(iω ) = ∠0
°

e R

## • Real resistors are always impure and this

prevents the instantaneous step response,
the perfectly flat amplitude ratio, and the
zero phase angle.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 15
– Since practical systems always deal with a
limited range of frequencies, if a real resistor
behaves nearly like a pure/ideal model over its
necessary range, the fact that it deviates
elsewhere is of little consequence.
• Resistance elements can be pure without
being ideal.
– Useful nonlinear resistors are semiconductor
diodes and the Varistor ( a semiconductor
element with a symmetrical e/i relation of
approximate 4 th-power shape (i ≈ Ke 4 ).

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 16
Resistance Element

e = Ri

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 17
• Resistors in series and parallel
– If the same current passes through two or more
resistors, those resistors are said to be in series , and
they are equivalent to a single resistor whose
resistance is the sum of the individual resistances.
– If the same voltage difference exists across two or
more resistors, those resistors are said to be in
parallel and they are equivalent to a single
resistance whose reciprocal is equal to the sum of
the reciprocals of the individual resistances.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 18
The Capacitance Element

## • Two conductors separated by a nonconducting

medium (insulator or dielectric) form a capacitor.

q ( coulombs )
C ( farads ) @
e ( volts )
• Charging a Capacitor
– Process of removing charge from one conductor and
placing an equal amount on the other.
– The net charge of a capacitor is always zero and the
“charge on a capacitor” refers to the magnitude of the
charge on either conductor.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 19
• In a pure and ideal capacitance element, the
numerical value of C is absolutely constant for all
values of q or e .
• Real capacitors exhibit some nonlinearity and are
contaminated by the presence of resistance and/or
inductance.
• Mathematical Model
1 de 1 dq 1 de
e= q ⇒ = = i ⇒ i=C
C dt C dt C dt
e t t
 1  1 1
de =  i  dt ⇒
C 
∫ de = C ∫ ( i )d t ⇒ e − e0 =
C ∫ ( i ) dt
e0 0 0

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 20
i
( D ) = CD
e
Operational Transfer Functions
e 1
(D ) =
i CD

• Energy Stored
– The pure and ideal capacitance stores in its electric field all
the electrical energy supplied to it during the charging
process and will give up all of this energy if completely
discharged, say by connecting it to a resistor.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 21
– The work done to transfer a charge dq through a
potential difference e is (e)dq. The total energy stored
by a charged capacitor is:

q q 2 2
 q  q Ce
∫ ( e )dq = ∫  C dq = 2C = 2
0 0

## – This is true irrespective of how the final voltage or

charge was built up.

## • There is no current “through” a capacitor; an equal

amount of charge is taken from one plate and
supplied to the other by way of the circuit external
to the capacitor.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 22
Capacitance Element

de
i=C
dt

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 23
Approximate and Exact
Impulse Functions

## If e s =1.0 (unit step function),

its derivative is the unit
impulse function with a
strength (or area) of one unit.

## This “non-rigorous” approach

does produce the correct result.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 24
• A step input voltage produces a capacitor current
of infinite magnitude and infinitesimal time
duration. Real physical quantities are limited to
finite values.
– A true (instant rising) step voltage cannot be achieved.
– A real capacitor has parasitic resistance and inductance
which limit current and its rate of change.
– Thus, a real capacitor will exhibit a short-lived (but not
infinitesimal) and large (but not infinite) current spike.
• Impulse functions appear whenever we try to
differentiate discontinuous functions.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 25
The Inductance Element

## • An electric current always creates an associated

magnetic field. If a coil or other circuit lies within
this field, and if the field changes with time, an
electromotive force (voltage) is induced in the
circuit.
• The magnitude of the induced voltage is
proportional to the rate of change of flux d f /dt
linking the circuit, and its polarity is such as to
oppose the cause producing it.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 26
• If no ferromagnetic materials ( e.g., iron) are
present, the rate of change of flux is proportional
to the rate of change of current which is producing
the magnetic field.
• The proportionality factor relating the induced
emf (voltage) to the rate of change of current is
called the inductance .
• The presence of ferromagnetic materials greatly
increases the strength of the effects, but also
makes them significantly nonlinear, since now the
flux produced by the current is not proportional to
the current.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 27
• Thus, iron can be used to get a large value of
inductance, but the value will be different for
different current levels.
• The pure inductance element has induced voltage
e instantaneously related to di/dt , but the relation
can be nonlinear.
• The pure and ideal element has e directly
proportional to di/dt ( e = L di/dt ), i.e., it is linear
and free from resistance and capacitance.
• A real inductor always has considerable
resistance. At DC and low frequencies, all real
inductors behave like resistors, not inductors.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 28
• At high frequencies, all real devices (R, C, L)
exhibit complex behavior involving some
combination of all three pure elements.
• Thus, real inductors deviate from the pure/ideal
model at both low and high frequencies, whereas
R and C deviate mainly at high frequencies.
• One can expect real inductors to nearly follow the
pure model only for some intermediate range of
frequencies and, if the inductance value is small
enough to be achieved without the use of magnetic
material, the behavior may also approximate the
ideal (linear).

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 29
• Self-Inductance and Mutual-Inductance
– Self-inductance is a property of a single coil, due to the
fact that the magnetic field set up by the coil current
links the coil itself.
– Mutual inductance causes a changing current in one
circuit to induce a voltage in another circuit.
– Mutual inductance is symmetrical, i.e., a current
changing with a certain di/dt in coil 1 induces the same
voltage in coil 2 as would be induced in coil 1 by the
same di/dt current change in coil 2. This hold for coils
in the same circuit or in separate circuits.
– The induced voltage in circuit A due to current change
in B can either add or subtract from the self -induced
voltage in A. This depends on actual geometry.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 30
e A = eA 1 + e A 2
di A di B di A
= L1 ± M B/A1 ± M A2/A1
dt dt dt
di A di B di A
+ L2 ± M B/A2 ± M A1/A2
dt dt dt
di A
= ( L1 + L 2 ± M A 2 / A 1 ± M A 1 / A 2 )
dt
di B
+ (± M B / A 1 ± M B / A 2 )
dt
M A 2 / A 1 = M A 1 / A 2 = mutual inductance of coils 1 and 2
L 1 = self-inductance of coil 1
L 2 = self-inductance of coil 2
M B/A1 = mutual inductance of coils B and A 1
M B / A 2 = mutual inductance of coils B and A 2
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 31
• Energy Stored
– The pure and ideal inductance stores energy in its
magnetic field. The energy stored, irrespective of how
the current i is achieved, is:
di
Power = ei = L i
dt
t i 2
di i L
Energy = ∫ iL
dt
dt = ∫ ( Li )di = 2
0 0
– If we connect a current-carrying inductor to an energy-
using device (e.g., resistor) the inductor will supply
energy in an amount i 2 L/2 as its current decays from i
to 0. During this decay process, i if originally positive
stays positive, but di/dt (and thus e) becomes negative,
making power negative.
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 32
Inductance Element

di
e=L = LDi
dt
i 1
(D ) =
e LD
i 1 1
(iω ) = = (−i)
e iω L ωL
1 °
= ∠ − 90
ωL

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 33
• At very low frequencies, a small voltage
amplitude can produce a very large current and
thus an inductance is said to approach a short
circuit in this case.
• At high frequencies, the current produced by any
finite voltage approaches zero, and thus an
inductance is said to approach an open circuit at
high frequencies.
• For a capacitance, the reverse frequency behavior
is observed: the capacitance approaches a short
circuit at high frequencies and an open circuit at
low frequencies.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 34
• One can often use these simple rules to quickly
estimate the behavior of complex circuits at low
and high frequency. Just replace L’s and C’s by
open and short circuits, depending on which
frequency you are interested in.
• Remember for real circuits that real L’s always
become R’s for low frequency.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 35
Electrical Impedance

## • Electrical impedance is a generalization of the

simple voltage/current relation called resistance
for resistors.
• It can be applied to capacitors, inductors, and to
entire circuits.
• It assumes ideal (linear) behavior of the device.
• Electrical impedance is defined as the transfer
function relating voltage and current:
e e e
Z ( D ) @ (D ) Z ( iω ) @ ( iω ) Z (s) @ (s )
i i i
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 36
• The impedances for the pure/ideal electrical elements
are: ZR ( D ) = R Z R ( iω ) = R
1 1
ZC (D ) = Z C ( iω ) =
CD iω C
ZL ( D ) = LD Z L ( iω ) = i ω L
• The impedances for the pure/ideal mechanical
element are: f
ZB (D ) @ (D ) = B Z B ( iω ) = B
v
f 1 1
ZS ( D ) @ ( D ) = Z S ( iω ) =
v C SD iω C S
f
ZM ( D ) = (D ) = MD Z M ( iω ) = iω M
v
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 37
Impedances
Of
Mechanical & Electrical
Elements

force ⇔ voltage
velocity ⇔ current
damper ⇔ resistor
spring ⇔ capacitor
mass ⇔ inductor

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 38
• Impedance is most useful in characterizing the dynamic
behavior of components and systems.
• It is also useful in the solution of routine circuit
problems.
Ae
Z= ∠ φ = M ∠ φ = M cos φ + iMsin φ = Z R + iZ X
Ai
R @ Z R = resistive impedance
X @ Z X = reactive impedance
• If Z X is a positive number, the reactive impedance is
“behaving like an inductor” and is called inductive
reactance; if negative, it is called capacitive reactance.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 39
• Given R and X, one can always compute the
magnitude and phase angle of the impedance:

2 2 −1 X
M = R +X φ = tan  
R

## • Since the sinusoidal impedance gives the

amplitude ratio and phase angle of voltage with
respect to current, if the impedance of any circuit
(no matter how complex) is known (from either
theory or measurement), and either voltage or
current is given, we can quickly calculate the
other.
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 40
• The rules for combining series or parallel
impedances are extensions to the dynamic case of
the rules governing series and parallel static
resistance elements.
– If the same flow passes through two or more
impedances, those impedances are said to be in series,
and they are equivalent to a single impedance whose
impedance is the sum of the individual impedances.
– If the same effort difference exists across two or more
impedances, those impedances are said to be in parallel
and they are equivalent to a single impedance whose
reciprocal is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the
individual impedances.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 41
Electromechanical Analogies

## • A signal, element, or system which exhibits

mathematical behavior identical to that of another,
but physically different, signal, element, or system
is called an analogous quantity or analog.
• Analogous quantities: force ⇔ voltage
velocity ⇔ current
damper ⇔ resistor
spring ⇔ capacitor
mass ⇔ inductor

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 42
• Force causes velocity, just as voltage causes
current.
• A damper dissipates mechanical energy into heat,
just as a resistor dissipates electrical energy into
heat.
• Springs and masses store energy in two different
ways, just as capacitors and inductors store energy
in two different ways.
• The product (f)(v) represents instantaneous
mechanical power, just as (e)(i) represents
instantaneous electrical power.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 43
• Recommendation:
– Model systems directly rather than try to force
“mixed-media” systems into, say, an all-
mechanical or all-electrical form.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 44
φ= ∫ ( e )dt
e ∫ φ

q
e= C R e = iR L φ = Li
C

q ∫ i

q= ∫ ( i )dt
General Model Structure for Electrical Systems
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 45
p= ∫ ( f )dt
f ∫ p

f = Kx K B f = Bv M p = Mv

x ∫ v

x= ∫ ( v )dt
General Model Structure for Mechanical Systems
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 46
The Operational Amplifier
• Op-Amps are possibly the most versatile linear
integrated circuits used in analog electronics.
• The Op-Amp is not strictly an element; it contains
elements, such as resistors and transistors.
However, it is a basic building block, just like R,
L, and C.
• Uses include:
– Constant gain multiplication
– Impedance buffering
– Active filters
– Analog-digital interfacing

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 47
• The op-amp has has two inputs, an inverting input
(-) and a non-inverting input (+), and one output.
The output goes positive when the non-inverting
input (+) goes more positive than the inverting (-)
input, and vice versa. The symbols + and – do not
mean that that you have to keep one positive with
respect to the other; they tell you the relative
phase of the output.
Inverting +V
A fraction of a millivolt Input -
Output
between the input
terminals will swing Non-Inverting
Input +
the output over its full
-V
range.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 48
• Operational amplifiers have enormous voltage
gain (10 6 or so), and they are never used without
negative feedback.
• Negative feedback is the process of coupling the
output back in such a way as to cancel some of the
input. This does lower the amplifier’s gain, but in
exchange it also improves other characteristics,
such as:
– Freedom from distortion and nonlinearity
– Flatness of frequency response or conformity to some
desired frequency response
– Predictability

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 49
• As more negative feedback is used, the resultant
amplifier characteristics become less dependent on
the characteristics of the open-loop (no feedback)
amplifier and finally depend only on the properties
of the feedback network itself.
RF
Basic Inverting Op - A m p

V in +V
- V out
RF R in
Gain = +
R IN -V
RF
V O U T = − V IN
R IN

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 50
• A properly designed op-amp allows us to use
certain simplifying assumptions when analyzing a
circuit which uses op-amps; we accept these
assumptions “on faith.” They make op-amp
circuit analysis quite simple.
• The so-called “golden rules” for op-amps with
negative feedback are:
– The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to
make the voltage difference between the inputs zero.
The op-amp “looks” at its input terminals and swings
its output terminal around so that the external feedback
network brings the input differential to zero.
– The inputs draw no current (actually < 1 nA).

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 51
• Simplifying Assumptions:
– The op-amp’s gain A is infinite
– Z i is infinite; thus no current is drawn at the
input terminals
– Z o is zero; thus e o = A(ei2 – e i1 )
– The time response is instantaneous
– The output voltage has a definite design
range, such as ± 10 volts. Proper operation is
possible only for output voltages within these
limits.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 52
Differential Input
Amplifier
(if ei2 is connected to
ground, it is called
single-ended)

A = amplifier gain
Z i = input impedance
Z o = output impedance

Simplified Model
(based on simplifying
assumptions)
(Amplifier requires connection
to DC power)
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 53
• Basic Op-Amp Cautions
– In all op-amp circuits, the “golden rules” will be
obeyed only if the op-amp is in the active region, i.e.,
inputs and outputs are not saturated at one of the supply
voltages. Note that the op-amp output cannot swing
beyond the supply voltages. Typically it can swing
only to within 2V of the supplies.
– The feedback must be arranged so that it is negative;
you must not mix the inverting and non-inverting
inputs.
– There must always be feedback at DC in the op-amp
circuit. Otherwise, the op-amp is guaranteed to go into
saturation.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 54
– Many op-amps have a relatively small maximum
differential input voltage limit. The maximum voltage
difference between the inverting and non-inverting
inputs might be limited to as little as 5 volts in either
polarity. Breaking this rule will cause large currents to
flow, with degradation and destruction of the op-amp.
– Note that even though op-amps themselves have a high
input impedance and a low output impedance, the input
and output impedances of the op-amp circuits you will
design are not the same as that of the op-amp.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 55
Coefficient
Multiplier
or
Inverter
Rarely used by itself, the
op-amp is usually
combined with passive Integrator
elements, mainly resistors
and capacitors.

Summer

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 56
• To analyze op-amp circuits we use two basic
electrical circuit laws, Kirchhoff’s voltage loop and
current node laws, together with the op-amp
simplifying assumptions.
• Let’s analyze the coefficient multiplier circuit:
iR = iR eo −eo
i fb e1 + − eo
A = A
e 1 − e i1 e i1 − e o
= Ri R fb
Ri R fb
R fb
e o = − Ae i1 eo = − e1 if A = ∞
Ri
• Of course A cannot be infinite, but it can be, say, 106
volts/volt, and then this is a good approximation.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 57
• Why not use the op-amp directly as an amplifier
since it has more than enough gain?
– The op-amp gain can be relied upon to be very large
but cannot be relied upon to be an accurate stable value.
– The gain A is guaranteed to be, say, in the range 1 to 5
million V/V.
– As long as A is large enough, our approximation is
valid.
– Also note that in the multiplier example, the accuracy
and stability depends on the values of the two resistors
and not on the value of A, as long as A is large enough.
– Using op-amps, we can construct circuits whose
performance depends mainly on passive components
selected to have accurate and stable values.
Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 58
• A is called the open-loop gain , while e o /e 1 in the
example is called the closed-loop gain , which in
this case due to the circuit configuration, is
negative.
• Since A may be treated as infinite, the voltage e i1,
the summing junction voltage, can always be
treated as zero in those op-amps where the
positive input is grounded. The summing junction
is known as virtual ground , since its voltage is for
all practical purposes zero, the same as true
ground, whose voltage is exactly zero.

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 59
• When op-amps don’t ground the positive input
(differential input), the difference (ei2 – e i1) is
taken to be practically zero.
• Using these assumptions, we can analyze the
integrator circuit as follows:

e1 − 0 d
iR = = iC = C (0 − e o ) = −CDe o
R dt
1 1
eo = −
RCD
e1 = −
RC ∫ e 1 dt

Mechatronics K. Craig
Physical Modeling - Electrical 60
• Similarly, for the summer circuit:

i1 + i2 + i3 = iR fb

e1 − 0 e2 − 0 e3 − 0 0 − eo
+ + =
R1 R2 R3 R fb

 R fb R fb R fb 
eo = −  e1 + e2 + e3 
 R1 R2 R3 
e o = − ( e1 + e 2 + e 3 ) if R fb = R 1 = R 2 = R 3

## • While multiplier, integrator, and summer are

fundamental operations for solving differential
equations, op-amps have many other uses.
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• Examples are high-pass filters, low-pass filters,
band-pass filters, band-reject filters, lead
controllers, lag controllers, lead-lag controllers,
approximate integrators and differentiators.
Z i and Z o represent
arbitrary impedances
e1 − 0 0 − eo
i1 = = i fb =
Z i (D ) Z fb ( D )

eo Z fb ( D )
(D ) = −
e1 Z i (D )
eo − R 2 C 1D
(D ) =
e1 ( R 1C 1D + 1 )( R 2 C 2 D + 1 )
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• Deviations of Real Op-Amps from Ideal
Assumptions
– Effect of non-infinite gain A
• For the multiplier circuit
eo − eo
e1 + − eo
A = A
Ri R fb

R fb  1 R fb 
eo = − e1  1 + + 
Ri  A A R i 

## • The open-loop gain A may be in the range of 10 4 to 10 8 , while

R fb /R i rarely exceeds 10 3 ; thus the error upper limit is from
about 10 -5 to 10 -1 . If one selects precision resistors so as to get
a precise e o/e 1, if the gain A is too low, the ratio will be
inaccurate.

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– Offset voltage
• Offset voltage refers to the fact that if e 1 is made zero by
grounding it, e o will not be exactly zero, due to imperfections
in the amplifier.
• The best values of offset voltage e os are the order of 30 µ V
over a temperature range 0f –25 to +85 ° C, with a temperature
coefficient of about 0.2 µ V/ ° C.
• Op-amps can be trimmed using some additional circuitry with
adjustable resistors to eliminate this offset.
– Bias Current
• Bias current is the small current that flows in the amplifier
input leads, even when no input voltage is applied.
• Values of ib1 can be as small as 75E-15 amps at 25 °C, and
would never exceed ± 4 pA.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 64
– Non-infinite Input Impedance and Nonzero Output
Impedance
• Analysis shows that the effect of non-infinite input impedance
is equivalent to a loss of open-loop gain A, the effective value
being given by:
A
A eff =
R i R fb
1+
R 1 ( R i + R fb )
• A similar effect is produced by nonzero output impedance (R L
is a load resistance representing the input resistance of any
device which would be connected to the op-amp circuit):

A
A eff =
R2 R2
1+ +
R fb RL

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 65
• Input resistances are in the range of 10 6 to 10 13 ohms while
output resistances are the order of 100 ohms.
– Speed of Response
• The speed of response is specified in several different ways.
One method considers the closed-loop frequency response
when the op-amp is connected as coefficient multiplier. The
fastest op-amps will have this frequency response flat to about
500 MHz when the input resistance and feedback resistance
are set equal, i.e., a closed-loop gain of 1. For a closed-loop
gain of 20, the flat range of amplitude drops to about 80 MHz.
• Another method uses settling time after a step input is applied.
Times to settle within 1, 0.1, and 0.01% of the final value may
be quoted. The settling time is typically a few nanoseconds.
– Power Limitations
• Most op-amps supply only limited electrical power at their
output terminals, e.g., ± 10 volts and 0.05 amps.

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 R fb 
Offset Voltage e o = e os 1 + 
 R i 

Bias Current e o = − i b1 R fb

Non-infinite Input
Impedance and Nonzero
Output Impedance

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General Circuit Laws

## • We focus on basic analysis techniques

which apply to all electrical circuits.
• Just as Newton’s Law is basic to the
analysis of mechanical systems, so are
Kirchhoff’s Laws basic to electrical circuits.
• One needs to know how to use these laws
and combine this with knowledge of the
current/voltage behavior of the basic circuit
elements to analyze a circuit model.
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Physical Modeling - Electrical 68
• Kirchhoff’s Voltage Loop Law
– It is merely a statement of an intuitive truth; it
requires no mathematical or physical proof.
– This law can be stated in several forms:
• The summation of voltage drops around a closed
loop must be zero at every instant.
• The summation of voltage rises around a closed
loop must be zero at every instant.
• The summation of the voltage drops around a closed
loop must equal the summation of the voltage rises
at every instant.

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Physical Modeling - Electrical 69
• Kirchhoff’s Current Node Law
– It is based on the physical fact that at any point
(node) in a circuit there can be no accumulation
of electric charge. In circuit diagrams we
connect elements (R, L, C, etc.) with wires
which are considered perfect conductors.
– This law can be stated in several forms:
• The summation of currents into a node must be zero.
• The summation of currents out of a node must be
zero.
• The summation of currents into a node must equal
the summation of currents out.

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• In mechanical systems we need sign
conventions for forces and motions; in
electrical systems we need them for
voltages and currents.
• If the assumed positive direction of a
current has not been specified at the
beginning of a problem, an orderly analysis
is quite impossible.
• For voltages, the sign conventions consist
of + and – signs at the terminals where the
voltage exists.
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Physical Modeling - Electrical 71
• Once sign conventions for all the voltages
and currents have been chosen, combination
of Kirchhoff’s Laws with the known
voltage/current relations which describe the
circuit elements leads us directly to the
system differential equations.

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