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User Guide
EasyPower
Power System Analysis Software

  Revision 9.5
Copyright © 2013 EasyPower LLC 
EasyPower User's Manual

Version 9.5

EasyPower is a proprietary computer program of EasyPower LLC. Copyright © 1991-2012 EasyPowerLLC.


All rights reserved. This manual is provided to EasyPower LLC customers exclusively for their use in the
operation of EasyPower, as discussed in the EasyPower License Agreement. Any other use or copying without
written permission from EasyPower is strictly prohibited. The information in this document is subject to
change without notice. EasyPower LLC assumes no liability for omissions or any errors that may appear in this
document.

EasyPower, Integrated Action Graphics (IAG), Integrated Performance Views (IPV), SmartGrid,
SmartDuty, and SmartBreaker are trademarks of EasyPower LLC. AutoCAD is a trademark of Autodesk
Inc. Microsoft Windows and SmartDrive are trademarks of Microsoft Inc., PKZIP is a trademark of PKWARE,
Inc. Other trademarks are the property of their respective holders.
Contents Contents  1

Contents
Introduction to EasyPower .................................................................................. 22
What is EasyPower? ..............................................................................................22
EasyPower Documentation Purpose ......................................................................22
Documentation Conventions ..................................................................................23
System Requirements.............................................................................................25
The following are the recommended hardware requirements for EasyPower: ......25
Installing EasyPower .............................................................................................26
Beginning An EasyPower Session .........................................................................26
The First Time You Run EasyPower ...............................................................26
Using Authorization Codes ....................................................................................27
PC Optimization for EasyPower ...........................................................................27
Memory ............................................................................................................27
Large, High-resolution Monitors .....................................................................28
High-speed Graphics Support ..........................................................................28
Uninstalling EasyPower .........................................................................................29
Checking for Updates ............................................................................................29

Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line ........................................................ 32


Overview ................................................................................................................32
The Session Window .............................................................................................32
Ribbons ............................................................................................................33
Quick Access Toolbar ......................................................................................33
Menu bar ..........................................................................................................34
Toolbar .............................................................................................................34
Right Mouse Context Menus ...........................................................................35
Status Bar .........................................................................................................35
Equipment Palette ............................................................................................36
EasyPower Focus ...................................................................................................36
Database Edit Focus.........................................................................................37
Analysis Focus .................................................................................................37
Choosing a Focus .............................................................................................37
Preparing to Start Your One-line ...........................................................................38
Turn Grid Display On/Off ...............................................................................38
Place Buses on the One-line ..................................................................................40
Adjust Bus Sizes and Locations.......................................................................41
Enter Bus kV Data ...........................................................................................41
Add Equipment to the One-line .............................................................................43
Add Transformer ..............................................................................................43
Contents Contents  2

Add Cables .......................................................................................................44


Add Motors ......................................................................................................45
Add Utility .......................................................................................................46
Add Feeder Breakers........................................................................................47
Add Tie Breaker...............................................................................................48
Save Your Work ....................................................................................................50
Enter Equipment Data ............................................................................................50
Enter Motor Data .............................................................................................51
Enter Cable Data ..............................................................................................52
Enter Transformer Data ...................................................................................53
Enter Utility Data .............................................................................................54
Turn Grid Display Off .....................................................................................54
View Entire One-line .......................................................................................55
Run a Power Flow Analysis...................................................................................56
Enter Power Flow Focus ..................................................................................56
Solve Base Case Power Flow ..........................................................................57
Adjust One-line For Results Readability .........................................................57
Interpret Results ...............................................................................................58
Run a Short Circuit Analysis .................................................................................59
Enter Short Circuit Focus and Fault a Bus.......................................................59
Adjust One-line For Results Readability .........................................................60
Interpret Results ...............................................................................................61
Look at a Remote Voltage and Current ...........................................................61
Look at Interrupting Results ............................................................................62
What Now? ............................................................................................................64
Open the "BIGGER" Sample One-line ............................................................64
Try Your Own Power System ..........................................................................64

Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams ............................................................... 66


Starting a New One-line.........................................................................................66
Save and Save As .............................................................................................66
Open and Close ................................................................................................66
Equipment Palette Button Meanings ...............................................................67
Standard Toolbar..............................................................................................67
Database Edit Status Bar..................................................................................67
Setting File Properties ............................................................................................68
Password Access ..............................................................................................69
Zooming In and Out ...............................................................................................70
Using Mouse Spin wheel to Zoom In and Out ................................................70
Zoom Slider bar ...............................................................................................70
Customizing the Toolbar.................................................................................70
Choosing a Specific Zoom Factor....................................................................71
Seeing Your Entire One-line ............................................................................71
Zooming In on a Portion of the System ...........................................................72
Zooming In and Out 1.5x .................................................................................72
Getting Back to the Previous Zoom Scale .......................................................72
Contents Contents  3

Moving Around On the One-line ...........................................................................72


Alternative Methods of Scrolling.....................................................................73
The Snap Grid ........................................................................................................73
SmartGrid™ .....................................................................................................74
Turning the Grid On and Off ...........................................................................75
Turning Snap to Grid On/Off ...........................................................................75
Adding Items to the One-line .................................................................................75
Buses ................................................................................................................76
Setting Bus kV .................................................................................................76
Changing Bus Area and Zone ..........................................................................77
Equipment With One Connection ....................................................................77
Equipment With Two or Three Connections ...................................................78
Lines Between Buses .......................................................................................79
Feeder Breakers and Switches .........................................................................80
Bus Tie Breakers and Switches........................................................................81
Connecting an MCC to an MCC......................................................................82
Auto-Insertion of Buses ...................................................................................83
Notes ................................................................................................................84
Setting Default Equipment Values.........................................................................84
Item Selection ........................................................................................................85
Selecting With the Mouse ................................................................................85
Deselecting an Item from a Group ...................................................................85
Selecting By an Item's ID Name ......................................................................85
Query................................................................................................................86
Getting an Item's Database Dialog Box ...........................................................88
Copying an Item's Database Information.........................................................88
Entering Item Data Using Tables ...........................................................................89
Database Dialog Toolbar .................................................................................89
Moving Around in the Table............................................................................89
Resetting Changes Made to the Current Item ..................................................90
Deleting an Item Using Its Database Dialog Box ............................................90
Adding a New Item ..........................................................................................90
Duplicating the Current Item ...........................................................................90
Copying Another Item's Database Information ...............................................91
Connecting an Item Using Its Database Dialog Box .......................................91
Activating/Deactivating an Item Using Its Database Dialog Box ...................91
Notes (Free Text) on One-line ...............................................................................91
Adding a Note ..................................................................................................91
Editing the Contents of a Note .........................................................................92
Dragging and Resizing a Note .........................................................................92
Deleting a Note ................................................................................................93
Adding a Note With a Leader ..........................................................................93
Changing Note Properties ................................................................................93
Selecting Many Notes At Once........................................................................94
Text Size and TrueType ...................................................................................94
Note Properties.......................................................................................................96
Contents Contents  4

Text Settings ....................................................................................................96


Leader Properties .............................................................................................97
Note Fonts ........................................................................................................99
Inserting Box in One-line...............................................................................100
Inserting Picture in One-line ..........................................................................101
Moving and Copying Groups of Items ................................................................101
Group Move ...................................................................................................101
Group Copy....................................................................................................102
Copying Subsystems ......................................................................................102
Grouping One-line Items .....................................................................................103
Ways to Change ID Names ..................................................................................104
Change ID Name............................................................................................104
Database Report (Browser) ..................................................................................106
Viewing the Browser/Report .........................................................................106
Browser Search Engine ..................................................................................107
Copying the Spreadsheet Data .......................................................................108
Modifying the Database using the Browser ...................................................109
Database Report Configurations ....................................................................109
Other Functions with Database Reports ........................................................111
Global Motor and Load Editing ...........................................................................111
Global Scaling Factor Changing ....................................................................113
Steps to Global Changing ..............................................................................113
Schedules .............................................................................................................114
Merge Data with Excel File ...........................................................................115
Printing Schedules .........................................................................................116
Showing SC kA and Arc Flash Hazard in Panel Schedules ..........................117
Export Schedules ...........................................................................................118
Schedule Templates .......................................................................................118
Drawings ..............................................................................................................129
Creating a New Drawing ...............................................................................130
Editing Drawing .............................................................................................130
EasyControl Commands ................................................................................131
Drawing Properties ........................................................................................132
Drawing Defaults ...........................................................................................135
Drawing Title Block Template ............................................................................137
Prerequisites ...................................................................................................137
Title Block File Format ..................................................................................138
Coordinates ....................................................................................................139
Hex Colors .....................................................................................................146
Variables that can be used in the <Label> sub-tag of a <Text> tag. .............146
Sample Title Block Features and Instructions ...............................................147
Named Views .......................................................................................................148
EasyControl Commands ................................................................................149
Inserting LV Switchgear ......................................................................................150
Elevation View.....................................................................................................151
MCC Elevation ..............................................................................................151
Contents Contents  5

Switchgear Elevation .....................................................................................153


Panelboard Elevation .....................................................................................155
Printing Elevations .........................................................................................157

Chapter 3 Analysis Overview .......................................................................... 160


Preparing for Analysis .........................................................................................160
Full Connectivity ...........................................................................................160
Required Database Fields ..............................................................................160
Recalculating Per-unit Data ...........................................................................160
Editing Allowed During Analysis........................................................................160
Editing the One-line Appearance ...................................................................160
Opening and Closing Breakers or Switches...................................................161
Editing Item Data ...........................................................................................162
Viewing Item Database Data ...............................................................................163
Controlling the Analysis ......................................................................................164
The "Analysis Options Control" Dialog Box.................................................164
Excluding Items From Analysis.....................................................................164
Starting the Analysis ............................................................................................164
Analysis Results ...................................................................................................165
Results on the One-line ..................................................................................165
One-line Unit Settings....................................................................................165
Text Results ...................................................................................................165
Window Manipulation ...................................................................................166
Clearing Results From Text and One-line Windows .....................................167
Saving Text Reports as htm files ...................................................................167
Exporting Text Report to Word/Excel ...........................................................167

Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI .............................. 170


Overview ..............................................................................................................170
Setting Short Circuit Method ...............................................................................170
Short Circuit Ribbon ......................................................................................171
Short Circuit Status Bar .................................................................................172
Faulting a Bus ................................................................................................172
Viewing Remote Voltages and Currents........................................................173
Changing the ANSI Standard Time Interval ..................................................175
SmartDuty™ ........................................................................................................175
Voltage Sensitivity Studies ..................................................................................177
Line End Fault......................................................................................................177
Line End Fault Procedure ..............................................................................177
Short Circuit Options ...........................................................................................178
Short Circuit Control......................................................................................178
Short Circuit One-line Output........................................................................180
Short Circuit Text Output ..............................................................................183
Arc-Flash Hazards Analysis ................................................................................187
Calculation and Theory ........................................................................................187
ANSI Standard Short Circuit Calculations ....................................................187
Contents Contents  6

Methodology ..................................................................................................188
Proper Application of ANSI Standards..........................................................189
DC Short Circuit ..................................................................................................190
Thyristor Short Circuit Modeling Limitations ...............................................190
DC Bus Fault..................................................................................................190
AC Output Bus Fault .....................................................................................191

Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis....................................................................... 194


Overview ..............................................................................................................194
Power Flow Commands .................................................................................195
Power Flow Status Bar...................................................................................195
Solving A Power Flow ...................................................................................196
Changing Equipment Parameters ...................................................................196
Impact Motor Starting ..........................................................................................197
Example of Impact Motor Starting ................................................................198
Motor Starting with Starting Capacitors ........................................................199
Swing Sources......................................................................................................200
Power Flow Options ............................................................................................201
Power Flow Control .......................................................................................201
Power Flow One-line Output ...............................................................................204
Power Flow Text Output......................................................................................206
Temporary Dialog Boxes .....................................................................................207
Temporary Generator Data ............................................................................208
Temporary Utility Data ..................................................................................209
Temporary Filter Data....................................................................................210
Temporary Two-Winding Transformer Data.................................................210
Temporary Three-Winding Transformer Data...............................................211
Temporary Motor Control Center Data .........................................................212
Temporary Panel Schedule Data ....................................................................214
Temporary Motor Data ..................................................................................215
Temporary Load Data ....................................................................................216
Temporary Capacitor Data .............................................................................217
Temporary Shunt Data ...................................................................................218
Considerations for Multiple Generators on a Bus................................................218
Watt & Var Sharing .......................................................................................219
Generator Switching ......................................................................................219
Considerations for Opening and Closing Breakers..............................................219
Troubleshooting Power Flows That Fail to Solve ...............................................220
Calculation and Theory ........................................................................................221
Impact Motor Starting ....................................................................................222

Chapter 6 Scenario Manager ......................................................................... 224


Overview ..............................................................................................................224
Scenario Manager Commands .......................................................................224
Scenario Manager Functionality ..........................................................................225
Scenario Interface (example) .........................................................................226
Contents Contents  7

Opening a New Scenario .....................................................................................226


Opening an Existing Scenario........................................................................227
Storing Scenarios ...........................................................................................229
Deleting Scenarios .........................................................................................229
File Save versus Store Scenario ...........................................................................230
Analysis Changes in Scenarios ............................................................................231
Scenario Colors ..............................................................................................231
Scenario Comparison Report ...............................................................................232
Creating Scenario Comparison Report ..........................................................233
Working with the Scenario Comparison Report ............................................234
Adding Results Group....................................................................................240
Adding Scenario Group .................................................................................243

Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library ............................................................. 246


Creating New .......................................................................................................246
New Manufacturer and Type .........................................................................246
New Style .......................................................................................................247
Field Edit Dialog Box ....................................................................................248
New Library ...................................................................................................248
Time-Current Characteristics (TCC) Data ...........................................................250
Time-Current Points.......................................................................................250
Time-current Points of Multi-Segment TCC .................................................253
TCC Based on Formulas ................................................................................254
Adjustable Range for Settings .......................................................................255
Trip Devices .........................................................................................................256
Relays.............................................................................................................256
Molded Case Circuit Breakers (MCCB) ........................................................257
Solid State Trips.............................................................................................258
Non-Solid State Trips ....................................................................................258
High Voltage Fuses ........................................................................................259
Low Voltage Fuses ........................................................................................260
Motor Overload Relays ..................................................................................261
Customizing .........................................................................................................261
Selecting.........................................................................................................262
Cut, Copy, and Paste ......................................................................................263
Inserting Rows and Columns .........................................................................265
Moving Rows and Columns...........................................................................265
Undo and Redo ..............................................................................................266

Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting ...................................................................... 268


Properties .............................................................................................................268
Page Setup......................................................................................................269
Print Preview..................................................................................................270
Printing to a File.............................................................................................271
Printing to Acrobat Distiller...........................................................................271
Printing a One-Line..............................................................................................272
Contents Contents  8

Title Block ...........................................................................................................273


Configuring Title Block .................................................................................274
One-line Title Block Template Format ................................................................276
Title Block File Format ..................................................................................276
Settings...........................................................................................................277
Rectangles ......................................................................................................278
Lines...............................................................................................................278
Text ................................................................................................................279
Image..............................................................................................................281
Printing Text Reports ...........................................................................................282
Free-format Reports .......................................................................................283
Printing MCCs and Panel Schedules ...................................................................283
Printing Arc Flash Hazard Labels ........................................................................284

Chapter 9 Working With EasyPower Files ...................................................... 286


Overview ..............................................................................................................286
Database Files ......................................................................................................286
Compressing Database Files ................................................................................286
Temporary Files ...................................................................................................287
Temporary Files .............................................................................................287

Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower ............................................................... 290


Options .................................................................................................................290
General ...........................................................................................................290
Clipboard........................................................................................................295
Text Visibility ................................................................................................297
Colors .............................................................................................................298
Changing Grid Parameters .............................................................................302
Text Fonts, Styles, and Sizes .........................................................................303
Setting System Info ........................................................................................304
Equipment ......................................................................................................306
File Locations.................................................................................................307
Viewing Toolbars.................................................................................................308
Customizing Toolbars ..........................................................................................309
Toolbar Options .............................................................................................311
Report Options .....................................................................................................311
Subsystems ...........................................................................................................313
Creating New Subsystem Template ...............................................................313
Setting File Properties of Subsystem Templates ...........................................314
Inserting Subsystem .......................................................................................314
Customizing Subsystems Toolbar..................................................................317

Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs ....................................... 321


Overview ..............................................................................................................321
Sending to a Word Processor ...............................................................................321
Using ALT-Print Screen ................................................................................321
Contents Contents  9

Copying EasyPower Graphics to Other Applications ....................................322


Copying Text Reports to Other Applications ................................................323
Databases .............................................................................................................323
Exporting Database Text Files .......................................................................324
Sending to a CAD System ...................................................................................324
How To Write a DXF File .............................................................................324
Using AutoCAD® to Read the File ...............................................................325
Layer Names ..................................................................................................325
SCADA Importing and Exporting .......................................................................326
File Structure ..................................................................................................326
Sample File ....................................................................................................330
Saving an ASCII File .....................................................................................330
Reading an ASCII File ...................................................................................331

Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference ....................................................... 333


Overview ..............................................................................................................333
Comments tab in Equipment Data .................................................................333
AFD Data .............................................................................................................334
Specifications .................................................................................................334
Notes on AFD ................................................................................................335
ATS Data .............................................................................................................341
Specifications .................................................................................................342
Stability ..........................................................................................................343
Arc Flash Hazard ...........................................................................................344
Battery Data .........................................................................................................344
Specifications .................................................................................................344
Bus Data ...............................................................................................................345
Specifications .................................................................................................346
Switchgear/Panelboard/Switchboard .............................................................348
Arc Flash Hazard ...........................................................................................350
Busway Data ........................................................................................................354
Connection Information .................................................................................354
Busway Specifications ...................................................................................355
Impedances ....................................................................................................355
Harmonics ......................................................................................................356
Cable Data............................................................................................................356
Connection Information .................................................................................357
Cable Specifications 1....................................................................................357
Cable Specifications 2....................................................................................361
Ground Wire ..................................................................................................364
Neutral Wire...................................................................................................366
Harmonics ......................................................................................................366
DC Cables ............................................................................................................366
DC Resistance Specification ..........................................................................366
Capacitor Data .....................................................................................................367
Connection Information .................................................................................367
Contents Contents  10

Capacitor Specifications ................................................................................368


Harmonics ......................................................................................................368
Current Limiting Reactor Data ............................................................................369
Connection Information .................................................................................369
C. L. Reactor Specifications ..........................................................................370
Harmonics ......................................................................................................370
Current Transformer Data ....................................................................................371
Connection Information .................................................................................371
Specifications .................................................................................................372
Filter Data ............................................................................................................373
Connection Information .................................................................................374
Specifications .................................................................................................374
Harmonics ......................................................................................................374
Fused Switch Data ...............................................................................................377
Connection Information .................................................................................377
Specifications .................................................................................................378
Short Circuit ...................................................................................................380
Switch ............................................................................................................381
Stability ..........................................................................................................382
Mtr O/L (Motor Overload)............................................................................383
Harmonics ......................................................................................................384
DC Fused Switch ...........................................................................................385
Generator Data .....................................................................................................385
Connection Information .................................................................................386
Generator Specifications ................................................................................386
DC Generator Specifications .........................................................................388
Power Flow ....................................................................................................389
DC Generator Power Flow.............................................................................390
Generator Impedance .....................................................................................391
Generator TCC ...............................................................................................392
Harmonics ......................................................................................................394
Stability 1 .......................................................................................................395
Generator Model: ...........................................................................................395
Exciter Model: ...............................................................................................396
Governor Model:............................................................................................396
Stability 2 .......................................................................................................397
High Voltage Breaker Data ..................................................................................398
Connection Information .................................................................................398
High Voltage Breaker Specifications.............................................................399
Short Circuit ...................................................................................................400
Harmonics ......................................................................................................401
Inverter Data ........................................................................................................401
Specifications .................................................................................................402
Power Flow ....................................................................................................403
Notes on Inverter Model ................................................................................405
Load Data .............................................................................................................409
Contents Contents  11

Connection Information .................................................................................409


Specifications .................................................................................................409
DC Load Specifications .................................................................................411
Harmonics ......................................................................................................411
Low Voltage Breaker Data ..................................................................................414
Connection Information .................................................................................414
Low Voltage Breaker Specifications .............................................................415
Short Circuit ...................................................................................................418
Phase Trip ......................................................................................................419
Gnd Trip .........................................................................................................424
ZSI..................................................................................................................426
Fuse ................................................................................................................427
Motor Overload (Mtr O/L).............................................................................428
Harmonics ......................................................................................................429
DC LV Breaker ..............................................................................................430
Meter Data ...........................................................................................................431
Connection Information .................................................................................431
Load Equipment .............................................................................................432
Association.....................................................................................................432
Motor Data ...........................................................................................................433
Connection Information .................................................................................433
Model .............................................................................................................433
Motor Specifications ......................................................................................434
Motor kVA Calculations ................................................................................435
DC Motor Specifications ...............................................................................436
Short Circuit ...................................................................................................437
TCC ................................................................................................................439
Power Flow ....................................................................................................441
DC Motor Power Flow...................................................................................445
Harmonics ......................................................................................................446
Stability ..........................................................................................................446
Motor Control Center Data ..................................................................................451
Connection Information .................................................................................451
Specifications .................................................................................................451
Incoming ........................................................................................................453
Description .....................................................................................................454
Summary ........................................................................................................458
Power Flow ....................................................................................................461
Short Circuit ...................................................................................................463
Harmonics ......................................................................................................464
Arc Flash Hazard ...........................................................................................465
Panel Schedule Data ............................................................................................466
Connection Information .................................................................................466
Specifications .................................................................................................466
Incoming ........................................................................................................467
Description .....................................................................................................468
Contents Contents  12

Summary ........................................................................................................471
Power Flow ....................................................................................................473
Harmonics ......................................................................................................474
Arc Flash Hazard ...........................................................................................475
Photovoltaic Data .................................................................................................475
Specifications .................................................................................................475
Notes on Data Specification...........................................................................476
Notes on Power Flow Modeling ....................................................................479
Short Circuit Modeling ..................................................................................481
Rectifier Data .......................................................................................................482
Connection Information .................................................................................482
Specifications .................................................................................................483
Power Flow ....................................................................................................483
Modeling Notes..............................................................................................484
Power Flow Modeling....................................................................................487
Relay Data............................................................................................................489
Connection Information .................................................................................489
Specifications .................................................................................................489
Settings...........................................................................................................492
Shunt Reactor Data ..............................................................................................497
Connection Information .................................................................................497
Shunt Specifications.......................................................................................497
Harmonics ......................................................................................................498
Switch Data ..........................................................................................................498
Connection Information .................................................................................498
Switch Specifications .....................................................................................499
Short Circuit ...................................................................................................500
Harmonics ......................................................................................................500
Three-Winding Transformer Data .......................................................................501
Connection Information .................................................................................501
Transformer Specifications ............................................................................502
Winding Information .....................................................................................502
Impedance ......................................................................................................503
Load Tap Changer (LTC) ..............................................................................505
TCC ................................................................................................................506
Harmonics ......................................................................................................508
Transmission Line Data .......................................................................................508
Connection Information .................................................................................509
Transmission Line Specifications ..................................................................509
Impedances ....................................................................................................510
Harmonics ......................................................................................................510
Two-Winding Transformer Data .........................................................................511
Connection Information .................................................................................511
Transformer Specifications ............................................................................512
Winding Information .....................................................................................512
Impedance ......................................................................................................513
Contents Contents  13

Load Tap Changer (LTC) Data ......................................................................515


TCC Data .......................................................................................................516
Harmonics ......................................................................................................517
UPS Data ..............................................................................................................518
Specifications .................................................................................................518
Power Flow ....................................................................................................519
Utility Data...........................................................................................................520
Connection Information .................................................................................521
Utility Specifications .....................................................................................521
DC Utility Specifications ...............................................................................522
Power Flow ....................................................................................................523
DC Utility Power Flow ..................................................................................524
Harmonics ......................................................................................................525
Stability ..........................................................................................................527
Zigzag Transformer Data .....................................................................................528
Connection Information .................................................................................528
Specifications .................................................................................................529
Harmonics ......................................................................................................529

Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum ........................................................... 532


Overview ..............................................................................................................532
Harmonics Ribbon ...............................................................................................532
Harmonics Toolbar ..............................................................................................532
Harmonics Status Bar ..........................................................................................533
Harmonic Load Data ............................................................................................533
Analysis Results ...................................................................................................534
Frequency Scan ..............................................................................................535
Plotting Results ..............................................................................................537
Current Flow ..................................................................................................540
Summation .....................................................................................................541
Harmonics Options ..............................................................................................545
Harmonics Control .........................................................................................545
Harmonics One-line Output ...........................................................................546
Harmonics Text Output..................................................................................548
Plot Output .....................................................................................................549
DC Effects in Harmonics .....................................................................................551

Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector............................................... 554


Overview ..............................................................................................................554
Coordination Focus ........................................................................................554
Coordination Ribbon ......................................................................................554
TCC Ribbon ...................................................................................................554
TCC Status Bar ..............................................................................................555
Short Circuit Analysis in Coordination Focus .....................................................555
Coordination Options ...........................................................................................556
General ...........................................................................................................557
Contents Contents  14

TCC Curve Styles ..........................................................................................558


Auto Coordination .........................................................................................559
Short Circuit Options ...........................................................................................559
TCC Options ........................................................................................................560
Short Circuit Control......................................................................................560
TCC One-line .................................................................................................562
Arc Flash Hazard Analysis in Coordination Focus........................................562
Insert SC Tick Mark.......................................................................................562
Formatting SC Tick Marks ............................................................................563
Arcing Current Tick Mark .............................................................................564
LV Breaker Series Coordination Tick Mark ..................................................564
Plotting a TCC Curve from a One-Line ...............................................................565
Plotting Motor Starting Curve on TCC................................................................567
Plotting Individual Motor Curve....................................................................567
Plotting Grouped Motor Curve ......................................................................569
Plotting Items in MCC and Panels .......................................................................571
Editing TCC Curves .............................................................................................572
Dragging TCC Curves ...................................................................................572
Dragging Pickup and FLA Tick Marks .........................................................575
Curve Insertion...............................................................................................576
Add Item Existing in One-line .......................................................................576
Deleting Curves .............................................................................................577
Deleting Devices from One-line of TCC Plot................................................577
Inserting Shifted Curves ................................................................................577
Shifting Curves by Modifying .......................................................................578
Show Original Curve .....................................................................................579
Changing Overlapping Curve Position ..........................................................579
Insert Difference Calculator .................................................................................580
Temporary Data Dialog Boxes ............................................................................581
Temporary Data Dialog Boxes and TCC Plots ..............................................582
TCC Clipping .................................................................................................583
Saving Temporary Data .................................................................................584
Save and Store......................................................................................................584
Open and Delete TCC ..........................................................................................585
Formatting Appearance........................................................................................586
Title Block .....................................................................................................586
Insert a One-Line Diagram ............................................................................587
Zoom and Pan ................................................................................................588
Inserting Notes ...............................................................................................588
Format Plot Area ............................................................................................589
Scale ...............................................................................................................591
Default............................................................................................................594
Copy to Metafile ..................................................................................................594
Reports .................................................................................................................594
TCC Coordination Report ..............................................................................594
Print ......................................................................................................................597
Contents Contents  15

Zone Selective Interlock (ZSI).............................................................................598


TCC Plots for ZSI Breakers ...........................................................................600
Maintenance Mode Trip.......................................................................................601
Global TCC Changes versus TCC Dependent Changes ......................................601
Global Changes ..............................................................................................602
TCC Dependant Changes ...............................................................................602
Global and TCC Dependent Issues ................................................................602

Chapter 15 AF Hazard Analysis........................................................................ 606


Calculating Arc Flash Hazards / Currents ...........................................................606
Fault Interface ................................................................................................607
Unbalanced Fault Types ................................................................................608
Arc Fault Currents..........................................................................................608
Arc Flash Hazard Options ....................................................................................608
Advanced Arc Flash Options .........................................................................612
Specifying Arc Flash Hazard Data for Equipment ..............................................614
Specifying Equipment Type ..........................................................................615
Specifying Arcing Time .................................................................................616
Arc Flash Report ..................................................................................................617
Spreadsheet Column Headings ......................................................................619
Opening Arc Flash Hazard Report in Excel® ...............................................621
Arc Flash Hazard Labels......................................................................................622
Getting Started Printing Arc Flash Labels .....................................................622
Why use EasyPower label printing and design? ............................................623
How to Print Arc Flash Labels.......................................................................623
Label Print Preview Window .........................................................................625
Print Labels Toolbar ......................................................................................627
How to Print Landscape Oriented Labels ......................................................628
How to Print to Custom Label Stock .............................................................631
Customizing Label Designs ...........................................................................633
How to Create a Custom Label Template ......................................................634
Label Variables ..............................................................................................635
Label Designer Window ................................................................................638
Example of Changing Text on a Label Template ..........................................645
How to Insert a Variable from the Arc Flash Hazard Report ........................645
How to Control when Text is Visible ............................................................647
Example of Displaying Different Text based off a Condition .......................649
Scenario Comparison Report ...............................................................................652
Creating Scenario Comparison Report ..........................................................652
Default Data in Library ........................................................................................654
Arc Flash Hazard ...........................................................................................654
User Clearing Times ......................................................................................655
Defining PPE Levels ............................................................................................656
Creating Energized Electrical Work Permits .......................................................657
Creating Work Permits ..................................................................................658
Work Task Dialog ..........................................................................................659
Contents Contents  16

Work Permit Files ..........................................................................................660


Editing Work Permits ....................................................................................660
Linking Work Permits to EasyPower One-lines ............................................661
Library............................................................................................................661
Troubleshooting with Arc Flash Hazard Results .................................................663
Determination of System Grounding ...................................................................665
Maintenance Mode Trip.......................................................................................666

Chapter 16 IEC Short Circuit Reference .......................................................... 668


Setting Short Circuit Method ...............................................................................668
Short Circuit Focus ..............................................................................................669
Short Circuit Status Bar .................................................................................670
Faulting a Bus ................................................................................................670
Changing the IEC Standard Time Interval.....................................................671
Displaying Fault Currents By Current Type ..................................................672
SmartDuty™ ........................................................................................................673
Short Circuit Control............................................................................................675
Short Circuit One-line Output..............................................................................676
Short Circuit Text Output ....................................................................................678

Chapter 17 Auto-Design .................................................................................. 682


Introduction ..........................................................................................................682
Items that can be sized ...................................................................................682
Types of Circuits ............................................................................................682
Performing Auto Design ......................................................................................685
Pre-Requisites for Auto Design .....................................................................685
Sizing Equipment on One-line .......................................................................686
Sizing Individual Circuits in MCC and Panel Data .......................................686
Sizing MCC and Panel ...................................................................................687
Lock Auto-Sizing ...........................................................................................688
Auto-Design Options ...........................................................................................688
General ...........................................................................................................689
Lines...............................................................................................................690
Protective Device ...........................................................................................692
Voltage Drops ................................................................................................693
Bus .................................................................................................................694
Design Library .....................................................................................................695
Motors ............................................................................................................696
Feeders ...........................................................................................................697
Protective Equipment .....................................................................................698
Bus Equipment ...............................................................................................699
Transformers ..................................................................................................699
Editing Design Library ..................................................................................700
Series Coordination of Breakers ..........................................................................705
Pre-requisites for Series Coordination ...........................................................706
Performing Series Coordination ....................................................................706
Contents Contents  17

Adding Coordination Data to Breaker Library ..............................................707


Customizing the Design Template for Series Coordination ..........................708

Chapter 18 Auto-Coordination ........................................................................ 710


Introduction ..........................................................................................................710
Phase Coordination vs. Ground Coordination ...............................................710
Protective devices that can be Auto Coordinated ................................................710
Relays.............................................................................................................710
SSTs and Molded Case Circuit Breakers .......................................................711
Fuses ..............................................................................................................711
Auto Coordination Process ..................................................................................712
Tips on Auto Coordination: ...........................................................................713
Lock Auto Coordination ................................................................................713
Auto Coordination Options ..................................................................................714
General ...........................................................................................................715
Transformer....................................................................................................718
Line ................................................................................................................719
Load ...............................................................................................................721
Capacitor ........................................................................................................722
Motor..............................................................................................................723
Fuse ................................................................................................................724
Relay ..............................................................................................................725
Relay Minimum Time Gaps...........................................................................726

Chapter 19 Dynamic Stability .......................................................................... 732


Introduction ..........................................................................................................732
Dynamic Stability Focus ................................................................................732
Dynamic Stability Ribbon..............................................................................733
Steps to Running Dynamic Stability Simulations ................................................734
Entering Dynamic Stability Data .........................................................................735
Stability Data Parameters .....................................................................................735
Generator Models...........................................................................................736
Excitation System Models .............................................................................738
Governor Models ...........................................................................................744
PSS Models ....................................................................................................746
Motor Models.................................................................................................748
ATS Model.....................................................................................................751
Contactor Model ............................................................................................752
Menu and Commands ..........................................................................................753
Simulations Commands .................................................................................753
Plotting User Selected Values – Define Plot .......................................................754
Creating a Simulation Script ................................................................................758
Dynamic Stability Options...................................................................................761
Control ...........................................................................................................761
Double-Click Control.....................................................................................763
Plot Output .....................................................................................................766
Contents Contents  18

Arc Flash ........................................................................................................766


Arc Flash Calculations in Dynamic Stability.......................................................767
Formatting Plots ...................................................................................................768
Format Title ...................................................................................................769
Format Plot Area ............................................................................................769
Format X or Y Axes .......................................................................................770
Format Legend ...............................................................................................771
Spreadsheet Results .............................................................................................772
Viewing ..........................................................................................................772
Copy to Clipboard ..........................................................................................772
Format Plot Data ............................................................................................772
Power Flow Results in One-line ..........................................................................772
Printing.................................................................................................................773
Messaging ............................................................................................................773
Exciter Max Limit Messages .........................................................................775
Exciter Min Limit Messages ..........................................................................775
Exciter Gate Limit Messages .........................................................................776
Governor Max Limit Messages .....................................................................776
Governor Min Limit Messages ......................................................................776
Governor Runtime Load Limit Messages ......................................................777
Governor Initialization Load Limit Messages ...............................................778
Slew Run Messages .......................................................................................778
Slip Estimate Messages..................................................................................779
Data Error Messages ......................................................................................780
Delay Table Message .....................................................................................782
Initialized Message ........................................................................................783
Load Transition Messages .............................................................................783
Sync Motor Field Tripped Message ...............................................................783
Sync Motor Field Tripped on Reverse Power Message.................................783
Sync Motor Field Applied Message ..............................................................783
Solution Messages .........................................................................................784
Refactor Messages .........................................................................................784
Isolated Sub-System Message........................................................................785
Induction Motor Power Flow Messages ........................................................785
Protective Device Pickup Messages ..............................................................786
Protective Device Reset Messages.................................................................786
Protective Device Trip Messages...................................................................787
Relay Time Delay Satisfied Message ............................................................787
Relay Travel Back Message...........................................................................788
Relay Unable to Trip Breaker Message .........................................................788
Relay Instantaneous Reset Message ..............................................................788
ATS Transferred Messages ............................................................................788
Contactor Dropped Out Message ...................................................................789
Exceeded Result Storage Message.................................................................789
No PF Source Messages.................................................................................789
DStates Not Settled Messages .......................................................................789
Contents Contents  19

DStates Settled Messages ..............................................................................790


Faulted Message.............................................................................................790
Fault Removed Message ................................................................................790
ATS Transferred Message .............................................................................790
Contactor Dropped Out Message ...................................................................791
Results Saved Message ..................................................................................791
Device Opened Message ................................................................................791
Device Closed Message .................................................................................791
Simulation Run To Message ..........................................................................792
Simulation Run For Message .........................................................................792
Simulation Reset Message .............................................................................792
Run Script Message .......................................................................................792
Run Script Warning Message ........................................................................792
Control Setting Changed Messages ...............................................................793
Motor Load Messages ....................................................................................793
Simulation Auto-Stop Message .....................................................................793
Complex Operations Error Messages ............................................................794
Numerical Instability Message ......................................................................794
Stepping Message ..........................................................................................794
Simulation Complete Message ......................................................................795
DS Focus Entry Error Messages ....................................................................795
DS Focus Entry Model Error Message ..........................................................795
Attempting Close / Open Message ................................................................795
Exciter / Governor Stepping Messages ..........................................................796
Completing Script Message ...........................................................................796
Reset Encountered Errors Message ...............................................................796
Completing Script Message ...........................................................................796
Power Flow Scaling Message ........................................................................796
Time Step Change Message ...........................................................................797
Bus / Device / ATS Not Defined Message ....................................................797
Generator AVR Undefined Messages ............................................................797
Generator AVR Action Messages..................................................................798
Dynamic Stability Library ...................................................................................798
Plugins..................................................................................................................799
DC Modeling in Dynamic Stability .....................................................................799
Inverter and Photovoltaic Iteration Methods .................................................800

Glossary of Terms .................................................................................................. i

Index ................................................................................................................... xii


 21
Introduction to EasyPower What is EasyPower?  22

Introduction to EasyPower
What is EasyPower?
EasyPower® is a computer aided engineering tool for the analysis and design of industrial,
utility, and commercial electrical power systems. EasyPower® is unique in that it
completely integrates the short circuit, power flow, protective device coordination and
database functions under control of the interactive graphical one-line diagram. EasyPower®
lets you work like you normally do -- directly from the one-line. We also maintain the most
interactive and user friendly interface ever developed for power system analysis software.

EasyPower® uses the latest network analysis techniques developed by world leaders in
sparsity solution algorithms and innovative computer techniques. EasyPower® prides itself
in its ingenuity of software development with a wide variety of algorithms that are not
available in other programs. This gives EasyPower a tremendous advantage over other
programs in execution time, modeling capabilities, and accuracy.

EasyPower Documentation Purpose


This book is to be used as a ‘Reference Guide’ and a ‘User Manual’ for all EasyPower®
users. Information is included that would be good for users to know when initially beginning
to use EasyPower® as well as knowledge that will be applicable for even the most
experienced of users. It is recommended as the best option that this book be read in its
entirety. ‘Your First EasyPower Oneline’ and ‘Making Oneline Diagrams’ provide users
with an overview of the majority of the CAD development options that are available. If you
plan on using EasyPower® for Studies and in depth analysis it would also interest you to
read ‘Analysis Overview’ and work through the ‘EasyPower Tutorials’. If you decide not
to read these chapters completely, familiarizing yourself with the Table of Contents will aid
you in referencing what topics are covered.

Note: Be sure to read "Your First Oneline" and go through the brief tutorial there. These
basics of how EasyPower® works will provide your foundation of the software, and simplify
your use of EasyPower®.
Introduction to EasyPower Documentation Conventions  23

To further enhance your abilities with the EasyPower® software we recommend becoming
familiar with this book and never hesitating to reference it. Our Technical Support staff is
also very knowledgeable and willing to discuss your questions on device libraries, technical
details on particular analysis operations and standards.

Documentation Conventions
 Command names, Menu bar names, keyboard keys, and Toolbar buttons are Boldface
Helvetica.

 Things you type are indicated with Courier.

 Boldface Times is used for dialog box field names when described in the text.

 New terms being introduced are indicated with italics. If the meaning is not clear from the
context, see the Glossary of Terms. Italics are also used for dialog box field names when
referred to in the text.
Introduction to EasyPower System Requirements  25

System Requirements

The following are the minimum hardware requirements for EasyPower:

 Operating System: Windows XP SP3 / 2003 Server / Vista/ Windows 7

 CPU: Equivalent of 2.5 GHz Pentium IV

 RAM: Equivalent of 500 MB DDR2 RAM

 1024 x 768 or higher resolution monitor and video adapter

 500 MB of free hard disk space for EasyPower program directory

 CD/DVD drive

 Microsoft Mouse or other compatible pointing device with spin wheel.

The following are the recommended hardware requirements for EasyPower:

 CPU: Equivalent of 2.5 GHz Pentium D or better

 RAM: Equivalent of 1GB DDR2 RAM or larger

 1024 x 768 or higher resolution monitor and video adapter or larger

 1GB of free hard disk space for EasyPower program and files or larger

 Ergonomic keyboard and pointing device with spin/click wheel.


Introduction to EasyPower Installing EasyPower  26

Installing EasyPower
1. Make sure your computer has enough speed and memory as described in System
Requirements above.

2. Start Microsoft Windows on your computer.

3. Insert the EasyPower program CD in a CD drive. The CD will auto-start. For Vista operating
system you will need to browse the CD to Setup folder and run setup.exe program.

4. Follow the installation dialog.

5. Click on the Install button.

6. Install the hardware key to the printer port or the USB port on the computer before running
EasyPower.

Beginning An EasyPower Session


Select the EasyPower icon to open a new session. A splash screen will appear, with
options to choose, once in EasyPower you may disable this splash screen in the options for
quicker load time. Choose Start Program button. You can click on the window's
Maximize button to completely maximize visibility within the session.

Note: If you are new to the Microsoft Operating Systems, it is highly recommended that you
run the appropriate Tutorial before using EasyPower®. This documentation assumes that
you are familiar with the basic Windows operations like using menus, choosing from dialog
boxes, manipulating window sizes/locations, etc.

The First Time You Run EasyPower

If this is your first time using EasyPower, we highly recommend that you read Chapter 1,
Your First EasyPower One-line and go through the brief tutorial there. This will give you
the basics of how EasyPower works, and will make the rest of the chapters much more
understandable.
Introduction to EasyPower Using Authorization Codes  27

Using Authorization Codes


It is possible to change your program options by using an authcode. For example, suppose
you faxed in a purchase order for adding the SmartDuty option to EasyPower. You will
receive a fax back which gives you a code that you can input to EasyPower to enable the
feature rather than waiting for a new program to be shipped to you.

To enter a new authorization code, choose Tools Auth Code from the Menu bar. You
will get the following dialog box:

Type in your code as instructed. For example, here is a typical authorization code:

SW22 8DPE JJF2 YT4B N7S9

As you type, the blanks are optional. Make sure not to enter any additional spaces or
characters after the authorization code, then click on the OK button for the new features to be
enabled.

You only need to enter a new authorization code once, but you should keep the information
in your files in case you ever need to re-install the program.

PC Optimization for EasyPower


EasyPower runs on many computers with a wide variety of hardware and system
configurations. Some configurations may allow EasyPower to work more efficiently than
others. The following discussion will help you get the most out of EasyPower.

Memory

To run a complex analysis program like EasyPower effectively and still allow your computer
the memory it needs to run efficiently, you should consider upgrading if you have 500
megabytes of RAM or less.
Introduction to EasyPower PC Optimization for EasyPower  28

On older hard disk drives a symptom of insufficient memory is that your hard disk will
"chatter" a lot. This means Windows is being forced to use the hard disk instead of memory
for basic operations. Inexpensive memory is available from many online stores and is much
less expensive than a new hard disk.

Large, High-resolution Monitors

The larger the computer's display screen, the more of your one-line you will be able to see at
one time. Although EasyPower is very fast and efficient, you will work more effectively if
scrolling is minimized and your one-line is fully visualized.

High-speed Graphics Support

EasyPower's one-line graphics are very fast compared to other programs. However, the
faster your computer's graphics are, the faster EasyPower can display things. Many
computers come with built-in Local Bus graphics, which are generally faster than other forms
of graphic support. If your existing computer does not have high-speed graphics support,
you can purchase a high-performance graphics card as an add-on.
Introduction to EasyPower Uninstalling EasyPower  29

Uninstalling EasyPower
1. Access your computer’s Control Panel from the start menu.

2. Double-click on the Add/Remove Programs icon.

3. Click on EasyPower 9.5.

4. Click on the Add/Remove button and uninstall.

Checking for Updates


You can automatically check if any updates for EasyPower program or the standard library
are available on the web. These items along with manuals and EasyPower utilities may be
accessed at http://www.EasyPower.com/Updates. Please have your serial number ready for
verification of current maintenance; you will then be redirected to our update center.

For expired EasyPower maintenance please contact our office at Sales@EasyPower.com. For
Network licenses, obtain update information from EasyPower LLC, by emailing us at
techsupport@easypower.com.
Introduction to EasyPower Checking for Updates  31
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Overview  32

Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower


One-line
Overview
In this tutorial, you will create a small but complete one-line diagram and database from
scratch. You will then perform a basic power flow and short circuit analysis on the system.

The Session Window


After you start EasyPower, the session window should look something like the following
figure. Click on the session window's Maximize button on the upper-right to make it fill
the screen. To make the one-line window fill the EasyPower session, click on its Maximize
button also.

EasyPower Session

Following are brief descriptions of the session window elements.


Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line The Session Window  33

Ribbons

The Ribbons let you tell EasyPower what you want to do next. Ribbon buttons that are not
appropriate at a given time are grayed out and made unavailable. Some buttons have the
down arrow symbol indicating further options.

Ribbons are new to EasyPower 9.0. Previous versions supported menu bar and toolbars. You
can display menu bars and toolbars in place of the ribbons by choosing Style. The Style drop
down menu is in the upper right part of the screen in the ribbon interface.

Change Style

Quick Access Toolbar

Quick Access Toolbar


Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line The Session Window  34

The quick access toolbar is located at the top left part of the EasyPower window when the
style is ribbons. By default this toolbar has the common command New (create new one-
line), Open, Save, Print and Undo.

Menu bar

The Menu bar lets you tell EasyPower what you want to do next. Menu bar is displayed only
when the Style selected is Toolbar. Menu options that are not appropriate at a given time are
grayed out and made unavailable.

Menu bar

Toolbar

There is an optional Toolbar underneath the Menu bar that provides a number of buttons you
can push (click on). These buttons are shortcuts to often-used commands. All of the
Toolbars are user-definable. That is, by using the Customize feature you can decide which
buttons you would like on the Toolbars and even where individual buttons are placed.

Toolbar

For more information on what each Toolbar button does, see "Standard Toolbar", "Power
Flow Toolbar“, "Coordination Toolbar”, and "Dynamic Stability Toolbar” in their respective
chapters. You can also hold the cursor on a particular button for about a second and the "tool
tip" giving the name of that button will pop up. The tool tip also gives a brief help
description.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line The Session Window  35

Right Mouse Context Menus

In addition to Ribbons and Toolbars, EasyPower offers you the speed of clicking the right
mouse button anywhere on the screen and having an extensive context menu popup. Each
focus has a separate menu, and though some commands are grayed out, they become active
when appropriate.

Right Mouse Button Context Menus

Status Bar

There is an optional Status bar at the bottom of the session window that provides information
about settings you have chosen.

Status bar

For more information, see "Database Edit Status Bar" in chapter 2, "Short Circuit Status Bar"
in chapter 4, "Power Flow Status Bar" in chapter 5, “TCC Status Bar ” in chapter 14, or
“Dynamic Stability Status Bar” in chapter 19.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line EasyPower Focus  36

Equipment Palette

Equipment Palette

In the Ribbon Style, the Equipment Palette allows you to add equipment and notes to the
one-line. This is similar to the Equipment Palette toolbar. You can also insert items through
the Insert ribbon.

While you are editing the database, the Equipment Palette provides the necessary equipment
types to create a power system one-line diagram.

You can hide or show the Equipment Palette using the right mouse context menu.

EasyPower Focus
During an EasyPower session, all capabilities are only a few mouse clicks away. With any
powerful tool however, it is most efficient to concentrate on one thing at a time. EasyPower
calls this your focus. There are six types of focuses in EasyPower:

 Database Editing

 Short Circuit Analysis


Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line EasyPower Focus  37

 Power Flow Analysis

 Harmonics

 Protective Device Coordination

 Dynamic Stability

Each focus has its own Ribbon, Menu bar and Toolbar, showing only the commands that are
appropriate for that focus. This feature keeps the user interface for each focus simple. For
example, you don't have to wade through a bunch of Short Circuit menus when all you really
want to do is Power Flow. Also, as major new analysis capabilities are added to EasyPower
in the future, they can each have their own focus. This helps avoid the problem plaguing
many programs today – a cluttered, complicated user interface.

Database Edit Focus

You can edit the database by changing ID names, equipment data, impedances, etc. You can
also change the positions of one-line equipment and the lines that connect them. No analysis
results are shown on the one-line in the Database Edit focus.

Analysis Focus

Each analysis focus provides the tools necessary for that type of study. In an analysis focus,
you can change the one-line (equipment positions, etc.) but not the equipment data. Some
analysis focuses allow temporary changes of equipment data for performing what-if cases.
The different types of analysis include Short Circuit, Power Flow, Harmonics, Coordination,
and Dynamic Stability.

Choosing a Focus

You can choose a focus by clicking one of the five focus buttons to the far right of the Home
Ribbon, as shown below. The current focus will be shown as highlighted.

Focus Buttons
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Preparing to Start Your One-line  38

Switching to one analysis focus from another is almost instantaneous once you have been
"in" that focus. However, when you go back to the Database focus, EasyPower must prepare
for analysis from scratch since database changes you make affect the analysis.

Preparing to Start Your One-line


By default, EasyPower has a grid that helps you line up your one-line graphics. For this
tutorial, we will keep that grid visible. While inserting or moving items on the one-line, the
items snap to the grid points. Leaving the Snap to grid feature on helps to avoid jogs in the
lines and makes the drawing look better.

Turn Grid Display On/Off

Choose Tools Options Grid. (In these instructions, a phrase like "choose Tools
Options Grid means to first click on the Tools ribbon, then click on the Options button
and then, in this particular case, select the Grid tab.)

This will bring up the following dialog box. Click on the Display grid points box as shown,
and then click on the OK button. You can toggle the checkbox to see the effect on the one-
line window.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Preparing to Start Your One-line  39

Options: Grid dialog box

Grid Points

The Options button on the ribbon also has a pull-down arrow symbol which provides short
cut to Show Grid command.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Place Buses on the One-line  40

Show Grid

Place Buses on the One-line


The central equipment type of every one-line is the bus. A bus defines the connection point
for all types of equipment. Each piece of equipment must be connected to a bus in order to
analyze the system.

Click on the button in the equipment palette or in the Insert ribbon. The mouse cursor
will turn into a bus symbol. Place five buses in the drawing as shown by clicking with the
left mouse button.

Note: The default bus "Base kV" is blank. This was done to force the user to enter a base
kV. To speed up one-line creation, advanced users can format default equipment data. To do
this, use the ribbon option Tools Equipment, click on the Bus icon and to choose a
default base kV. The menu command for this is Format  Equipment Defaults.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Place Buses on the One-line  41

Inserting Bus

Adjust Bus Sizes and Locations

Click on the button from the Toolbox or press the ESC key on the keyboard – the mouse
cursor will turn back into an arrow, indicating that you are no longer adding buses.

Move and size the buses approximately as shown below. You move buses or ID names by
dragging them with the left mouse button. When you bring the cursor arrow close to a bus
the four-headed arrow will appear. Click the left mouse button and drag to move the bus.
If you take the cursor arrow close to the either end of the bus, a double-headed arrow ↔ will
appear. You can now change the size of a bus by dragging either end of it with the left or
right mouse button. You can even shrink it to a single dot or “node” so that it will take up
less room.

Moving and Sizing Bus

Enter Bus kV Data

Enter bus data by double-clicking on each of the buses in turn. The Bus Data dialog box will
appear each time and that bus' kV can be entered. Use 13.8 kV for the top bus, and 0.48 kV
for others.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Place Buses on the One-line  42

Bus Data

(If you had a large number of buses to set the kV for, you would want to use Copy and
Paste, which are described and used later in this tutorial.)
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Add Equipment to the One-line  43

Add Equipment to the One-line


Add Transformer

Click on the button -- the mouse cursor will turn into a two winding transformer symbol.

Place the transformer by positioning the transformer cursor's top leader on the top bus and
clicking. The transformer will automatically attach to the bus, and the top half of the symbol
will turn black. If you miss (the transformer doesn't connect and stays all red), just drag the
symbol into position after you get back to the arrow cursor.

Click on the button or press the ESC key on the keyboard – the mouse cursor will turn
back into an arrow, indicating that you are no longer adding transformers. Using the left
mouse button, drag the transformer's remaining leader to the middle bus. After it connects,
drag the transformer symbol up, centered between the two buses.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Add Equipment to the One-line  44

Transformer Connected at Both Ends

Add Cables

Click on the palette button -- the mouse cursor will turn into a crosshair. Put the
crosshair on the middle bus and press the left mouse button down (but don't release it yet).
This sets one end of the line. Now drag the crosshair to the left bottom bus and release the
mouse button. This places the cable. If you miss (no cable is added), just try again.

Adding Cable

Do the same thing for the other two cables as shown. Note that the middle cable doesn't have
a jog because you moved the dynamic rubber band line straight down rather than diagonally.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Add Equipment to the One-line  45

Cables Added

Add Motors

Click on the palette button -- the mouse cursor will turn into a motor symbol.

Place the first motor by positioning the motor cursor's leader on the bottom left bus and
clicking. The motor will automatically attach to the bus, and the symbol will turn black. If
you miss (the motor doesn't connect and turns red), just drag the symbol into position after
you get back to the arrow cursor.

Continue by placing the other motors as shown.


Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Add Equipment to the One-line  46

Adding Motors

Add Utility

Click on the palette button -- the mouse cursor will turn into a utility symbol.

Place the utility on the top bus with the same procedure used for motors.

If you scroll up slightly (by clicking on the button on the upper right) you can drag the
utility symbol a little higher so the utility data text has more room.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Add Equipment to the One-line  47

Adding Utility

Add Feeder Breakers

Click on the palette button -- the mouse cursor will turn into a low voltage breaker
symbol.

Position the breaker cursor directly over a feeder line (cable, transformer, etc.) and click the
left mouse button. The breaker will be inserted into the line.

If you miss (the breaker doesn't insert into the line and stays all red), get back to the arrow
cursor by clicking on the palette button or pressing the ESC key on the keyboard. Then
select the red breaker by clicking on it, and delete it by clicking on the button.

Continue by placing the breakers shown here.


Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Add Equipment to the One-line  48

LV Breakers Added

You can move the breaker in vertical or horizontal directions in the one-line by dragging it
with the mouse.

Add Tie Breaker

Adding a tie breaker is similar to adding a transformer.

Click on the palette button if needed (it should already be down from the previous step).

Place the breaker by positioning the breaker cursor's top leader on the right end of the bottom
middle bus and clicking (see picture). The breaker will automatically attach to the bus. If
you miss (the breaker doesn't connect and stays all red), just drag the symbol into position
after you get back to the arrow cursor.

Take the cursor over the breaker and click the right mouse button. Edit options will appear
as shown in the figure above. From the edit options, choose Rotate 90°. The breaker
orientation will change from vertical to horizontal. At the same time the connection type of
the breaker will change from feeder breaker to bus tie breaker. Using the left mouse button,
drag the tie breaker's remaining leader to the bottom right bus. After it connects, drag the tie
breaker's symbol to be centered between the two buses. Once the tie breaker is connected to
buses on both sides, the Rotate command will only change the orientation in the one line
diagram, and remain as a tie breaker.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Add Equipment to the One-line  49

You can also add a vertical tie breaker between two buses if one bus is above the other. In
such a case the orientation of the breaker need not be changed.

Double click on the tie breaker to open the LV Breaker Data dialog. Set the breaker to
Open in the top right corner of the dialog and press OK. This will make it a normally open
tie breaker.

Adding Tie Breaker


Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Save Your Work  50

Tie Breaker Added

Save Your Work


As with any computer program, it is a good idea to save your work "early and often."

To save the one-line in EasyPower, choose button on the top left of the EasyPower
window, then choose Save. Or you can choose from the Quick Access toolbar. Menu
command for this is File  Save. (If you are using the Demo Version, Save is disabled.) If
you have not already given the file a name, you will be asked for one at this time. Filenames
can be up to 256 characters including blank spaces.

Enter Equipment Data


When a database dialog box is up, you will see bus names in the Connection Information
fields. Don't be disturbed if those names don't match the ones in these tutorial pictures. You
may have added the items in a different order than we did, and the automatic name
assignments would be different.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Enter Equipment Data  51

Enter Motor Data

Double click on one of the motors, and fill out the dialog box as shown here. Do not change
the To Bus field, because that would change the one-line connections.

Fill out the X/R field last by choosing the Short Circuit tab and then clicking on the
Calculate button. After you have the data entered, click on the OK button. If you click OK
and have not filled out all of the necessary fields, you will receive a message asking if you
want to save what you have entered. This message can be turned off in the Tools Options
General dialog.

Entering Motor Data

Rather than entering data separately for each motor, use the Copy and Paste toolbar buttons.
First select the motor that already has data by clicking on it with the left mouse button (the
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Enter Equipment Data  52

motor will turn green). Then click on the button. The motor's data will be copied to the
EasyPower clipboard.

Select all of the other motors on the one-line. This can be done with the rubber rectangle or
by holding down the Shift key as you select by clicking. Don't worry if you have non-motor
items selected too; they will be ignored.

Click on the Paste button. The motor horsepower, type, etc. will be pasted into each
selected motor.

Enter Cable Data

Double click on one of the cables and fill out the dialog box as shown here. Do not change
the To Bus or From Bus fields, because that would change the one-line connections. Fill out
the Impedance fields last by clicking on the Calculate button. After you have the data
entered, click on the OK button.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Enter Equipment Data  53

Entering Cable Data

Use the Copy and Paste toolbar buttons to copy that cable's data to the other two, just like
you did for the motors.

Enter Transformer Data

Double click on the transformer and fill out the dialog box as shown here. Do not change the
To Bus or From Bus fields, because that would change the one-line connections.

Choose the Impedance tab and enter 6 in each Z field, then fill out the X/R field last by
clicking click on Calculate there as well. Click on OK.

Entering Transformer Data


Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Enter Equipment Data  54

Enter Utility Data

Double click on the utility and fill out the dialog box as shown here. Do not change the To
Bus or Controlled Bus fields, because that would change the one-line connections.

Entering Utility Data

Turn Grid Display Off

Now that the one-line is basically done, you can turn off the grid. This makes the analysis
numbers easier to see. Note that the snap to grid is still on, even if the grid dots are no
longer being displayed.

Choose Tools Options and click on the Grid tab (like you did at the beginning of the
tutorial) and uncheck the Display grid points box by clicking on it.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Enter Equipment Data  55

View Entire One-line

In the Home ribbon, choose Zoom Out Full button to see all the database data on your
screen (menu command: View  Zoom  Out Full). Your session window will now look
something like this:
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Run a Power Flow Analysis  56

Viewing Entire One Line

Run a Power Flow Analysis


Enter Power Flow Focus

Enter the Power Flow focus by clicking on the Power Flow button. If one or more items
are unconnected or have incomplete data, you will be notified at this time. Items with
incomplete data are highlighted in red. An error message dialog box appears. To see their
ID names, click on the Yes button. An error report will appear as shown below, listing the
equipment with incomplete data.

Error Message – Incomplete Data

Error Report – Incomplete Data


Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Run a Power Flow Analysis  57

Solve Base Case Power Flow

Click on the Solve button to see all the flows.

Oops. You can see that we underestimated the amount of space to leave for analysis results.
This is a common mistake made by engineers just starting to make EasyPower one-lines.
Fortunately, EasyPower's dynamic graphics make it easy to remedy. (And with practice, you
will get the equipment spacing right the first time.)

Adjust One-line For Results Readability

Drag the buses, equipment, and ID names as needed to let all analysis numbers be seen. Note
that the center cable now has a "jog" in it, whereas before it was a straight line. To force a
jog in a currently straight line, drag it so that it goes beyond one of the buses it is connected

After adjusting the one-line, you can save the updated arrangement with the Save command
even though you are still in the Power Flow focus.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Run a Power Flow Analysis  58

Better Readability in One Line

Interpret Results

The power flow solution is initially displayed in megawatts and megavars. This can be
changed to kilowatts and kilovars if desired by choosing PF Options  One-line Output in
the Power Flow ribbon (menu command: Tools Power Flow Options  One-Line
Output) from the menu and then the tab. Flow direction is indicated by the arrow. MVAR
flow is indicated by the value placed in parenthesis ( ). The numbers beneath the motors
show the actual loading of each motor.

Voltage is shown on the right-hand side of each bus at a forty-five degree angle. The default
voltage unit is per-unit, but kV can be shown instead if desired. The number after the "@" is
the voltage angle (excluding 30 phase shift) in degrees. This is the voltage angle in
comparison to the voltage angle at the swing bus (usually 0).

Notice that the flow into each branch is different than the flow out of each branch. This is
due to the line losses associated with each conductor and transformer.

There are many other Power Flow display controls available. You can use the Toolbar to
change which values and warning conditions are displayed.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Run a Short Circuit Analysis  59

If the Power Flow toolbar has Voltage Violation selected (i.e. the button is "lit"), most of
the buses will be highlighted in red since their voltages are outside the warning threshold
range as determined in Power Flow Options Control.

If your results don't match these numbers, re-check the database dialog boxes for each item,
comparing them to the dialog boxes shown in this tutorial. (To do this, you must first get
back to the Database Edit focus by clicking on the Database Edit button.)

Run a Short Circuit Analysis


Enter Short Circuit Focus and Fault a Bus

Enter the Short Circuit focus by clicking on the button in the ribbon or choosing
Analysis Short Circuit from the Menu bar.

Fault the lower right-hand bus by double-clicking on it. You should see the following
results.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Run a Short Circuit Analysis  60

Running Short Circuit Analysis

Oops! We need to make another minor change to the one-line to accommodate the results.

Adjust One-line For Results Readability

Drag each motor down enough that the numbers will fit between it and the bus.

Readable Text After Adjusting One Line

After adjusting the one-line, you can save the updated arrangement with the File Save
command even though you are still in the Short Circuit focus.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Run a Short Circuit Analysis  61

Interpret Results

Note that the faulted bus is highlighted in blue. The default result units are symmetrical kilo-
amps. (This can be changed by choosing Tools Short Circuit Options One-Line
Output.) The faulted bus current is 19.695 kA, which is shown on the right-hand side of the
bus at a forty five degree angle. The contribution from the transformer is 17.272 kA, and the
motor contribution is 1.250 kA.

If your results don't match these numbers, re-check the database dialog boxes for each item,
comparing them to the dialog boxes shown in this tutorial. (You must first get back to the
Database Edit focus by clicking on the button.)

Look at a Remote Voltage and Current

EasyPower gives you the ability to view remote voltages and currents (on multiple buses
other than the one experiencing the fault).

While the lower right-hand bus is still faulted (highlighted in blue), select the lower left-hand
bus by clicking on it once (it will turn green). Choose Remote V/I button on the Short
Circuit ribbon (menu command: View Remote Bus V&I) to see the remote voltage and
current for that bus. To view the voltage and currents for all remote buses, just click on the
button without selecting any bus.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Run a Short Circuit Analysis  62

Looking at Remote Voltage and Current

As you can see, 0.860 kA from each of the motors flow to the fault on the right-hand bus.
For remote buses, the voltage is shown at a forty five degree angle. In this case, the value is
0.358 per-unit, or about 36 percent of nominal. The voltage can be displayed in kV if desired
by choosing SC Options  One-Line Output (menu command: Tools Short Circuit
Options One-Line Output).

Look at Interrupting Results

Choose View Interrupting from the Menu bar or button from the Short Circuit
ribbon button to see the interrupting results. In addition to the half cycle results, the
interrupting (5-cycle) results will also appear. To see only the interrupting results you can
click on button and turn the display off for momentary currents.
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line Run a Short Circuit Analysis  63

Viewing Interrupting Results

Notice that the motor contributions decay as the bus voltage is depressed and the time
constants of the motors increase. This provides a clear indication of the currents necessary
for setting relays.

Motor Contribution to Short Circuit Current


Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line What Now?  64

What Now?
Congratulations! You just entered and analyzed a power system with EasyPower. You
should be able to apply what you learned to your real-world systems by building on the
knowledge you gained through this tutorial.

The steps you did here are very much like the steps you will do in making your own one-
lines. For an example of a larger completed one-line, open the "bigger" database in the
SAMPLES directory as described below.

Open the "BIGGER" Sample One-line

Choosing  Open will bring up a dialog box that looks something like the following.

Opening File “bigger.dez”

Double-click on the database called "bigger.dez".

Experiment with zooming in, doing analysis, changing the database, etc. Chapter 2 discusses
many concepts and actions not covered in this tutorial.

Try Your Own Power System

You can now start entering one of your own power systems. For information on specific
database dialog boxes, see the Database Technical Reference (Chapter 12).
Chapter 1 Your First EasyPower One-line What Now?  65
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Starting a New One-line  66

Chapter 2
Making One-line Diagrams
Starting a New One-line
Choose button on the quick access toolbar on the top left side of the EasyPower
window. EasyPower generates a clear page and places you in the Database Edit focus so you
can start creating your new one-line. In the menu style interface, new one-lines are created by
choosing File  New  One-Line. By default, EasyPower names the file “Oneline1” (or 2,
3, etc.), which you can easily change clicking on button on the quick access toolbar
(menu style: File Save or File Save As). These commands can also be executed from
the button on the top left corner of the window. From there, creating and editing a one-
line diagram is a simple matter of choosing the desired power system equipment from the
equipment palette, and placing it on the drawing. If you place the item's leader on a bus,
EasyPower automatically connects the equipment or you can drag the item to the bus with
the arrow cursor.

Save and Save As

As with all work involving computers, you will want to regularly save your work so as not to
risk having to repeat work because of a power outage or other unfortunate occurrence. If you
have started a one-line using the New command, the first time you choose Save, the Save As
dialog box will come up allowing you to choose which directory you would like to place it in
and the default name will be highlighted allowing you to easily rename the file. The
filename may be up to 256 characters long including blank spaces. Once you have done an
initial Save, anytime after that choosing Save will make any change a permanent part of the
file and the Save dialog box will not appear. If you should want to record the file under
another name, use Save As, and the Save As dialog box will appear so that you might choose
a new name and a directory to store it in.

Open and Close

To open a file that has already been created you choose button on the quick access
toolbar (menu style: File Open). This will bring up the standard Microsoft Windows
Open dialog which allows you to search through drives and directories to find the file you
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Starting a New One-line  67

want. Then you open it by either double clicking on it or highlighting it and then clicking on
OK.

If you are working on a Network and someone else has already opened the file you want to
use or the file properties are set as "read-only", you will receive the following message and
only be allowed to open it as "read-only."

Then if you make any changes you will have to use button Save As and store the file
under another name or in a different location.

To close a file you either click on in the upper right hand corner of the document (or on
the icon if minimized) or choose button Close.

Equipment Palette Button Meanings

Equipment Palette Button Meanings

Standard Toolbar

Standard Toolbar Button Meanings

Database Edit Status Bar


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Setting File Properties  68

Database Edit Status Bar

The Database Edit Status Bar indicates the following settings:

Clipboard: The item that has been copied to the clipboard. In the picture above, the item in
the clipboard is “Bus”.

Base MVA: The Base MVA value as set from the dialog box accessed by choosing Tools
Options System. See page 282.

Frequency: The Frequency value as set from the dialog box accessed by choosing Tools
Options System.

Zoom Factor: How much the one-line is currently zoomed. See "Zooming In and Out" on
page 70-42 for more information. There are various zoom commands and also a slider bar to
control the one-line zoom.

Setting File Properties


If you choose button  Properties (File Properties from the Menu bar), you will get
the File Properties dialog box which allows you to set project information.

File Properties Dialog Box

 Location: Path of the saved one-line file.


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Setting File Properties  69

 Project Name: Type text you choose to identify the project. This text is printed in the
header for each page of printed reports. The field is optional, so you can leave it blank if you
want.

 Project Code: Type text you choose to further identify the project. This text is "silent", i.e.
it is not printed anywhere. The field is optional, so you can leave it blank if you want.

 Import Load File: Gives the name of the last SCADA file imported into this one line
database. If no SCADA import has been used, then 'NONE' will be written in this dialog box
field. See "SCADA Importing and Exporting" on page 39 for more information.

 Device Library: This shows the path of the default device library as set in the dialog box
accessed by choosing Tools Options File Locations. By choosing "Specified" and
using the "Browse" button you can assign a particular device library to this particular one-
line database. The path of the specified library will be stored in the one-line file.

Password Access

If you should desire to control access to a certain file, you can give it a password. Choose
File Properties and click the Password tab in the File Properties dialog box to get the New
Password dialog box.

New Password Dialog

The first time you open the New Password dialog box, the Old Password field will be grayed
out. Type the password you desire in the New Password field. As you type, an asterisk will
appear for each letter. Then type the same password in the Confirm Password field and click
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Zooming In and Out  70

OK. These are changes to the file. So when you close the file and EasyPower asks if you
want to save changes, click on Yes. The next time you try to open the file the Database
Access Rights dialog box will open. You can open the desired file as a read-only file without
entering the password. You cannot save read-only files.

Database Access Rights Dialog

Zooming In and Out


Most systems are too large to allow detailed on-screen viewing of the entire one-line all at
one time. EasyPower lets you choose exactly how much of your one-line to show at any
given time with its powerful and flexible Zoom capability. You can zoom out to 0.1% and
zoom in to 500%.

Using Mouse Spin wheel to Zoom In and Out

A convenient way to zoom in and out is to use the spin wheel of the Microsoft Mouse.
Spinning the wheel upward will zoom in and spinning down will zoom out. Move the cursor
to the area you wish to zoom in before spinning the wheel. This will keep the area that you
desire to see, at the center of the screen.

Zoom Slider bar

The bottom right part of the EasyPower window has a slider bar for controlling the zoom
percentage.

Customizing the Toolbar

1. Click on the pull down arrow at the very right side of the Toolbar.

2. Choose Add or Remove Buttons  DB Edit.


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Zooming In and Out  71

Customizing Toolbar

3. Check the desired toolbar buttons on the right.

Choosing a Specific Zoom Factor

If you choose the Zoom Zoom Custom… command from the ribbon, you will get a
dialog box that lets you set a specific zoom factor. You can either choose from "200%",
"100%", "75%", "50%", or you can choose "Custom" and enter a specific number.

Zoom Dialog Box

Seeing Your Entire One-line

If you choose from the ribbon (View  Zoom Out Full command from the menu), the
view will be zoomed out just far enough to show your entire one-line diagram. Another way
to do this is to use the Zoom box described in “Using Toolbar Zoom Button” or the mouse
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Moving Around On the One-line  72

spin wheel to "zoom out" until the box shows "Out Full." Releasing the mouse button with
that label displayed is the same as choosing the View Zoom Out Full command from the
menu.

Zooming In on a Portion of the System

While a zoomed-out view may show the overall one-line, there is usually not enough detail
available to do much editing. The easiest way to zoom in on an area of interest is to choose
Zoom pull down menu on the ribbon and or View Zoom Area from the Menu bar. A
rubber band box cursor for indicating which area of the one-line to zoom in on will appear.

Zooming In and Out 1.5x

To zoom out 1.5x, just choose (View Zoom Out 1.5X from the Menu bar). When you
want to zoom back in choose (View Zoom In 1.5x from the Menu bar).

Getting Back to the Previous Zoom Scale

Whenever you change to a new zoom scale, EasyPower keeps the previous zoom scale in
memory. Click on the Zoom pull down menu and choose button (View Zoom
Restore from the Menu bar) to return to the previous zoom scale.

Moving Around On the One-line


A zoomed-up view of the system's one-line is a viewport into the entire system. You can
move that viewport around in a number of ways. Many of them use a Scroll bar.

Using the Scroll bar


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams The Snap Grid  73

 The Scroll arrows are the buttons at each end of a Scroll bar. Clicking on a Scroll arrow once
will cause the viewport to move one unit in that direction. Holding down the mouse button
will cause the viewport to move until you release it. Pressing one of the keyboard's arrow
keys has the same effect as clicking on the corresponding Scroll arrows.

 Somewhere between the two Scroll arrows, you will see a square "button" called the Thumb.
This shows you where your viewport is relative to the entire one-line. To rapidly move a
large distance on the one-line, drag the Thumb to the section you want to view.

 If you click in the space between the Thumb and a Scroll arrow, the one-line's viewport will
scroll approximately one screen full in that direction. There will be a small overlap to help
you keep your bearings. Pressing the Page Up or Page Down keys on the keyboard has the
same effect as clicking between the vertical scrollbar's Thumb and Scroll arrow.

Alternative Methods of Scrolling

Here are some other ways to scroll around the one-line.

 To scroll to the upper-left corner of the one-line, press the Home keyboard key.

 To scroll to the lower-right corner of the one-line, press the End keyboard key.

 To scroll directly to one of the edges of the available drawing space, hold the Ctrl key down
while you press one of the arrow keys on the keyboard.

 Auto-Scrolling works for any operation that requires a press-slide-release of the left mouse
button. The view will automatically scroll if you "bump" the edge of the window with the
cursor.

The Snap Grid


During the creation or modification of an EasyPower one-line, you may find it helpful to use
the built-in snap grid. The grid is similar to graph paper except that instead of showing the
grid with intersecting lines, EasyPower marks the imaginary line intersections with small
dots on the screen. These dots are called gridpoints.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams The Snap Grid  74

Snap Grid with Visibility Turned On

When you are dragging items on your one-line, the dynamic image snaps to those gridpoints.
This helps you line things up with each other, creating a more readable, consistent, and
attractive one-line. Turning the snap grid on will only affect future operations. It does not
disturb one-line items you have already positioned unless you drag them.

SmartGrid™

You may already be familiar with grids, since they are implemented in all major CAD
systems. However, EasyPower takes the grid one step farther with a concept we call
SmartGrid. Since EasyPower "knows" that its database items represent a power system one-
line, it can intelligently snap between gridpoints if appropriate.

For example, in the following one-line section we want to drag the line connecting the right
leg of the transformer so that it becomes a single line segment rather than two line segments
connected by a "jog". Ordinarily this would require you to turn off the grid before dragging.
But with SmartGrid, EasyPower automatically senses that you might want to stop where the
line's segments straighten out, and makes that location one of the places for dynamic graphics
to snap to.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Adding Items to the One-line  75

Example Where SmartGrid™ is Helpful

Turning the Grid On and Off

There are two ways to turn the grid on and off. One option is to go to the Tools ribbon, click
on the drop down menu of Options, then select Show Grid.

Show or hide Grid

Turning Snap to Grid On/Off

The snap to grid feature can be turned on or off by going to the Tools ribbon, clicking on the
drop down menu of Options, and then select Snap to Grid. The other is to press Function
Key F2. Both of these toggle the status of grid snapping only; they don't affect whether or
not the grid is actually displayed with dots on the screen. The status bar at the bottom shows
the text “SNAP” when the snap feature is on.

Adding Items to the One-line


Editing such as selection and dragging are done with the arrow cursor. When you click on
one of the items of the Equipment Palette, the cursor will turn into that item. For example,
when you click on the Equipment Palette button, the cursor will change to motor
symbol. Every time you click the left mouse button, EasyPower will put a motor on the one-
line. After you are finished adding motors, click on the palette button or press the Esc
key on the keyboard to get back the normal cursor.

Any time a new item is created, it is given a unique ID name composed of the item type
followed by a number. For example, if you add a Bus, the ID name might be "BUS-12".
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Adding Items to the One-line  76

You can change the ID name at any time as described in the section “Equipment With Two
or Three Connections”.

Buses

The central equipment type of every one-line is the bus. A bus defines the connection point
for two or more pieces of equipment. Equipment items which are not yet connected to a bus
are highlighted in red.

To add a bus to the one-line, click on the equipment palette button. The cursor will
change to the shape of a bus as you move off the palette. Click the left mouse button where
you want the bus to be positioned in the drawing area. You can continue adding buses in this
way until you press the Esc key or click on another palette button.

Buses can be lengthened or shortened by dragging one end with the right mouse button.
Though there is a default size when a bus is placed on the one-line, the bus can be shrunk
down all the way to a single dot or “node”.

Shrinking buses to nodes

Setting Bus kV

When you add a bus to the one-line, you must provide the kV of that bus before you can
attach anything to it. You can either set a default kV ahead of time (before adding the bus to
the one-line) by choosing Tools  Equipment  Bus, and specifying the base kV, or you
can set it afterwards by double clicking on the bus to bring up its data base dialog box.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Adding Items to the One-line  77

EasyPower also allows you to set the kV of more than one bus at a time by using Copy and
Paste as described in "Copying an Item's Database Information" on pages 88 and 91.

Changing Bus Area and Zone

Area numbers are used to uniquely define different areas of the electrical system. These
areas can then be used for creating specific text reports from analysis operations that
represent subsets of the system. For example, typical paper plant areas may be the power
house (Area 1), caustic plant (Area 2), pulp mill (Area 3), and paper machine (Area 4). Area
numbers are positive integers between 1 and 999.

Zones are simply sub-areas. This allows even more specific reporting. You may wish to
define the pulp mill as Area 3 and the digester electrical equipment as Zone 2. Specific
reports can then be generated for this combination without including the entire pulp mill or
the other digesters. Zone numbers are positive integers between 1 and 999.

To change the Area or Zone of a bus, you can double-click on the bus to bring up its database
dialog box, then change the number there. Alternatively, you may select many buses and
choose from the ribbon, Change  Bus Area-Zone. This brings up a dialog box that lets
you specify an area and zone to be assigned to each of the selected buses.

Change Bus Area/Zone Dialog Box

 New Area: Area number to assign to selected buses. Specify zero to leave the Area
unchanged.

 New Zone: Zone number to assign to selected buses. Specify zero to leave the Zone
unchanged.

Equipment With One Connection

Motors, loads, generators, utilities, capacitors, and shunts are placed on the one-line by
choosing the appropriate palette button and clicking the left mouse button when the cursor
symbol's leader is on top of the desired bus. The symbol will snap to the bus. If there is not
a bus under the symbol's leader, the item is highlighted red indicating it is unconnected. You
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Adding Items to the One-line  78

can connect it later by dragging the symbol as described in the section "Equipment With Two
or Three Connections".

If you try to connect a piece of equipment to a bus whose base kV has not been specified, a
message box “Set Bus Base kV” pops up. The new equipment will be connected only after
you specify the base kV and press the OK button. If you press the Cancel button, the
equipment will not be attached.

Set Bus Base kV message

Equipment With Two or Three Connections

Transformers and current limiting reactors are placed on the one-line by choosing the
appropriate palette button and clicking the left mouse button when the cursor symbol's leader
is on top of the desired bus. The symbol will snap to the bus with the remaining leaders
turning red to indicate a disconnected state. If there is no bus under any of the symbol's
leaders, the entire item will show up red since it is completely unconnected.

You can continue adding items by clicking until you click on the Palette button or press
the Esc key. Once you get back to the arrow cursor, you can drag each item to its secondary
bus for connection. Drag the symbol so that the unconnected leader is on top of a bus,
release the left mouse button, and the symbol will attach to the bus.

Adding a Two-Winding Transformer


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Adding Items to the One-line  79

Lines Between Buses

When cables, transmission lines, and busways are chosen from the palette, the cursor
becomes a crosshair. Put the crosshair on the desired bus and press the left mouse button
down (but don't release it yet). This sets one end of the line. Now drag the crosshair to the
other bus and release the mouse button to set the other end of the line. Until you choose
another item or go back to the arrow cursor, you can set as many lines as you wish.

Adding a Cable

Long cables, transmission lines, and busway can be shown as short lines hanging from a bus
with the opposite bus labeled on the one-line. This is useful when a line stretches across the
one-line and it would take extra work to make room for it. Condensed lines are created by
unchecking the “Show Entire Line” checkbox in the line database dialog boxes. You can
resize a condensed line on the one-line.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Adding Items to the One-line  80

Condensed Line

Feeder Breakers and Switches

A feeder breaker goes between a bus and a piece of equipment. When you choose a voltage
breaker or switch from the equipment palette, the mouse cursor will turn into the shape of the
chosen item, just like it does for adding other types of equipment. To insert a breaker or
switch into a line (e.g. a cable, or the line between a transformer and its bus), click the mouse
while the cursor is on top of that line near a bus. If you miss, the breaker will be red, and you
will not be able to drag it to the line. It will snap to the bus as a tie breaker, so you will have
to delete it and try again.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Adding Items to the One-line  81

Adding a Feeder Breaker

Breaker names and/or data can be displayed on the one-line. Choose Tools Options
Text Visibility.

Breaker Data Checked in Text Visibility

Bus Tie Breakers and Switches

A bus tie breaker or switch goes between two buses rather than between a bus and a piece of
equipment.

Click on the palette button.

Place the breaker by positioning the breaker cursor's top leader on the right end of the bottom
middle bus and clicking (see picture). The breaker will automatically attach to the bus. If
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Adding Items to the One-line  82

you miss (the breaker doesn't connect and stays all red), just drag the symbol into position
after you get back to the arrow cursor.

Take the cursor over the breaker and click the right mouse button. Edit options will appear
as shown in the figure above. From the edit options, choose Rotate 90°. The breaker
orientation will change from vertical to horizontal. At the same time the connection type of
the breaker will change from feeder breaker to bus tie breaker. Using the left mouse button,
drag the tie breaker's remaining leader to the bottom right bus. After it connects, drag the tie
breaker's symbol to be centered between the two buses. Once the tie breaker is connected to
buses on both sides, the Rotate command will only change the orientation in the one line
diagram, and remain as a tie breaker.

Adding a Tie Breaker

Only one tie breaker per bus is allowed. However, you can model ring buses or breaker and
a half schemes by using a breaker inserted into a short section of busway instead of a tie
breaker.

Connecting an MCC to an MCC

There may be instances when you would want to connect an MCC to an MCC, a Panel
Schedule to a Panel Schedule, or a Panel Schedule to an MCC. MCC and Panel items are
modeled as buses. Therefore you can connect them with cables, busways or transformers.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Adding Items to the One-line  83

Connecting an MCC to another MCC

MCC-2 can be specified as a “Sub MCC” that feeds off MCC-1. In the Description tab of the
upstream MCC dialog, set the Load Type as Sub-MCC. Then select the cable or transformer
that feeds the sub-MCC in the column Sub-Line. Then select the ID Name of the sub-MCC
in the Sub-MCC column. You can then specify the protective device and settings through the
Data... button.

Auto-Insertion of Buses

You can directly add equipment to another without inserting a bus first. EasyPower creates a
bus between the two equipment you are attempting to interconnect together.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Setting Default Equipment Values  84

Auto-insertion of buses

Notes

EasyPower Notes are used to annotate your one-line with arbitrary text information. For
details on how to enter and edit notes, see "Notes (Free Text) on One-line" on page 91.

Setting Default Equipment Values


You can set default values for various equipment ahead of inserting new items. This will save
time for common items. To set default equipment values choose in the ribbon, Tools 
Equipment, and then choose the desired equipment (Format  Equipment Defaults in the
menu and the desired equipment). The equipment data dialog box will appear. You may enter
whatever values you need as default data. You may edit the data of any particular device if it
needs to be different from the default setting, by double clicking on the equipment in the one-
line and making changes in the equipment data dialog box.

Setting default equipment values


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Item Selection  85

Item Selection
Many EasyPower operations require you to select one or more items in the database first.
For example, choosing Delete button (Edit Delete from the Menu bar), will delete those
one-line items which you selected before issuing the command. By default, the color
indicating a selected state is green, but this can be changed in Tools Options Color.

Choosing [Ctrl]+[A] on the keyboard or by choosing in the ribbon Find-Select  Select All
(Edit Select All from the Menu bar) will select all items in an active one-line or an entire
text report.

Selecting With the Mouse

The simplest way to select an item is to move the arrow cursor over the item and click the
left mouse button. To select all the items in a region, press-slide-&release with the left
mouse button. A rubber band rectangle will show the region as you move the mouse.

Making a new selection automatically unselects any previous items. You can make
additional selections without unselecting anything, by holding down the Shift key or the Ctrl
key while you are selecting more items.

Deselecting an Item from a Group

If you accidentally select an item while selecting a group of items, you can deselect the item
by simply holding down the [Shift] key and clicking on the item with the left mouse button.

Selecting By an Item's ID Name

Choose on the ribbon (Edit Find from the Menu bar), and a dialog box will appear
asking for the type and ID name of the item you want to select.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Item Selection  86

Find Item Dialog Box

In this example, we are selecting a Bus with the ID name of “BUS-4”. First, select the Item
Type, by clicking on the desired equipment. Only those equipment present in the one-line
will be displayed. After you select “Bus”, the combo box labeled “ID Name of Item to Find”
will contain the ID names of all the available buses in the one-line. Select the desired ID
name from the combo box.

When you press OK, the item with a matching ID name will be selected. If necessary,
EasyPower will automatically scroll so that the selected item is visible in the window. To
select the item without automatically unselecting everything else first, check the Additive
Select box.

Query

Choosing Find-Select pull down menu from the ribbon and then Query (Edit Query
from the Menu bar) will bring up a dialog box so you can select multiple items which match
certain criteria.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Item Selection  87

Query Dialog Box

This dialog gives you the following choices.

 Item Types to Consider: Only item types you have checked here will be considered for
selection.

 Region to Consider: To control the scope of items that EasyPower considers for selection,
choose "Entire One-line," "Current Window," or "Inside Box." If "Inside Box," is chosen, a
box cursor appears after clicking OK. Use that cursor to indicate the box with a press-slide-
release of the left mouse button.

 Output: Choose "Item Selection" to have the items highlighted on the one-line, or "Text" to
have those items listed on a Query text report.

 ID Name Contains: To select only items with certain characters in their names, type those
characters here. If this field is left blank, the ID names will not be considered for selection
purposes. In this field, there are some special characters that can be used. For Note items,
the actual note text is considered.

Note: Entering the Database Edit focus will clear any existing analysis results.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Item Selection  88

Getting an Item's Database Dialog Box

To open the dialog for any equipment, double-click on the item (select the item and then
choose Edit Selected Item from the Menu bar). The appropriate database edit dialog box
will come up with your chosen piece of equipment as the current item. When you are
finished, close the dialog box with the OK button, and you will return to the one-line. If you
have not filled out all of the necessary fields, you will receive a message asking if you want
to save what you have entered. This message can be turned off in the dialog accessed by
choosing Tools Options General.

If you want to specify the information for multiple items of the same type, the fastest way is
to use Copy and Paste as described in "Copying an Item's Database Information" on pages
88 and 91.

Example Database Dialog Box

Copying an Item's Database Information

First select the item you want to copy from, then choose button in the ribbon (Edit
Copy from the Menu bar). This will take the selected item's data and place it on the
EasyPower clipboard. Then select the items you want to copy the information to. Recall that
you can select more than one by holding down the Shift or Ctrl key down when you select
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Entering Item Data Using Tables  89

additional items. Finally, choose or Edit Paste from the Menu bar. This will take the
data stored on the EasyPower clipboard and apply it to the currently selected items while
leaving the ID name and bus connection information undisturbed. Note that the data is still
on the EasyPower clipboard, so you can repeat the select-paste operations for as many items
as desired.

Entering Item Data Using Tables


An EasyPower database can be edited according to separate equipment tables. For example,
you can edit all buses from the same database edit dialog box. When the dialog box for a
particular equipment table comes up, you are presented with one database item at a time.
Database edit dialog boxes have their own Toolbars to help you move around in the table,
add, copy, and delete items, and so forth. When you are finished editing a database table,
click on the OK button to close the dialog box.

Database Dialog Toolbar

Database Dialog Box Toolbar

Moving Around in the Table

When a Table dialog box is opened, it will show the item you were editing the last time that
dialog box was open. At the left end of the dialog box's toolbar, there are four movement
buttons: , , , and . These buttons let you move to other items in the Table which
are listed according to the alphabetical order of their ID names.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Entering Item Data Using Tables  90

Any changes you make to an item's data in the dialog box will be made permanent when you
do one of the following:

 Move to a different item in the table.

 Close the table by choosing OK.

Note that if you close the table with Cancel, the changes you made to the current item will be
discarded. However, changes made to other items while the dialog box was in use are
retained.

Resetting Changes Made to the Current Item

Clicking on the Toolbar's button will restore the current item's database fields to what
they were when you opened it and before you started making changes. Once you choose OK
or move to a different item, those changes are made permanent and cannot be reset.

Deleting an Item Using Its Database Dialog Box

Use the dialog's toolbar button to delete the current item.

Adding a New Item

To add a new item, click on the dialog's Toolbar button. A new item will be presented
with default values already filled in except for certain dialog box fields that you must fill in
before doing an analysis. Note that any time a new item is created, it will be given a unique
ID name composed of the item type followed by a number. For example, if you add a Cable,
the default ID name might be "C-24". You can change this name any time you want by
typing a new one in the ID Name field of the dialog box.

Duplicating the Current Item

To make an exact copy of the current item, click on the dialog's Toolbar button. The new
item will be an exact copy. Then you can type in a new unique ID name and change the
connect (e.g. "From" and "To" buses) unless you want it to be connected to the same buses as
the one it was copied from.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Notes (Free Text) on One-line  91

Copying Another Item's Database Information

Bring up the database edit dialog box on the item you want to copy data from. Click on the
dialog's Toolbar button to take the current item's data and places it on the EasyPower
clipboard. Bring up the database edit dialog box for the destination item or click on the
dialog's Toolbar button to create a new item. (The destination item's type must match the
source item's type.) Finally, click on the dialog's Toolbar button. This will take the data
stored on the EasyPower clipboard and apply it to the current item.

Connecting an Item Using Its Database Dialog Box

To specify connectivity between an item and the buses it is attached to, type the bus names in
the item's database edit dialog box or choose it from the drop down list. Note that it is easier
to establish connections using the dynamic one-line diagram as described in "Adding Items
to the One-line" on page 75. You must establish bus connections before you will be allowed
to OK the dialog box.

Activating/Deactivating an Item Using Its Database Dialog Box

Each database edit dialog box for a piece of equipment comes with a Status On/Off radio
button field. Make the appropriate item current, then click On or Off as desired to activate
or deactivate that item. Inactive items remain in the database, but are ignored for any
analysis operation.

Notes (Free Text) on One-line


EasyPower Notes are used to annotate your one-line with arbitrary text information. They
are very flexible in their font, size, style, border, and colors, rivaling the capabilities of most
CAD systems. Notes can optionally include leaders that point to specific locations on the
one-line.

Adding a Note

To add a Note to your one-line diagram, choose in the Equipment Palette toolbox (Insert
Note from the Menu bar). The rubber band box cursor will appear. Indicate a Note
outline box on the one-line with a press-slide-release of the left mouse button. Don't worry
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Notes (Free Text) on One-line  92

too much about getting the box "just right" when you first indicate it; the size, shape, and
location are very easy to change later.

Inside the Note outline, you will see a flashing insertion cursor similar to that of a word
processor. You may type up to 325 characters, and there is no need to press the Enter key at
the end of a line; the program automatically "wraps" to the next line when needed. However,
if you want to force a new line somewhere, use Ctrl-Enter to insert a carriage return. When
you click outside the Note, the outline disappears and your Note is done.

Editing the Contents of a Note

To edit the text in a Note, first select the note by clicking somewhere inside the Note text.
You will see the outline box, but not the flashing insertion cursor. Click again near where
you want to change the text, and you will see the flashing insertion cursor like you had when
the Note was first created. You can also click on an unselected note with the right mouse
button and choose Edit from the menu.

Make your changes using the Windows editing keys, which includes Left, Right, Up, Down
(Arrow keys), Home, End, and Delete. While editing a Note, use Ctrl-X for Cut, Ctrl-C
for Copy, and Ctrl-V for Paste. Or you can use the editing menu that comes up when you
click the right mouse button.

Dragging and Resizing a Note

Just like any other one-line item, you drag a Note with a press-slide-release of the left mouse
button. During the dragging procedure, the Note's position is represented by a simple box.

To select a Note for resizing, click anywhere in the text and you will see the outline box.
You can drag the eight handles (small squares at the box corners and sides) to change the size
and shape of the Note's outline box. The words in your Note will be automatically
reformatted to fill the new space. If you make the outline box too small you will not be able
to see all of the Note.

Please see "Text Size and TrueType" on page 94 for an important discussion of how
TrueType affects the right-hand side of text.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Notes (Free Text) on One-line  93

Deleting a Note

To delete a Note, select it by either clicking on it once or by including it with the items
selected using a rubber rectangle. Delete it using from the ribbon (Edit Delete
from the Menu bar) or the Delete keyboard key.

If you clicked on the Note twice and have the flashing insertion cursor, the Delete key will
erase the character to the right of the cursor. If your intent is to delete the entire Note, click
outside the outline box, then click on the Note just once to select it. Now, you will be able to
use the Delete key, or right mouse click between the outline box and the dashed box, and
choose Delete from the menu.

Adding a Note With a Leader

To add a Note which specifically points to something on your one-line, choose button or
Edit Add Note With Leader from the Menu bar. Your first point (mouse button down)
will set the terminator at the target location, and the second point (mouse button up) will set
the initial location of the Note outline box. You can drag and resize the Note's outline box
later as described in "Dragging and Resizing a Note".

When the Note is selected, you will see an additional handle at the leader's terminator. Use
press-slide-release of the mouse to drag this handle and change the target location.

Changing Note Properties

Note properties are the various visual parameters that apply to an EasyPower Note. For
example, the font, size, and color are some of the properties you can set. A Note's properties
apply to all of the characters in that Note.

Double-click on the Note to bring up the Note Properties dialog box. If the flashing insertion
cursor is already showing, double-click on the outline box or right click on the outline box
and choose the Properties command from the context menu. Alternatively, you can select
the Note and choose the Format Note… command from the Menu bar.

If you choose Format Note… with multiple Notes selected, the changes you make will be
applied to all of them. Any properties that are the same among all of the selected Notes will
be filled into the appropriate dialog box field as defaults. Those properties that are different
will show a blank field. If you leave such dialog fields alone, those properties will be left
unchanged in the selected Notes. If you change any of the blank fields, those properties will
be applied to all of the selected Notes.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Notes (Free Text) on One-line  94

If you choose Format Note… when there are no notes selected, you will set the default
properties for Notes that are not yet created. (Notice the dialog box is now titled Default
Note Properties.) These default settings are saved on the computer.

For information on specific settings, see "Note Properties".

Selecting Many Notes At Once

To select many Notes in one operation, click from the ribbon the drop down for Find-Select
and choose Query (Edit Query from the Menu bar). You can optionally search for Notes
that contain specific text, and you can restrict the region of the one-line to view. See "" on
page 86 for more information.

Text Size and TrueType

EasyPower supports Windows TrueType fonts for its text display. This makes it possible for
EasyPower to display text many times faster than traditional CAD programs, since those
programs display text stroke-by-stroke. In comparison, EasyPower can blast out an entire
TrueType character in one operation.

The big advantage of using TrueType is speed. However, there is one characteristic of
Windows TrueType that you should be aware of. When EasyPower is ready to display text,
it tells Windows that it needs a screen font of a certain size. Windows responds by scaling
the chosen font in order to satisfy the size requirements.

However, since TrueType font size rounds to the nearest point, the on-screen text might be a
slightly different actual size relative to surrounding lines and symbols. (A point, used to
measure font height in the printing industry, is approximately 0.014 inches.) Height-wise,
this difference is unnoticeable. In the width, however, the slight difference accumulates over
the entire text string. This can make the text wider or narrower for different zoom factors,
especially for long text like "This motor is on-line during day shift only."

Long text string viewed at 100%


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Notes (Free Text) on One-line  95

EasyPower positions text with the upper-left corner. So while that corner will remain fixed
relative to lines and symbols, the end location of a text string is less predictable.

Same text string viewed at 30% -- notice overlap

You can minimize the impact of this TrueType characteristic by keeping the right-hand side
of text away from lines and symbols. In other words, don't nestle text up to symbols on the
right. Also, shorter lines of text will be less affected than longer lines.

Shorter lines of text, not nestled up to symbol, viewed at 100%


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Note Properties  96

Same text string viewed at 30% -- overlap gone

Note Properties

Appearance tab of Note Properties Dialog Box

If you choose Format Note… from the Menu bar when there are no Notes selected, you
set the default properties for notes that are not yet created. (Notice the dialog box is now
titled Default Note Properties). These default settings are saved with the database file.

Text Settings

 Text Color: The color of the text inside the box. The dialog box field shows you the name
of the color, along with a rectangle giving a sample of that color.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Note Properties  97

 Background Color: The color inside the outline box. For example, you might want to flag
a "warning" note with a red background. Be careful not to set the Text Color to be the same
as the Background Color, or the text will be invisible.

 Note Margin: The amount of space, in inches, to reserve around the Note text. This setting
makes the most sense when the Note has a border.

Border Settings

 Style: You can choose to have your Note text surrounded by nothing (None), a Box, or a
Rounded Box.

 Color: If you do choose to have a border, this is the color it will be. If this particular note
has a leader, the leader will also be this color.

 Weight: How bold to make the border line. You can choose from five weights, which are
shown in the drop down menu for this field.

Visibility

Visible in Which Focus: Which EasyPower focus the Note should be visible in. For
existing Notes, your choices are "All", "Database Edit", "Short Circuit", and "Power Flow".
You can check as many as desired, or check "All" to have it visible in each focus. For Notes
not yet created, your choices are "Each Focus" or "Current Focus Only".

Note visibility can be changed later by selecting the Note and then choosing Tools Note
Properties, even if the Note is invisible. (You will be asked if you want the operation to
apply to any invisible Notes that are selected.)

Leader Properties

The "Leader Properties" dialog box comes up if you click on the Leader tab in the Note
Properties dialog box. If your Note Properties dialog box is for default notes (see
"Changing Note Properties" on page 93) you will be setting properties for Leaders not yet
created, and the Include Leader field will not be visible.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Note Properties  98

Leader tab of Note Properties Dialog Box

This dialog box gives you the following choices:

 Include Leader: This box is checked if you want a leader on your Note so that it can refer
to something specific on the one-line. If you check this box on a Note that was originally
added without a leader, the target point will be set to an arbitrary location and you will want
to drag into position later. See "Adding a Note With a Leader" on page 93 for details.

 Start Location: Though the leader will start from the side, you can choose where on the
side, at the "Top", "Center", or "Bottom" of the text. If the choice is "Top", the leader is
aligned with the first line of text. If the choice is "Bottom", the leader is aligned with the last
line of text.

 Start Side: You can choose "From Left" which forces the leader to start at the left side of
the text, "From Right" which forces the leader to start on the right side of the text, or "Auto"
which determines automatically whether to go left or right depending on the location of the
target point.

 Start Length: The length of the horizontal line segment which starts the leader, expressed in
inches.

 Angle of Leader Line: After the initial horizontal segment, you can have the main leader
line be constrained to a certain angle. This makes it possible to have a consistent appearance
from one Note to the next.

 Terminator Style: How you want the leader to end. The choices are shown graphically in
the drop down menu.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Note Properties  99

 Terminator Size Factor: Each leader terminator style has a default size. You can modify
that size by applying a size factor other than 1.0. For example, if you want an arrowhead to
be twice as big as the default, you would enter "2.0" in this field. This factor is applied to
both the length and width of the terminator; thus the shape is preserved.

 Terminator Width Factor: Each leader terminator style has a default shape. You can
modify that shape by applying a width factor other than 1.0. For example, if you want an
arrowhead to be twice as wide as the default shape would be, you would enter "2.0" in this
field.

Note Fonts

EasyPower offers a large number of Fonts with the ability to vary sizes and styles so you can
customize your notes just the way you like them. The dialog accessed by choosing Tools
Note Fonts looks very similar to the dialog box accessed by choosing Tools Options
Fonts.

Font tab of Note Properties Dialog Box

Here you choose the Font, Style and Size of the text in the selected note. If no notes are
selected these will be the default settings for any notes created later.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Note Properties  100

Inserting Box in One-line

You can insert a box in the one-line by choosing the button from the Equipment Palette
toolbox (Insert  Box from the menu). The first click of the mouse defines the top left
corner of the box. While holding the mouse button down, drag the mouse to define the
bottom right corner of the box. You can edit the box size by clicking on it to select it and
dragging the sides or corner.

To format the box properties, double click on the box edge. The Box Properties dialog will
appear, in which you can set the Style, Color and Weight of the edges of the box. You can
also insert a box using the Insert  Note command. However, you cannot type any text
inside the box you create with Insert  Box command.

Box Properties dialog

Style: You can select from the following:


 Box: Single line, sharp corners.
 Rounded Box: Single line, rounded corners.
 Double Box: Double line, sharp corners.

Color: You can select the desired color from the palette.

Weight: You can select the desired thickness of the box.


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Moving and Copying Groups of Items  101

Styles: (a) Box; (b) Rounded Box; (c) Double Box

Inserting Picture in One-line

To insert a picture in one-line, select the button from the Equipment Palette toolbox
(from the menu, Insert  Picture), and select the file that has the picture. The picture file
format can be .bmp, .gif, .tif, .jpg, .png, .wmf, .ico, or .emf. Double clicking on an inserted
picture allows you to specify it as On Top, On Bottom or Set As Background. You can also
insert pictures to TCC plots.

Picture Properties

Moving and Copying Groups of Items


EasyPower has the ability to move and copy large groups of items on the one-line by
dragging that group dynamically on the screen.

Group Move

You move groups of items by dragging them with the left mouse button.

1. Select items to move.

2. When you bring the cursor arrow close to the selected items, a four-headed

arrow will appear. Click the left mouse button and drag to move the items. As long as the
four-headed arrow appears, you can drag the items anywhere you like.

3. After you move the items to the desired location, click anywhere in the one line where the
four-headed arrow does not appear. The items will be deselected.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Moving and Copying Groups of Items  102

All connectivity is retained during a move. The results are identical to what you would see if
you could somehow manually move each of the buses and items the exact same direction and
distance.

Group Copy

1. Select items to copy.

2. Choose button from the ribbon (Edit Copy from the Menu bar), which is
available only from the Database focus. Alternatively, you could press the keys [Ctrl]+[C]
from the keyboard.

3. Choose button (Edit Paste from the Menu bar), also available only from the Database
focus. Alternatively, you could press the keys [Ctrl]+[V] from the keyboard.

4. Set the copy's position by clicking anywhere outside the group's bounding rectangle or
pressing the Enter key

Any connections to other items in the same selection group are retained in the copied items.
Connections to items outside the group end up as "unconnected".

Copying Subsystems

Often, Group Copying is used to create new subsystems in your one-line by starting with one
that already exists. You might want the names of the new subsystems to mirror the names in
the original one, with some minor change. For example, suppose you have names of
"T5/9927", "T5/9928", "T5/9929", etc. and you want their respective copies to have the
names "T6/9927", "T6/9928", "T6/9929", etc. for the first copy, "T7/9927", "T7/9928",
"T7/9929", etc. for the second copy, and so forth. One way to accomplish that is:

1. Choose "Alphabetic" for the variable text type in the dialog box accessed by choosing Tools
Options Clipboard, and then choose some unique character like "%" for the prefix.

2. Select the system you want, and use Copy and then Paste to produce the subsystem. After
the copy is done, you will have names like "T5/9927%A", "T5/9928%A", "T5/9929%A",
etc., "T5/9927%B", "T5/9928%B", "T5/9929%B", etc.

3. Select the items in the first subsystem and choose Change button from the ribbon, and
then choose ID Name (Edit Change ID Name from the Menu bar). Use "T5/" for the
Replace these characters field and "T6/" for the With these characters field.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Grouping One-line Items  103

4. Select the items in the second subsystem and repeat, except use "T7/" for the With these
characters field.

5. Select all of the subsystems together and use "%*>" for the Replace these characters field,
and nothing (no characters) for the With these characters field. This will delete the "%A",
"%B", etc. characters from the names, leaving only names like "T6/9927", "T6/9928",
"T6/9929", etc. for the first copy, "T7/9927", "T7/9928", "T7/9929", for the second copy, and
so forth.

Grouping One-line Items


Items in the one-line can be grouped to form a single graphical object. After items are
grouped they can be selected with a single click, moved, copied and pasted all at once. To
group items, first select the items. Right mouse click on the one-line space. Select
Grouping  Group from the context menu.

Grouping one-line items


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Ways to Change ID Names  104

Ways to Change ID Names


ID names can be up to 16 characters long. There are three ways of modifying ID names in
the database.

1. To change a single name with that item's database edit dialog box, double-click on the item
and type a new ID name in its ID Name field.

2. Specify names used by Group Copy in the dialog box accessed by choosing Tools
Options Clipboard, see "Moving and Copying Groups of Items" on page 101.

3. To change ID names of multiple items already in the database, first select the items you want
to modify. Then, use the dialog box accessed by choosing Change button from the
ribbon, and then choosing ID Name (Edit Change ID Name from the Menu bar).

Change ID Name

Choosing Change button from the ribbon, and then choosing ID Name (Edit
Change ID Name from the Menu bar) will bring up the following dialog box:

Change ID Name Dialog Box

This dialog gives you the following choices.


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Ways to Change ID Names  105

Change ID For These Types Only: No matter what item types are in the current selection,
only item types you have checked here will be modified.

Replacement Type: If you choose "Generate unique name", each selected item will receive
an automatically-generated unique name that is based on the item type and the next number
in sequence. For example, if the last transformer you added had the name "TX-15", the first
changed transformer will get the name "TX-16". The new name is not based on the item's
current name. If you choose "Character replacement", the ID names are modified according
to the information in the Replace these characters...With these characters" dialog fields.

Replace these characters: Type the characters that you want to replace with different
characters. For example, if you have a group of items with ID names of T5/99NL-1,
T5/99NL-2, T5/99NL-3, etc. and you want to change them to T5/97MP-1, T5/97MP-2,
T5/97MP-3, etc.; you would type "99NL-" as the characters to replace.

In this field, there are special characters you can use. (Do not use <,>,?,*, or \ in the With
these characters field, since they have no special meaning there.)

Beginning of name (<): Ignores a match unless it starts at the beginning of a name. For
example, if an item's name is "T5/99T5-3" and you want to replace only the "T5" at the
beginning, you would use "<T5" as the string to replace.

End of name (>): Ignores a match unless it is found at the end of a name. For example, if
an item's name is "T5/9AB5/AB" and you want to replace only the occurrence of "AB" at the
end, you would use "AB>" as the string to replace.

Wildcard, one character (?): Matches any one character, no matter what it is. For example,
if an item's name is "T5/949-3" and you want to replace the slash and the next three
characters (whatever they are) with the letter "G", you would use "/???" as the string to
replace, giving "T5G-3".

Wildcard, one or more characters (*): Matches any number of characters, no matter what
they are. For example, if an item's name is "T5/949-3" and you want to replace everything
from the "/" through the "-" with the letter "G", you would use "/*-" as the string to replace,
giving "T5G3".

Next character is literal (\): Lets you deal with the other special characters without them
being interpreted as having special meanings. For example, if an item's name is "<T5/949-3"
and you want to get rid of the "<", you would use "\<" as the string to replace. Without the
backslash, that "<" character would be interpreted as Beginning of Name. For a literal
backslash, use two in a row: "\\".
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Database Report (Browser)  106

With these characters: Type the new characters you want. Each occurrence of the
character string which is in the Replace these characters field is replaced by the characters
given here.

Name conflict handling: It is possible that, after doing the character replacement you
requested, the resulting name will be one that already exists in the database. If that happens,
it is called a name conflict. This dialog box field enables you to tell EasyPower what to do if
that happens. If you choose "Generate unique name", a new name will be chosen as
described above for the Replacement Type field. If you choose "Don't change", EasyPower
will leave that item's name alone. Any time a name conflict occurs, the affected items will be
listed in an error report.

After the operation is done, a dialog box comes up telling you how many names were
changed.

Database Report (Browser)


EasyPower gives users access to the database by means of a spreadsheet report. This
provides users with the ability to:

1. View the database information in a clear and concise format;

2. Easily verify the data entered for your power system;

3. Modify database values without returning to the one-line;

4. Copy the spreadsheet cells and paste the database information into an external spreadsheet
program;

5. Configure which database fields (columns) show or print. Multiple configurations can be
saved.

Viewing the Browser/Report

The following figure gives an example of an EasyPower database report:


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Database Report (Browser)  107

Database Report Browser

This spreadsheet report (or database browser) is accessed by clicking on EasyPower


button and choosing Database (File Database from the menu bar).

You will get a report showing the data of the all the items in the one-line. You must be in
Database Edit focus to access this report. The equipment types are divided into separate tabs.
The first tab provides a tally of all the equipment items currently in the system. The other
tabs separate the database items by equipment type. In the above example, the Motors tab is
selected.

Typically, all equipment items in the database are listed in the database report. However, the
items in the report can be filtered. This is accomplished by selecting only the desired items
on the one-line before choosing EasyPower button Database. Only the selected one-
line items will show in the report. Hence, the EasyPower one-line query function can be used
to select which equipment items display in the database report.

To view the Database Report, choose EasyPower button  Database  Database


Report. This is an HTML report with all equipment tables appearing in the same window.

Browser Search Engine

Pressing the (Find) button will bring up the following dialog box:
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Database Report (Browser)  108

Find Dialog Box in the Database Browser

Using this dialog box, text in the spreadsheet can be searched. This Find dialog only
searches text in the same column as the currently selected spreadsheet cell. Using this
feature, individual equipment items can be found if at least part of the ID Name is known.

Copying the Spreadsheet Data

This EasyPower database browser is compatible with other standard spreadsheets. One has
the ability to copy (using or Ctrl-C) multiple cells from this EasyPower database
spreadsheet and paste into programs such as Microsoft Access and Microsoft Excel. From
these external programs, the EasyPower database information can be converted to other
database formats. (EasyPower also allows you to export its entire database to a comma
delimited format using the EasyPower button Export one-line dialog box.)
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Database Report (Browser)  109

Modifying the Database using the Browser

Database Report Browser with Open Motor Data Dialog

The EasyPower spreadsheet report is a true browse of the database. Double-clicking on a


row in the spreadsheet will bring up an appropriate database dialog box. In the figure above,
the row for motor “M-14” was double-clicked. This activated the Motor Data dialog box for
motor “M-14”. From this dialog box, the database information can be modified. When OK
is pressed, the changes will be reflected in the report.

Database Report Configurations

You can configure database reports to display just the desired columns. This helps you to
keep your reports concise. You can add multiple configurations.

To configure the database reports, click on Report Config button. You will get the
Database Report Configurations dialog.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Database Report (Browser)  110

Database Report Configurations dialog

Choose Add button to add a new configuration. You will get the Report Configuration
dialog.

Report Configuration dialog

For every equipment you wish to configure the report, check or uncheck the column heading
checkboxes. First select the equipment on the Equipment panel of the dialog. Then make
you choices in Columns panel.

Choose Save As… button, type the name for the new configuration and choose OK.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Global Motor and Load Editing  111

Save Configuration dialog

Select the desired configuration.

You can add, delete or edit configurations.

Other Functions with Database Reports

Printing reports: Select Print button from the ribbon.

Export to Excel: Select Open With Excel button from the ribbon.

Export to Word: Word has a limit of 63 columns. Therefore for equipment with more than 63
columns, you will need to use the Report Config to limit the number of columns in the report.

Global Motor and Load Editing


You can modify the scaling factor for motors and loads by selecting the desired items on the
one-line and clicking on Change button and choosing Scaling Factor from the list.
This will bring up a dialog box as shown below.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Global Motor and Load Editing  112

Change Scaling Factor Dialog Box

The dialog box contains the following fields:

Specified Values: When checked, this allows changes to the non-SCADA Scaling factor
fields in motors and loads and to the Connected field in motors. The Connected field is
always classified as a Specified Value.

SCADA Values: When checked, this allows changes to the SCADA Scaling factor fields in
motors and loads.

Load Data - Constant kVA: Changes the Constant kVA scaling factor to this value in the
selected loads.

Load Data - Constant I: Changes the Constant I scaling factor to this value in the selected
loads.

Load Data - Constant Z: Changes Constant Z scaling factor to this value in the selected
loads.

Motor Data - Scaling factor: Changes the Scaling factor field to this value in the selected
motors.

Motor Data - Connected: Changes the Connected field to this value in the selected motors.

MCC Data - Scaling factor: Changes the Scaling factor field to this value in the selected
MCCs.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Global Motor and Load Editing  113

Panel Data - Scaling factor: Changes the Scaling factor field to this value in the selected
Panel Schedules.

In the Power Flow focus, a similar dialog box is used except the title is Temporarily
Change Scaling factor and the Connected field is omitted. This dialog can be accessed by
clicking on the Change Scaling Factor button in the ribbon.

Global Scaling Factor Changing

The scaling factor of motors and loads can be globally scaled by selecting the items on the
one-line and then choosing Change Scaling Factor button from the ribbon. This allows the
user to quickly modify the amount of running motors in motor groups so the load flow
analysis can closely resemble different real-life conditions.

This feature is available in either the Database Edit focus or in the Power Flow focus. Global
factor changes made in the Power Flow focus are only temporary and will not be saved with
the database. However, global scaling factor changes made in the Database Edit focus will
be saved with the database.

Steps to Global Changing

1. Select the items to scale. Only the motors and loads selected will be considered. All other
selected items will be ignored.

2. While in Database Edit focus, click on Change button and choose Scaling Factor
from the list. The Change Scaling Factor dialog box will appear. While in PowerFlow
focus, click on the Change Scaling Factor button in the ribbon.

3. Select the desired scaling percentages from the given combo boxes. By default the scaling
fields come up as 100%. The user must select a percent value between 0% and 200% in one
or more of the scaling fields to get a change in the corresponding field(s) of the selected
item(s). Any fields left at 100% will mean that the corresponding fields in the selected item
dialog boxes will not be changed.

4. Press the OK button. A message will tell the user the number of items being changed and
then ask the user for confirmation.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  114

Schedules
You can insert schedules of panels, MCC and buses in the one line. To insert a schedule,
select the panel, MCC or bus. Then right-click to choose Schedules from the context menu.
Continue on to choose Insert Schedule. The schedule spreadsheet will be inserted on the
one-line. You can drag the schedule to place it in the desired location. To insert schedules for
multiple items at once, select multiple items with the mouse holding the [Shift] key down.
Right-click on a blank area in the one-line and choose Schedules  Insert Schedule.

Inserting MCC Schedule in the one-line

You can change the drawing scale of schedules via the dialog Options  Equipment
dialog. Change the Scale under Schedule Defaults in the Options dialog.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  115

Schedule Default Scale in Options dialog

To delete the schedules from the one-line, select the schedule and press the [Delete] key in
the keyboard.

Merge Data with Excel File

You can export the schedules of MCC, panels, and buses to Excel files. Select the desired
equipment or group of equipments first. Then right click and choose Schedules  Merge
Data with Excel File. Each equipment schedule will be placed in separate sheets within the
same file. The path of the file can be specified using Merge Options… command. Once the
file has been created you can add more schedules to it. Each sheet for the file will be named
with the ID Name of the bus, MCC or panel. Merging the schedule data twice will overwrite
the previous data. You can format the sheets or cells in the Excel files. The format will
remain the same even if the data is updated.

Excel Merge Options for schedules


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  116

Printing Schedules

To print schedules, right click on the bus, MCC or panel and choose Schedules  Print
Schedules…. The Print Schedules dialog will appear. In this dialog you can specify the
items for which you want to print the schedules, by checking the checkboxes.

Print Schedules dialog


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  117

Printout of a panel schedule

Showing SC kA and Arc Flash Hazard in Panel Schedules

You can display the short circuit currents and arc flash hazard results in panel schedules.

To show the short circuit kA in the schedule for any panel, go to Short Circuit focus and
choose from the ribbon, Fault Bus(es)  Advanced…  Fault and Store Sym kA. This
will store the short circuit result to the panel database. For the SC value to appear, your panel
schedule template must have the variable specified. For details see the section on schedule
templates below.

To show the arc flash hazard in the schedule for any panel, go to Short Circuit focus and
choose from the ribbon, Fault Bus(es)  Advanced…  Fault and Store Arc Flash. This
will store the arc flash hazard results to the panel database. For the arc flash value to appear,
your panel schedule template must have the variable specified. For details see the section on
schedule templates below.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  118

Export Schedules

You can export schedules to .dxf files or to XML files. AutoCAD can read dxf files and
Excel can read XML files. Right click on the MCC, panel or bus and choose Schedules 
Export Schedules… You can specify the path for the export file, the name and the type of
file. If you have multiple schedules, you can export them to the same file or to separate files
by choosing the dialog options.

Export Schedules dialog

Schedule Templates

The schedules can be customized through templates. The schedule templates are text files
with xml language that can be edited with Notepad. The file name extensions for schedule
templates are as follows:

MCC: *.ezmcc

Panel: *.ezpnl

Panelboard: *.ezpbd

Switchgear, switchboard: *.ezswg


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  119

For Windows XP, the default schedules are in the data folder C:\Documents and Settings\All
Users\Application Data\ESA\EasyPower\9.0\Schedules. For Windows 7 and Vista, the
templates are in the folder C:\ProgramData\ESA\EasyPower\9.0\Schedules.

For any computer, you can choose the default schedule through the Options dialog. In the
Options dialog, go to File Locations tab and choose the desired Default Template.

Options dialog – Default Templates

You can also choose templates that may be file specific. To do this, click on the EasyPower
button  Properties. Then check the “Specified” checkbox and choose the template
file.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  120

File Properties – Schedule Template

Schedule Layout

Before you create a new schedule template it is important to plan the layout, specifically the
number of columns and the width of each column. It is recommended that you make a copy
of one of the templates and modify, rather than starting from scratch. Pay close attention to
syntax such as < > / “ %. If one character of syntax is missing, the schedule template may not
function correctly. It is a good idea to save backup copies so you can go back if you have
trouble identifying why the template is not working.

After the opening properties section in the template file, the number of columns is the first
thing defined. In this document all the samples are from the default panelboard schedule.

Example:
<Column width =".9"/>
<Column width ="2.4"/>
<Column width ="0.6"/>
<Column width ="0.6"/>
<Column width =".9"/>
<Column width =".9"/>
<Column width =".9"/>
<Column width =".9"/>
<Column width ="0.4"/>
<Column width ="0.4"/>
<Column width ="0.6"/>
<Column width ="0.6"/>
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  121

<Column width ="0.6"/>


<Column width ="0.6"/>
<Column width ="0.6"/>

In this example, a total of 15 columns will be created because there are 15 lines. It may be
helpful to imagine setting up a spreadsheet and setting the column width. For simplicity, you
may want to make all the columns the same width. It is also important to remember that you
can merge 2 or more columns together to create a larger text block.

Schedule Data

After a section for settings the schedule formatting begins. Example:


<tr valign = "Top" >
<th rowspan = "2" colspan = "3">Type : %SwitchType%</th>
<th rowspan = "2" colspan = "3">Name : %Name% </th>
<th rowspan = "2" colspan = "9">Manufacturer : %Manufacturer%</th>
</tr>
<tr>
</tr>

Notice that the tag <tr> begins a new row in the schedule and </tr> ends that row. Within the
first row, observe that rowspan and colspan attributes are used to create larger boxes for text
in the schedule. Note that if you use the rowspan attribute you must create empty rows below
to merge with according to the number in quotes after the rowspan attribute. In the example
above, one empty row is created with <tr> </tr> at the end. You may also observe some
words inside the percent (%) symbol. These are variables that reference data from the
EasyPower database that the template is being used with. A full list of variables for each
template is at the end of this section.

The grid is the main part of the template where most of the data will be. The key to the grid
is the use of <nextrow/> toward the bottom. This command will go through all the equipment
data for that template and generate as many rows as necessary and populate them with the
available data.
<grid>
<tr align = "Center" valign = "Center">
<td >%FeederID%</td>
<td >%Description%</td>
<td >%Type%</td>
<td >%DeviceRating%</td>
<td >%BrkrMfg%</td>
<td >%BrkrStyle%</td>
<td >%TripMfg%</td>
<td >%TripStyle%</td>
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  122

<td >%TripSensor%</td>
<td >%TripPlug%</td>
<td >%CondRating%</td>
<td >%ConnVA%</td>
<td >%DemandVA%</td>
<td >%CodeVA%</td>
<td >%DesignVA%</td>
<nextrow />
</tr>
</grid>

Schedule Variables

Below is a list of all variables available for each type of schedule template. All variables are
used in the default schedules provided with EasyPower. Check the default schedule if you
need to see how each variable is used.

Panel Variables

%Connected_A_Watts% → Connected A (Watts)


%Connected_A_Vars% → Connected A (Vars)
%Connected_A_VA% → Connected A (VA)
%Connected_A_PF% → Connected A (PF)
%Connected_A_I% → Connected A (I)
%Connected_B_Watts% → Connected B (Watts)
%Connected_B_Vars% → Connected B (Vars)
%Connected_B_VA% → Connected B (VA)
%Connected_B_PF% → Connected B (PF)
%Connected_B_I% → Connected B (I)
%Connected_C_Watts% → Connected C (Watts)
%Connected_C_Vars% → Connected C (Vars)
%Connected_C_VA% → Connected C (VA)
%Connected_C_PF% → Connected C (PF)
%Connected_C_I% → Connected C (I)
%Connected_Total_Watts% → Connected Total (Watts)
%Connected_Total_Vars% → Connected Total (Vars)
%Connected_Total_VA% → Connected Total (VA)
%Connected_Total_PF% → Connected Total (PF)
%Connected_Total_I% → Connected Total (I)
%Demand_A_Watts% → Demand A (Watts)
%Demand_A_Vars% → Demand A (Vars)
%Demand_A_VA% → Demand A (VA)
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  123

%Demand_A_PF% → Demand A (PF)


%Demand_A_I% → Demand A (I)
%Demand_B_Watts% → Demand B (Watts)
%Demand_B_Vars% → Demand B (Vars)
%Demand_B_VA% → Demand B (VA)
%Demand_B_PF% → Demand B (PF)
%Demand_B_I% → Demand B (I)
%Demand_C_Watts% → Demand C (Watts)
%Demand_C_Vars% → Demand C (Vars)
%Demand_C_VA% → Demand C (VA)
%Demand_C_PF% → Demand C (PF)
%Demand_C_I% → Demand C (I)
%Demand_Total_Watts% → Demand Total (Watts)
%Demand_Total_Vars% → Demand Total (Vars)
%Demand_Total_VA% → Demand Total (VA)
%Demand_Total_PF% → Demand Total (PF)
%Demand_Total_I% → Demand Total (I)
%Code_Factor_VA% → Code Factor (VA)
%Code_Factor_kVA% → Code Factor (kVA)
%Code_Factor_I% → Code Factor (I)
%Design_VA% → Design (VA)
%Design_kVA% → Design (kVA)
%Design_I% → Design (I)
%EasyPower_Version% → EasyPower Version
%Name% → ID Name
%Location% → Location, Specifications tab
%Panel_Rating_kA% → Panel Rating (kA); Specifications tab
OBSOLETE %Aic% → Panel Rating (kA); Specifications tab
%Current_Date_Time% → Current Date/Time;
%Panel_Description% → Descriptions; Specifications tab
%Manufacturer% → Mfr; Specifications tab
%Type% → Type; Specifications tab
%Mounting% → Mounting; Specifications tab
%Enclosure% → Enclosure; Specifications tab
%Fed_By% → Fed By; Specifications tab
%Header_Comment% → Header Comment; Specifications tab
%Service% → Service; Specifications tab
%ProjectName% → EasyPower Project Name; File Properties
OBSOLETE %fileName% → EasyPower Project Name; File Properties
%FileName% → EasyPower File Name; File Properties
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  124

%Voltage% → Panel Voltage


%Amps% → Main Bus Rating (A); Specifications tab
%Main% ` → Incoming Main (A); Incoming Tab
%VAUnits% → Panel Load Units; Description Tab

Short Circuit
%sc_sym_a% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Sym kA
%sc_sym_ka% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Sym kA
%afh_incident_energy% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash
%afh_boundary% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash
%afh_ppe% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash

Grid
%row% → Row number
%Library_Load% → Library Load
%Description% → Load Description
%Load_Location% → Load Location
%BreakerAmps%/%Poles% → Breaker Amps/Poles (must be used like this)
%CodeFactor% → Code Factor Name (eg Dwelling Ltg, etc)
%CB_Fuse_Poles% → CB/Fuse Poles
%PhaseATotal% → Phase A Total, invalidated when inapplicable
%PhaseBTotal% → Phase B Total, invalidated when inapplicable
%PhaseCTotal% → Phase C Total, invalidated when inapplicable

Code Factors
%cfRow% → Code Factor Row Number; Summary tab
%cfName% → Code Factor Name (eg Dwelling Ltg, etc)
%cfPhase1% → Aph (VA)
%cfPhase2% → Bph (VA)
%cfPhase3% → Cph (VA)
%cfPhaseRowTotal% → Phase Row Total (VA)
%cfPhaseTotal% → (Calculated) Phase Total
%TotalConnVA% → Total Connected Load (VA)
%TotalConnAmps% → Total Connected Load (Amps)
%TotalDemandVA% → Total Demand Load (VA)
%TotalDemandAmps% → Total Demand Load (Amps)
%TotalCodeVA% → Total Code Factor Load (VA)
%TotalCodeAmps% → Total Code Factor Load (Amps)
%TotalDesignVA% → Total Design Load (VA)
%TotalDesignAmps% → Total Design Load (Amps)
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  125

Panelboard Variables

%SwitchType% → Type; Specifications tab


%Name% → ID Name
%ProjectName% → EasyPower Project Name; File Properties
OBSOLETE %fileName% → EasyPower Project Name; File Properties
%FileName% → EasyPower File Name; File Properties
%Voltage% → Bus Voltage
%BusRating% → Bus Rating (A)
%SCCR% → SCCR (kA)
%SwgUnits% → Units (kVA/Amps); Summary tab
OBSOLETE %Units% → Units (kVA/Amps); Summary tab

Short Circuit
%sc_sym_ka% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Sym kA
%afh_incident_energy% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash
%afh_boundary% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash
%afh_ppe% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash

Code Factors
%cfRow% → Code Factor Row Number
%cfName% → Code Factor Name (eg Dwelling Ltg, etc)
%cfPhase1% → Aph (VA)
%cfPhase2% → Bph (VA)
%cfPhase3% → Cph (VA)
%cfPhaseRowTotal% → Phase Row Total (VA)
%cfPhaseTotal% → (Calculated) Phase Total
%TotalConnVA% → Total Connected Load (VA)
%TotalConnAmps% → Total Connected Load (Amps)
%TotalDemandVA% → Total Demand Load (VA)
%TotalDemandAmps% → Total Demand Load (Amps)
%TotalCodeVA% → Total Code Factor Load (VA)
%TotalCodeAmps% → Total Code Factor Load (Amps)
%TotalDesignVA% → Total Design Load (VA)
%TotalDesignAmps% → Total Design Load (Amps)

Grid
%FeederID% → Feeder ID
%Type% → Feeder Type
%DeviceRating% → Device Rating
%BrkrMfg% → Breaker Manufacturer
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  126

%BrkrStyle% → Breaker Style


%TripMfg% → Trip Manufacturer
%TripStyle% → Trip Style
%TripSensor% → Trip Sensor
%TripPlug% → Trip Plug
%CondRating% → Cond Rating (A)
%ConnVA% → Connected kVA/Amps
%DemandVA% → Demand kVA/Amps
%CodeVA% → Code kVA/Amps
%DesignVA% → Design kVA/Amps

MCC Variables
%Name% → ID Name
%ProjectName% → EasyPower Project Name; File Properties
OBSOLETE %fileName% → EasyPower Project Name; File Properties
%FileName% → EasyPower File Name; File Properties
%Voltage% → MCC Voltage
%Amps% → Main Bus Rating (A); Specifications tab
%Aic% → Bus SC Rating (kA); Specifications tab
%Main% → Incoming Main (A); Incoming Tab
%SwgUnits% → Units (kVA/Amps); Summary tab
OBSOLETE %Units% → Units (kVA/Amps); Summary tab

Short Circuit
%sc_sym_ka% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Sym kA
%afh_incident_energy% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash
%afh_boundary% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash
%afh_ppe% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash
Grid
%SectionSpace% → Section Space; Description tab
%EquipmentName% → Equipment Name; Description tab
%MotorkV% → Motor kV; Description tab
%HPkW% → Motor HP; Description tab
%NEMACode% → NEMA Code; Description tab
%StatickV% → Static kV; Description tab
%StatickW% → Static kW; Description tab
%StatickVAR% → Static kVAR; Description tab
%TripA% → Trip (Amps); Description tab
%IntkA% → Int kA; Description tab
%CondType% → Conductor Type; Description tab
%CondNoPh% → Conductor No/Ph; Description tab
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  127

%CondSize% → Conductor Size; Description tab

Switchgear Variables

%SwitchType% → Type; Specifications tab


%Name% → ID Name
%ProjectName% → EasyPower Project Name; File Properties
OBSOLETE %fileName% → EasyPower Project Name; File Properties
%FileName% → EasyPower File Name; File Properties
%Voltage% → Bus Voltage
%BusRating% → Bus Rating (A)
%SCCR% → SCCR (kA)
%SwgUnits% → Units (kVA/Amps); Summary tab
OBSOLETE %Units% → Units (kVA/Amps); Summary tab

Short Circuit
%sc_sym_ka% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Sym kA
%afh_incident_energy% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash
%afh_boundary% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash
%afh_ppe% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash

Code Factors
%cfRow% → Code Factor Row Number
%cfName% → Code Factor Name (eg Dwelling Ltg, etc)
%cfPhase1% → Aph (VA)
%cfPhase2% → Bph (VA)
%cfPhase3% → Cph (VA)
%cfPhaseRowTotal% → Phase Row Total (VA)
%cfPhaseTotal% → (Calculated) Phase Total
%TotalConnVA% → Total Connected Load (VA)
%TotalConnAmps% → Total Connected Load (Amps)
%TotalDemandVA% → Total Demand Load (VA)
%TotalDemandAmps% → Total Demand Load (Amps)
%TotalCodeVA% → Total Code Factor Load (VA)
%TotalCodeAmps% → Total Code Factor Load (Amps)
%TotalDesignVA% → Total Design Load (VA)
%TotalDesignAmps% → Total Design Load (Amps)

Grid
%FeederID% → Feeder ID
%Type% → Feeder Type
%DeviceRating% → Device Rating
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Schedules  128

%BrkrMfg% → Breaker Manufacturer


%BrkrStyle% → Breaker Style
%TripMfg% → Trip Manufacturer
%TripStyle% → Trip Style
%TripSensor% → Trip Sensor
%TripPlug% → Trip Plug
%CondRating% → Cond Rating (A)
%ConnVA% → Connected kVA/Amps
%DemandVA% → Demand kVA/Amps
%CodeVA% → Code kVA/Amps
%DesignVA% → Design kVA/Amps

Switchboard Variables

%SwitchType% → Type; Specifications tab


%Name% → ID Name
%ProjectName% → EasyPower Project Name; File Properties
OBSOLETE %fileName% → EasyPower Project Name; File Properties
%FileName% → EasyPower File Name; File Properties
%Voltage% → Bus Voltage
%BusRating% → Bus Rating (A)
%SCCR% → SCCR (kA)
%SwgUnits% → Units (kVA/Amps); Summary tab
OBSOLETE %Units% → Units (kVA/Amps); Summary tab

Short Circuit
%sc_sym_ka% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Sym kA
%afh_incident_energy% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash
%afh_boundary% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash
%afh_ppe% → (Calculated) Fault and Store Arc Flash

Code Factors
%cfRow% → Code Factor Row Number
%cfName% → Code Factor Name (eg Dwelling Ltg, etc)
%cfPhase1% → Aph (VA)
%cfPhase2% → Bph (VA)
%cfPhase3% → Cph (VA)
%cfPhaseRowTotal% → Phase Row Total (VA)
%cfPhaseTotal% → (Calculated) Phase Total
%TotalConnVA% → Total Connected Load (VA)
%TotalConnAmps% → Total Connected Load (Amps)
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawings  129

%TotalDemandVA% → Total Demand Load (VA)


%TotalDemandAmps% → Total Demand Load (Amps)
%TotalCodeVA% → Total Code Factor Load (VA)
%TotalCodeAmps% → Total Code Factor Load (Amps)
%TotalDesignVA% → Total Design Load (VA)
%TotalDesignAmps% → Total Design Load (Amps)

Grid
%FeederID% → Feeder ID
%Type% → Feeder Type
%DeviceRating% → Device Rating
%BrkrMfg% → Breaker Manufacturer
%BrkrStyle% → Breaker Style
%TripMfg% → Trip Manufacturer
%TripStyle% → Trip Style
%TripSensor% → Trip Sensor
%TripPlug% → Trip Plug
%CondRating% → Cond Rating (A)
%ConnVA% → Connected kVA/Amps
%DemandVA% → Demand kVA/Amps
%CodeVA% → Code kVA/Amps
%DesignVA% → Design kVA/Amps

Drawings
You can create multiple drawings from the same one-line file. The Drawing feature allows
you choose a selected part of the system or the entire system and put them into a separate
drawing for the purpose of printing to a specific format or for the purpose of viewing. You
can rearrange the positions of the equipment in the drawing and format the pages. This
allows you to have multiple views of the same one-line.

The drawing can be managed through the EasyControl toolbox. If you take the cursor over
the EasyControl button, the toolbox will expand displaying the various command buttons
and the list of drawings that have been created. Make sure Drawing is highlighted at the
bottom of the EasyControl toolbox.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawings  130

Creating a New Drawing

 To create a new drawing, first select the items from the Main One-line that you would like to
include in your drawing.

 Then click on the New Drawing button. A new drawing will be created. You can type in
a name for the drawing.

Example of a drawing view

Editing Drawing

Delete Items: You can delete any item from the drawing by selecting the item and choosing
the [Delete] button on the keyboard.

Edit equipment data: You can edit equipment data by double clicking on the equipment and
changing data through the dialog. The data changed is global – it will affect the Main One-
line and all the drawings.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawings  131

You can set defaults for drawings so that when you create drawings, the default format will
be used. To set the default for drawings go to Tools ribbon and choose Drawings
button. You can customize through the Drawing Defaults dialog.

Insert Existing Item: This command allows you to insert in the drawing any item that is
connected to the selected item but not yet in the drawing. Right click on any item in the
drawing and choose Insert Existing Item command from the context menu. If there are
connected items not yet shown in the drawing they will be listed. Check the desired
checkboxes to insert the items. If the item is several equipments away, you can insert one
item after another until you get the desired item.

EasyControl toolbox

EasyControl Commands

New Drawing : Creates a new drawing. First select items from the one-line that you
want to include in the drawing. Then click on the New Drawing button.

Delete Drawing : Deletes the selected drawing.


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawings  132

Move Up : Moves the selected drawing up the list.

Move Down : Moves the selected drawing down the list.

Drawing Properties : Displays the Drawing Properties dialog to customize the drawing.

Drawing Properties

The Drawing Properties dialog allows you to customize the drawings. Each drawing can be
customized different from each other as per your needs.

Page

Drawing Properties – Page dialog

Paper Size: Choose the desired paper size for printouts. You can add new paper sizes if
required.

Add… button: Allows you to create your own custom page size. In the Custom Page Size
dialog, specify the page Width and Height and the Unit. Then enter the Page Size Name and
click on the Add/Modify button. If you need to modify an existing custom page size, first
select the Page size name. Then make the changes and click on Add/Modify button. You can
also delete page sizes that have been defined by choosing the Page Size name first and then
clicking on Delete button. The Cancel button closes the dialog without making any changes.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawings  133

Custom Page Size dialog

Show Page Border: Show or hide the border in the page.

Orientation: Choose Portrait or Landscape.

Margins: Specify margins for the page border.

Schedule Scaling: Schedules for panels, MCC and buses can be shown in the drawings. The
scale of the schedules can be based on one of the following:

Global: Uses the scale defined in Schedule Default Scale settings in Options  Equipment
dialog.

Specified: Uses the scale specified in this dialog for the selected drawing.

Title Block
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawings  134

Drawing Properties – Title Block

Show Title Block: Check this box to show title block in the drawing.

Default: Uses the default title block format specified in the global options – Tools 
Drawing Defaults.

Specified: Uses the title bock template specified in this dialog. Click on the icon to
browse for the title block template. By default they are stored in the Templates subfolder in
the program data folder.

Property-Value spreadsheet: You can enter the text that will appear in the title block for
various fields. The fields are defined in the title block templates.

Grid

Drawing Properties – Grid dialog

Grid Spacing: Distance of grid points horizontal (x) and vertical (y) directions.

Applies to text dragging: When Snap to grid feature is ‘on’, dragging text on the drawing
will make the text snap to grid. When Snap to grid feature is ‘off’, the text can be placed
anywhere.

Display grid points: Show or hide grid points.

Snap to Grid: While dragging items or text, the obects get positioned at discrete grid points,
if the snap to grid feature is ‘on’.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawings  135

Grid Color: Choose any color from the palette.

Notes

Add any text in notes regarding the drawing.

Drawing Defaults

Drawing Defaults allow you to set the page size and the title blocks for new drawings. Got
to Tools ribbon and choose Drawings button.

Page

Drawing Defaults – Page

Paper Size: Choose the desired paper size for printouts. You can add new paper sizes if
required.

Add… button: Allows you to create your own custom page size. In the Custom Page Size
dialog, specify the page Width and Height and the Unit. Then enter the Page Size Name and
click on the Add/Modify button. If you need to modify an existing custom page size, first
select the Page size name. Then make the changes and click on Add/Modify button. You can
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawings  136

also delete page sizes that have been defined by choosing the Page Size name first and then
clicking on Delete button. The Cancel button closes the dialog without making any changes.

Custom Page Size dialog

Show Page Border: Show or hide the border in the page.

Orientation: Choose Portrait or Landscape.

Margins: Specify margins for the page border.

Schedule Defaults: Schedules for panels, MCC and buses can be shown in the drawings. The
spacing between the schedules is specified via Minimum horizontal gap and Minimum
vertical gap.

Title Block

Drawing Defaults – Title Block


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawing Title Block Template  137

Show Title Block: Check this box to show title block in the drawing.

Template File: Uses the title bock template specified in this dialog. The choice <Default>
uses the format that is coded in the program. Click on the icon to browse for a title block
template. By default they are stored in the Templates subfolder in the program data folder.
Templates can be customized.

Property-Value spreadsheet: You can enter the text that will appear in the title block for
various fields. The fields are defined in the title block templates.

Drawing Title Block Template


Prerequisites

Precautions

It is recommended that you understand XML before creating or editing templates. It is


important to note that XML has a unique syntax, and if punctuation is missing (a “<” for
example) then EasyPower will not be able to read the title block. Make sure you have a
backup copy of your title block to revert back.

Editing XML

Use notepad to edit the drawing title block. Drawing title block files have the file extension
.eztbkd. The easiest way to modify them is to right click on the file in Windows and select
“Open With” and choose Notepad. This allows you to edit the file as a text document and
save it. WARNING: If you are using Notepad, do not use the option File > Save As. This
will not encode the document correctly. Make a copy of the file first in Windows and then
open it with Notepad.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawing Title Block Template  138

Title Block File Format

The Basics

The one-line title block template file is in the XML format. XML works with a tree structure
using labels called “tags.” Each section is begun by a tag and must be ended by a closing tag
that starts with a forward slash “/.” See example below:

<Main tag>
<tag>
<sub tag> </sub tag>
</tag>
</Main tag>

The main tag for a title block file is shown below:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>

<TitleBlock>

>>> Title block item definitions go here

</TitleBlock>

Within the main tag, there are five tags that are used in drawing title blocks. These tags are
<Settings>, <Rect>, <Line>, <Text> and <Image>. Within each of these five tags there are
various sub-tags available to input data and settings such as positions, sizes, colors, etc. Sub-
tags for each tag are explained in detail in their own sections below.

Items can be defined in any order and attributes can be in any order. Order matters only with
text fields that have prompts. The order in which the text with prompts is listed in the XML
file will be the same order that the prompts appear in the drawing properties dialogue box
title block tab.

Comments

Title block files can quickly become long, and it is recommended that you place comments
throughout the title block file to label different sections. Most of the templates have
comments to help find different sections.

Comment Syntax Example:

<!--comment-->
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawing Title Block Template  139

Coordinates

All the coordinates in Title Block templates are in inches with the origin (0,0) being in the
top left corner. The X coordinate increases left to right while the Y coordinate increases top
to bottom. There are no limits to how large a title block you can create. It can even be as
large as the physical page you are printing on. Even if the title block is the size of the page, it
may be 90 percent blank space for equipment in the drawing to go.

X
(0,0)

Helpful Hints for Using Coordinates

Drawing title blocks will automatically be aligned in the bottom right corner of the page
inside the margins. It will be the X and Y coordinates are relative to where the upper left
hand corner of the title block is, not to the page itself.

Remember the page margins when creating a title block. They are all set to 0.5 inches by
default, but can be changed in the drawing properties dialogue box. If you want a title block
to run the length of the bottom of the page, then you must take the width of the page and
subtract the left and right margins. For example, on a page that is 17 inches wide with 0.5
inch margin on both sides, the title block should be 16 inches wide if you want it to span the
whole distance.

NOTE: If you want the title block located somewhere else on the page besides the lower
right hand corner, then you will have to first draw a rectangle the size of the drawing (page
dimensions minus the margins). This rectangle will overlap the page boarder, or if you want
it invisible, set the line thickness to 0. Once the size of the title block has been established as
the entire page, use the coordinates to place items where you choose.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawing Title Block Template  140

Settings

The Settings section allows you to specify certain settings for the title block and can have the
following options.

Scale [Optional] Scaling for title block [Default = 0]

Note: This is a future option that is not yet supported. It can be ignored for now.

BorderWidth [Optional] Width of print border rectangle lines [Default = 1].

The standard range for boarder thickness is from 1 to 5.

Sample:

<Settings>
<Scale>0</Scale>
<BorderWidth>1</BorderWidth>
</Settings>

Rectangles

Rectangles are simply boxes and can have the following attributes.

left [Required] Left coordinate of rectangle in inches

top [Required] Top coordinate of rectangle in inches

right [Required] Right coordinate of rectangle in inches

bottom [Required] Bottom coordinate of rectangle in inches

LineWidth [Optional] Width of the line around the rectangle [Default = 2]

Color [Optional] RGB value of color of the rectangle line [Default = #FF000000]. See
section “Hex Colors” for more detail about setting color values.

Sample:

<Rect>
<left>0</left>
<top>0</top>
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawing Title Block Template  141

<right>7.25</right>
<bottom>0.75</bottom>
<LineWidth>2</LineWidth>
<Color>#FF000000</Color>
</Rect>

The above code will result in a rectangle that is 7.25 inches wide and 0.75 inches high that is
located in the lower right hand corner of the drawing.

Lines

Lines can have the following attributes. To draw a straight horizontal line, Y1 and Y2 should
be the same, and X1 and X2 will set the beginning and ending points of the line. Similarly, to
draw a vertical line, X1 and X2 will be the same and Y1 and Y2 will set the beginning and
ending points of the line. To draw a diagonal line, specify the starting and ending X and Y
coordinates.

X1 [Required] Starting X value in inches

Y1 [Required] Starting Y value in inches

X2 [Required] Ending X value in inches

Y2 [Required] Ending Y value in inches

LineWidth [Optional] Width of the line [Default = 2]

LineStyle [Optional] Style of the line [Default = 0]


0 = Solid
1 = Dash
2 = Dot
3 = Dash Dot
4 = Dash Dot Dot
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawing Title Block Template  142

Color [Optional] RGB value of color of the line [Default = #FF000000]. See section “Hex
Colors” for more detail about setting color values.

Example: Drawing a Vertical Line

<Line>
<X1>3</X1>
<Y1>0</Y1>
<X2>3</X2>
<Y2>0.75</Y2>
<LineWidth>2</LineWidth>
<LineStyle>0</LineStyle >
<Color>#FF000000</Color>
</Line>

By adding this code to the previous code for drawing a rectangle, a partitioning line is
created in the title block.

Text

Text can have the following attributes.

X [Required] Horizontal position of text in inches

Y [Required] Vertical position of text in inches

Alignment [Optional] Alignment of text. This field determines how X and Y are
interpreted. It is specified as a combination of one of the horizontal alignment values with
one of the vertical alignment values.

VAlign [Default = top]

<VAlign>top</VAlign> Text is aligned above the Y coordinate

<VAlign>baseline</VAlign> Text is centered vertically with the Y coordinate


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawing Title Block Template  143

<VAlign>bottom</VAlign> Text is aligned below the Y coordinate

HAlign [Default = left]

<HAlign>left</HAlign> The text starts at the X coordinate

<HAlign>center</HAlign> Text is centered over the X coordinate

<HAlign>right</HAlign> The text ends at the X coordinate

Label [Required] Text to display. This is static text unless the Prompt attribute is defined
in which case this value is the default text. Although this field is required, when used in
conjunction with a prompt you may leave it blank (Example: <Label></Label>) in order to
leave the title block field blank until text is specified through the drawing properties dialogue
box title block tab. SEE ALSO: Section on variables below.

Example: <Label>TITLE</Label>

Prompt [Optional] Prompt for label. Makes this text item a variable and specified by
the user in the drawing properties dialog box title block tab.

Example: <Prompt>Title</Prompt>

FontName [Optional] Font face name [Default = Arial]

Name [Required] Field Name. This is a name that EasyPower uses to store the data
for that particular field. The name field is also important because it allows changing to a
different title block and retaining the data that was entered of fields that have the same name.

FontSize [Optional] Font point size [Default = 10].

Hint: To get a perfect fit you may use a decimal value such as 10.6 to fit a space.

Escapement [Optional] Font escapement specified in 1/10 of an angle. So for 90 degree


text you would specify 900. [Default = 0]

Example: To set text vertically at 90 degrees add

<Escapement>900</Escapement>

Note: Escapement is not yet supported, but will be in the near future.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawing Title Block Template  144

Bold [Optional] Bold font [Default = 0]


0 = normal
1 = bold

Example: To make text bold, add:

<Bold>1</Bold>

Color [Optional] RGB value of color of the line [Default = #FF000000]. See section “Hex
Colors” for more detail about setting color values.

Example: (Note: Optional tags are shown for demonstration purposes)

<Text>
<X>3</X>
<Y>.75</Y>
<VAlign>top</VAlign>
<HAlign>left</HAlign>
<Label>TITLE</Label>
<Prompt>Title</Prompt>
<FontName>Arial</FontName>
<Name>Title prompt</Name>
<FontSize>12</FontSize>
<Escapement>0</Escapement>
<Bold>0</Bold>
<Italic>0</Italic>
<Color>#FF000000</Color>
</Text>

By adding the above example to our previous examples, we come up with this:

Image

Images are pictures and can have the following attributes. Images will automatically be
resized to fit the given rectangle while preserving the original aspect ratio of the image.

left [Required] Left coordinate of rectangle in inches


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawing Title Block Template  145

top [Required] Top coordinate of rectangle in inches

right [Required] Right coordinate of rectangle in inches

bottom [Required] Bottom coordinate of rectangle in inches

ImageFile [Required] Name and path of the graphics file. Supported files types are
BMP, JPG, GIF, TIFF, PNG, ICO, WMF, EMF. If the file name is given without the path,
then EasyPower will look for the file in the same folder that the title block file is located.
You may also give the full path if known. If file is not found, then image is left blank and can
be found by going to the drawing properties dialogue box title block tab and browsing for the
file.

Note: If no value is given (Example: <ImageFile></ImageFile>), then the file can be selected
later though the drawing properties dialogue box title block tab.

Prompt [Optional] Allows user to set or change image from drawing properties
dialogue box title block tab.

Name [Required] Field name. This is a name that EasyPower uses to store the data for that
particular field. The name field is also important because it allows changing to a different
title block and retaining the data that was entered of fields that have the same name.

Example:

<Image>
<left>0.1</left>
<top>0.1</top>
<right>2.9</right>
<bottom>0.65</bottom>
<ImageFile>TCC logo.jpg</ImageFile>
<Prompt>Logo image</Prompt>
<Name>EasyPower Logo</Name>
</Image>

By adding the above example to our previous examples, we come up with this:
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawing Title Block Template  146

Hex Colors

Rectangles, lines, and text all use a color coding system known as “Hexadecimal.” A
hexadecimal value begins with “#” and is followed by 8 characters.

The first two characters represent a transparency value. This feature is not supported yet, so
all color codes should start with FF. Characters 3-8 represent values for colors. Characters 3
and 4 are the red value, characters 5 and 6 are the green value, and characters 7 and 8 are the
blue value. Each value can range from 00-FF. Below is a chart of some standard colors:

Color Hexidecimal Color Hexidecimal Color Hexidecimal Color Hexidecimal


Black #FF000000 Red #FFFF0000 Green #FF008000 Blue #FF0000FF
Charcoal #FF404040 Magenta #FFFF00FF Lime #FF00FF00 Navy Blue #FF000080
Grey #FF808080 Purple #FF800080 Teal #FF008080 Aqua #FF00FFFF
Silver #FFC0C0C0 Orange #FFFF6600 Dark Green #FF003300 Brown #FF663300
White #FFFFFFFF Yellow #FFFFFF00 Olive #FF666600 Tan #FFFFCA7A

Variables that can be used in the <Label> sub-tag of a <Text> tag.

There are four drawing fields that are automatically a part of every drawing. They appear
first in the drawing properties dialogue box title block tab and can be referenced with a
variable to use the data from those fields in the title block. Each variable begins and ends
with “%”. NOTE: The label tag will accept either text or one of the prescribed variables, but
not a combination of both.

Example: Adding drawing name variable to examples above

<Text>
<X>3</X>
<Y>0</Y>
<VAlign>bottom</VAlign>
<HAlign>left</HAlign>
<Color>#FF000000</Color>
<Name>DrawingName</Name>
<Label>%DrawingName%</Label>
<FontName>Arial</FontName>
<FontSize>14</FontSize>
<Escapement>0</Escapement>
<Bold>0</Bold>
<Italic>0</Italic>
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Drawing Title Block Template  147

</Text>

Drawing Field Variable


Drawing Name %DrawingName%
Drawing Number %DrawingNo%
Sheet Number %SheetNo%
Revision %Revision%

File Name Variable

There is one other variable that can be used to reference the file name. When this is used, the
file name will be added exactly as it is saved, without the file extensions. The variable is
%FileName%.

Example: Using file name variable in addition to previous examples

<Text>
<X>7.25</X>
<Y>0.75</Y>
<VAlign>top</VAlign>
<HAlign>right</HAlign>
<Color>#FF000000</Color>
<Name>Filename</Name>
<Label>%FileName%</Label>
<FontName>Arial</FontName>
<FontSize>8</FontSize>
<Escapement>0</Escapement>
<Bold>0</Bold>
<Italic>0</Italic>
</Text>

Sample Title Block Features and Instructions

There are number of title block templates available for drawing. These templates are
completely functional and can be used as is or customized using the above methods. There
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Named Views  148

are some important features to note. All title block data can be entered through the drawing
properties title block tab.

Page size: Because drawing title blocks do not currently have the ability to scale, many are
specific to a certain page size. A landscape orientation is assumed on all title block templates.
There are 4 title blocks that will work with any size paper and appear in the lower right hand
corner. These include the file “Simple” and 3 files that start with “Universal.”

Grid: Many of the templates have a grid boarder around them. The grid is divided by inches.
It is numbered from left to right and is lettered from top to bottom. The purpose of the grid is
to easily refer to a piece of equipment or a section of the drawing. For example, you may
note “The breaker in H-5 is missing data.”

Sheet Notes: This is a section of the title block that allows you to make special notes about
things in the drawing, list tasks to be done, or record additional data. It is helpful when
making a note to include the grid coordinates (G-6 for example) of the item(s) that are
referenced.

Legend: A few of the templates have a legend. The legend is simply an image that has been
inserted into the title block. The image of the legend “EZP Drawing legend.jpg” should be
located in your title blocks folder. The legend can easily be deleted if you don’t want it or
added to any of the other templates.

Revisions: To help track revisions, most title blocks contain a section for recording at least 4
different revisions.

Logo Images: Most templates come with two or three logo images. The templates come with
EasyPower images, but you can replace any or all of them with your own company logos.

Named Views
Named Views is a feature that allows you to go directly to a certain part of the one-line. You
can store different parts of the one-line as separate named views. When you store a named
view, the current window and the zoom level will be stored in the view. A Named View is in
essence a snapshot of a portion of the Main One-line. Named Views serve a purpose similar
to Drawings feature. However, there are some differences. Named views have graphics based
on the Main One-line. In Drawings, you can delete items without deleting from the Main
One-line, whereas this is not possible in Named Views. A Named View is in essence a
snapshot of a portion of the Main One-line.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Named Views  149

To create a Named View, go to EasyControl toolbox and choose Named Views at the
bottom. In the one-line, pan your drawing and adjust the zoom level to show the desired
window. In the EasyControl choose (New Named View) button. Enter a name for the
view.

EasyControl – Named Views

EasyControl Commands

New Named View : Creates a new NamedView.

Delete Named View : Deletes the selected NamedView.

Move Up : Moves the selected NamedView up the list.

Move Down : Moves the selected NamedView down the list.


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Inserting LV Switchgear  150

Inserting LV Switchgear
You can insert an LV switchgear in the one-line with multiple circuit breakers and feeders at
once using a wizard. In the Equipment Palette choose the LV Switchgear button. The
cursor will turn into a switchgear symbol. Click on the one-line to place the switchgear. The
Insert LV Switchgear dialog will appear. This allows you to specify the type of bus,
protective devices, feeders, and loads and the number of feeders. This wizard allows a quick
creation of switchgears.

Insert LV Switchgear dialog

Equipment Type: Choose the type of bus from switchgear, switchboard, or panelboard.

Base kV: Set the Base kV for the bus.

Disconnect Type: Choose the disconnect device (protective device) type from the
following list: LVPCB, ICCB, MCCB, Fused LVPCB, Fused ICCB, Fused MCCB,
Fused Switch and Non-Fused Switch.

Include Main Breaker: Checking this item will insert a Main Breaker or fuse for the
switchgear.

Number of Feeders: Number of feeders fed by the switchgear.

Default Line Type: Choose from <None>, cables, busways or transmission lines. To avoid
inserting feeders, leave the selection as <None>.

Default Load Type: Choose from <None>, motors, loads, MCCs and panels. This combo
box is available only if the Default Line Type is other than <None>.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Elevation View  151

Note: Although the LV switchgear is inserted through a single Equipment Palette button,
once the items are inserted in the one-line, they can be edited as separate entities, i.e. buses,
breakers and lines.

LV Switchgear with 5 feeders created from wizard

Elevation View
You can create the elevation view for MCC and buses (switchgear, switchboard and panel
board) and print the view. The size and location of buckets, breakers or cubicles can be
defined using the fields Column Number and Space.

In order to create the elevation view you must first define the Column Number and
Starter/Row Space in the dialog for the bus or the MCC. The Equipment Elevation tab will
show the elevation view.

MCC Elevation

In the Description tab of the MCC dialog you can specify the location and size of each
bucket (space). The Equipment Elevation tab of the MCC dialog will show the elevation
drawing. You can print this view from the dialog.

Column Number: This is the ordinal number of the column in which the starter (bucket) is
located. The columns are arranged in increasing order starting from 1 and ending in the
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Elevation View  152

highest column number. See the following picture of Equipment Elevation and the
corresponding Description tab.

Starter Space: Height of the space in terms of the column width.

If there are multiple items in the same column, they will appear in order they are entered in
the Description spreadsheet.

MCC Elevation view


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Elevation View  153

Specifying Column Number and Starter Space in Description tab

You can show text from the fields: Equipment Name, Section Name, Description, HP,
Protective Device Amps and Comments.

You can specify the height for the top and bottom horizontal wireways and the column
(vertical) wireway via the Property pane on the right side.

To show the Main Breakers in the elevation view, enter a new row in the Description tab,
enter the Load Type as “Load” and enter the description.

You can change the column number and space size by selecting the bucket first in the
Elevation and changing the parameters in Property pane on the right side.

To print the elevation view, click on the Print button on the MCC toolbar.

Switchgear Elevation

If you have defined the Bus Type as “Switchgear”, you can view the elevation for the
switchgear. In the Switchgear tab of Bus Data dialog, you can specify whether the elevation
layout will be Column Based or Row Based. For Columns, the breakers in one unit will be
vertically stacked. For Row Based, you can have single breakers throughout the row (2X), or
breakers on the left (1X-Left) or right (1X-Right).
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Elevation View  154

For Column Based elevation, we need to specify the Column Number and Row Space for
each row of data. This will create the Elevation view.

Column Based

Column Number: This is the ordinal number of the column in which the cubicle (for
breakers) is located. The columns are arranged in increasing order starting from 1 and ending
in the highest column number. See the following picture of Equipment Elevation and the
corresponding Switchgear tab.

Row Space: Height of the space in terms of the column width.

Row based

Column Space: You can specify the size and side of the breaker spare in the panelboard. The
breakers will appear in order, the first row showing at the top.

Column Number and Row Space in Switchgear tab of Bus data dialog

You can show the text for Equipment Name, Section Space, Description and Device Rating
by setting the values in the Property pane on the right side of the elevation.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Elevation View  155

Switchgear Elevation

You can specify the height for the top and bottom horizontal wireways and the vertical
wireway via the Property pane on the right side.

You can change the column number and space size by selecting the cubicle first in the
Elevation and changing the parameters in Property pane on the right side.

Inserting rows in the Switchgear spreadsheet: You can right click on the spreadsheet and
Insert Row or Append Row.

To print the elevation view, click on the Print button on the Bus Data dialog toolbar.

Switchboard elevation can be viewed in the same way for bus type “Switchboard”.

Panelboard Elevation

If you have defined the Bus Type as “Panelboard”, you can view the elevation for the
panelboard. The dialog and elevation are similar to that of switchgear. You can specify
whether the elevation layout will be Column Based or Row Based. For Columns, the
breakers in one unit will be vertically stacked. For Rows, you can have single breakers
throughout the row, or breakers on the left or right.

Column Space: You can specify the size and side of the breaker spare in the panelboard. The
breakers will appear in order, the first row showing at the top.

See the following picture of Equipment Elevation and the corresponding Panelboard tab.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Elevation View  156

Defining Column Space in Panelboard tab

Panelboard elevation view

You can show the text for Equipment Name, Section Space, Description and Device Rating
by setting the values in the Property pane on the right side of the elevation.
Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Elevation View  157

You can specify the height for the top and bottom horizontal wireways and the vertical
wireway via the Property pane on the right side.

You can change the space size by selecting the cubicle first in the Elevation and changing the
parameters in Property pane on the right side.

To print the elevation view, click on the Print button on the Bus Data dialog toolbar.

Printing Elevations

You can also print elevation views by clicking on EasyPower button and choosing Print
 Print Elevations. In the Print Elevations dialog, check the items you want to print.

Print Elevations dialog


Chapter 2 Making One-line Diagrams Elevation View  159
Chapter 3 Analysis Overview Preparing for Analysis  160

Chapter 3 Analysis Overview


Preparing for Analysis
Full Connectivity

Until all items are fully connected, you are not allowed to choose an analysis focus -- If you
try, unconnected items are displayed in red and an error report is generated.

Required Database Fields

Certain database information is required before an analysis can be run. For example, if you
did not give the impedances of a cable, it is not possible to do a meaningful Short Circuit
analysis. If you try to choose an analysis focus without specifying all required database
fields, you will get an error report listing the ID name and type of each incomplete item.

Recalculating Per-unit Data

EasyPower automatically keeps appropriate per-unit equivalencies of your equipment


parameters updated. However if you open a very old database, you might want to force all of
the per-unit data to be recalculated. This is done from the Database Edit focus by choosing
Tools Re-calc Per-Unit (Shortcut F9) from the Menu bar. The updated per-unit values
will then be saved with the database at the next Save operation.

Editing Allowed During Analysis


Editing the One-line Appearance

You can freely change the one-line appearance by clicking and dragging, as described in
"Dragging Items, Lines, and Text" on page Error! Bookmark not defined.. When you
choose the Save command, these visual changes will be made permanent, just as if you had
done them from Database Edit focus.
Chapter 3 Analysis Overview Editing Allowed During Analysis  161

Opening and Closing Breakers or Switches

SmartBreaker™ is the world's first fully functional breaker model. SmartBreaker allows
you to double-click on a breaker to open or close it while doing analysis operations. This lets
you perform hundreds of contingency studies in minutes. SmartBreaker uses Expert System
technology to update network sparse vectors to the new system configuration without the
numerical inaccuracy problems associated with low impedance ties.

To open or close a breaker with SmartBreaker, double-click on it with the mouse while you
are in an analysis focus. The breaker will instantly change states. If the breaker is open, an
"OPEN" text label will be displayed. If the breaker is closed, no label is displayed.
SmartBreaker also applies to switches and fused switches.

When you double-click on a breaker while you are in the Coordination focus, the temporary
data dialog box will appear. To open or close a breaker in the Coordination focus, right click
on the breaker and choose from the context menu Open Switch or Close Switch.

Opening and Closing Breakers

Note: The ability to open and close breakers or switches during analysis is only available if
you have purchased the SmartBreaker™ option to EasyPower.

In the Toolbar interface style, SmartBreaker also allows you to select multiple breakers and
switches you want to open or close. Once they are selected, choose Edit Open Switch or
Edit Close Switch from the Menu bar. Selected items that are not breakers or switches
are ignored.
Chapter 3 Analysis Overview Editing Allowed During Analysis  162

To open a breaker or switch permanently, enter the Database Edit focus and choose
"Normally Open" from its database dialog box.

AFD, Inverter, Rectifier Specialty Switching

In Power Flow and Short Circuit, the AFD, Inverter and Rectifier equipment items have
specialized checks that are used to make these devices respond appropriately when switching
actions occur that would affect them.

NOTE:

THIS SPECIALTY SWITCHING HAS NOT BEEN IMPLEMENTED IN HARMONICS


YET.

To accomplish the specialty switching response of the AFD, Inverter and Rectifier, an island
check is performed after any type of switching in a system with an AFD, Inverter or
Rectifier. If any Islands are formed that involve the input or output of an AFD, Inverter or
Rectifier, additional switching is performed to match the condition. This process is repeated
in a loop until all switching actions have completed.

The specialty response of these equipment items should be as follows:

If the input is islanded, then the output is turned off.

If the output has a switch and it is opened, the output is turned off, and the input is zeroed.

If the input has a switch and it is opened, the output is turned off.

Editing Item Data

While in the Power Flow focus, you are allowed to make temporary changes to certain
items: Motors, Loads, Generators, Utilities, Transformers, Capacitors, and Shunts. While in
the Coordination focus, you can make temporary changes to the protective devices like fuses,
breakers and relays. Simply double-click on one of these items to bring up its temporary
dialog. The changes are in effect during the analysis session only; when you return to
Database Edit focus, the original database values will still be intact. However, if you choose
Save while in Power Flow analysis, you will be given the option to save any temporary
changes you have made and they will become permanent. No temporary changes are
allowed while in Short Circuit focus.
Chapter 3 Analysis Overview Viewing Item Database Data  163

Viewing Item Database Data


Viewing the database dialog box of an item is possible while in an analysis focus. Double-
clicking on any item while holding down the Shift key will bring up the database dialog for
that item. This database dialog is for viewing purposes only and is not editable in an analysis
focus.

All Power Flow temporary dialog boxes contain a DB Info button that allows you to view the
database data. This will bring up the same database dialog as the Shift+Double Click
procedure described above. The same characteristics and purposes also apply. Below is a
typical DB Info dialog box:

Typical DB Info Dialog Box

Though the data is grayed out and cannot be edited, the arrow buttons in the dialog box
toolbar are usable and will allow you to scroll through and view other items of that
equipment type. The Help button is available to explain the database fields. The tabs (i.e.
Power Flow above) are available to view different information categories. Pressing OK or
Cancel will close the dialog box.
Chapter 3 Analysis Overview Controlling the Analysis  164

Controlling the Analysis


The "Analysis Options Control" Dialog Box

In each Analysis focus you can significantly control testing and output. Depending on the
focus you are in, you can choose one of the following options buttons from ribbon: SC
Options, PF Options, Harm Options, and DS Options. Then choose the Control tab.
These dialog boxes give you options on how the analysis will be run. For example, the
Control tab of the Short Circuit Options dialog box allows you to change Fault Type,
Equipment Duty Threshold, etc.

Excluding Items From Analysis

There are three ways to exclude items from a particular analysis session.

Deactivate items by choosing Deactivate button from the ribbon (or Edit Deactivate
from the Menu bar). Inactive items are ignored for the purposes of analysis. Note that
inactive breakers act as if they don't exist, i.e. they do not create an open connection unless
they are tie breakers between two buses. To cause an open connection between a bus and
something else, leave the breaker active and open it as described in "Opening and Closing
Breakers or Switches" on page 161.

Use Areas and/or Zones. An Area and Zone are associated with each bus in the database.
If you assign Areas and/or Zones to different subsystems represented in the database, the
analysis can be restricted to only operate on a certain Zone and Area combination through the
Control tab of the Short Circuit Options dialog box. For Short Circuit analysis, the Area
and Zone apply only to "Fault All." For Power Flow analysis, the Area and Zone apply only
to text reports.

Specify a Bus kV Range. The dialog box accessed by choosing SC Options Control lets
you specify a kV range. Buses that are outside this kV range are excluded from the Short
Circuit analysis.

Starting the Analysis


Each analysis focus has a menu showing choices for starting the analysis. The Short Circuit
menu is called Fault and the Power Flow menu is called Solve. There are corresponding
buttons on both the Short Circuit and Power Flow toolbars.
Chapter 3 Analysis Overview Analysis Results  165

In some cases, once an analysis has been run, you can add to the results with a follow-up
analysis. For example, after faulting a single bus in Short Circuit, you can select one or more
additional buses and then choose Remote V/I button from the ribbon (or View
Remote V&I from the Menu bar). The voltages and currents for these remote buses will
appear on the one-line.

Analysis Results
Results on the One-line

When an analysis is finished, certain results are displayed on the one-line. Commands from
the View menu control which results are displayed. There are corresponding buttons on both
the Short Circuit and Power Flow toolbars.

Some of the viewing choices are additive, i.e. they can show up in addition to other choices.
Others are mutually exclusive, i.e. choosing one type of result to see will "unselect" the other
choice. You can easily see this on the toolbar by observing which button groups behave like
radio buttons (push one in and the current one pops out). Many of the toolbar viewing
buttons behave in a "press-on-press-off" fashion, i.e. clicking on it reverses its on/off state.
In the menus, check marks next to a menu item reflect that item's on/off state.

Depending on what you have chosen to be displayed, you might want to move equipment
and/or lines around a bit to allow the numbers to fit better. These graphic one-line changes
will be saved with the database the next time you choose Save.

One-line Unit Settings

The One-Line Output tab of Power Flow Options and Short Circuit Options dialogs give
you control over display choices for the one-line. For example, Short Circuit lets you choose
between "kV" and "Per-Unit" for the Voltage Unit. The most important one-line unit settings
are shown in the Status Bar.

Text Results

In addition to results shown on the one-line, you can choose to have detailed results sent to
text reports. The Text Output tab of Power Flow Options or Short Circuit Options
dialogs allows you to specify which text reports are created and what will appear in them.
For example, the Short Circuit focus lets you choose which combination of five result types
Chapter 3 Analysis Overview Analysis Results  166

to generate (Momentary, Interrupting, etc.). You can also make other choices such as the
Equipment Duty Reporting Level.

Depending on what type of analysis you performed and your choice of settings in the dialogs
opened by choosing Power Flow Options – Control or Short Circuit Options – Control,
you may have more than one text result window to choose from. Also, sometimes selecting
both high and low voltage buses for analysis can cause multiple text reports to be generated.

By default, newly created text windows are minimized, i.e. they are represented by icons at
the bottom of the session window. You can restore such a window by double-clicking on it,
or by choosing it from the Window menu.

Window Manipulation

Use Microsoft Windows operations to manipulate text and one-line windows. The
EasyPower Window menu has additional commands that make this process easier.

Window New Window opens a new window for the file which is currently "active"
allowing you to view different areas of the same one-line or text report.

Window Tile Vertically will size and position all windows vertically so that they are
completely visible.

Window Tile Horizontally will size and position all windows horizontally so that they
are completely visible.

Window Cascade will arrange all windows in a neat pile, each one offset from the
previous one slightly. Choosing a numbered window will automatically bring that window to
the "front of the pile."

Window Arrange for Arc Flash will show the one-line and the arc fash hazard report
tiled horizontally.

Window Arrange for Auto Coordination F8 will display the TCC, one-line and the auto
coordination report.

Of course, you can also manipulate the windows using the regular window controls or a
window's system menu, like Minimize, Maximize, Restore, Close etc.

The active window is usually the last one you clicked the mouse in and will have a
highlighted caption, which is the bar at the top which contains that window's title. Activating
a window will automatically bring it to the "front" if it is overlapped by another window.
Chapter 3 Analysis Overview Analysis Results  167

Also, restoring a minimized window will make it the active window. Which window is
active becomes important when clearing results and/or printing.

Clearing Results From Text and One-line Windows

Each analysis focus has commands to remove results from the text report windows.
Choosing Clear button from the ribbon (or View Clear from the Menu bar) will only
clear the results from the active window. While choosing Clear All from the drop down
arrow below Clear button will clear the results from all windows associated with that file and
the current focus.

When you return to Database Edit focus, all analysis results are automatically cleared from
the one-line and the text windows.

Note: By default, the text reports are cumulative. In other words, new text analysis
results are added to the end of the current reports unless a Clear or Clear All is
done first. You can change this in the Tools Options General dialog.

Saving Text Reports as htm files

When a text report is the active window, you can send that information to htm file by
choosing Save button from the Quick Access Toolbar (or File Save from the Menu
bar). Each text report saved will be given a ".htm" extension.

Exporting Text Report to Word/Excel

Right mouse click on the report and select Export to Microsoft Excel or Export to
Microsoft Word. If you have Excel or Word installed on your computer, the report will
automatically be exported.
Chapter 3 Analysis Overview Analysis Results  169
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Overview  170

Chapter 4
Short Circuit Procedures and
Reference - ANSI
Overview
The EasyPower short circuit analysis is designed for the analysis of three-phase and
unbalanced faults in industrial, commercial, and utility power systems. EasyPower can be
used to calculate ANSI or IEC Standard fault currents for comparison with circuit breaker
and fuse interrupting duties. It can also be used to calculate currents for protective device
coordination, analyzing trouble spots using the symmetrical component output, and for
calculating remote bus fault voltages for the setting of voltage controlled relays.

Program results have been verified with independent programs from Oregon State
University, numerous test and IEEE cases, and programs from the General Electric
Company. In addition, EasyPower LLC. has used various versions of this program since
1981 for its own consulting business.

This chapter describes how to use EasyPower's short circuit analysis features. It is intended
to provide a procedural overview which will help you to quickly become productive. It is not
intended to provide a tutorial on short circuit study procedures. You must be in the Short
Circuit focus to do the operations described here.

This chapter describes procedures for ANSI Short Circuit. The IEC-60909 Short Circuit
features are slightly different and are described in Chapter 16.

Setting Short Circuit Method


To select the short circuit calculation method, choose from the menu, Tools  Options 
System, and select the desired standard from the combo box for SC Calculation Method.
You can also select the units and symbols appropriate for the selected standard.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Setting Short Circuit Method  171

Setting Short Circuit Method

Short Circuit Ribbon


Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Setting Short Circuit Method  172

Short Circuit ribbon buttons

Short Circuit Status Bar

Short Circuit Status Bar

The Short Circuit Status Bar indicates the following settings:

Grid Snap Status: Shows "SNAP" if grid snapping is on. See "The Snap Grid" on page 73
for more information.

Fault Type: The Fault Type as set from Control tab of the Short Circuit Options dialog
box. This dialog box is opened by choosing Short Circuit Options from the ribbon.

Calc Method: Selected method of calculation – ANSI or IEC.

Voltage Unit: The Voltage Unit choice from the One-line Output tab of the Short Circuit
Options dialog box.

Fault Unit: The Fault Unit choice from the One-line Output tab of the Short Circuit
Options dialog box.

Driving Point kV: The Driving Point kV PU value as set from the Control tab of the Short
Circuit Options dialog box.

Faulting a Bus

There are many ways to fault a bus. The easiest way is to double-click on the desired bus. A
fault will be placed on the bus using the options chosen on the ribbon and in the Control,
One-Line Output, and Text Output tabs of the Short Circuit Options dialog box. This
dialog box is opened by choosing Short Circuit Options from the Menu bar.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Setting Short Circuit Method  173

Faulting a Bus

The results are immediately placed directly on the one-line. In this example, the faulted bus
current is 16.952 kA, which is shown on the right-hand side of the bus at a forty five degree
angle. The contribution from the transformer above (not shown) is 14.616 kA, and the motor
contribution is 1.201 kA.

If text results are also desired, choose the appropriate result window in the Text Output tab
of the Short Circuit Options dialog box.

Another way to initiate a fault is to first select a bus (the bus will highlight) and then click on
the Fault Bus(es) button in the ribbon. You can select more than one bus to fault if desired.
It is OK if non-bus items are also selected; EasyPower will ignore them.

To fault all the buses (batch fault) choose Fault Bus(es) button in the ribbon without
selecting any bus, or right click and choose Fault Bus from the context menu..

Viewing Remote Voltages and Currents

For protective device coordination or relay setting studies, it is necessary to know voltage
and current in parts of the system that are remote from the fault. This is especially true when
you are studying backup relaying, voltage sensitive devices, or generator relaying.
EasyPower lets you easily study these parameters by clicking on the Toolbar.

To see a remote voltage and current after you perform a fault, first select the buses you wish
to view. Then choose Remote V&I button from the ribbon or click on Short Circuit
Options One-line Output (tab) and check the check Show All Remote V & I. To
view remote bus voltages and currents for all buses, simply click on button without
selecting any bus.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Setting Short Circuit Method  174

Option to show remote V & I

Showing Remote Voltage and Current

Voltages for each bus, and the currents for each branch connecting to the bus will be
displayed. In this example, 0.872 kA from each of the motors flow to the fault on BUS-4.
For remote buses, the voltage is shown at a forty five degree angle. In this case, the value is
0.319 per-unit, or about 32 percent of nominal.

This operation can be done any number of times in succession for one or more selected
buses. When a new fault is performed, the old results are automatically cleared.

Note: Remote voltages and currents are only available after a fault operation on
a single bus.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI SmartDuty™  175

Changing the ANSI Standard Time Interval

ANSI standards list three distinct time intervals for short circuits. These are momentary (1/2
cycle), interrupting (5 cycles) and 30 cycle. EasyPower allows you the ability to display
each of these by choosing the buttons from the ribbon (View Momentary,
View Interrupting or View 30 Cycle from the Menu bar). You can quickly view all
three intervals in succession for a particular fault by click one button after another.

You can also view short circuit all of the three time intervals by selecting the three buttons.

Short circuit results at various time intervals

SmartDuty™
SmartDuty is the world's first Expert System for the verification of breaker, switch, and fuse
duties. SmartDuty applies the appropriate ANSI-standard short circuit calculation to each
device, then compares the calculated currents with the rated duties. Underrated devices and
devices within a user-defined threshold are highlighted on the one-line showing the
percentage overduty next to each device. Devices within tolerance are not highlighted.

SmartDuty calculates the maximum current through the line side and load side of each device
for comparison. This eliminates the costly and time consuming problem of standard bus
faults not properly accounting for branch contributions.

To use SmartDuty, choose on the ribbon or View Equipment Duty from the Menu
bar. Apply either a single fault or Fault All Buses and the results will appear next to each
underrated device.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI SmartDuty™  176

SmartDuty One-line Results

Note: The ability to automatically check equipment duties during analysis is only available if
you have purchased the SmartDuty™ option to EasyPower.

High voltage breakers show two results. The top result is the ANSI momentary duty, and the
bottom is the interrupting duty. A negative sign indicates that the device is under duty in that
area. A positive number indicates that the device is over duty. Notice in the example that the
top breaker is highlighted even though both duties are negative. This is because the
interrupting duty (-9%) is within the user-defined threshold tolerance of 10 percent.
Although the breaker is actually 9 percent under duty, a warning is still issued because the
tolerance is set at 10 percent. The threshold tolerance provides a warning level indication.
The tolerance value can be set in the Control tab of the dialog box accessed by choosing
Tools Short Circuit Options from the Menu bar.

Low voltage breakers and high and low voltage fuses are compared directly with ANSI
momentary duties. High voltage switches technically have two ratings: momentary
withstand, and close & latch. Both ratings are compared directly with ANSI momentary (1/2
Cycle) results.

You can output detailed text reports describing each device, its ratings, and the calculated
currents by choosing the Text Output tab of the Short Circuit Options dialog box, and then
checking the Equipment Duty box.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Voltage Sensitivity Studies  177

Voltage Sensitivity Studies


Faults often cause low voltages which may affect equipment operation. To perform a voltage
sensitivity study, choose the One-Line Output tab of the Short Circuit Options dialog box.
To open this dialog box choose SC Options button in the ribbon. Check the High Voltage
box, Low Voltage box, or both. Then, go back to the one-line and fault a bus. Buses that are
highlighted in red indicate voltages lower than the threshold limit defined in the Control tab
of the Short Circuit Options dialog box. If you choose only High Voltage, buses under
1000 volts will not be highlighted.

Note: Voltage Sensitivity results are only available on the one-line after a fault
operation on a single bus.

You can obtain a tabulated bus and voltage list for each fault by checking the Voltage
Sensitivity box in the Text Output tab of the Short Circuit Options dialog box.

Line End Fault


A line end fault occurs when the end of a line is open or separated from its bus. This is not a
standard bus fault. Current flows directly to the end of the line without any contributions
from the bus to which the end of the line is connected.

Line End Fault Procedure

1. To perform a line end fault of a branch/feeder, select the breaker/fuse/switch at the end of the
feeder.

2. In the ribbon, click on the drop down arrow of the Fault Bus(es) button and choose Fault
Line End (from menu, choose Solve  Fault Line End).

You can perform line end fault for only one feeder at a time.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Short Circuit Options  178

Short Circuit Options


Short Circuit Control

Choose SC Options button from the ribbon (Short Circuit Options from the Menu bar), and
pick the Control tab to specify various parameters for controlling the behavior of a short
circuit study.

Control tab of Short Circuit Options Dialog Box

Fault Type: Four different types of faults are available during a short circuit analysis. The
default is 3 Phase which is generally used to determine the highest available currents for
equipment duty comparisons, and relaying. The other types, Line to Ground, Double Line to
Ground, and Line to Line are generally used for specialized relaying applications or system
trouble shooting.

X/R Calculation Type: Short circuit calculations are based on one of three methods: ANSI
Standard, Standard Complex or Characteristic Current method calculation. The ANSI
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Short Circuit Options  179

Standard method uses a separate R network for the interrupting duty (2-5 cycle) network to
determine a conservative Z/R ratio. This ratio is then used as the Thevenin equivalent fault
point X/R ratio for determining the appropriate breaker contact parting time multipliers and
NACD ratios. Current and voltage calculations are based on a complex (R+jX) network
reduction. Both the momentary (1/2 Cycle) and 30 cycle calculations use a complex network
reduction for all voltage, current, and X/R ratio calculations.

The Standard (non-ANSI) calculation uses a complex network reduction for all momentary,
interrupting duty, and 30 cycle voltage, current, and X/R ratio calculations.

The Characteristic Current Method (CCM) calculates the dc component of each branch based
on phase angle of the current flowing in it and then sums the dc component is each branch
contributing to the fault current. The ratio of the total dc to the total ac is used to determine
the equivalent X/R at fault point. Branch current flows having different current phase angles
(X/R ratios) will have the current peak at slightly different times before the first-half cycle.
To simplify calculations, the dc component is taken at 0.5-cycle for all branches using the
expression in equation below.

IDC = 2 IAC RMS SYM exp (- /|X/R|)

After each dc component is determined and totaled, the equivalent X/R ratio is found from
the equation below.

Equivalent X/R = -/ ln ( IDC /  IAC RMS SYM / 2)

The CCM method provides a conservative approach to obtain the fault point X/R ratio and
appears to do the best overall job without being over-conservative.

Reference: Parise G., “A new approach to calculate the decaying AC contributions to short-
circuit: the ‘characteristic’ currents method”; IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications,
Vol. 31, No. 1, January/February 1995.

"Fault All" Filters: Allows you to specify a specific bus Area, Zone, and kV Range that
will be faulted and reported when you fault multiple or all buses. This type of analysis is
useful when you are interested in studying only a specific region and do not need all of the
output associated with a full system analysis. This method is common for old-style text
programs. However, in EasyPower, it is just as simple to select the buses you wish to fault
from the one-line fault buses. Only the selected buses will be faulted.

Driving Point kV PU: System fault point voltage in per-unit. This value defaults to 1.0 per-
unit.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Short Circuit Options  180

Equipment Duty Threshold: Sets the lower limit for flagging breaker violations in
SmartDutyTM. If the threshold is set to -10 percent, SmartDuty will flag all equipment which
has short circuit duties within 10 percent of their maximum rating (greater than 90% of their
rating).

For example, a GE AM-13.8-500 air blast breaker has a momentary and interrupting duty
rating of 19.56/37 kA at 13.8 kV. SmartDuty will provide a warning flag if the current
exceeds 17.6/33.3 kA in either the momentary or interrupting rating. If the current exceeds
19.56/37 kA, a violation will be flagged.

Note: you must choose button from the ribbon (or View Equipment Duty from the
Menu bar) for this field to have any effect on the one-line result output. You must check the
Equipment Duty box in the Text Output tab of the Short Circuit Options dialog box for
this field to have any effect for text result output.

Note: The ability to automatically check equipment duties during analysis is


only available if you have purchased the SmartDuty™ option to EasyPower.

Voltage Sensitivity Threshold: Sets the lower limit setting for flagging voltage violations.
If the threshold is set to -30 percent, bus voltages lower than 30 percent (70 percent voltage)
of the bus' base kV will be flagged. This allows you to quickly check for motor contactor
dropout, lighting flicker, etc.

Note: you must check one or more of the Voltage Sensitivity boxes in the One-Line Output
tab or the Text Output tab of the Short Circuit Options dialog box for this field to have any
effect.

Short Circuit One-line Output

Choose SC Options from the ribbon (Tools Short Circuit Options from the Menu bar),
and pick the One-line Output tab to specify various parameters for controlling what is
output to the one-line during the short circuit study.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Short Circuit Options  181

One-line Output tab of Short Circuit Options Dialog Box

Display Options: Allows you to control what appears on the one-line while performing
short circuit calculations. You can enable or disable the following outputs.

Show Units: The short circuit results are displayed with their corresponding units, such as
kA, MVA, or pu for branch flows and kV(LL) or pu for voltages.

Show CT and Relay Symbols: The symbols for CT and relays can be made to appear or
disappear in the one-line.

Show Branch Flows: The display of branch flows during a short circuit can be enabled or
disabled. If they are disabled, only the bus fault current will appear on the one-line.

Show All Remote V&I for Single Bus Faults: When this is enabled the branch flows and
bus voltages are shown on all branches and buses respectively. You will not need to perform
a separate Remote Bus V&I command.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Short Circuit Options  182

Decimal Precision: This sets the number of digits past the decimal point for values
displayed on the one-line.

Fault Current: Allows you to choose the unit of fault current and the type of current. You
can display on the one-line the following types of currents:

 Symmetrical: Fault current without the dc component.

 Asymmetrical: Fault current with both dc and ac components. The asymmetrical value is
the maximum possible asymmetrical value in any phase. Asymmetrical currents are
based on the following equation:

 / (X/R)} 1/2
Iasym = I sym [1 + 2e{- ]

= 0.49 - 0.1 e{-(X/R)/3}

For interrupting duty currents the asymmetrical value is based on the fault point X/R ratio,
the No AC Decay (NACD) ratio, the contact parting time of the breaker, and whether the
breaker is rated on a Total or Symmetrical basis. The NACD ratio consists of two factors
dependent upon whether generation is Local or Remote. The equations and calculation
procedures are too detailed for this discussion. If additional information is required, refer to
Reference1.

For 30 cycle faults no asymmetry is present, and the asymmetrical current equals the
symmetrical current.

 Max Symmetrical and (Max Asymmetrical): This choice displays both symmetrical and
asymmetrical branch flows.

The following fault current units are available for display in the one-line:

 kA

 MVA

 Per-unit

Remote Bus Voltage (Sym): Voltages can be displayed as symmetrical voltage in either
physical units (kV) or in Per-unit values.

1 AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis, ANSI/IEEE Std. C37.010-
1979.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Short Circuit Options  183

Voltage Sensitivity: This option highlights all buses on the one-line with voltages below a
user-specified threshold value for a single fault. Voltage sensitivity studies are used to
determine problem areas which may cause contactor dropout or equipment failure for critical
areas such as boiler feed water pumps, ID fans or drive systems. Refer to the Control tab of
the Short Circuit Options dialog box for setting the threshold value.

Both high and low voltage remote buses can be studied.

Short Circuit Text Output

Choose SC Reports button from the ribbon (Tools Short Circuit Options Text Output
from the Menu bar), to specify the reports required for you short circuit study. Text results
are displayed in individual result windows which can be scrolled, reviewed, and printed at
your discretion. Because of the many text output combinations, no attempt will be made to
detail specific combinations of output. Instead, details of each option will be described in
general terms. You are encouraged to try different options and levels of detail for your
particular study requirements.

Short Circuit Options – Text Output tab

Short Circuit Reports: Five different text reports are available during short circuit analysis:
Momentary, Interrupting, 30 cycle, Equipment Duty, and Voltage Sensitivity. These results
can be examined on the screen, or they can be printed if desired. Multiple result windows
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Short Circuit Options  184

can be displayed and studied at the same time by choosing Window Tile from the Menu
bar.

Note: The ability to automatically check equipment duties during analysis is only available if
you have purchased the SmartDuty™ option to EasyPower.

Text output to the result windows are independent of one-line output. For example, you may
wish to study detailed text results of momentary and 30 cycle currents while displaying
equipment duty results on the one-line. To do this, check the Momentary and 30 cycle boxes
in Text Output tab of the Short Circuit Options dialog box. Choose or View
Equipment Duty from the Menu bar. When a fault operation is done, EasyPower
automatically applies the necessary faults for duty analysis and displays the results on the
one-line. In addition, the momentary and 30 cycle faults are performed and displayed in the
text result windows.

Note: the Voltage Sensitivity operation only tabulates Momentary text results, regardless of
what you might have chosen for the one-line's Voltage Sensitivity display.

Include Fuse Duties (HV & LV): The fuse interrupting currents are displayed in the High
and Low Voltage Momentary result window since fuses open under momentary currents.

Fuse multiplying factors are based on the fault point X/R ratio and the fuse test X/R ratio.
The interrupting currents are calculated by adjusting the symmetrical current if the equipment
test X/R is less than the fault point X/R ratio. The following equation is used to determine
the currents:

sys test
Iadjsym = Isym [1 + 2e{- ]1/2 / [1 + 2e{- ]1/2

= 0.49 - 0.1 e{-(X/R)/3}

Standard test X/R ratios are 5, 8, 12, and 15 for distribution and power fuses2.

Include HV Breaker Interrupting Duties: This option lets you display ANSI Standard
interrupting duty currents for high voltage breakers. The breaker interrupting results will be
displayed in the High Voltage Interrupting result window according to the interrupting time
chosen under the Cycles option (3, 5, & 8 cycles).

2 IEEE Standard Design Tests for High Voltage Fuses, Distribution Enclosed Single Pole Air Switches,
Fuse Disconnecting Switches, and Accessories, C37.41-1988.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Short Circuit Options  185

The interrupting currents are calculated by adjusting the symmetrical current by a


multiplying factor. For breakers the multiplying factor is based on the fault point X/R ratio,
the No AC Decay (NACD) ratio, the contact parting time of the breaker, and whether the
breaker is rated on a Total or Symmetrical basis. The NACD ratio consists of two factors
dependent upon whether generation is Local or Remote. The equations and calculation
procedures are too detailed for this discussion. If additional information is required refer to
Reference3,4,5.

Include LV Breaker Duties: Lets you display low voltage power circuit breaker (LVPCB)
and molded case circuit breaker (MCCB) Interrupting currents for low voltage momentary
faults. The results will be displayed in the Low Voltage Momentary result window. Notice
that under ANSI terminology, when the term interrupting is used for low voltage equipment,
it applies to momentary or 1/2 cycle faults. This is because low voltage equipment typically
interrupts within 1/2 cycle of fault inception.

The interrupting currents are calculated by adjusting the symmetrical current if the equipment
test X/R is less than the fault point X/R ratio6,7. The following equation is used to determine
the currents:

 -2 + efollo  -2 [1 + elow
Iadjsym = Isym [1 + e{- ] / [1 + e{- ]

= 0.49 - 0.1 e{-(X/R)/3}

X/Rtest = TAN[ARCCOS(Tested PF)]

3 Sample System for Three Phase Short Circuit Calculations, Conrad St Pierre, IEEE/IAS Mar/Apr
1990.

4 Interpretation of New American National Standards For Power Circuit Breaker Applications, Walter C.
Huening Jr., IEEE/IAS Sept/Oct 1969.

5 AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis, ANSI/IEEE Std. C37.010-
1979.

6 Low Voltage Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures, ANSI/IEEE Std. C37.13-1981.

7 Low Voltage Power Circuit Breakers, NEMA Publications BU-195x, and BU1-1972.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Short Circuit Options  186

Breaker Type Tested Power Factor

Low Voltage Power Circuit Breakers 15%

Molded Case Circuit Breakers over 20 kA 15-20%

Molded Case Circuit Breakers between 10-20 kA 25-30%

Molded Case Circuit Breakers between 0-10 kA 45-50%

Low Voltage Fuses 20% or 50%

Create Equipment Duty Report: Creates a report with current flows through every breaker
and evaluates the fault currents (breaker duty) in percentage of breaker rating.

Create Voltage Sensitivity Reports: Creates reports listing all buses which have voltages
below a specified threshold when a fault occurs in the system.

1/2, 5 and 30 Cycle Report Formats: Three types of text output styles are available, ANSI,
Symmetrical Components, and GE. The ANSI style is designed for reporting all the
significant ANSI Standard breaker comparison multipliers and results for standard protective
relaying requirements. If the ANSI output style is chosen, three different output formats can
be displayed. Levels 1-3 provide the standard format designed for equipment duty
comparison and relaying currents. Level 3 contains the most detailed information.

The symmetrical component style is designed specifically for specialized relaying purposes
that require a component output for both voltages and current. You are encouraged to try
different options and levels of details for your particular study requirements.

The other option is GE, which is the popular General Electric short circuit format.

Remote Bus V&I Units: These options let you display remote bus results in Sequence Per-
unit, Phase Amps & kV, or Phase Per-unit format.

Branch X/R Ratios: Lets you display branch X/R ratios for each contributing branch
current.

Display Generator Contributions: Lets you display generator and utility voltages and
currents for each fault.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Arc-Flash Hazards Analysis  187

Sample Short Circuit Report

Arc-Flash Hazards Analysis


Arc-flash hazards analysis is performed in the short circuit focus. For details on arc-flash
hazards analysis, see Chapter 15.

Calculation and Theory


ANSI Standard Short Circuit Calculations

EasyPower provides a full implementation of ANSI Standards C37.010-19798, C37.5-19799,


and C37.13-198110. A separate "R" (resistance) equivalent circuit is formed for the analysis
of the high voltage interrupting impedance circuit. The X/R ratio used for the calculation of
the interrupting duty multipliers is then found from the relationship Z/R. NACD (No AC
Decrement) ratios are calculated with consideration of generator Local and Remote

8 AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis, ANSI/IEEE Std. C37.010-
1979.

9 Calculation of Fault Current for Application of AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Total
Current Basis, ANSI/IEEE St. C37.5-1979.

10 Low Voltage Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures, ANSI/IEEE Std. C37.13-1981.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Calculation and Theory  188

contributions as outlined in ANSI Std. C37.010-1979 and Reference11. High voltage


interrupting duty multipliers are also derived from Reference12.

Methodology

EasyPower calculates three-phase and unbalanced fault duties using a nodal admittance
network and sparse vector solutions. The system is modeled in the form given below.

[I]=[V][Y]

V = voltage matrix

I = current matrix

Y = Nodal Admittance vector (G +j B)

All values are expressed as complex vectors.

From the nodal admittance matrix, the Thevenin equivalent fault point admittance is
calculated. Fault currents are found from the relationship I=V*Y for all branches in the
system. A system fault point voltage of 1.0 per unit is assumed unless you state otherwise in
the Control tab of the Short Circuit Options dialog box. Pre-fault load current is ignored.

For momentary duty (1/2 cycle) faults, the positive sequence impedance is assumed equal to
the negative sequence impedance. X/R ratios are derived from the complex network.

Interrupting duty faults are modeled using multipliers to modify rotating machine
subtransient impedances (positive sequence) as outlined in ANSI Standards C37.010-1979,
and C37.5-1979. Negative sequence impedances are modeled using the rotating machine
subtransient impedances with no multipliers. A separate "R" (resistance) network is formed
for calculation of the fault point X/R ratio. The X/R ratio used for the calculation of the
interrupting duty multipliers is then found from the relationship Z/R. This method fully
complies with the ANSI Standard and has the advantage of accurate currents and voltages,
increased speed, and increased accuracy over the Separate X Separate R solution technique.

11 Interpretation of New American National Standards For Power Circuit Breaker Applications, Walter C.
Huening Jr., IEEE/IAS Sept/Oct 1969.

12 AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis, ANSI/IEEE Std. C37.010-
1979.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI Calculation and Theory  189

For 30 cycle faults, all motor contributions have decayed to zero, and a modified generator
impedance of 1.5 X"dv is used. This provides conservative results which are typically higher
than most dynamic studies indicate.

Proper Application of ANSI Standards

We would like to clarify a common misconception about the calculation of short circuit
currents in electrical power systems. Many programs on the market calculate short circuit
currents which are theoretically correct for infinite source supplies. Unfortunately, these
programs do not properly consider the AC and DC decrement characteristics of motors and
generators as outlined in ANSI Standards C37.010-1979, C37.5-1979, and C37.13-1981.

To properly consider this decrement and its associated multipliers, separate X and R or Z and
R reductions of the equivalent high voltage interrupting impedance circuit must be
performed. This is necessary to obtain the proper X/R ratio that will correctly account for the
actual AC and DC current decay rates for a system with multiple exponentially decaying
terms.

It is important to understand that what is theoretically a correct model for an infinite source
system, may vary greatly from what the system does under actual short circuit conditions.
There is no completely accurate way to combine parallel circuits with different values of X/R
into one circuit with a single value of X/R. The currents from the different circuits will be
the sum of several exponentially decaying terms, while the theoretical model of the circuit
will contain only one term.

Investigations have shown that by calculating the X/R ratio using separate reductions, a
better correlation to the actual X/R ratio of the system is obtained than from any other
reasonably simple procedure (including phasor representation). The error resulting from this
procedure is on the conservative side.

Since the interrupting duty multipliers are calculated from the X/R ratio, it is imperative that
the correct and conservative ratio be used. Errors ranging from 10-20 percent of the actual
interrupting duty current are possible when the phasor representation (without a separate R
reduction) is used to calculate the X/R ratio.

Solution techniques which calculate only a momentary current and use a transient decay rate
for an asymmetrical solution completely disregard ANSI Standards. Therefore, they should
not be used to apply high voltage interrupting duties to ANSI Standard breakers. The legal
(liability) ramifications of this should be considered.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI DC Short Circuit  190

What this means in practical terms is that it is very difficult to compare ANSI Standard
breakers using calculations from other methods. It is apparent that results from other
methods will vary widely from ANSI Standard results depending on the type of system.

DC Short Circuit
DC short circuit calculations are performed for steady state conditions, using branch
resistances, source resistances and short circuit output of converter equipment. The
inductance and therefore the rise time of DC short circuit currents have been neglected.

Also, the rectifier/inverter output source model does not fully support switching on the input
side. For example, if a DC generator source is switched off on the input side of an inverter,
the output will not see the difference due to the user-entered FLA x Mult value. This
requires the user to manually change inverter/rectifier output currents when switching input
sources in or out. One exception: If ALL input side sources are removed, then the
inverter/rectifier gives zero output. But if any source remains, then the inverter/rectifier
output is based on its own user-entered output entry. This means the user is required to add
an input side source for the inverter to have any effect in short circuit.

Thyristor Short Circuit Modeling Limitations

The Thyristor and Diode models for the AFD, Rectifier and Inverter are not modeled in detail
to simulate actual behavior under short circuit conditions. To do so would require an extreme
level of time simulation detail to properly model the interaction of the AC and DC systems.

DC Bus Fault

Under short circuit conditions on the DC bus, a Rectifier actually pulls current from the AC
system dependent upon the location of the fault on the DC system. If the fault is directly on
the DC bus of the inverter, then a bolted three-phase fault appears on the AC side will little to
no distortion. The fault current is then limited by the system Thevenin short circuit
impedance and the equivalent resistance of the Thyristor or Diode bridge.

If the fault is located some significant distance from the rectifier after a DC cable, then both
the AC and DC side fault currents will not be fully bolted, and we will have an intermediate
condition where only a transient simulation can determine the fault level for us. This, and the
fact the DC side current has excessive ripple lead to assigning such simulations to transient
methods, which are presently beyond the scope of EasyPower to do (an analysis suited well
for EMTP).
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI DC Short Circuit  191

AC Output Bus Fault

Under short circuit conditions on the AC output bus, again the AC and DC systems respond
to the fault. What this response is however is completely dependent upon the output
frequency of the AFD and Inverter. The fault as it appears on the DC bus can create extreme
ripple with a waveform characteristic that is not easily understood, and thus only a transient
level simulation can help in this matter. For an AFD that has a diode or Thyristor front end
and a Thyristor output, the fault will even manifest on the input of the AFD. Thus again, a
simulation with transient simulation of the rectifier and inverter bridges is essential to
simulate such fault conditions.

Thyristor Blocking

One other condition that controls the fault current time is Thyristor blocking (shutoff) under
fault conditions. Most likely, a Thyristor device will stop firing when it senses a short circuit
condition. This time is up to manufacturers, and may be a software or hardware timing
system. This is a detail left typically for detailed transient simulations of a well modeled
bridge.

Thyristor/Diode Fuse Protection

Under conditions of a DC bus fault, most likely current limiting fuses (typically in series with
each Thyristor or Diode) will blow to mitigate the fault. To simulate this, again a fully
detailed model of the bridge is needed; with fuses input into each component as physically
exists. Given bridges can have both series and parallel combinations of Thyristors and
Diodes, significant detail is needed in the specification and construction of the bridge model.
Chapter 4 Short Circuit Procedures and Reference - ANSI DC Short Circuit  193
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Overview  194

Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis


Overview
The EasyPower power flow analysis is designed for the analysis of three-phase power flows
and voltage drops in industrial, commercial, and utility power systems. EasyPower can be
used to calculate MW and MVAR flows, voltage drops, overload and voltage violations,
losses and other steady state parameters. It can also be used to study system optimization,
generator and transformer control, impact motor starting, and power factor correction.

EasyPower is unique in that individual bus loads, generation, and shunts can be modeled on a
bus without grouping. This provides the highest degree of flexibility and modeling accuracy.
Detailed transformer models provide off nominal tap ratios and load tap changers on either
side of the transformer.

Program results have been verified with independent programs from Oregon State
University, numerous test and IEEE cases, and programs from the General Electric
Company. In addition, EasyPower LLC has used various versions of this program since
1989 for its consulting business.

This chapter describes how to use EasyPower's power flow analysis features. It is intended
to provide a procedural overview which will help you quickly become productive. It is not
intended to provide a tutorial on power flow study procedures. You must be in the Power
Flow focus to do the operations described here.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Overview  195

Power Flow Commands

Power Flow ribbon

Power Flow Status Bar

Power Flow Status Bar

The Power Flow Status Bar indicates the following settings:

 Zoom Factor: How much the one-line is currently zoomed. See "Zooming In and Out"
on page 70 for more information.

 Grid Snap Status: Shows "SNAP" if grid snapping is on. See "The Snap Grid" on page
73 for more information.

 Last Solve Type: Shows "Power Flow" if Power Flow was done last; "Motor Start" if
Motor Starting was done last.

 Generation & Loads: The Generation & Loads choice as set from the One-line Output
tab of the Power Flow Options dialog box. This dialog box is opened by choosing PF
Options from the ribbon.

 Voltage Unit: The Voltage Unit choice as set from the One-line Output tab of the
Power Flow Options dialog box.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Overview  196

 Flows Unit: The Power Unit choice as set from the One-line Output tab of the Power
Flow Options dialog box.

 Losses Unit: The Losses Unit choice as set from the One-line Output tab of the Power
Flow Options dialog box.

Solving A Power Flow

To solve a power flow, choose Power Flow button from the ribbon (or Solve Power
Flow from the Menu bar). The power flow will solve and display results using the options
chosen on the ribbon and in the Control, One-Line Output, and Text Output tabs of the
Power Flow Options dialog box. This dialog box is opened by choosing PF Options
button.

Once the power flow has solved (indicated by results on the one-line), you can display
various other results by clicking on the appropriate Toolbar button. By default, text reports
will not be generated. You may choose to generate detailed or summary reports in the Text
Output tab of the Power Flow Options dialog box.

Changing Equipment Parameters

After the initial power flow case is solved, you may wish to study different contingencies or
optimize the system. Generator, utility, transformer, motor, load, capacitor, and shunt
parameters can be changed during a power flow session by double-clicking on the
equipment. A temporary dialog box will come up that lets you change specific parameters
applicable to power flow analysis.

For example, here is the temporary dialog box for generators:


Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Impact Motor Starting  197

Temporary Generator Data Dialog Box

After you make a change, click on OK the dialog and re-run the power flow by choosing
button from the ribbon (or Solve Power Flow from the Menu bar). The system results
will immediately change, and then the next optimization level can be tried.

Note: The changes you make from an item's temporary dialog box are not saved in the
database. If you want to make a permanent change to an item's data, you must do it
from the Database Edit focus.

The fields available in a power flow temporary dialog box are a subset of the full database
dialog box for any given item. Refer to “Temporary Dialog Boxes” on page 207 for more
information.

Impact Motor Starting


To start a motor:

1. Solve the initial power flow case. Those results are used as initial conditions for the current
injection.

2. Double-click on the motor or MCC where you wish to place the additional starting load. A
temporary motor data dialog will come up that looks something like the following.

Temporary Motor Data Dialog Box


Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Impact Motor Starting  198

3. Check the Motor Start box and then fill out the motor information. Then click on the Motor

Start button to start the solution, and the motor start results are displayed.

The motor starting HP is an additional load to the existing load model. The Motor Start
choice will add a user-defined HP (actual locked rotor amps) to that load for the motor
starting case only. The motor starting load does not affect the power flow load.

Important: When starting a motor, the scaling factor must be set appropriately. If you have
modeled an individual 7000 HP motor and you want to start it, the Scaling Factor field
needs to be set to zero to indicate that the motor is not currently running. If the Scaling
Factor field says 100%, the program will start a 7000 HP motor on top of the 7000 HP motor
already running. If you have an EasyPower motor modeled as a group of motors, you can
specify the percentage of currently running motors in that group and then start a single motor
within that group.

Example of Impact Motor Starting

For example, consider a motor where the existing motor load is 7000 HP at a scaling factor
of 100 percent. The base case power flow results indicate a bus voltage of .993 per-unit with
5.676 MW and 1.866 MVAR flowing to the 7000 HP motor. This could also be shown as
5.975 MVA @ .95 power factor by changing the One-line Output.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Impact Motor Starting  199

Base Case Power Flow Impact Motor Starting Solution

For this case, a 3000 HP motor is being started. The existing 7000 HP motor load remains
constant. Notice that the motor bus voltage has dropped to .943 per-unit, and the reactive
flow has increased to 17.564 MVAR due to the highly lagging starting current. The starting
motor HP and power factor are shown below the normal motor load.

Motor Starting with Starting Capacitors

In order to solve for motor starting with starting capacitors, we need to insert breakers or
switches on the one-line upstream to the motor and the starting capacitor. See figure below.
Before running power flow and motor start solutions, open the breaker. This allows a
preliminary power flow calculation without the motor and capacitor connected. Run power
flow and motor start solutions. Then close the breaker to connect the motor and starting
capacitor. You will now get the solution. To see the motor start solution without the starting
capacitor, you can open the breaker to the capacitor.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Swing Sources  200

(a) (b)
(a) Motor Starting with Starting Capacitors; (b) Solution

Swing Sources
A swing source is a utility supply or generator in which the real power flow is not given. In
any power flow solution, the net real and reactive powers cannot be fixed in advance at every
bus because the losses in the system are not known until the solution is complete. The swing
or "slack" sources supply the difference between the given real and reactive power into the
system at the other buses and the total system output plus the losses in the system.

Voltage magnitude and angle are given for each swing source. Real and reactive power
flows from (or to) this source are determined as part of the solution.

In most large industrial plants, the utility supply is designated as the swing source. In-plant
generation is usually designated as PV (voltage controlled), or PQG (fixed power and vars).
If multiple utility ties exist in the plant, they are usually all designated as swing, unless the
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Power Flow Options  201

user knows the specific power and or voltage values at a specific tie point. For plants which
are isolated from a utility supply, the largest generator is usually set as the swing source.

For commercial systems, the utility supply is almost always designated as the swing source
for the system. Commercial systems rarely have sufficient generation to allow specification
of a generator as a swing source. For emergency conditions, however, this is often done.

For utility systems, one or more large generators or an interchange point is usually
designated as the swing source.

Power Flow Options


Power Flow Control

Choose Tools Power Flow Options from the Menu bar, and pick the Control tab to
specify various parameters for controlling the behavior of a power flow study.

Control tab of Power Flow Options Dialog Box


Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Power Flow Options  202

Solution Mismatch

Solution mismatch controls the tolerance of power flow convergence and how long
convergence will take. The smaller the mismatch, the more difficult it becomes to make
power flows and voltages converge to a solution.

MW: Convergence tolerance of the bus megawatts. Flows into a bus converging to within
this tolerance of the actual load on the bus is considered to be an acceptable solution. The
default setting of 0.0001 MW (100 watts) is an extremely accurate tolerance.

MVAR: Convergence tolerance of the bus megavars. Flows into a bus converging to within
this tolerance of the actual load on the bus is considered to be an acceptable solution. The
default setting of 0.0001 MVAR (100 vars) is an extremely accurate tolerance.

kV PU: This field determines the bus voltage tolerance for generator PQG buses that switch
back to PV buses. Bus voltage must converge to within this tolerance of the actual load on
the bus to be an acceptable solution.

Iterations: Number of solution iterations allowed for convergence. For most typical
industrial systems only five to six iterations are required for convergence. If many load tap
changers or tighter controls are used, 10-15 iterations may be required.

Isolated Subsystems: All power flow solutions require a swing (slack) source to account for
system losses, etc. (see "Swing Sources" on page 200). To solve an isolated system requires
you or the program to add a swing source. An isolated subsystem is when a portion of the
one-line is separated from the main part and does not have its own swing source (see below).
This typically occurs when you open a feeder breaker on a radial line or transformer. It may
also occur when opening multiple breakers on more complicated looped systems.

 Don't Allow: When you choose Solve and an isolated subsystem is detected by
EasyPower, you will receive a message and the Solve will not be carried out.

 Ignore: When you choose Solve and an isolated subsystem is detected by EasyPower,
the regular solution and output will occur but no output will be displayed for the isolated
subsystem.

Tap Acceleration Factor: Factor used to slow speed through iterations by changing LTC of
transformer when changing taps.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Power Flow Options  203

Motor Start Solution Method

Motor Start Solution Method controls the algorithm used, and the way loads are modeled
when motors are started in the power flow analysis.

Constant Impedance, Non-iterative: A direct solution method using the admittance matrix
and voltages from the existing power flow solution. All constant kVA and current loads are
converted to constant impedance loads for this method. Starting motors are also modeled as
a constant impedance. The advantages of this method are its speed since the solution is
direct (no iterations are required), and the fact that it cannot diverge. The disadvantage is
that it may be non-conservative depending on the solution voltages. The reason for this is
that constant impedance loads are a function of the square of the voltage. As the system
voltage is reduced, the load is proportionally reduced also, effectively reducing the load.

Constant kVA, Iterative: An iterative method using the same algorithm as the power flow
solution. All constant kVA, current, and impedance loads remain modeled as they are in a
standard power flow solution. Starting motors are modeled as a constant impedance. The
advantage of this method is its accuracy since it correctly models all load types. The
disadvantage is that it can diverge (fail to solve) if the voltages become too low, or the loads
are too high.

Output Criteria

Area: Allows you to specify a specific bus Area that will be reported in text results.

Zone: Allows you to specify a specific bus Zone that will be reported in text results.

Overload Threshold: Sets the limit for flagging overload violations. Equipment items not
in violation, yet within this threshold %, will be highlighted for easy identification. This
setting applies to both one-line output and text result output.

For example, suppose a cable rated for 500A is loaded to 480A, and the Overload Threshold
is set to -10 percent. The percent overload is determined as follows.

Overload threshold in amperes = 500A x (1 - .10) = 450A

Overload % = (480 - 500)/500 = -4%

Note that the overload is negative, indicating that while the cable is not overloaded, it is 6
percent over the threshold limit of 10 percent. Therefore, it will be highlighted on the one-
line when you choose button (or View Overloads from the Menu bar).
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Power Flow One-line Output  204

We can also display the overload as a percentage of the equipment rating. To use this option,
Open Options dialog, go to System tab and check the box “Use 100% convention for
displaying analysis overloads/overduties”.

Bus Undervoltage / Overvoltage Threshold: Sets the minimum and maximum limit for
determining voltage violations. Bus voltages that either exceed the maximum limit or drop
below the lower limit are in violation. Buses in violation will be highlighted on the one-line
and printed in Voltage Violation text reports.

Power Flow One-line Output

Note: Text output is independent of one-line output. This means you can be viewing
specific power flow results or attributes directly on the one-line, but displaying entirely
different results in the text result windows.

Choose Tools Power Flow Options from the Menu bar, and pick the One-line Output
tab to determine the type of results that are displayed on the one-line during power flow
analysis.

One-line Output of the Power Flow Options Dialog Box


Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Power Flow One-line Output  205

Show Units: Allows you to display units of branch flows and bus voltages.

Show Generator Controlled kV and Bus: Allows you to display the generator controlled
bus and the voltage in kV. Generator power flows are always shown.

Global Decimal Precision: This sets the number of digits past the decimal point for values
displayed on the one-line. This affects all results except bus voltage.

Voltage Decimal Precision: This sets the number of digits past the decimal point for bus
voltage values displayed on the one-line.

Branch Side: You can choose to display both "From" and "To" branch flows or you can
optionally restrict the display to just "From" or "To" the bus.

Bus Voltage: Voltages can be displayed in either physical units kV(LL) or V(LL) or in per-
unit values.

Branch Flows: Branch flows can be displayed in any of the following units:

 kW and kVAR

 kVA and Power Factor

 MW and MVAR

 MVA and Power Factor

 Current in Amps

Generation & Loads: Allows you to choose generator output and loads to be shown as any
of the following:

 kW and kVAR

 kVA and Power Factor

 MW and MVAR

 MVA and Power Factor

Power Unit: Generation, branch flows, or loads can be displayed in either kVA or MVA
units.

Losses Unit: System losses can be displayed in either kW and kVAR or MW and MVAR
units.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Power Flow Text Output  206

Power Flow Text Output

Note: Text output is independent of one-line output. This means you can be viewing
specific power flow results or attributes directly on the one-line, but displaying entirely
different results in the text result windows.

Choose PF Options button in the ribbon (Tools Power Flow Options from the Menu
bar), and pick Text Output to determine the output of text results during a power flow

analysis. Alternatively, you can choose PF Text Reports button from the Power Flow
ribbon. Text outputs are displayed in individual result windows which can be scrolled,
reviewed, and printed at your discretion. A detailed power flow result window and a
summary window are available. Because of the many text output combinations, no attempt
will be made to detail specific combinations of output. You are encouraged to try different
options and levels of detail for your particular study requirements.

Text Output of the Power Flow Options Dialog Box

Detail Report Options: Lets you choose from two different detailed power flow result
formats. The IEEE/WSCC format may be familiar to you; however the Standard format
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Temporary Dialog Boxes  207

provides the most detail. If you prefer to look at just the one-line output and no detailed text
results choose "None".

Units: Choose between kV(LL) and V(LL) for voltage unit and choose between MVA and
kVA for Branch Flow units of the text report output.

Summary Report Options: The summary window allows you to look at detailed
summaries for specific equipment types or conditions. You can choose all the reports at once
with the All Summary Reports check box.

Temporary Dialog Boxes


Double-clicking on a generator, utility, transformer, MCC, panel schedule, motor, load,
capacitor, or shunt while you are in the Power Flow focus will bring up a dialog box
containing a subset of the dialog box you see from the Database Edit focus. These dialog
boxes let you temporarily change specific power flow data during an analysis.

Note: Temporary changes while in analysis can now be saved to the database.
The changes can be saved to the base-case or in a scenario using Scenario
Manager.

For your reference, the item's ID name and connection information is shown at the top of the
dialog box. In some cases, other reference information is also shown (e.g. the Controlled
Bus for a generator).
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Temporary Dialog Boxes  208

Temporary Generator Data

Temporary Generator Data Dialog Box

Power Flow

Notice that the Temporary Generator Data and Temporary Utility Data dialog boxes look
similar. This is because the fields in these temporary dialog boxes perform exactly the same
functions in power flow analysis.

Model: Generator bus type used in modeling the power flow simulation. When you choose
a model, those fields which are inappropriate are grayed out.

 Swing - A swing bus holds the bus voltage and angle constant. To do this there cannot be
limits on the amount of MW or MVAR the swing machine can accept or provide.

 PV - Constant power, constant voltage generator. This is also known as a regulated


generator. This model tries to hold a user-specified bus voltage within generator MVAR
limits.

 PQG - Constant power, constant var generator. This is also known as an unregulated
generator. This model holds the MVAR generation within given voltage limits.

MW: Generator output MW. This may be actual operating or a rated value. This applies
only to a PV or PQG generator.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Temporary Dialog Boxes  209

MVAR: Generator output MVAR. This is only used when the generator is a constant
power, constant var (PQG) machine or when a PV generator MVAR limit has been reached
and the machine automatically switches to PQG.

MVAR Limits: Minimum and maximum MVAR limits for regulated generators (PV). The
generator will switch to type PQG if these limits are violated.

Ctrl kV PU: Desired control voltage for a regulated generator (PV). The generator will try
to control the voltage at the controlled bus to a given value. If the generator bus is the swing
bus, this voltage serves as the reference voltage. The voltage is entered in per-unit.

Ctrl Angle Controlled angle is used only when a generator is designated as a swing
generator. The value is entered in degrees.

Temporary Utility Data

Temporary Utility Data Dialog Box

Power Flow

Model: Utility bus type used in modeling the power flow simulation. When you choose a
model, those fields which are inappropriate are grayed out.

 Swing - A swing bus holds the bus voltage and angle constant. To do this there cannot be
limits on the amount of MW or MVAR the swing machine can accept or provide.

 PV - Constant power, constant voltage utility. This is also known as a regulated utility.
This model tries to hold a user-specified bus voltage within utility MVAR limits.

 PQG - Constant power, constant var utility. This is also known as an unregulated utility.
This model holds the MVAR generation within given voltage limits.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Temporary Dialog Boxes  210

MW: Utility output MW. This may be actual operating or a rated value. This applies only
to a PV or PQG utility.

MVAR: Utility output MVAR. This is only used when the utility is a constant power,
constant var (PQG) machine or when a PV utility MVAR limit has been reached and the
machine automatically switches to PQG.

MVAR Limits: Minimum and maximum MVAR limits for regulated utility (PV). The
utility will switch to type PQG if these limits are violated.

Ctrl kV PU: Desired control voltage for a regulated utility (PV). The utility will try to
control the voltage at the controlled bus to a given value. If the utility bus is the swing bus,
this voltage serves as the reference voltage. The voltage is entered in per-unit.

Ctrl Angle: Controlled angle is used only when a utility is designated as a swing utility.
The value is entered in degrees.

Temporary Filter Data

The Temporary Filter Data Dialog Box is essentially the same as the Filter Data Dialog Box
which opens in the Database focus. All fields which were active in the Database focus can
be changed in the Power Flow focus. However, the type of filter cannot be changed. If a
notch filter is specified in the Database focus, only those fields applicable to a notch filter
can be modified in Power Flow.

Temporary Two-Winding Transformer Data

Temporary Two-Winding Transformer Data Dialog Box


Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Temporary Dialog Boxes  211

Winding Information

Tap kV: Tap kV of a winding. Unless you change them from this dialog box, these values
default to the Tap kV values set from the Database Edit focus.

These choices are only available if the transformer is defined to have LTC information from
the Database Edit focus.

Auto: Sets LTC to automatically control voltage or var flow.

Blocked: Sets LTC to be blocked. The solution will be determined directly from
transformer taps.

Step Size: LTC step size default is the percentage in the Database dialog box, but you can
type in your own percentage step size.

Temporary Three-Winding Transformer Data

Temporary Three-Winding Transformer Data Dialog Box

Winding Information

Tap kV: Tap kV of a winding. Unless you change them from this dialog box, these values
default to the Tap kV values set from the Database Edit focus.

These choices are only available if the transformer is defined to have LTC information from
the Database Edit focus.

Auto: Sets LTC to automatically control voltage or var flow.

Blocked: Sets LTC to be blocked. The solution will be determined directly from
transformer taps.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Temporary Dialog Boxes  212

Step Size: LTC step size default is the percentage in the Database dialog box, but you can
type in your own percentage step size..

Temporary Motor Control Center Data

Temporary MCC Data Dialog Box

MCC Load

HP and Total kVA: These list the totals of the items which are connected to the MCC. If
an item has "Off" in the status column of the Description tab library of the regular database
dialog, it will not be included in this total.

Load Model: This indicates the choice made in the Power Flow tab of the regular database
dialog, either MCC Specifications or SCADA.

Load Type: MCCs can be modeled for the power flow solution in several different ways.

 Constant kVA - This is the most common model. It is conservative, and will result in
slightly lower voltage values than would be measured on an actual system.

 Constant Current - This model is generally not used in motor modeling. It more closely
matches an induction motor's characteristics in the reactive component than other models,
but is technically incorrect because kW is relatively constant throughout the voltage
range for an induction motor.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Temporary Dialog Boxes  213

 Constant Impedance - This model is used for starting induction and synchronous
machines, and closely matches motor characteristics during low voltages.

 Constant kW + j Current - This model is a combination of the above models and more
closely matches actual motor characteristics within normal operating voltages.

Scaling Factor: Provides an easy way of adjusting the total motor load used in determining
power flows. By changing the scaling factor, the actual HP (total connected value) entered in
the HP field can remain static. This reduces modeling errors and eliminates multiple
databases for different contingencies.

Motor Starting

Start Motor: When this box is checked, it declares the selected motor as a starting motor in

the current motor load. This only takes effect when you choose Motor Start button (or
Solve Motor Starting from the Menu bar). However, motor starting load is ignored when
you choose (or Solve Power Flow). Note that the starting motor HP does not become
part of the power flow solution.

Motor HP: Starting motor horsepower.

kVA/HP: The motor kVA rating per horsepower.

Locked Rotor Mult: Starting motor locked rotor multiplier. Typical values are 6 for
induction motors and 4-5 for synchronous motors. The locked rotor multiplier is the
reciprocal of the starting motor subtransient reactance (X"dv).

Start Power Factor: Starting motor power factor. This is typically between 12-15% for
most machines.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Temporary Dialog Boxes  214

Temporary Panel Schedule Data

Temporary Panel Data Dialog Box

Total kVA: This lists the total load of the items which are connected to the Panel Schedule.
If an item has "Off" in the status column of the Description tab library of the regular
database dialog, it will not be included in this total.

Load Model: This indicates the choice made in the Power Flow tab of the regular database
dialog, either Panel Specifications or SCADA.

Load Type: Motors can be modeled for the power flow solution in several different ways.

 Constant kVA - This is the most common model. It is conservative, and will result in
slightly lower voltage values than would be measured on an actual system.

 Constant Current - This model is generally not used in motor modeling. It more closely
matches an induction motor's characteristics in the reactive component than other models,
but is technically incorrect because kW is relatively constant throughout the voltage
range for an induction motor.

 Constant Impedance - This model is used for starting induction and synchronous
machines, and closely matches motor characteristics during low voltages.

Scaling Factor: Provides an easy way of adjusting the total load used in determining power
flows. This reduces modeling errors and eliminates multiple databases for different
contingencies.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Temporary Dialog Boxes  215

Temporary Motor Data

Temporary Motor Data Dialog Box

Motor Load

HP and kVA: These list the input HP and calculated kVA.

Load Model: This indicates the choice made in the Power Flow tab of the regular database
dialog, either Motor Specifications or SCADA.

Load Type: Motors can be modeled for the power flow solution in several different ways.

 Constant kVA - This is the most common model. It is conservative, and will result in
slightly lower voltage values than would be measured on an actual system.

 Constant Current - This model is generally not used in motor modeling. It more
closely matches an induction motor's characteristics in the reactive component than
other models, but is technically incorrect because kW is relatively constant
throughout the voltage range for an induction motor.

 Constant Impedance - This model is used for starting induction and synchronous
machines, and closely matches motor characteristics during low voltages.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Temporary Dialog Boxes  216

 Constant kW + j Current - This model is a combination of the above models and


more closely matches actual motor characteristics within normal operating voltages.

Scaling Factor: Provides an easy way of adjusting the total motor load used in determining
power flows. By changing the scaling factor, the actual HP (total connected value) entered in
the HP field can remain static. This reduces modeling errors and eliminates multiple
databases for different contingencies.

Motor Starting

Start Motor: When this box is checked, it declares the selected motor as a starting motor in

the current motor load. This only takes effect when you choose Motor Start (or Solve
Motor Starting from the Menu bar). However, motor starting load is ignored when you
choose Power Flow (or Solve Power Flow in the menu). Note that the starting
motor HP does not become part of the power flow solution.

Motor HP: Starting motor horsepower.

kVA/HP: The motor kVA rating per horsepower.

Locked Rotor Mult: Starting motor locked rotor multiplier. Typical values are 6 for
induction motors and 4-5 for synchronous motors. The locked rotor multiplier is the
reciprocal of the starting motor subtransient reactance (X"dv).

Power Factor: Starting motor power factor. This is typically between 12-15% for most
machines.

Temporary Load Data


Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Temporary Dialog Boxes  217

Temporary Load Data Dialog Box

Load Data

Any combination of constant kVA, constant current, or constant impedance loads may be
modeled. Different types of loads can also be mixed and matched to model a specific type of
equipment such as variable speed drives.

Load Model: This indicates the choice made in the regular database dialog, either
Specifications or SCADA.

Constant kVA: Constant kVA load entered in MW and MVAR. Note that the term
"constant kVA" seems to be an industry standard even though MVA seems to be the more
common unit for large industrial uses.

Constant I: Constant current load given in MW and MVAR. These values should be
entered in 1.0 per-unit volts.

Constant Z: Constant impedance load given in MW and MVAR. These values should be
entered in 1.0 per-unit volts.

Scaling factor: Each load can be varied by applying a different scaling factor. This lets you
model the actual panel or lumped load on a bus, then study different loading conditions. This
allows quick "what if" studies and prevents errors that occur from data entry.

Temporary Capacitor Data

Temporary Capacitor Data Dialog Box

Capacitor Specifications

MVAR: Capacitor MVAR rating at one per-unit voltage.


Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Considerations for Multiple Generators on a Bus  218

Temporary Shunt Data

Temporary Shunt Data Dialog Box

Shunt Specifications

R+jX: Shunt data is entered as R+jX ohms. Standard shunt reactor data is entered using
positive impedances, although negative numbers can also be entered.

Considerations for Multiple Generators on


a Bus
EasyPower allows multiple generators or utilities to be placed on a bus. To provide this
flexibility, several guidelines must be followed. These are very similar to the real world
requirements normally imposed on a system.

There are three types of generator/utility models for the power flow solution: Swing (Slack),
PV, and PQG. Each type has a specific mathematical function and an order of precedence or
rank in the solution. The Swing has the highest order because mathematically, it exerts more
control over the system. Next in line comes the PV type, and then the PQG type. This order
is used in determining how the system is modeled and how the system model changes when
breakers are open or closed.

When there are multiple PV type generators on a bus, they must all control the bus to the
same voltage. If different values are entered in the database, the program will use the voltage
from the largest generator as the control voltage. If the generators are designated as Swing,
the size of each generator is irrelevant. The voltage and angle of the first Swing generator
read in will be used.

PV and Swing generators cannot be placed on the same bus. This is because they will both
try to control the bus voltage. PV / PQG or Swing / PQG combinations are acceptable.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Considerations for Opening and Closing Breakers  219

Bus control defaults to the highest order generator on the bus.

Watt & Var Sharing

When multiple generators are present on a bus, the watt and var load must be shared. For a
PV / PQG combination, the PQG generators will output their maximum watt and vars. The
PV generators will also output their maximum watt capability, but will share the var output.
Sharing is based on the size of the generator. For example, suppose three PV generators on a
bus have ratings of 10, 40, and 50 MVA. If the var requirements of the bus are 50 MVAR,
the smallest will supply 10 percent of the load, the middle 40 percent, and the largest 50
percent.

Share = Generator Rating / Generator Total

This applies only to PV type generators. For multiple Swing generators on one bus, or
throughout the system, the share is divided evenly between the generators.

Generator Switching

When the var limit of a PV generator is reached, it must switch to a PQG type in order to
prevent violating the reactive capability limit of the generator. When the system allows, the
generator will automatically switch back to allow a PV type solution. For multiple
generators on a bus, the reactive capability limit is the sum of all the PV generators. When
this limit is violated, all the generators will switch to PQG type. When the var constraints
ease, they will all be switched back.

Considerations for Opening and Closing


Breakers
While you are in the Power Flow focus, generator breakers can be opened or closed by
double clicking on the breaker. Opening a generator breaker does not cause an isolated
system. When closing tie breakers, make sure that generators on each side of the tie are
compatible.

Note: The ability to open and close breakers or switches during analysis is only
available if you have purchased the SmartBreaker™ option to EasyPower.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Troubleshooting Power Flows That Fail to Solve  220

Troubleshooting Power Flows That Fail to


Solve
All power flow equations are non-linear and require an iterative technique to solve. A wide
range of data input values that increase the chance of numerical round off are inherent in
many systems. For these reasons, some power flows may fail to converge. Following are
some helpful hints in troubleshooting a failed power flow case.

1. Often, trouble can be traced to generator control voltages being too high or too low. Typical
values should be 1.0-1.05 with 1.01 as a good starter. Don't be afraid to vary the values to
get a solution. You can then gradually increase the voltage to the desired level.

2. If a voltage controlled load tap changing transformer is electrically close to a PV generator,


they will fight each other to control the voltage. They need not be trying to control the same
bus--just being electrically close may cause problems, since one bus voltage will affect the
other's. Try blocking the LTC, turning it off, or changing it to MVAR control. You can also
change the generator type to PQG (constant power, constant var). Using the same reasoning,
the voltage that the LTC is trying to control may be influenced to a larger degree by a nearby
generator or utility supply.

3. Transformer LTCs do not have the same amount of control over system voltages as large
generators. If you are used to controlling your system with generation, don't be surprised if
LTC control is not sufficient.

4. If the load is too large, convergence may be difficult. This is especially true if high
impedance lines are present. Try converting the load to constant impedance. If the case
solves, you know that is the problem.

5. If a generator is trying to control voltages that are too electrically remote, the solution may
diverge. Try controlling the generator bus first. If you get a good solution, gradually work
your way to the remote bus. Remember the effect other controlling factors might have such
as utility supplies and LTCs. Even though they may appear far away on the one-line, they
can be electrically close. Check your input data.

6. Isolated or separated systems are not allowed in the power flow. This is because each
subsystem must have a Swing bus in order to solve. Be very careful when opening or closing
breakers.

7. A great deal of opening and closing breakers in the Power Flow focus may add to the
possibility of round off in some systems, which can eventually cause the solution to diverge.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Calculation and Theory  221

If you suspect this is the problem, go to the Database Edit focus by choosing Database Edit
button (Analysis Database Edit from the Menu bar). Then, re-enter the Power Flow
focus and re-open or close the breakers that you want to be different than their normal states
(i.e. normally open or normally closed). Alternatively, while you are in the Database Edit
focus, you can change the normal states directly.

8. If you get power flow divergence, check the Mismatch report in the Power Flow Summary
report. Find the bus that has the largest mismatch over a period of several iterations. Go to
that bus in the one-line and look for problems. Some areas to look for include:

 Loading which is too high. Check for decimal place errors, remembering that EasyPower
input data is in MVA not kVA.

 Transformer taps or motor kV's which may be off by a decimal point. A transformer
MVA may also be entered too low, or the motor HP too high.

 Look for these problems in the area (within two buses) of the bus with the greatest
mismatch. After you feel you have checked this area thoroughly, move onto the bus with
the next-highest mismatch on the list, and so forth.

9. Another problem area is overloading of the complete system. Typical user input is to place
all loads at a 100 percent scaling factor. Typical scaling factors for process plants are in the
40-70 percent range. A good place to start is to scale all group loads at 40-50 percent and all
large individual motor loads to 70 percent. A quick and easy way to tell if this is the problem
is to go to the database and turn off a large selection of loads. Then re-run the power flow
and check for results.

Calculation and Theory


EasyPower calculates three-phase power flows using a newly developed Current Injection
method (CI). The CI method is more robust than either the Fast De-coupled, Gauss-Seidel,
or similar hybrid arrangements, and an order of magnitude faster than the Newton-Rhapson
method. The CI method uses the nodal admittance network and the latest in sparse vector
solutions to obtain solution accuracy's within one kVA. The system is modeled in the form
given below. Refer to Reference13 for additional details.

13 Robust Power Flow Solutions For Distribution Management Systems, W.F. Tinney, T.G. Nowak, R.
Bacher, K.I. Geisler, IEEE/PES Summer 1984
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis Calculation and Theory  222

It should be noted that many programs offer two or three solution techniques. This is done
because most solutions cannot solve a variety of problems ranging from the simple to the
difficult. The CI method is the most robust algorithm available to the industry and does not
require user-specified backup analysis, voltage profiles or starter solutions.

Impact Motor Starting

EasyPower uses the constant impedance method for calculating impact motor starting
conditions. Impact conditions are modeled at time equals 0+ and are considered the worst
case voltage for motor starting. This method models each existing load as a constant
impedance, and generation as a constant voltage source behind its subtransient impedance.
Starting motors are also considered as constant impedance loads based on the motors starting
MVA and power factor.

This method is very robust and works for all systems and voltage drop levels. Up to 10
motors can be started at once.
Chapter 5 Power Flow Analysis  223
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Overview  224

Chapter 6 Scenario Manager


Overview
Scenario Manager allows the original one-line (base case), different switching
configurations, contingency conditions, and potential modifications to be stored in one file.
When creating a one-line in the database focus, the base case must first be established. It can
be analyzed and verified in Power Flow, Short Circuit, or Harmonics analysis focus. Using
Scenario Manager, you can then do the following:

1. Add, remove, or modify equipment items,

2. Change the normal position of breakers and switches, or

3. Change the zoom scale and viewing window location.

When saving scenarios, the changes will be saved as macros, therefore preserving the
established base case. Equipment items changed in scenarios are indicated with a different
color for easy identification.

Scenario Manager Commands

Click on the Scenario Mgr button in the ribbon to view to the various commands.

Scenario Manager commands

New Scenario: Opens a new scenario. EasyPower assigns a default name.


Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Manager Functionality  225

Open Scenario: Opens an existing scenario. A list of scenarios is provided.

Open Base Case: Leaves the open scenario and reverts back to the last-saved base
case.

Store Scenario: Stores changes from the last saved base-case to a scenario.

Store Scenario As: Stores changes from the last saved base-case to a scenario
allowing you to specify the name of the scenario.

Delete Scenario: Deletes an existing scenario.

Advanced  Store Scenario as Base Case: Stores the current scenario as the base
case. This will overwrite the information in the base case.

Create Scenario Comparison Report: Creates report for worst-case arc flash
hazards by comparing results between different scenarios.

Scenario Manager Functionality


Scenarios in EasyPower are essentially macros. These macros are created by taking the
differences between the temporary database file on which EasyPower is working, and the last
saved database file. To better illustrate this, a explanation is necessary detailing how
EasyPower database files are saved and opened.

When EasyPower opens a database file (such as “simple”), EasyPower makes a copy of that
database file. All subsequent changes to the one-line are put in that copied (temporary)
database file. For example, if you add a motor, that new motor is put in the temporary
database file - not the saved database file. The saved database is not touched until the user
presses button on the Quick Access toobar (or chooses File Save from the menu).
When operating in the base case, saving the file will simply copy the temporary database to
the saved database. At that instant, the temporary and saved databases will match.

With this understood, the process of storing a scenario can be described in two steps:

1. Scenario Store creates a macro which stores all the differences between the temporary
database file and the saved database file, and

2. Scenario Store attaches the named macro to the temporary database file, not the saved
database file.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Opening a New Scenario  226

Note: Storing a scenario does not automatically put the macro in the saved database. You
must remember to perform a File Save after storing the scenario to permanently save the
scenario.

Scenario Interface (example)

Following is an example that describes the user-interface of creating a scenario:

In the EasyPower\Samples directory, open “simple”. Save the file. This will establish the
base case for this file. The Windows title bar will indicate <base case>.

Choose Scenario Mgr  New Scenario from the ribbon. This will put the one-line in
scenario mode. The Windows title bar will display <Scenario-1>, which is the default name
EasyPower assigns for a scenario. Any changes made while in “Scenario-1” will only be
saved to this scenario, and will not be seen in the saved base case.

Add a motor to “BUS-2”.

Choose Store Scenario. “Scenario-1” will become a macro which commands EasyPower to
add a motor to “BUS-2”.

Choose Open Base Case. This will return you to the last saved “base case” file (the one
saved in step #1 above). The motor will disappear.

Choose Scenario Open. A dialog box will appear. Choose “Scenario-1” and press the OK
button. This will run the macro that was stored in step #4. The motor should re-appear.

Opening a New Scenario


When opening a scenario (either new or existing), the following message box will appear if
the saved database file differs from the current temporary database file:
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Opening a New Scenario  227

Open Scenario Message Box

Save one-line before continuing: EasyPower will save the current base case before opening
the scenario. This re-establishes the base case before opening.

Re-open previously saved one-line before continuing: EasyPower will re-open the last
saved base case before opening the scenario. All current unsaved changes will be lost if this
option is chosen.

Continue: EasyPower will enter scenario mode without saving or re-opening. Any current
changes (different than the last saved base case) will remain.

If this option is chosen for Open Scenario, the existing macro (scenario) will simply be run
on the currently open file. If you then store the scenario, the changes made in the base case
before the Scenario Open - but after the last File Save - will be added to this scenario. (If
you do not store, the scenario will not be changed.)

If this option is chosen for New Scenario, the changes made in the base case before the
Scenario Open - but after the last File Save - will be included in this scenario when stored.

Opening an Existing Scenario

When opening an existing scenario, the Open Scenario dialog box will appear. A list of the
previously stored scenarios will appear. Choosing one of the scenarios and then pressing
Open will run the scenario macro and thus update the one-line.

Open Scenario dialog box


Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Opening a New Scenario  228

Open: Opens the selected scenario in the window.

Report: Creates a report for the selected scenario. The report contains information on what
item is different from the Base Case. See figure below.

Cancel: Closes the dialog.

Help: Opens online Help.

Synchronize Graphics with Base Case: If this checkbox is checked, EasyPower will ignore
any group moves, item dragging, etc. in the scenario, and simply leave all equipment in the
same location as in the current base case. All data changes (i.e. load scaling factors, breaker
ON/OFF states) will all be executed as usual in the scenario. New equipment and deleted
equipment will also be executed. This option is only intended to be a possible safety valve if
base case equipment items were later added/moved on top of new/moved scenario equipment
items.

Scenario Info: This provides information about the EasyPower version that created the
scenario and the size of macros stored in the scenario. The information displayed pertains to
the highlighted scenario in the dialog.

Caution: Changes in the base case can potentially invalidate some scenario changes.
For example:

 Deleting a motor “M-1” in the base case will invalidate the step in a scenario
that says to change the scaling factor of motor “M-1” to 60%.

 Group moving items in the base case to the same one-line location where a
scenario is adding items will leave the two groups of equipment items super-
imposed on each other. (Choosing the “Synchronize Graphics with Base Case”
option when opening the scenario might get around this problem.)

The scenarios will usually handle changes to the base case with no trouble, but obviously
there are some base case changes that will pose problems in scenarios.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Opening a New Scenario  229

Storing Scenarios

Choosing Store Scenario will store as a scenario the changes made to the one-line since the
last saved base case. If no name has been specified, the Store Scenario dialog box will
appear and request a scenario name. This same dialog appears when choosing Tools
Scenario Manager Scenario Store As from the menu.

Scenario Store dialog box

Note: You are not required to perform a Scenario New or Scenario Open before a Scenario
Store. The main benefit for using Scenario New first is that it visually puts you in scenario
“mode”. If you choose Scenario Store while operating in the base case, the changes made
after your last File Save will become part of the stored scenario.

Deleting Scenarios

Choose Delete Scenario to bring up the Delete Scenario dialog box:


Chapter 6 Scenario Manager File Save versus Store Scenario  230

Delete Scenario dialog box

You can select multiple scenarios to delete. As with the Store Scenario, the scenarios are
not deleted from the saved database until the file is saved by pressing button on the
Qucik Access toolbar or choosing File Save from the menu.

File Save versus Store Scenario


Following is a comparison the true functionalities of both Scenario Store and File Save:

While in base case…

Store Scenario creates a macro with the differences between the temporary database and
saved database. This macro is attached to the temporary database file, not the saved database
file.

File Save copies the temporary database to the saved database - thus updating the saved
database. Any attached scenarios in the temporary database would likewise become
attachments in the saved database.

While in a scenario…

Scenario Store creates a macro with the differences between the temporary database and
saved database. This macro is attached to the temporary database file, not the saved database
file.

File Save performs both a Scenario Store, and a File Save, just as described for the base case.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Analysis Changes in Scenarios  231

As you can see, performing a File Save allows you to skip the Scenario Store step since File
Save stores automatically.

Analysis Changes in Scenarios


Scenarios will include temporary analysis changes in the Scenario Store. The following
gives a comparison of Scenario Store and File Save with regards to database and temporary
analysis changes:

1. Scenario Store

 While in Database Edit focus, scenarios only store the changes made in the
Database Edit focus.

 While in an any analysis focus, the scenarios store the equipment settings in the
current focus. If the equipment settings in the current focus are different than in
the Database Edit focus, the scenario store will ignore differences in the Database
Edit focus.

2. File Save, while in base case…

 While in Database Edit focus, File Save only saves the changes made in the
Database Edit focus. Any previously stored scenarios will be included in the
save.

 While in any analysis focus, File Save ignores all temporary changes made to the
equipment. Any previously stored scenarios will be included in the save.

3. File Save, while in a scenario, will perform both a Scenario Store and a File Save. The store
and save follow the same rules as described in 1 and 2. above.

 Most of the analysis options (i.e. Short Circuit Options) are also stored in scenarios.
This further allows you to customize analysis contingency cases and “what if”
scenarios that are different from your established base case mode of operation.

Scenario Colors

Items modified in scenarios will be highlighted different colors for easy reference. The
colors are specified in the Tools Options Screen dialog box:
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  232

Options dialog box

These colors take effect when opening a scenario. All new items in a scenario get
highlighted the New Scenario color specified in the Options dialog box. All changed items
(that already existed in the base case, but were changed in the scenario) get highlighted the
Changed Scenario color.

Scenario Comparison Report


The fault levels and incident energies at any bus or equipment may change with the
connection configuration within a plant or network. For example you may have a scenario
with just the utility as source, or just a local generator as source, or a combination of two or
more sources. In these different scenarios you will get different fault levels at any bus in the
system. If you have several scenarios stored in a one-line file, you can compare the results for
arc flash hazard for each scenario and automatically create a report that shows the worst-case
incident energies for bus faults. For details on arc flash hazard analysis, refer to Chapter 15 -
Arc Flash Hazard Analysis.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  233

The Scenario Comparison Report window shows the arc flash data in an interactive
spreadsheet view. The report can be printed or exported to Excel. Arc Flash labels can be
printed from this view.

Sample Scenario Comparison Report

Creating Scenario Comparison Report

Creating Scenario Comparison Report


Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  234

To create a scenario comparison report you need to be in the Database Edit focus. Choose
from the ribbon, Scenario Manager  Create Scenario Comparison Report…, as shown
in the figure above. Note that you must have scenarios stored in the working EasyPower file
in order to use this feature. You will get a dialog as shown below.

Create Scenario Comparison Report dialog


You can optionally configure the report output by selecting a Results Group and/or a
Scenario Group.
A Results Group is a named set of configuration options that determines what information is
included in the report. When you define your own Results Group, you can select the units for
distance, the buses/equipment you wish to evaluate, and which calculated values you want
included on the report (such as incident energy, flash protection boundary, bolted fault
current, estimated arc current, etc).
The default Results Group <<All Arc Flash Results>> will include all buses selected on the
one-line. If there is no current selection on the one-line, the report will include all buses.
The report will include all calculated values.
See also: Adding Results Group
A Scenario Group is a named set of scenarios. When you define your own Scenario Group,
you can select which scenarios will be included in the report.
See also: Adding Scenario Group

Press the Create Report button. The Arc Flash results will be calculated for each included
scenario, and then the Scenario Comparison Report window will open.

Working with the Scenario Comparison Report

The Scenario Comparison Report contains the buses and scenarios indicated by the selected
Results Group and Scenario Group on the Create Scenario Comparison Report dialog. If
you use the default Results Group, the report will contain the buses selected on the one-line,
or all buses if there is nothing selected on the one-line. If you use the default Scenario
Group, the report will contain all scenarios.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  235

The scenario that has the highest incident energy for any bus is identified as the “Worst
Case” for that bus.

You can print this report, export it to Excel®, or print Arc Flash Hazard warning labels from
this spreadsheet view.

Viewing All Scenarios or Only Worst Case Results

The Scenario Comparison Report can show either all scenarios for each bus, or just the worst
case scenario for each bus. To change the view, choose either the All or Worst button from
the Scenario Comparison Report ribbon (View  All or View  Worst in the menu).

Viewing All Scenarios or Only Worst Case


Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  236

Viewing All Scenarios for each bus. The red 'X' identifies the worst case scenario for each bus.

Viewing only the Worst Case for each bus

Removing Equipment Results from Spreadsheet

To delete any faulted bus/equipment from the spreadsheet, perform a right mouse click on
any spreadsheet cell related to the bus/equipment and select Hide Equipment from the
context menu.

Removing Columns from Spreadsheet

To delete any result columns from the spreadsheet, perform a right mouse click on the
column header and select Hide Column from the context menu.

Filtering Results from Spreadsheet

You can filter the results shown in the spreadsheet by choosing the Filter button from the
ribbon (View  Filter in the menu).
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  237

Scenario Comparison Report Filter

You can use the filter option to limit which buses are shown in the report, based on which
scenario is the worst case scenario for the bus. For example, if you expect a particular
scenario to be the worst case scenario for all of the buses, you may wish to show only buses
that have other scenarios as the worst case. This can help find exceptions to the expected
results.

Exporting Spreadsheet to Excel®

You can export the scenario comparison report to Excel® by choosing Excel button from the
ribbon (File  Open with EXCEL in the menu).
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  238

Opening scenario report with Excel®

Printing Scenario Comparison Report

To print a report, choose Print button from the ribbon (from the menu, File  Print…).
This will print to a printer.

To see a print preview, choose Print Preview button from the ribbon (from the menu, File 
Print Preview).

To change the page orientation and/or margins, choose Page Setup from the ribbon (from the
menu, File Page Setup.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  239

Printing Arc Flash Labels

To print arc flash labels, choose Print Label from the ribbon (File  Print Label from the
menu) and select one of the following options based on what is available:

Printing Labels

Selected scenarios and buses: This option will print the arc flash label for the
bus/scenario combinations that correspond to the cells selected in the spreadsheet. To
print a specific label, make sure that you have selected a cell for the bus and scenario
you wish to print the label for. You may select multiple buses and/or scenarios to
print multiple labels.

Worst scenario for all buses: This will print labels for the worst incident energies
for all of the buses in the spreadsheet.

Error Reports for Scenario Comparison Report

Scenarios are basically changes to Base Case items. If Base Case items are deleted after the
scenarios have been stored, then there will likely be errors in the scenarios. When creating a
scenario report, such errors are reported in the Error Report window. To view an Error
Report, choose from the menu, Window  Error Report for “<filename>”. A sample of
Error Report is shown below.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  240

A sample Error Report

Adding Results Group

To add a new Results Group, click the button Add Results Group… in the Create Scenario
Comparison Report dialog. The Add Results Group dialog will appear as shown in the
picture below.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  241

Adding results group

This window contains:

Results Group Name: This field displays the name of the results group that is currently
being configured or edited.

Store As…: To add a new group, click on the Store As… button. The Store Results Group
dialog will appear. Type the new group name in this dialog and choose OK. When there is a
difference between the current configuration and the stored configuration, the group name
text will appear red. Remember to store the changes made to the group name after you
configure the group.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  242

Store Results Group dialog

Delete: Choose this button to delete the group whose name that appears in the combo box
Results Group Name. Once you delete a results group, you will lose all the
configurations stored within the group.

Boundary Distance Unit: Arc Flash Boundary can be shown in inches, meters or mm as
specified in this combo box.

Results to Display in Comparison Report: Choose one of the following.

All Results: This selection displays all possible calculated values in the report.

User Specified Results Only: This is selected to display only the desired calculated
values in the comparison report. To add any value type to a group, select it in the
Available Results window and click on the Add>> button. To remove any value type
from a group, select it in the User-Specified Results window and click the <<Remove
button.

Compare for Which Items: Select one of the following.

Default: This selection displays results for all of the buses selected in the one-line. You
need to select the buses on the one-line before choosing the Create Scenario
Comparison Report command. If no bus is selected in the one-line, then results for all
buses will appear in the report.

User Specified Buses Only: Using this option, you can select a group of buses you want
to include in the report. To add any bus/equipment to a group, select that bus/equipment
in the Existing Buses window and click on the Add>> button. To remove any
bus/equipment from a group, select it in the User-Specified Buses window and click the
<<Remove button.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  243

Adding Scenario Group

To add a new Scenario Group, click the button Add Scenario Group… in the Create
Scenario Comparison Report dialog. The Add Scenario Group dialog will appear as
shown in the picture below.

Add Scenario Group dialog

This window contains:

Scenario Group Name: This field displays name of the scenario group that is currently
being configured or edited.

Store As…: To add a new group, click on the Store As… button. Store Scenario Group
dialog will appear. Type the new group name in this dialog and choose OK. When there is a
difference between the current configuration and the stored configuration, the scenario group
name text will appear red. Remember to store the changes made to the scenario group name
after you configure the group.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  244

Delete: Choose this button to delete the scenario group whose name appears in the combo
box Scenario Group Name. Once you delete a scenario group, you will lose all the
configurations stored within the group name.

Scenarios to Compare: To add any scenario to a group, select the scenario in the Existing
Scenarios window and click on the Add>> button. To remove any scenario from a group,
select it in the User-Specified Scenarios window and click the <<Remove button.

Move Up/Down buttons: These buttons allow you to sort the order of scenarios that appear
in the report.
Chapter 6 Scenario Manager Scenario Comparison Report  245
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Creating New  246

Chapter 7
EasyPower Device Library
EasyPower comes with an extensive device library that covers several thousand equipment
types and styles and provides quick access to such necessary data as machine X/R ratios,
cable/busway impedances, and protective device equipment. The device library is contained

in a .mdb file. To open the library, click on the EasyPower button on the top left conrer
of the window and choose Open Library (from the menu, File Open Library). This is
different from the Open command (File Open). The library file stdlib.mdb is located in
the following folder paths.

Windows XP:

C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\ESA\EasyPower\9.0

Microsoft Vista and Windows 7:

C:\ProgramData\ESA\EasyPower\9.0

Hidden files and folders…..

Creating New
New Manufacturer and Type

Insert New Manufacturer: To add a new manufacturer to any equipment, right mouse click
on the equipment name first. Choose Insert New Manufacturer from the context menu.
You can also do it by pressing shortcut keys (Ctrl)+I or by choosing the Insert button in the
ribbon. The shortcut keys will apply to adding new manufacturers only when the equipment
name is highlighted. If you select a manufacturer’s name and press (Ctrl)+I, a new Type will
be inserted.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Creating New  247

Inserting New Manufacturer

Insert New Type: A manufacturer may have several classes of a particular device within the
same equipment name. These are referred to as a Type in the EasyPower Device Library. To
add a new type of a device for a manufacturer, select the manufacturer first, then click on the
Insert button in the ribbon (choose Edit Insert New Type from the Menu bar). You can
also do it by pressing (Ctrl)+I or by using the right mouse button to view the edit options.

Insert New Type

New Style

A style in EasyPower essentially means a model of device. The method of inserting new
styles can vary for different equipment.

Tree from Type: For Solid State Trips, Non-Solid State Trips, and Motor Overload
Relays, select type name first. Then choose Insert button from the ribbon (Edit Insert
New Style from the menu). Alternatively, you can place the cursor over the device type
name and click the right mouse button to activate the edit menu.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Creating New  248

Insert New Style

Spreadsheets: For most equipment, style names are entered in the leftmost column of
the spreadsheet that appears when the type name is selected. In any spreadsheet, the style
names must be unique. If the cell for the style name is left blank, then no style data will
be stored in the library. Styles are entered in a spreadsheet for the following devices: HV
Breaker, Switches, HV Fuses, LV Fuses, ICCB Breakers, MCCB Breakers, and PCB
Breakers.

Field Edit Dialog Box

Field Edit dialog box for Model

Some action buttons such as Models and Sizes for HV Fuses, and Curves
for Relays open up a dialog box for editing the field entries. You can add, delete,
rename, move up, move down, or select any item. All items within the field must be unique.

New Library

EasyPower gives you the option of creating your own separate libraries. Choose EasyPower

button on the top left corner of the window, then choose the arrow button for New
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Creating New  249

command and finally choose New Device Library. (File New Device Library from
the Menu bar). You may also press (Ctrl)+N on the keyboard to bring up the New dialog
box.

New Dialog Box

Highlight Device Library, and then click on OK. EasyPower will generate an entirely new
device library for you to fill with entries and edit the same way you would customize the
standard device library that we provide. The default name is “Newlib1” (2,3,etc.).

A new device library with data not yet entered

You can have multiple libraries on the same computer and you may change the library used
by EasyPower. Choose Tools Options File Locations (see page 307), and you can
specify which library will be the default library for all newly created one-lines. If you don't
want a one-line to use the default library, you can assign it a different library. When the one-
line is in the active window, choose EasyPower button from the ribbon, followed by
Properties (File Properties (see page 68) from the Menu bar) and specify a particular
library for the one-line viewed in the active window.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Time-Current Characteristics (TCC) Data  250

Time-Current Characteristics (TCC) Data


Most of the time-current characteristics (TCC) data are entered in the library as time-current
points. A TCC curve may be represented by a number of time and current coordinates.
When plotting curves, EasyPower produces smoothed lines passing through these points.
The TCC of some relays are based on formulas.

Time-Current Points

Example 1: Relays TCC Data

The figure below is a TCC curve of GEC IAC-51 relay for pickup current of 1 amp and time
dial setting of 1 second. Ten points have been marked along the curve. The coordinates, or
the time-current values of these points, are indicated in parentheses.

Time-
Current Points of GEC IAC-51 Relay for Time Dial 1

These values are entered in the spreadsheets in Section 2 (Time Dial) of the library as shown
in the figure below. The values in the topmost yellow row are the current values. The
corresponding time values are entered in white cells. The time values for points shown in the
figure above have been entered in Row 2 in the spreadsheet below. The time values for other
time dial settings are entered in successive rows. Please note that there is only one row for
current values. Therefore, the time values for different time dial settings must correspond to
the same set of current values.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Time-Current Characteristics (TCC) Data  251

Section 2 (Time Dial) of Relay

Example 2: MCCB Breakers TCC Data

The TCC curve of Square D KAL 70Amp MCCB is shown in the figure below. The units for
the current coordinates are in multiples of rated continuous amps. For any given current
value, the MCCB may trip at any time between the times shown by Minimum Clearing
Curve and Maximum Clearing Curve. The time-current points are shown in parentheses.
Any number of points may be obtained for each curve. Typically 8 to 10 points are sufficient
to represent a curve.

The time-current points are entered in the spreadsheet in Section 1 of the MCCB information
of the library. The first two columns are for the minimum clearing curve and the last two
columns are for maximum clearing curve. You will need to specify the method of
calculating the pickup. In this example, the Pickup Calculation is: “Ipu * Trip Amps”
because the TCC is given in multiples of rated amps. If the TCC is given in actual trip amps,
then Pickup Calculation is “Current in Amps”.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Time-Current Characteristics (TCC) Data  252

Time-Current Points of Square D KAL 70A MCCB

Section 1 (Thermal) tab of MCCB


Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Time-Current Characteristics (TCC) Data  253

Time-current Points of Multi-Segment TCC

Devices such as MCCB, solid state trips, and non-solid state trips have multiple segments in
their TCC. In the case of MCCB, the thermal trip data is entered as time-current points, and
the magnetic trip data is usually entered separately as instantaneous trip current. However,
for an MCCB with fixed (not adjustable) magnetic trip, both the thermal and magnetic TCC
data may be entered as a single set of time-current points. In such a case, at the point where
the thermal curve intersects with the magnetic curve, duplicate time-current points are
obtained. Similarly, duplicate points are taken at any intersection of straight lines with
curved lines.

Example 3: Multi-Segment TCC of Square D MCCB EH 100A

TCC of MCCB with fixed magnetic trip: Square D EH 100A

For the TCC shown above, the intersection points are entered as duplicate points in the
spreadsheet shown below. The data for these have been highlighted in gray.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Time-Current Characteristics (TCC) Data  254

Time-Current Points of Square D EH 100A

TCC Based on Formulas

In some digital relays, formulas are used to generate the TCC. EasyPower includes the
following formulas in the library:

 IEC Formula
 Multilin ANSI Formula
 Basler / Siemens Formula
 Schweitzer Formula.
 ABB PCD2000 Formula
 RXIDG Formula
 Locked Rotor Constant I^2t Formula (Westinghouse IQ-1000 formula)

To enter TCC data for formulas choose the applicable formula name from the Model combo
box in Section 2 of Relay Info as shown in the figure below.

Model combo box for relays


Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Time-Current Characteristics (TCC) Data  255

The figure below is an example of Basler formula. The formula used for calculating the TCC
appears below the model name. The values used in the formula are entered in the
spreadsheet and edit fields.

Basler Formula

Adjustable Range for Settings

Protective devices may have adjustable settings for pickup current or the time delay. You
may specify any adjustable data range as either continuous or discrete.

Discrete: A range is discrete if there are a finite number of discrete values to which you can
adjust the settings. If you select any range as discrete, you must specify all the possible
settings available in the rows in the spreadsheet. For example, if the Tap range of a relay is
{0.5, 0.6, 0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.5, 2} then select the data range as “Discrete”, and enter the different
tap values in separate rows in the spreadsheet called “Values”. Similarly, if time dial of a
relay is discrete, choose “Discrete” in the dialog box. All the discrete time dial values must
be entered separately in consecutive rows in the spreadsheet for time dial.

Continuous: A range is continuously adjustable if it is divisible by a step value. When


adjustments are made the setting is incremented or decremented by a multiple of the step
value. When you choose any range as continuous, you must also specify the step value. For
continuous ranges, it is sufficient to provide only two settings: the minimum and the
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Trip Devices  256

maximum values in the range. For example if the pickup of a relay is continuously
adjustable from 0.5 to 2 with the smallest increment being 0.01, then enter 0.5 as the
minimum, 2 as the maximum, setting type as continuous, and the step value as 0.01. When
you enter any data range as continuous, EasyPower will calculate the intermediate values for
the selected setting by interpolation.

Trip Devices
Relays

Tree Structure of Relay

Device Function: A tripping characteristics with only one time-overcurrent and one
instantaneous overcurrent tripping functions. Device functions are listed as the ANSI code
numbers or their combinations. You may enter your own device function names.

Single Function Relay: A single function relay has only one device function. If this is
selected in the Relay Info tab while entering data, then the user can select only one set of
relay settings in the database edit mode.

Multi-function Relay: A multi-function relay has more than one device function. If this is
selected in the Relay Info tab while entering data, then the user can select multiple sets of
relay settings in the database edit mode. If Multi-function is selected and only one device
function is entered in the library, then the user can select different trip settings at the same
time. Multiple curves can be plotted in coordination from the same relay. This feature is
applicable to relays which can sense more than one current but operate with similar device
functions.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Trip Devices  257

Relay Class: You can choose from “Generator Relay”, “Motor Relay” and “Other”. The
choice of Relay Class affects the calculation method. For Generator Relay class and Motor
Relay class, the trip settings are in multiples of full load amps (FLA). For the Other class the
trip setting may be in multiples of relay rating, CT ratio, CT primary amps, etc.

Molded Case Circuit Breakers (MCCB)

Tree Structure of MCCB Breaker

Style: A style is a group of MCCB breakers with the same brand, model, interrupting rating,
similar trip characteristics, and similar frame size.

Frame Description: A Frame Description is a unique name that represents a unique set of
trip characteristics data. If the same set of data applies to several Trip Amps ratings, then
they can be entered as one frame description but with different Trip Amps. In most cases,
the trip characteristics data for various MCCB ratings may be different although the same
frame size is the same. In such cases, the data must be entered using different frame
descriptions.

Frame Size: The Frame Size is the maximum rated continuous current that any frame can
have. Typical frame sizes are 125A, 250A, 400A, 600A, 800A, etc.

Trip Amps: Trip Amps is the rated continuous current of the MCCB above which the
device will trip.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Trip Devices  258

Solid State Trips

Tree Structure of Solid State Trips

Sensor Description: A Sensor Description is a unique name representing a set of trip


characteristics data.

Plug: An SST with a given frame or sensor may have several different plugs to set the long
time pickup current.

Non-Solid State Trips

Tree Structure of Non-Solid State Trips

Style: A style is a group of non-solid state trips with the same brand, model, interrupting
rating, similar trip characteristics, and similar frame size.

Frame Description: A Frame Description is a unique name that represents a unique set of
trip characteristics data. If the same set of data applies to several Trip Amps ratings, then
they can be entered as one frame description but with different Trip Amps.

Frame Size: The Frame Size is the maximum rated continuous current that any frame can
have. Typical frame sizes are 125A, 250A, 400A, 600A, 800A, etc.

Trip Amps: Trip Amps is the rated continuous current of the non-solid state trip unit above
which the device will trip.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Trip Devices  259

High Voltage Fuses

Tree Structure of HV Fuses

Model: Model usually represents the “speed” of the fuse, such as K, KS, T, etc.

kV: The voltage level for which the fuse is applicable.

Sizes: The sizes of fuses available for a given model and kV rating. Although the size
names correspond to their ampere ratings, the numbers within the size name are not
necessarily the minimum melting amps.

Continuous Current: The rated continuous current of the fuse.

Plot: Action button to plot the TCC curve for the data entered in the spreadsheet.

TCC tab of HV Fuses dialog box


Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Trip Devices  260

Low Voltage Fuses

Tree Structure of LV Fuses

Low voltage fuses are similar to HV Fuses. However, Model and kV are not part of the tree
structure in LV Fuses.

Sizes: The sizes of fuses available for a given type. Although the size names correspond to
their ampere ratings, the numbers within the size name are not necessarily the minimum
melting amps.

Continuous Current: The rated continuous current of the fuse.

Plot: Action button to plot the TCC curve for the data entered in the spreadsheet.

TCC tab of LV Fuse dialog box


Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Customizing  261

Motor Overload Relays

Tree Structure of Motor Overload Relays

Pickup Calculation: The trip amps is calculated as the trip data times the full load amps
(FLA) of the motor. The FLA is not entered in the library. It is entered in the Motor
Overload Relay dialog box in the one-line. The trip data entered in the library are per unit
values for current.

Plot: Action button to plot the TCC curve for the data entered in the spreadsheet.

Section 1 tab of Motor Overload Relay

Customizing
The device library is fully user-definable. This means you can move the rows around,
organizing them as you see fit. You can also add and delete manufacturers, types, styles and
even the data of a particular style.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Customizing  262

Selecting

You will find that selecting an item in the EasyPower library is quite simple and similar to
most major spreadsheet programs.

Selecting a cell: Place the cursor over any data cell and click to select that cell. A left
mouse click simply selects the cell, whereas a right mouse click provides you with a list of
edit options to choose from.

Selecting a range of cells: Place the cursor over the first or last data cell and using the left
mouse button, click and drag the pointer the opposite end of the range. The selected range
becomes highlighted. You can drag the cursor in any direction; from down to up, right to left
or lower right to upper left. Dragging the cursor allows you to select several rows, several
columns, or any portion from two data cells to the entire sheet.

Selecting a column: To select a column, place the cursor in the header above that column,
and the cursor will turn into an arrow. Click the mouse button, and the entire column will
be highlighted indicating a selected state. A left mouse click simply selects the column,
whereas a right mouse click provides you with a list of edit options to choose from. To select
a range of columns, drag the cursor keeping the left mouse button pressed.

Selecting a row: To select a row, place the cursor at the row label on the left side of the
row, and click when the arrow appears. The entire row will be highlighted indicating a
selected state. A left mouse click simply selects the row, whereas a right mouse click
provides you with a list of edit options to choose from. To select a range of rows, drag the
cursor keeping the left mouse button pressed.

Selecting a Device Library Row

Selecting the entire sheet: You may select the entire sheet by clicking on the top half of the
block in the upper left corner.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Customizing  263

Select All: This feature is applicable only to text fields. In the text edit field, click the right
mouse button to view the edit options. Then choose Select All.

Cut, Copy, and Paste

Using these editing commands in the device library is similar to the way they are used
elsewhere; however, there are a few differences. Style, sizes and temperatures listed in
yellow columns cannot have duplicate listings and cannot be left blank.

Cut: The Cut feature is applicable only to text edit fields, not to spreadsheets. Select the
text you want to cut. Click the right mouse button to view the edit options and choose Cut.

Copy: Select the data you want to copy. Press (Ctrl)+C on the keyboard. You may copy a
row, a column, or any section of the sheet other than the headers and the row markers. You
may also click the right mouse button to view the edit options and choose Copy cell(s).

Paste: After you have copied the data to the clipboard, you may copy to a different place on
the sheet, a different sheet, or even into a different program. However, the data cells in
EasyPower's device library have certain ranges assigned to them; you cannot paste a number
into a cell if it is outside of that range. To paste data, select the cell where you want to paste
the data and press (Ctrl)+V on the keyboard. You may also click the right mouse button to
view the edit options and choose Paste cell(s).

Note: If you attempt to paste, and at least one of the new numbers is out-of-range, you will
receive the following message: "Cannot paste all items. Some values are out of range".
When you click OK, EasyPower will paste the valid data and leave the other data unchanged.

Copy/Paste Style Contents: For some devices, a style may contain several spreadsheets or
ranges of data. Copying all the data from one style to another is made easy by the Copy Style
Contents feature. Take the cursor over the style name you want to copy data from and click
the right mouse button. From the edit options that appears, choose Copy Style Contents.
This feature applies to LV Fuses, ICCB, and MCCB.

After copying style contents from one style to the clipboard, take the cursor over the style
name you want to copy data to and click the right mouse button. From the edit options that
appear, choose Paste Style Contents. You can paste the style contents to a different style
name in the same type or to a different type, manufacturer, or library. If you are pasting the
data on the same spreadsheet you copied from, remember to create a unique style name first.

Copy/Paste Sensor Contents: This feature applies to solid state trip devices only. All of the
data within a sensor description can be copied by placing the cursor over the frame name or
row, clicking the right mouse button, and choosing Copy Sensor Contents.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Customizing  264

Copy/Paste Frame Contents: This feature applies to MCCB, solid state trip, and non-solid
state trip devices. All of the data within a frame description can be copied by placing the
cursor over the frame name or row, clicking the right mouse button, and choosing Copy
Frame Contents.

After copying the frame contents you can paste it to another frame. If the new frame is in the
same spreadsheet, it must have another name. You must type in the frame name before you
can paste any data. Place the cursor over the new frame name or row, click the right mouse
button, and choose Paste Frame Contents.

Copy/Paste kV Contents: This feature applies to HV Fuses only. To copy the TCC data for
all fuse sizes of a model and kV for an HV fuse, click on the button . To paste
the TCC data for all fuse sizes of a model and kV for an HV fuse from one kV to another or
from one model to another, click on the button .

Copy/Paste Device Function Contents: This feature applies to relays only. To copy the
device function contents of a relay from one device function to another, click the right mouse
button with the pointer over the device function name from which you wish to copy. Choose
Copy Device Function Contents. To paste the contents to another device function, make
sure that the device function name already exists. Device function names must be unique.
Click the right mouse button with the pointer over the device function name to which you
wish to paste. Choose Paste Device Function Contents. All the relay information will be
copied exactly the same.

Copy and Paste Device Function Contents


Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Customizing  265

Inserting Rows and Columns

Inserting Rows

Insert Row: EasyPower gives you the ability to insert a row anywhere in the spreadsheets in
the device library. Using the right mouse button, select the row or cell directly above which
you want to insert the new row. From the edit options that appear, choose Insert Row. The
Insert Row menu feature may not be available for all spreadsheets. This is true for those
spreadsheets in which the rows are sorted automatically by style names. In such cases a new
row will automatically be created below the last row when data is entered in the last row.

Insert Column: You can expand some spreadsheets by inserting columns. Using the right
mouse button, select the column to the left of which you want to insert the new column.
From the edit options that appear, choose Insert Column.

Moving Rows and Columns

Move Rows Up/Down: In some spreadsheets, rows can be moved up or down. Select a row
by clicking the right mouse button. From the edit options that appear, choose Move Up or
Move Down to move the row.

Move Columns Left/Right: In some spreadsheets, columns can be moved left or right.
Select a column by clicking the right mouse button. From the edit options that appear,
choose Move Left or Move Right to move the Column.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Customizing  266

Undo and Redo

The Undo and Redo features are not enabled in EasyPower 4.0 Device Library. However,
you may undo or redo recently made changes in the text edit fields or spreadsheets. To undo
the data change press (Ctrl)+Z on the keyboard. To redo the change made by the undo
action press (Ctrl)+R.
Chapter 7 EasyPower Device Library Customizing  267
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Properties  268

Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting


EasyPower saves printer settings for two separate print types; the Print One-line dialog box
and the Print Text Report dialog box. When you choose Print button from the Quick
Access toolbar (or File Print from the Menu bar), EasyPower opens the dialog box that is
appropriate for the currently active window. After making your desired choices, click OK to
start printing. The Print MCC/Panel Schedule dialog box opens when you choose
from the toolbar in an MCC Data or Panel Data dialog box with the Description tab
chosen, and will default to the settings of the Print Text Report dialog box. These settings
also apply to the Device Library Print dialog box and the Print Database dialog box which
opens when in the Database Report. When you preview a one-line or text report, the Print
Preview dialog box opens so that you may change the settings of what you are previewing.
The Print Plot dialog box is used for printing plot or data from the plot viewer.

Print One-line Dialog Box

Properties
Each of the dialog boxes opened by choosing Print (or File Print from the Menu
bar), has a button labeled Properties. The Properties dialog changes the parameters
appropriate for the window that you are printing, (i.e. graphics or text). You can change
things like paper size or page orientation (portrait or landscape). This dialog box is specific
to the chosen printer and may look different from one printer to the next. For example, the
Properties dialog box for the HP LaserJet 5000 Seies PS looks like this:
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Properties  269

HP LaserJet 5000 Series PS Properties Dialog Box

Changes you make in the Properties dialog box do not affect other applications, but they are
remembered from one EasyPower session to the next.

Page Setup

You can set the page margins by choosing the pull down arrow of the Print button, and
Page Setup (File Page Setup menu choice). The margins are given in inches from the
edge of the paper. If a one-line is active, it applies to one-lines. If a text report is active, it
applies to text reports. The paper size will default to the size you last selected for the current
default printer.
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Properties  270

File Page Setup Dialog Box

Print Preview

Choose the pull down arrow of the Print button and choose Print Preview (File
Print Preview from the Menu bar), to see what a one-line or text report will look like before
you print it. The Print Preview dialog box is almost identical to the regular Print dialog box
except that when you click on OK, the one-line or report will "print" to a Preview screen.
The Preview screen offers you several buttons:

Print: If you are satisfied with the way the document looks, choose this button, and it will
be sent to the printer.

Next Page: If there is more than one page, choosing this button will show the next page.

Prev Page: Once you have used Next Page, you can choose this button to go back.

Two/One Page: This button acts as a toggle, allowing you the choice of viewing one or two
pages at a time.

Zoom In/Out: These two buttons allow you to Zoom in and out. While in Print Preview,
you only have three specific zooms.

Close: If you decide you don't want to print the document, just choose this button to get
back out of Print Preview.
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Properties  271

Printing to a File

Some companies share a printer among many users by requiring them to generate print files
or plot files, which are then sent to a central computer for printing or plotting. If this is your
situation, check the Print to file box in the Print One-line or Print Text Report dialog box.
You will be prompted for a filename just before the file gets created.

Print One-line Dialog Box with Print to file checked

Printing to Acrobat Distiller

If you have the Acrobat Distiller software installed, you can print to it. This will create
portable documents in PDF format. To create PDF files simply select Acrobat Distiller as the
destination to print to in the Print dialog. You can print one-lines, TCC plots, harmonics
scans, spreadsheets, analysis reports and arc flash labels.
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Printing a One-Line  272

Printing to Acrobat Distiller

Printing a One-Line
To print the one-line, first make sure the one-line you want printed is the active window.
Choose button or File Print from the Menu to open the Print One-line dialog box.
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Title Block  273

Print One-line Dialog Box

Properties: Choose Properties to change printer characteristics.

Print to file: Choose Print to file to send the printout to a file instead of a printer.

Print Region: You can print either the entire one-line or a portion of it. "Current Window"
will print what you see in the active window. If you choose "Inside Box," you will be given
the rubber band-box cursor after you choose the dialog box's OK button. The area you box
in will then be sent to the printer.

Effects:

 Scale to Fit Page: This selection will cause what you chose in Print Region to be scaled to
fit just inside the margins of one printed page.

 Scale to: When this is selected, EasyPower will use as many pages as needed to cover the
entire area at the chosen scale. A scale of 100% will cause one-line text to appear at the
actual point size you chose in the Fonts tab of the Options dialog box (see page 303).

 Print a Border: Check box to draw a border inside the printed page, around the one-line
area.

Copies: Choose how many copies to print.

Title Block Check box to include a title block in the one-line print out. To select title block
template and to configure/edit the text or logo inside the title block, click on the Settings…
button. For details on configuring title block, see section Title Block.

Title Block
To include a title block in the printout of the one-line, enable the checkbox for Title Block in
the Print One-line dialog. If you are printing a title block for the first time, you will need to
configure the title block. EasyPower comes with several templates for title block. You can
also design your own title block.

To configure the title block, click on the Settings… button. You will get the Title Block
dialog.
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Title Block  274

Configuring Title Block

Title Block dialog

Title Block Template: This shows the title block template that is currently selected. If no
other template was selected earlier, then the default template will be seletected. A title block
template contains information on fields, borders, block sizes and orientation.

Load Template… : Using this button you can select the template file for the title block.
These template files have the file name extension .tblk. Template files are created in XML
language and stored as text files. Details for creating template files is given in the section
One-line Title Block Template Format.
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Title Block  275

Browsing for title block template

Field: Fields are the item descriptions for the items in the title block. Typically the fields are
company name, address, drawing number, drawing description, date, logo, etc. These fields
must be defined in the title block template.

Value: Value is the data you type in, corresponding to each field. To enter the value (text) for
any field, select it in the window, and click on the Modify button. Alternatively, you can
double click on the filed name. The Modify Title Block Field dialog will appear. Type the
desired text and press the OK button.

Modify Title Block Template dialog

Reserved Space: This selection positions one-line above or to the left side of the title block.
You can specify the reserved space as None, Bottom Side or Right Side.

 None: The one-line may overlap with the title block.


Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting One-line Title Block Template Format  276

 Bottom Side: The one-line is above the title block. If the title block is at the right bottom
side, then a blank space (reserved space) will appear at the bottom of the page, left to the
title block.

 Right Side: The one-line is to the left side of the title block. If the title block is at the right
bottom side, then a blank space (reserved space) will appear at the right of the page,
above the title block.

Scaling: You can scale the title block by specifying the scaling percentage or have the
program automatically scale the size based on the paper size.

One-line Title Block Template Format


It is recommended that you understand XML before creating or editing templates

Title Block File Format

The one-line title block template file is an XML file. This is a standard format for
exchanging data for many web based and standalone applications and is easily extensible.

Items can be defined in any order and attributes can be in any order. There are 4 basic types
of graphical objects that can be defined for title blocks: rectangles, lines, text and pictures.
Each of these items has attributes that describe their positions, sizes, colors, etc. The general
file format is shown below:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>

<TitleBlock>

>>> Title block item definitions go here

</TitleBlock>

All the coordinates in Title Block templates are in inches with the origin (0,0) being in the
top left corner. The x coordinate increases left to right while the y coordinate increases top to
bottom. There are no limits to how large a title block you can create. It can even be larger
than the physical page you are printing on since you will have the option of scaling it down
in the Print dialog.
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting One-line Title Block Template Format  277

Title block origin

When defining attributes for the objects you define, some attributes are required such as
positioning attributes. Others are optional and if not specified, defaults are used.

Settings

The Settings section allows you to specify certain settings for the title block and can have the
following options.

Scale [Optional] Scaling for title block [Default = 0]

0 = Automatic

1 = Manual (this value should not be used in a .tblk file)

2 = Fit to right side

3 = Fit to bottom side

BorderWidth [Optional] Width of print border rectangle lines [Default = 1]

Sample:

<Settings>

<Scale>0</Scale>

<BorderWidth>1</BorderWidth>

</Settings>
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting One-line Title Block Template Format  278

Rectangles

Rectangles are simply boxes and can have the following attributes.

left [Required] Left coordinate of rectangle in inches

top [Required] Top coordinate of rectangle in inches

right [Required] Right coordinate of rectangle in inches

bottom [Required] Bottom coordinate of rectangle in inches

LineWidth [Optional] Width of the line around the rectangle [Default = 2]

Color [Optional] RGB value of color of the rectangle line [Default = 0 (black)]

Sample:

<Rect>

<left>0</left>

<top>0</top>

<right>7.25</right>

<bottom>0.75</bottom>

<LineWidth>2</LineWidth>

<Color>0xff0000</Color>

</Rect>

Lines

Lines can have the following attributes.

PosX1 [Required] Starting x value in inches

PosY1 [Required] Starting y value in inches

PosX2 [Required] Ending x value in inches

PosY2 [Required] Ending y value in inches


Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting One-line Title Block Template Format  279

LineWidth [Optional] Width of the line [Default = 2]

LineStyle [Optional] Style of the line [Default = 0]

0 = Solid

1 = Dash

2 = Dot

3 = Dash Dot

4 = Dash Dot Dot

Color [Optional] RGB value of color of the line [Default = 0 (black)]

Sample:

<Line>

<PosX1>0</PosX1>

<PosY1>0</PosY1>

<PosX2>7.25</PosX2>

<PosY2>0.75</PosY2>

<LineWidth>2</LineWidth>

<LineStyle>0</LineStyle >

<Color>0xff0000</Color>

</Line>

Text

Text can have the following attributes.

PosX [Required] Horizontal position of text in inches

PosY [Required] Vertical position of text in inches


Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting One-line Title Block Template Format  280

Alignment [Optional] Alignment of text. This field determines how PosX and PosY are
interpreted. It is specified as a combination of one of the horizonal alignment
values with one of the vertical alignment values. So a value of 30 (6 + 24)
would cause the text to be centered horizontally with PosY being the baseline.
[Default = 24 (Left Baseline)]

Left align 0

Right align 2

Center 6

Top 0

Bottom 8

Baseline 24

Label [Required] Text to display. This is static text unless the Prompt attribute is
defined in which case this value is the default text.

Prompt [Optional] Prompt for label. Makes this text item a variable and specified by
the user in the Print dialog box.

FontName [Optional] Font face name [Default = Arial]

Name [Optional] Field name [Default = none]

PointSize [Optional] Font point size [Default = 10]

Escapement [Optional] Font escapement specified in 1/10 of an angle. So for 90 degree


text you would specify 900. [Default = 0]

Bold [Optional] Bold font [Default = 0]

0 = normal

1 = bold

Italic [Optional] Italic font [Default = 0]

0 = normal

1 = italic
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting One-line Title Block Template Format  281

Color [Optional] RGB value of color of the line [Default = 0 (black)]

Sample:

<Text>

<PosX>3.625</PosX>

<PoxY>.25</PoxY>

<Alignment>30</Alignment>

<Color>0X0000000</Color>

<Label>CITY OF SEATTLE</Label>

<FontName>Arial</FontName>

<PointSize>10</PointSize>

<Escapement>0</Escapement>

<Bold>0</Bold>

<Italic>0</Italic>

</Text>

Image

Images are pictures and can have the following attributes. Images will automatically be
resized to fit the given rectangle while preserving the original aspect ratio of the image.

left [Required] Left coordinate of rectangle in inches

top [Required] Top coordinate of rectangle in inches

right [Required] Right coordinate of rectangle in inches

bottom [Required] Bottom coordinate of rectangle in inches

ImageFile [Required] Path of the graphics file. Supported files types are BMP, JPG,
GIF, TIFF, PNG, ICO, WMF, EMF.

Prompt [Required] User prompt that is displayed in the Print dialog.


Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Printing Text Reports  282

Name [Optional] Field name [Default = none]

Sample:

<Image>

<left>0</left>

<top>0</top>

<right>7.25</right>

<bottom>0.75</bottom>

<ImageFile>d:\pictures\logo.jpg</ImageFile >

<Prompt>Logo image</ Prompt >

</Image>

Printing Text Reports


If you choose to print when a text report window is active, you will see a Print Text Report
dialog box.

Print Text Report Dialog Box

Properties: Choose Properties to change printer characteristics.

Print to file: Choose Print to file to send the printout to a file instead of a printer.

Print Range: Lets you choose which pages of the report you want to print.
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Printing MCCs and Panel Schedules  283

Copies: Choose the number of copies to print.

Comment Text: When you print a report, it is often useful to include a brief description.
This text is placed in the header of every page. For example, the comment might say "30-
cycle results after opening breaker between BUS-15 and TX-22."

Free-format Reports

Database Reports use "Free" format. Since they are not constrained to fixed columns of data,
they can make use of the entire page width. Choosing a smaller Report Font in the Fonts tab
of the Options dialog box lets you see more database data in fewer pages.

Printing MCCs and Panel Schedules


Both the MCC Data and Panel Data dialog boxes have Description tabs which place
additional buttons on the Dialog Toolbar. Choosing the button will allow you to print all
spreadsheet data columns or specific user configured column views. When selecting to print
the Current Configuration, only the fields you have previously assigned to the chosen
Configuration will be printed. You can also choose to print only the selected MCC/Panel
spreadsheet or all MCC/Panel spreadsheets at one time.

Database Print Config dialog


Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Printing Arc Flash Hazard Labels  284

Spreadsheet View is used to configure the columns that display in the spreadsheet. You can
create new configurations that display only selected columns. To create a new configuration,
click on Configure… button. This will open the Database Print Config dialog. Type the
new configuration name in the Configuration field, check the desired column headings from
the Columns: window, and choose the Save button. The Select All button will include all the
columns, and the Clear All will uncheck the columns. The Delete button will delete the
selected configuration. The Close button will close the dialog without cancelling the changes
– note that this is different from the Cancel command found in most dialogs.

If you have multiple configurations saved, you can display the desired configuration by
simply selecting it in the MCC dialog.

Printing Arc Flash Hazard Labels


You can print arc flash hazard labels from the Arc Flash Hazard Report spreadsheet view. To
print labels for specific bus/equipment select the buses in the arc flash hazard report

spreadsheet and click on the drop down arrow below the Label button in the ribbon,
choose Print Label for Current Device. To print labels for all buses in the spreadsheet,
choose Print Label for All Devices. You can send the output to a label printer, any printer or
to Acrobat Distiller through the Print Text Report dialog.

For further details regarding arc flash hazard labels including label printing options and
customizable label options, refer to Chapter 17, Arc Flash Hazard analysis.
Chapter 8 Printing and Plotting Printing Arc Flash Hazard Labels  285
Chapter 9 Working With EasyPower Files Overview  286

Chapter 9
Working With EasyPower Files
Overview
This chapter describes the various types of disk files created by EasyPower, and how you can
manipulate them.

Database Files
In EasyPower 3.03 and earlier versions, the database files were stored in a set of 3 files, with
the extensions “.dez”, “.kez”, and “.mez”. These were for main database, indexing keys, and
MCC and Panel schedules respectively.

EasyPower now stores all the databases in a single file, with the extension “.dez”.

Compressing Database Files


A database file can be optimized for speed or size, but not both. An EasyPower database is
optimized for speed. Thus, a 500-bus database could take an entire megabyte of disk space.

There is a simple solution: file compression. When a computer file is compressed, it is


examined for patterns, then has those patterns encoded in a way that uses less space. When
the file is decompressed, it is restored to exactly the same state it was in originally. Files can
be taken down to one tenth of their original size. You may already be familiar with this idea;
there are several good file compression programs available.

An obvious application is to compress EasyPower database files that are not currently in use,
expanding them to their full sizes only when you need to work with them in EasyPower. An
added benefit of most compression programs is that while the files are in their compressed
state you can put more than one computer file into a single compression file, leaving you
with only one file to deal with when moving and copying those databases.
Chapter 9 Working With EasyPower Files Temporary Files  287

Temporary Files
EasyPower uses two kinds of temporary files: database and text window files.

Temporary Files

When EasyPower opens a database, it makes a temporary copy of that database. This
temporary copy is what you modify during your EasyPower session. If you exit EasyPower
without saving database changes, the original database file is safe and untouched. If you
save the database, the temporary file is renamed to have the original's name and therefore
becomes the "original database" that you can always go back to.

When EasyPower has a one-line or text window active, the actual information is stored in
temporary files. These temporary files are located in the current temp directory, which
ordinarily defaults to your Windows directory. You can change the location of the temp
directory by adding a line to your autoexec.bat file. For example, if you have created a
directory called tmp on the D-drive to hold temporary files, you would add this to
autoexec.bat:
set TEMP=d:\tmp

Of course, this change will not take effect until the next time you reboot the computer. Note
that there should not be any blanks around the "=".

Under ordinary circumstances, all temporary files are deleted as soon as their windows are
closed. However, if there is an abnormal exit (like a power failure or computer crash), one or
more of these temporary files may survive.
Chapter 9 Working With EasyPower Files Temporary Files  289
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  290

Chapter 10
Customizing EasyPower
Options
Much of the ability to Customize EasyPower is controlled by the Options dialog box. You
open it by choosing Tools Options from the ribbon or the Menu bar, and then choose
from different tabs.

General

The General tab of the Options controls some of EasyPower's more general features.

General tab of Options Dialog Box


Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  291

Settings

Reload database on startup: If this is enabled, the last EasyPower file you worked on gets
loaded while starting EasyPower program.

Enable Text Properties: If this box is checked and you double-click on a segment of one
line text the following dialog box will appear, allowing you modify the appearance of that
section of text.

Text Properties Dialog Box

Append to Analysis Text Reports: Rather than clearing the previous text report, if this box
is checked each report you generate will append to those generated before.

Equipment Palette Lock: If this box is checked, when an item is chosen from the
equipment palette the cursor will remain that item until either the ESC key is pushed or a
different item is chosen. If the box is unchecked, only one item per cursor will be placed.
For instance, adding five buses to the one-line would require choosing the bus button from
the Equipment Palette five separate times.

Confirm Delete: If this box is checked, you will be asked to confirm Delete operation,
when you try to delete an item.

Confirm Delete dialog


Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  292

Confirm Disconnect: A dialog box will appear asking you to confirm that you actually do
want to disconnect the items you have chosen.

Display tooltips: Allows display of tooltips when the cursor is taken over aor near an
equipment on the one-line, TCC curve or toolbar. The tooltip provides information on
equipment data on one-lines.

Tooltip

Verify Phase Shifting Integrity of System: When this box is checked, EasyPower will
check for invalid transformer connections when entering the Short Circuit focus. For
example, a delta-wye transformer (which causes a 30 degree phase shift) in parallel with a
delta-delta transformer (no inherent phase shift), is an invalid connection. (Warning: if this
box is not checked and invalid connections exist, Short Circuit calculations could be
incorrect.)

Confirm Save on Incomplete Database Dialog: If this box is checked and you attempt to
close a database dialog box which does not have data entered in all of the required fields, you
will receive a message asking if you would like to save the data which you have entered.

Confirm to save temporary analysis focus changes: If you change any temporary data in
an analysis focus, or the options, you will be asked if you with to save those changes while
you leave the focus. Uncheck the box to disable message.

Use Windows standard mouse wheel when zooming/panning: Checking this option
allows you to use the Microsoft standard mouse wheel to pan (scroll) by spinning the wheel.
With default EasyPower setting (this setting unchecked), you can pan by pressing the wheel
and dragging the mouse; spinning the mouse wheel will zoom in or out depending upon the
direction of spin.

Auto-calculate fields for equipment dialogs and spreadsheets: When this box is checked,
all dialog boxes and spreadsheets which contain a Calculate button will automatically re-
calculate results when figures depended upon are changed. Consequently, if this box is
checked the results fields are grayed and the user cannot enter results.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  293

Show only outlines of pictures: With this setting checked, only the outline of the inserted
picture appears on the one-line. The picture area will be grayed out. This affects the one-line
only. The picture will appear in the printout. When unchecked, the entire picture appears.

Show auto-created buses as nodes: When auto creating buses (see next item below) during
addition of equipment to other equipment not terminated with a bus, the newly created bus
between the two equipment will be shown as node (dot) if this setting is enabled. See picture
below.

Auto created bus as node and as default shape

Auto create bus on unconnected line endpoints: When this setting is selected, you can add
one equipment to another such that the program will automatically create a bus at each
connection point. Without this setting enabled, you will need to create the buses manually
before you can connect one equipment to another.

Include bus nodes when printing: When this setting is enabled, the printout will show the
nodes (which are buses). Otherwise, the buses will not appear on the printout.

Enable bus resizing with right mousebutton: Allows you to stretch or shrink the bus using
the right mouse button.

Graphically show incoming main on MCCs and Panels: This will show the main fuse
symbol or main breaker symbol inside the MCC symbol in the one-line if the MCC data has
the main fuse or main breaker defined.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  294

Show MCC and Panel in database report: Items such as breakers/fuses, cables, loads and
motors that are defined the Description tab of MCC or Panel data will appear in the Database
Report under their respective sections.

Show simple splash: A simple splash screen appears during startup of EasyPower.

Options

Recently Used File List: You can declare if the files you last used are listed under the File
menu and decide how many are listed.

Automatic Save Every: If the box is checked, EasyPower will save automatically at the
interval stated in the field.

Check for program update every: When this option is selected, EasyPower will
automatically prompt you to check for program updates with the message below after a
specified number of days.

Auto-messaging for checking for program updates


Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  295

Clipboard

To change how ID names are chosen for copied items, choose the Clipboard tab in the
Options dialog box before doing the Group Copy.

Clipboard tab of Options Dialog Box

This dialog box gives you the following choices.

ID Name Assignment For Copies: If you choose "Generate unique name", each copied
item will receive an automatically-generated unique name that is based on the item type and
the next number in sequence. For example, if the last transformer you added had the name
"TX-15", the first copied transformer will have the name "TX-16".
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  296

If you choose "Append variable text to original's name", each copied item will receive a
name that is based on the name of the original item. For example, if the original item's name
is "TX-15", the copy might be called "TX-15_A". If adding the variable text would make an
item's name too long, a unique name is chosen as described for the "Generate unique name"
choice above. For example, "TX-43/00BA01" already has 12 characters, which is the
maximum for an ID name. A copy of this item would be named something like "TX-17" and
such items will be listed in an error report.

Variable Text: When you are using "Append variable text to original's name" as described
above, this choice lets you control what that variable text is.

If you choose "Alphabetic", EasyPower uses letters of the alphabet, starting with "A". If the
original transformer's name was "T5/9927", the copy's name will be "T5/9927_A". If that
name already exists, EasyPower will try "T5/9927_B" and so forth until a unique name is
found. If "Z" is reached without finding a unique name, EasyPower switches to two letters,
i.e. "AA", "AB", etc.

If you choose "Numeric", EasyPower uses numbers, starting with "1". This option would be
used for naming conventions where the names end in an alphabetic character. For example,
if the original transformer's name was "T5/99NL", the copy's name will be "T5/99NL_1". If
that name already exists, EasyPower will try "T599NL_2" and so forth until a unique name is
found.

For either type of variable text, you can change the prefix. In the above examples, a prefix of
"#" would create names of "T5/9927#A" and T5/99NL#1" respectively. The prefix can be
more than one character if desired. For example, if the prefix is "/23-" the names would be
"T5/9927/23-A" and T5/99NL/23-1" respectively.

If you specify a prefix, it is considered to be a delimiter for variable text to be incremented


for a copy. For example, if the original's name is "T5/9927_A" and your prefix is "_", the
copy will be named "T5/9927_B", not "T5/9927_A_A". If the characters after the last
occurrence of the prefix in the original name don't match the variable text type (i.e. all digits
for "Numeric" or all letters for "Alphabetic"), then the prefix is added at the end. For
example, if the original's name is "T5/9927_A", your prefix is "_", and the variable text type
is "Numeric", the copy will be named "T5/9927_A_1".

For a very practical application of the above see Copying Subsystems on page 102.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  297

Text Visibility

The Text Visibility tab of the Options dialog box lets you choose which item types will
show ID name text and data text on the one-line. Check the appropriate boxes to view the
text you want to see for each equipment item. Your choices are remembered from one
EasyPower session to the next. They apply to all one-lines, not just the current one.

Text Visibility tab of Options Dialog Box

Some choices for line data are:

One-line Display: If you choose Equipment Data, EasyPower will display the data for each
item that has a box checked in the Show data for list. Choosing PU Impedances will display
the per unit impedance for each item with a box checked in the Show data for list. Using this
feature, you can produce an impedance diagram of your power system. The positive
sequence and zero sequence (in parenthesis) impedances are displayed.

Show For Cables: You can determine whether the “Raceway Type” or the “Raceway
Material” is shown in the cable data text.

Show for SSTs: The text representing circuit breaker rating will show one of the following:

 Frame/Plug: Frame size amps/ rating plug amps.


Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  298

 Frame/LTPU: Frame size amps/ LTPU amps (trip amps).

 Plug/LTPU: Rating plug amps/ LTPU amps (trip amps).

Side For “Line” Data: The sides where the data will appear are categorized as “From” or
“To” based on how the user connected the endpoints when creating the line. The “From”
side and “To” side of a line can be switched by opening the line dialog and switching the
names in the “From Bus:” and “To Bus:” fields.

LV Breaker/Fuse: You can choose to the show the manufacturer and Style data in the same
line or different lines.

 Show Resistor Amps: This enables display of the amp rating of grounding resistor.

These global settings can be changed for individual equipment items. Select the equipment
item(s) you want changed, then choose the Text Visibility from the ribbon (Edit Change
Text Visibility from the menu), which brings up the following dialog:

Change Text Visibility Dialog Box

The Change Text Visibility command is also available in the context menu activated by a
right-mouse click when an item is selected.

Colors

The Colors tab of the Options dialog box lets you change the appearance of the screen and
printer elements. This dialog box has three sections:
1) Screen Colors
2) Printer Colors
3) Equipment Colors Based on kV.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  299

Colors tab of Options Dialog Box

Most colors can be changed independently for the screen and printer, accounting for the fact
that color printers sometimes do not render screen colors very well.

To change color of any item, place the cursor over the box next showing the current color
format and click the left mouse button. A color palette will appear. Select the desired color
and press on the “Apply” button at the bottom of the dialog. The changes will take place
immediately and the dialog will still be open. You can change the color of other items using
the “Apply” button. To close the dialog after making the change, press the “OK” button.

You can also change the colors selecting the “Item” you wish to format using the pull down
menu and select the Color, Style (pattern/shade) and Weight (thickness of lines).

The equipment color selected will be the default equipment color for all equipment unless the
“Equipment Color Based on kV” feature is enabled. Also, if any particular equipment has
been formatted with a certain color, then this color will apply regardless of the default color.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  300

Screen Colors

For screen appearance, the style and weight options are grayed out.

Text: This is used set the color of the text on the one-line, e.g. item ID text or analysis
results.

Inactive: The color of an item turned "off" with by choosing Deactivate


button (or Edit  Deactivate from the Menu bar).

Warning: This is the color used to show that something is lacking or wrong with a
particular item. The exact meaning is context-specific. For example, in Database Edit focus
it means either the item is not fully connected or the item's data is incomplete. In Short
Circuit, it could mean that a breaker is being overloaded.

Analysis: This color is most commonly used for buses that have been faulted in a Short
Circuit analysis or buses at which harmonics injected is during harmonics analysis.

Harmonics Plot: To choose the color of harmonics plots in Define Plot.

Selected Item: When you select an item by clicking on it, enclosing it in a rubber rectangle,
or finding it by choosing Find button (or Edit Find from the Menu bar), it is
displayed in this color.

Selection box: This allows you to change the rubber band color on your screen.

Window Background: Set the color of the background of the screen in the one-line.

New Scenario: While in a scenario, any new items will be indicated with this color.

Changed Scenario: While in a scenario, any equipment data or location changes will be
indicated by this color.

Printer Colors

For printer output, the style (pattern/shade) and/or weight options also can be selected
besides the color.

Text: This color is used for text on the one-line, e.g. item ID text or analysis results.

Inactive Color: The color of an item turned "off" with by choosing De-Activate
button.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  301

Warning Color: This is the color used to show that something is lacking or wrong with a
particular item. The exact meaning is context-specific. For example, in Database Edit focus
it means either the item is not fully connected or the item's data is incomplete. In Short
Circuit, it could mean that a breaker is being overloaded.

Warning Bus: Buses that are highlighted (e.g. to show which buses are faulted or have a
violation) can be given a pattern that makes them distinguishable from non-highlighted
buses. This is especially useful on monochrome printers like the HP LaserJet.

Warning Line: Non-bus items that are highlighted (e.g. to show Line End faults or
equipment duty violations) can be printed bolder to make them distinguishable from non-
highlighted items. This is especially useful on monochrome printers like the HP LaserJet.

Analysis Bus: This color is most commonly used for buses that have been faulted in a Short
Circuit analysis or buses at which harmonics injected is during harmonics analysis.

Equipment Colors Based on kV

Drag the slider to adjust the range


of kV the color code represents

To format the equipment colors based on kV, check the box. Turning this feature off will
result in the default equipment color. As shown in the figure above, a scale in kV, the color
codes for different kV ranges and sliders representing the boundary kV of the color code is
provided to allow you to set the color for desired voltage ranges. The slider can be dragged
left and right to set the boundary voltage for any kV range. Below the slider the kV value
appears depending on the position of the position of the slider relative to the kV scale.

To change the color for any range of voltage, place the cursor over the color in the color bar
and click the left mouse button. A color palette will appear. Select the desired color.

Note: To avoid confusion, make sure that the equipment color is not the same as the
warning or analysis color.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  302

Changing Grid Parameters

The Grid tab of the Options dialog box is used to change the grid parameters.

Grid tab of Options Dialog Box

Grid Spacing: The X (horizontal) and Y (vertical) spacing of the grid, as it would be
measured on a printout scaled at 100%. (Note that the gridpoints themselves do not print.)

Applies to text dragging: Normally, dragged text does not snap to gridpoints since there is
not usually a gridpoint where you will want the text to go. In some cases however, you
might want to have the text snap to gridpoints for specific alignment purposes.

Display grid points: If you check this box, the gridpoints will be displayed with actual dots
on the screen; otherwise, they will be invisible (but still active if grid snapping is on). By
using this check box and choosing Tools Snap to Grid from the Menu bar, you can have the
grid displayed and off, displayed and on, not displayed and off, or not displayed and on.

Grid color: You can choose any one of several colors for the grid to be displayed in.

All of these setup parameters, including the snap grid on/off status are saved with the current
database.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  303

Text Fonts, Styles, and Sizes

Fonts tab of Options Dialog Box

Using the Fonts tab of the Options dialog box, you can independently control the font, style,
and size for text. The One-line font and Comment font info is saved with the database, since
these choices are often closely associated with the layout of a particular one-line. If you
choose EasyPower button and New (File New from the Menu bar), the One-line and
Comment fonts used will be those of the last open database.

Category

Report: EasyPower provides several text reports that can be printed. This font setting lets
you control how they get printed. For example, if you don't mind small text, you can print a
large amount of data on just a few pages.

Note that the standard Windows Font dialog box says that choosing a TrueType font will
give you the "same font on the screen and printer". For Report windows, this is not true; the
screen font is always the same.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  304

One-line: This is text that appears on the one-line diagram, either as ID text or as analysis
results. Since an EasyPower one-line is WYSIWYG ("What You See Is What You Get"), the
same settings apply to both the screen and printer. Only True Type fonts are available here,
since EasyPower uses rotated text. The Size field says what to use for a print or plot at a
scale of exactly 100%. You can specify sizes smaller than what the list box shows (which
only goes down to 8-points) by typing in a number. For example, type "5" for 5-point text.
On some printers, 5-point text is readable.

If your printer uses a stick font, you will get best results with the "Courier New" font.

Comment: This is the font for any comment text you type in the Print dialog to identify
what that print represents.

Setting System Info

Choose the System tab of the Options dialog box to set system parameters.

System settings

Base MVA: The base MVA of the system your one-line represents.

Frequency: The frequency of the system your one-line represents. This number is used for
some of the database dialog box Calculate buttons. You should be sure it is correct before
you build your one-line.

The above fields are active in the database focus only.

Units: Choose U.S. or Metric, depending on your application.


Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  305

System tab of Options Dialog Box

ANSI/IEC Settings

Symbols: Choose either ANSI or IEC to change the one-line symbols used to represent
different items (i.e. transformers) in the power system you are modeling.

SC Calculation Method: Based on the short circuit calculation features you have purchased
you can choose ANSI or IEC short circuit method.

Generator 30 Cycle X: The 30 cycle reactance for generator can be selected as


1.5xMomentary reactance (default), or the transient reactance Xd’.

Arc Flash Ground Vpu: In arc flash hazard calculations, the program determines that a bus
is effectively grounded if the average voltage per unit for B and C phases during a line-to-
ground fault on A phase is less than the value specified in this field.

Show stability symbols in database focus: Equipments such as motors and generators with
stability data have different symbols in the Dynamic Stability focus. These symbols can be
made to appear in the Database Edit focus also with this checkbox enabled.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  306

Use 100% convention for displaying analysis overloads/overduties: Displays the


calculated duty or loading of equipment as a percentage of the rating. For example, if a cable
has a rating of 100A and the load current is 95A, then the cable overloading will be displayed
on the one-line as 95%. Without this option enabled, the display will be -5%.

Equipment

Choose the Equipment tab of the Options dialog box.

Equipment tab of Options Dialog Box

X/R Calculation for Grouped Motors

For the purpose of X/R calculation, EasyPower allows you to set the average Hp for ANSI
codes '<50' group, '>50' group, and 'lumped' group as chosen in the Motor Data dialog box.

Code Factors – Design

This factor is used to calculate the Design kVA (or Amp) values in for bus equipment. The
Code factor kVA (or Amp) value is multiplied by this factor to obtain the Design size.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Options  307

Relay Calibration Multiple

The Database Reports for relays will show the calibration Amps and Seconds at the specified
multiples of pickup.

Cable Derating Based on: The LV cable ampacity calculations will include the derating for
Ambient temperature based on this selection. The choices are:

 <None>: No derating is applied for ambient temperature.

 US: The derating for ambient temperature is applied as per NEC (NEC 2005, Tables
310.16 - 310.19, pages 142 – 145).

 CSA: The derating for ambient temperature is applied as per CEC (CEC 2006, Part I,
Table 5A, page 283).

Schedule Defaults – Scale: The graphical scale of schedules inserted in the drawings.

Auto-fill LV breaker trip with min values: When the Manufacturer, Type and Style are
chosen for the trip, the settings are automatically selected at the minimum possible in the
dialog.

Auto Design

These options affect the way you auto size equipment with SmartDesign feature. For details
see chapter 17.

File Locations

The File Locations tab of the Options dialog box allows you to set the default path for types
of files and templates.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Viewing Toolbars  308

File Locations tab of Options Dialog Box

Highlight the file you wish to modify by clicking on it with the mouse. Click on the Modify
button, and a browse dialog will come up allowing you to find the file and set the path by
either highlighting it and clicking on OK or just double-clicking on it.

Viewing Toolbars
When the interface Style is Toolbars, you can view or hide various toolbars and customize
them. Choosing View Customize Toolbars from the Menu bar will bring up the
Customize dialog box. Go to the Toolbars tab of the dialog. Check the box in front of the
particular Toolbars you want displayed in the regular windows.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Customizing Toolbars  309

Toolbars Dialog Box

Customizing Toolbars

Add or Remove buttons form Toolbar

In the Toolbar Style interface, you can choose which buttons to display on the toolbar. Click
on the drop down arrow at the right end of the toolbar, then choose add or Remove Buttons,
then the toolbar name. All the possible buttons will be listed. Check or uncheck the buttons to
customize the toolbar.

You can also create your own toolbar. To create a new tool bar, choose View  Customize
Toolbars Toolbars from the menu. Click on the New button. Type a name in the Toolbar
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Customizing Toolbars  310

Name dialog and choose OK. A new blank toolbar will be created. Next, go to the
Commands tab of the Customize dialog. Using the mouse, you can drag and drop the
desired buttons into the new toolbar.

.
Toolbar Name

Customizing new toolbar

You can also delete undesired items from your toolbar. To do this the Customize dialog must
be open. Drag the undesired button out of the toolbar into the one-line area. The button will
be removed.

You can also insert separators in the toolbar. To do this, drag a button slightly to the left or
right. A separator will be inserted. You can remove the separator by moving the button
towards it.

Clicking on Reset will cause the toolbar to go back to the default setting.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Report Options  311

When a Toolbar is in view, you can drag it almost anywhere you want on the screen and
attach it to the bottom, top or either side of the window. You can even change the shape of
the Toolbar similar to the way you change the shape of a window. Once a Toolbar is pulled
away from the header, a label will appear above the buttons. Then hold the cursor near one
of the edges, and it will turn into arrows. Hold down the left mouse button to drag the edge
of the toolbar and change the shape anywhere from totally horizontal, to a box, to totally
vertical.

Toolbar Options

Report Options
You can customize text reports by right-clicking on the report and choosing Report
Options…
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Report Options  312

Report Options – Font

Category: Type of information such as title, header or results. Select the desired Category
first to customize the font size, style, color etc.

Report Options – Settings

Organization Name: If you want the company name to appear different from the default
company name, type the new desired name in this field.

Show Table Shadow: Show or hide shadow effects on the report at the edge of the table.

Assumed Page Width: When you export the report to Microsoft Word 2003 or newer
version, the report is sized to fit the specified width.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Subsystems  313

Subsystems
A subsystem is a group of equipment, such as a substation, switchgear, distribution network,
etc. When you have a power system that comprises of similar subsystems, you can use
various methods to build them in the EasyPower one-line. Copying and pasting groups of
items is one way to save time. Another method is to save the subsystem as a template. Once
you create a template of a subsystem, you can insert it into your one-lines. Subsystem
templates are saved as Subsystem Template Files (*.sez). A subsystem template file is
similar to a one-line file.

Example LV substation as a subsystem

Creating New Subsystem Template

To create a new subsystem template, choose EasyPower button  New  New


Subsystem Template.

After you insert the items of the subsystem, enter data and format them, you can save the file
as a subsystem template file (.sez). Before saving the file it is recommended that you specify
the properties such as Category, Block Type and Manufacturer of the subsystem so that it is
easy to query or organize the multiple templates you may eventually have.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Subsystems  314

Setting File Properties of Subsystem Templates

To set the properties of a subsystem template, choose EasyPower button  Properties


to get a dialog as shown below. Specify the details in the fields available in the Summary tab.
Click on Advanced tab and select the Category, Block Type and Manufacturer from the
available choices in the combo boxes, or type your own text to create new items. Press OK
button when done, and save file.

Setting properties of subsystem template

Inserting Subsystem

In order to insert a subsystem into your one-line, you must have subsystem templates already
created. Subsystem templates are typically grouped together inside a template folder so that it
is easy to locate them. You can then specify the default folder for EasyPower to look into
when inserting subsystems. This saves time. To specify the default template folder, choose
from the menu: Tools  Options  File Locations, then double click on Subsystems under
the heading Property to select the folder. See picture below.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Subsystems  315

Default template file location

To insert a subsystem, go to Insert ribbon and choose Subsystem button. You will get a
dialog as shown below. The Working Folder will be the default folder specified in Tools-
Options dialog. The subsystem template files existing in the working folder will be displayed
in the Subsystem panel as shown in the picture below. If no default folder has been defined,
then Working Folder field as well as other fields will appear blank. You can change the
Working Folder by clicking the button and selecting the desired folder.

Insert Subsystem dialog


Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Subsystems  316

After selecting the Working Folder, search for the subsystem that you need. When the fields
Category, Block Type and Manufacturer have the values <ALL>, all files in the Working
Folder are displayed. To narrow you search you can specify the Category, Block Type and
Manufacturer that you are interested in. Only those files meeting your selected criteria will
be listed.

Listing templates by properties

If you highlight any file name with the cursor, the description of the subsystem will be
displayed in the Description panel of the Insert Subsystem dialog as shown in the picture
below. A preview of the one-line will also be available.

To insert a subsystem, highlight the filename in the dialog and click the Insert button.

Template Description
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Subsystems  317

Customizing Subsystems Toolbar

Toolbars dialog

When your interface Style is set to Toolbars, you can customize the toolbar. To enable the
Subsystems toolbar, choose from the menu: View  Customize Toolbars. Check the box
for Subsystem and select the Close button. You will get a toolbar shown in the picture
below.

Subsystems Toolbar

Subsystems toolbar contains up to 9 buttons, each representing a subsystem. Clicking on one


of the buttons will insert the corresponding subsystem. You can customize this tool bar in the
following ways:

1. Number of buttons on the toolbar: To add or remove buttons from the toolbar, choose
View  Customize Toolbars. Highlight Subsystem in the Categories window. You can
drag the Commands window icon to your Tool bar to add them. You can also remove the
icons by dragging them away from the Toolbar.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Subsystems  318

Customize dialog

2. Associating buttons with subsystems: To associate Subsystems toolbar buttons with


subsystem template files, open the Insert Subsystem dialog by choosing from the menu:
Insert  Subsystem and click on Customize… button to get the dialog Customize
Subsystem Toolbar as shown below. For every button, you can type in the Title and
associate it with a template file by clicking on the button and selecting the file.

Customize Subsystem Toolbar dialog

After customizing, a tool tip will appear next to a tool button when you place the cursor over
it. See the picture below.
Chapter 10 Customizing EasyPower Subsystems  319

Tool tip
Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs Subsystems  320
Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs Overview  321

Chapter 11 Using EasyPower


With Other Programs
Overview
EasyPower has full support for printing and plotting one-line diagrams from inside the
program, without any external CAD systems needed. So, you may never need to send
EasyPower one-lines outside the program.

However, some users might need to get portions of an EasyPower one-line into a word
processor for a power system study report or other purpose. Other users might want to get an
EasyPower one-line into AutoCAD® or some other drafting program for additional
documentation. For example, your company might specify a certain AutoCAD® title block
or drawing border style for all electrical diagrams.

Sending to a Word Processor


There are several ways to get an EasyPower one-line image into a word processor document.
All of them put the image on the Windows Clipboard, which can then be pasted into the word
processing document with that application's Paste command.

Using ALT-Print Screen

One way to get an image from EasyPower or any other Windows application is to hold down
the Alt key and press Print Screen. This Windows command takes a picture of the current
application's window and puts it on the Windows Clipboard.

For example, the following picture was captured using ALT-PrintScreen and was pasted
into this document using Microsoft Word For Windows 7.0.
Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs Sending to a Word Processor  322

This Figure Captured With Windows ALT-Print Screen Command

Copying EasyPower Graphics to Other Applications

When you choose the Copy button from the ribbon, while there are no one-line items
selected, EasyPower takes the section of one-line currently showing in the active window
(this option is not available for text reports) and puts it on the Windows Clipboard. The
graphics format is Windows Metafile. Then you can then paste it into another application.
However, if items are selected when you choose , those selected database items will be
copied to the clipboard instead - not the one-line graphics. For example, the following
bitmap picture was generated by choosing ,and pasted into this document using Microsoft
Word. (The border was added in the word processor.)
Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs Databases  323

Captured with EasyPower Copy Command

Copying Text Reports to Other Applications

Though you can print text reports directly from EasyPower, you may wish to incorporate
only certain sections of a text into another document or you may just want the ability to save
the whole report in a word processor.

To print the Report, select File Print from the menu bar.

To save the Report as an HTML file select File Save from the menu bar.

To export the Report to Word, right mouse click on the report and select Export as HTML to
Word or Export as HTML to Word, Fit to Page. Export as HTML to Word, Fit to Page will
fit all tables to the width of the page.

Select the lines you wish to copy or choose Edit Select All from the Menu bar if you want
to copy the entire report. Then just choose Edit Paste to place it into the word processor.

Databases
The Device Library, Motor Control Centers and Panel Schedules all have cells of data
presented in a spreadsheet format. This means that you can choose or Edit Copy from
the Menu bar to put selected data on the Windows Clipboard and then paste it into another
application.

You can also paste data from another application into the EasyPower Device Library, MCCs
or Panel Schedules by choosing or Edit Paste.
Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs Sending to a CAD System  324

Exporting Database Text Files

EasyPower has the ability to export database text files which can be opened and manipulated
by a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel®. With the one-line as the active window,
choose File Export from the Menu bar. When the Export dialog box opens, choose
Delimited database text files (*.csv) in the Save as type field. The Options button will
become active and clicking on it will bring up the equipment dialog and allow you to choose
which equipment items you want to have database text files output for. You may choose one
item, multiple items, or all items. Checking the All types box will generate database text files
for all specified items contained in the one-line.

Sending to a CAD System


EasyPower's SendCAD™ sends one-line information to CAD systems through the industry-
standard DXF file format (based on AutoCAD® Release 11). Most CAD systems can read a
file created using this standard.

How To Write a DXF File

Choose button  Export  Export Drawings from the ribbon. The Export Drawing
to AutoCAD Dxf dialog box will appear. Enter the destination folder and the filename.
Select the drawings or the main one-line using the check boxes. When OK is clicked,
EasyPower will create a DXF file. The DXF file will contain different layers which can be
turned on or off using most CAD programs.

Exactly what gets sent to the DXF file depends on which EasyPower focus you are in at the
time. For example, if you are looking at Short Circuit results on the one-line, those results
will also appear in the DXF file.
Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs Sending to a CAD System  325

Using AutoCAD® to Read the File

The simplest way to put the one-line drawing into AutoCAD®:

1. Make sure you are in the EasyPower focus to be sent to AutoCAD®, and write a DXF file
by choosing button  Export  Export Drawings as explained above in the
section How To Write a DXF File.

2. Use the AutoCAD® Import command to read into your AutoCAD® drawing the DXF
file which you created in Step 1.

Layer Names

Here is a list of the layers in EasyPower-created DXF files. Using CAD system commands,
you can turn on/off, rename, and otherwise manipulate these layers.

Layer Name Contents

OLI_EQUIP Symbols associated with equipment, i.e. transformers, motors,


etc.

OLI_FAULT Buses that have been faulted in EasyPower's Short Circuit focus.

OLI_WARNING EasyPower items that are highlighted as a warning. For


example, buses with voltage violations (by default, highlighted
in red on an EasyPower one-line) will appear on this layer.

OLI_BUS Ordinary buses (not faulted or highlighted).

OLI_LINE Lines that connect buses and equipment together.

OLI_IDTEXT Identification text, e.g. "BUS-XL21" or "TX-13".

OLI_ANTEXT Analysis text

OLI_INACTIVE Items that were deactivated in EasyPower (by default, shows as


light gray on an EasyPower one-line)

OLI_NOTE_ALL Notes with visibility in all focuses


Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs SCADA Importing and Exporting  326

OLI_NOTE_DB Notes visible in Database Edit/RT Link focus

OLI_NOTE_SC Notes visible in Short Circuit focus only

OLI_NOTE_PF Notes visible in Power Flow focus only

OLI_NOTE_HM Notes visible in Harmonics focus only

OLI_METER All meters

SCADA Importing and Exporting


EasyPower allows the input and saving of motor, load, MCC, and Panel data through an
ASCII file format. This provides a facility for reading in near real time data from a
Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) or a Power Monitoring System. Near
real time data is used for the control of generation and the utility inter-tie for maximum
efficiency. It can also be used for reviewing histories to study specific events or problems.

In this same manner, data cases can be saved from real data and can be modified and reused
for load forecasting, contingency, and what-if cases with minimal effort. The following
information describes the ASCII file structure.

File Structure

File Header: Defines the EasyPower database file which created the ASCII load file. The
header is not necessary for EasyPower to read the file. It is simply used as a reference to
determine which database created the file. The file name will be listed in the System Info
dialog in EasyPower.

If the file was created from a SCADA system or spreadsheet, the file header is not required.

Unit Header: Defines the units of all watt and var entries. Units can be watts, kW, or MW.
EasyPower will then scale the load data to the appropriate unit for the database.

UNIT=WATTS UNIT=kW UNIT=MW

Different units for different equipment types are allowed.

SPEC/SCADA Field: The SPEC/SCADA field determines if the data is placed in user
Specified or SCADA data fields when it is read in. For files created from a SCADA system
Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs SCADA Importing and Exporting  327

or spreadsheet, you will almost always use SCADA. For files saved from EasyPower both
types will be saved in the file. This field is not required for generators or utilities since the
database does not support both Specified and SCADA entry for these types.

Load Field: There are three formats for importing load data. Each starts with a BEGIN
statement and ends with an END statement. Below is a detailed description of each format:

1. The following fields define the standard CSV file format for load data:

BEGIN LOAD1
Load ID, SCADA, kWkVA, kVARkVA, kWI, kVARI, kWZ, kVARZ
Load ID, SPEC, kWkVA, kVARkVA, LFkVA%, kWI, kVARI, LFI%, kWZ, kVARZ, LFZ%
END LOAD1

In this format, the user defines the kW and kVAR values for each load model: constant
kVA, constant I, and constant Z as defined in the database section for loads.

Note that the SPEC import requires the user to specify the scaling factor percentage. This
value must range between 0-200% and be an increment of 5%. The scaling factors of
SCADA imports are always forced to 100%. Any blank kW, kVAR, or LF% field in this
format will leave that field unchanged in the load dialog box. The Load ID field and
SPEC/SCADA field are required.

2. An alternative format is provided for data which cannot be specifically broken down to
different load models:

BEGIN LOAD2
Load ID, SCADA, kW, kVAR, kVA%, I%, Z%, DF%
Load ID, SPEC, kW, kVAR, kVA%, I%, Z%, DF%
END LOAD2

Here, the user need only know the measured kW and kVAR values. The breakdown for
constant kVA, constant I, and constant Z is described in percentages that the user can
adjust for specific loads. The user is responsible for ensuring that these percentages add
up to 100%. The diversity factor (DF) is a separate scaling factor between 0-100%. It
allows the user to modify collected data which may be in non-concurrent peak values to
more realistic average values. The kW and kVAR values above are multiplied by the
specific model percentage and then by the diversity factor to determine the actual values
placed in the load dialog box.

The scaling factor percentages for SPEC imports are not given in the LOAD2 format.
Therefore, the scaling factors for these SPEC imports are not changed and remain as they
were before the import. However, the scaling factor percentages for the SCADA imports
Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs SCADA Importing and Exporting  328

are forced to 100%. The DF% field defaults to 100% if left blank. No other fields in this
format should be left blank.

3. Another alternative format is provided for data which cannot be specifically broken down
to the different load models:

BEGIN LOAD3
Load ID, SCADA, kW, PF, DF%
Load ID, SPEC, kW, PF, DF%
END LOAD3

This format works well when data is derived from only a kW meter. The user need only
estimate the power factor (PF), and the diversity factor (DF). EasyPower will calculate
the kVAR value based on the PF and multiply the kW and kVAR values by the scaling
factor, DF. The resulting values will be input into the constant kVA fields while the
existing constant I and constant Z loads will be set to zero for that record. Negative
power factors are allowed.

Again, the scaling factors for LOAD3 SPEC imports are unchanged and the scaling
factors for LOAD3 SCADA imports are forced to 100%. The PF field defaults to 1 and
the DF% field defaults to 100% if they are left blank. No other fields in this format
should be left blank.

Motor Field: The following fields define the CSV file format for motor load data:

BEGIN MOTORS
Motor ID, SCADA, kW, kVAR, Load Type
Motor ID, SPEC, HP, FLA, PF, Efficiency, kVA/HP, Load Type, LF%
END MOTORS

Load types can be the following:


kVA = Constant kVA
I = Constant Current
Z = Constant Impedance
kJI = Constant kW and Constant Current

Refer to “Motor Data” on page 433 for additional information regarding the motor fields
shown above. BEGIN MOTORS and END MOTORS start and end the motor import
field. Negative power factors are allowed.

Note that the motor SPEC data requires the user to specify the scaling factor percentage.
The SCADA imports always force the scaling factors to 100%. The only required fields
are the Motor ID and the SPEC/SCADA fields. Any other field left blank will leave that
field unchanged in the motor dialog box.
Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs SCADA Importing and Exporting  329

Generator Field: The following fields define the CSV file format for generator watt and
var data:

BEGIN GENERATORS
Generator ID, MW, MVAR, kV, Power Model
END GENERATORS

Refer to “Generator Data” on page 385 for additional information. The kV field is the
terminal voltage of the generator. Power model determines if the model is swing, PV, or
PQG. Normally it will default to PV and only the voltage and MW will be used. BEGIN
GENERATORS and END GENERATORS start and end the generator import field.

The only required field is the Generator ID field. Any other field left blank will leave
that field unchanged in the generator dialog box.

Utility Field: The following fields define the CSV format for utility watt and var data:

BEGIN UTILITIES
Utility ID, MW, MVAR, kV, Power Model
END UTILITIES

Refer to “Utility Data” on page 520 for additional information. The kV field is the
terminal voltage of the source. Power model determines if the model is swing, PV, or
PQG. Normally it will default to swing and only the voltage will be used. BEGIN
UTILITIES and END UTILITIES start and end the utility import field.

The only required field is the Utility ID field. Any other field left blank will leave that
field unchanged in the utility dialog box.
Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs SCADA Importing and Exporting  330

Sample File
;Sample ASCII File Specification
FILE=BIGGER ;This is the file header

UNIT=KW ;This is the units

BEGIN MOTORS ;Beginning of motor section


M-1,SPEC,500,,-0.9,0.9,1.00,I,100 ;SPEC is read first and is the default
M-1,SCADA,423,-334,kji
M-14,SPEC,,,,,,, ;These fields are allowed to be blank
M-14,SCADA,,,
END MOTORS ;End of motor section

UNIT=MW ;Change the units

BEGIN LOAD1 ;Beginning of LOAD1 section


L-10,SCADA,0,0,0.5,0.2,0,0 ;SCADA is read first and is the default
L-10,SPEC,0,0,100,0.5,0.2,100,0,0,100
L-11,SCADA,,,,,, ;These fields are allowed to be blank
L-11,SPEC,,,,,,,,,
END LOAD1 ;End of LOAD1 section

BEGIN LOAD2 ;Beginning of LOAD2 section


L-1,SPEC,20,10,50,25,25, ;The last field can be left blank
L-1,SCADA,20,10,100,0,0,75
END LOAD2 ;End of LOAD2 section

BEGIN LOAD3 ;Beginning of LOAD3 section


inverter,SCADA,.5,.9,100 ;ID Names can be written in lower case
RECTIFIER,SPEC,.3,, ;These fields are allowed to be blank
END LOAD3 ;End of LOAD3 section

BEGIN GENERATORS ;Beginning of generator section


GEN-3,26.5,18,12,PV
GEN-4,,,, ;These fields are allowed to be blank
END GENERATORS ;End of generator section

BEGIN UTILITIES ;Beginning of utility section


UTIL-1,0,0,115,Swing ;Blank fields are same as for generator
END UTILITIES ;End of utility section

Saving an ASCII File

EasyPower allows you to save motor, load, generator, and utility data to an ASCII file. The
File Export command brings up a dialog box and asks for a destination filename. The Export
File as Type field also needs be set to SCADA Data Files (*.csv). The Specified data for
each utility and generator record will be saved in the file. Additionally, the Specified and
SCADA data for each load and motor record will be saved in the file. The type which is
selected in the database (either Specified or SCADA) will be saved first in sequence for that
record. (See the sample file above for clarification.) EasyPower saves the load data in the
LOAD1 format.
Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs SCADA Importing and Exporting  331

Reading an ASCII File

The File Import command opens an ASCII file for reading into EasyPower. As shown in
the sample file above, the first type read (Specified or SCADA) for a record will become the
default type. Blank fields in a record leave that field unchanged in the database (refer to the
sample file above). The ID names in the ASCII file can be either upper case or lower case.
The default is to overwrite existing data, but by choosing the Options button in the Import
dialog, you may prevent certain data from being overwritten.

Import SCADA Data Options dialog box


Chapter 11 Using EasyPower With Other Programs SCADA Importing and Exporting  332
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Overview  333

Chapter 12 Database Technical


Reference
Overview
The EasyPower database stores detailed information describing each equipment model in
your system. The information is entered through dialog boxes which have industry standard
data input fields for describing the specific type of equipment you are modeling.

Comments tab in Equipment Data

All equipment data dialog contains a “Comments” tab. You may use this space to write notes
on the device.

Comments tab in equipment data dialog

Data Status: Allows you to specify whether the data entered for this item is estimated,
verified or incomplete. You can run a query to select items that are incomplete or estimated.
Then you can color code the selected items by picking a color from the color palette in the
ribbon.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference AFD Data  334

AFD Data
ID Name: Uniquely identifies the adjustable frequency drive (AFD). This ID name is
sometimes referred to as the AFD name, and can be up to 16 characters long. The names
default to AFD-1, AFD-2, AFD-3... as you enter new AFD on the one-line diagram, but you
can change those names as desired.

Input Bus: ID Name of the bus on the input side of AFD. The based kV of the bus is shown
on the right.

Output Bus: ID Name of the bus on the output side of AFD. The based kV of the bus is
shown on the right.

Specifications

AFD Data dialog – Specifications tab

Input AC Frequency: The fixed frequency on the input side. This is specified in the System
tab of Options dialog.

Output AC Frequency: The adjustable frequency on the output of the AFD. This affects the
frequency of all equipment connected on the output of the AFD.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference AFD Data  335

Rating: Rated Input kVA or the motor HP of the drive.

X/R: If the AFD is regenerative, this value is used to define the short circuit X/R ratio of the
contribution delivered at the input of the AFD. The Calculate button uses an ANSI standard
lookup table to fill in this value.

PF: The input power factor of the AFD for power flow simulations.

Efficiency: The efficiency of the AFD. This will create a real power increase from the
output to the input of the AFD

Input Side

Diode / IGBT: This is presently forced to IGBT only.

ANSI Code: Choose Non-regen to simulate and non-regenerative drive and Regenerative to
simulate a regenerative drive (which includes a short circuit contribution on the input of the
AFD).

Momentary Fault x FLA: The defined bolted fault level for the input of the AFD if it is
regenerative.

Output Side

IGBT / Thyristor: Choose IGBT to model a source inverter on the output, or choose
Thyristor to model a Thyristor output. This presently does not affect any calculations.

Fault x FLA: The fault current output of the AFD under a bolted fault condition.

Fault Time: The time that Fault x FLA is produced by the AFD under fault conditions.

Notes on AFD

Power Flow Modeling

For the AFD power flow simulation, the motor on the output of the AFD will respond in its
loading dependent upon the output frequency and voltage. The modeling used in EasyPower
is approximated based on a typical 100 HP motor response to these factors, with the motor
load on the shaft modeled as speed squared.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference AFD Data  336

For output frequencies below system frequency, a drive will maintain constant Volts/Hz by
dropping the voltage proportionally with the frequency. For output frequencies above system
frequency, voltage is typically held constant, as there is no need to drop voltage since
Volts/Hz drops as frequency increases. Additionally, one must be careful to consider that
when operating a motor above system frequency, that it should be specified to accommodate
the additional load at the highest frequency. As frequency increases, so does the load on the
shaft, since we have elected to approximate behavior with a speed-squared load
characteristic.

From the tables below, we see an interesting behavior. Because we are holding a constant
Volts/Hz when below system frequency, the motor power factor is practically constant.
Above system frequency, power factor improves. This happens because a motor rated for
higher than system frequency operation is actually operating at a “lower” frequency than the
nameplate of the specified motor. Thus, there is a drop in motor power factor.
Actual Actual Governor
Desired Output Desired Output Speed Motor Motor Motor Motor PF
Freq Freq Voltage Voltage Step kW kVar kVA PF Ratio
60 60.0 1.000 1.000 0.0000 81.98 48.14 95.07 0.862 0.9997
50 49.8 0.833 0.833 -0.1670 56.32 32.26 64.91 0.868 1.0060
40 39.9 0.667 0.668 -0.3330 35.99 20.65 41.49 0.867 1.0056
30 29.9 0.500 0.501 -0.5000 20.10 11.56 23.18 0.867 1.0050
20 20.0 0.333 0.334 -0.6670 8.80 5.09 10.16 0.866 1.0036

Rated Condition: 82.00 48.10 95.066 0.8626 1.0000

Motor Tabulated Results for AFD Operating from 20 to 60 Hz

1.000

0.900

0.800

0.700

0.600
Motor PF

0.500

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000
10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0

Frequency (Hz)

Plot of Motor pf vs. Frequency for AFD Operating from 20 to 60 Hz


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference AFD Data  337

1.2000

1.1500

1.1000

1.0500

1.0000

Motor PF
0.9500

0.9000

0.8500

0.8000

0.7500

0.7000
10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0

Frequency (Hz)

Plot of Correction to pf vs. Frequency for AFD Operating from 20 to 60 Hz

Actual Actual Governor


Desired Output Desired Output Speed Motor Motor Motor Motor PF
Freq Freq Voltage Voltage Step kW kVar kVA PF Ratio
20 20.0 0.333 0.335 -0.6667 8.98 10.40 13.74 0.653 0.757
30 29.9 0.500 0.502 -0.5000 20.31 23.35 30.95 0.656 0.761
40 39.9 0.667 0.668 -0.3333 36.18 41.46 55.03 0.658 0.762
50 49.8 0.833 0.834 -0.1667 56.44 64.56 85.75 0.658 0.763
60 60.0 1.000 1.000 0.0000 81.99 97.66 127.51 0.643 0.746
70 69.7 1.000 1.000 0.1667 110.51 101.97 150.37 0.735 0.852
80 79.5 1.000 1.000 0.3333 143.87 108.54 180.22 0.798 0.926
90 89.5 1.000 0.999 0.5000 181.78 118.20 216.83 0.838 0.972
100 99.3 1.000 0.998 0.6667 224.01 131.94 259.98 0.862 0.999

Rated Condition: 227.70 133.60 264.00 0.862 1.000

Motor Tabulated Results for AFD Operating from 20 to 100 Hz


1.000

0.900

0.800

0.700

0.600
Motor PF

0.500

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000
10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0
Frequency (Hz)

Plot of Motor pf vs. Frequency for AFD Operating from 20 to 100 Hz


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference AFD Data  338

1.200

1.000

Motor PF Correction 0.800

0.600

0.400

0.200

0.000
10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0
Frequency (Hz)

Plot of Correction to pf vs. Frequency for AFD Operating from 20 to 100 Hz

And so, the tables and plots above show a clear relationship between motor power factor and
AFD output frequency. These results are used to generate general relationships that apply
corrections to motor pf in EasyPower as a motor on an AFD output has a frequency specified
different than system base frequency. In addition, consider the next table where we have
shown motors specified for increasing maximum frequency of operation. We see that
increasingly higher HP ratings are needed to satisfy the greater power requirement at higher
AFD frequency outputs. These results assume:

The motor is fully loaded at 60 Hz such that a higher rated motor is needed to supply the
additional load as load torque increases by the square of the speed.

The initial motor HP rating is 100 HP.

The motor cannot have its terminal voltage increased above rated nameplate voltage.

Max
Desired Motor Motor Motor Motor PF Motor
Freq kW kVar kVA PF Ratio Rated HP
60 82.00 48.10 95.07 0.863 1.0000 100.0
70 82.00 51.40 96.78 0.847 0.9823 116.7
80 82.00 67.30 106.08 0.773 0.8962 177.8
90 82.00 81.20 115.40 0.711 0.8238 225.0
100 82.00 97.60 127.47 0.643 0.7458 277.8
110 82.00 116.10 142.14 0.577 0.6688 336.0
120 82.00 136.70 159.41 0.514 0.5964 400.0

Rated pf and HP for Greater Than 60 Hz AFD Operation


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference AFD Data  339

1.000

0.900

0.800

0.700

0.600
Motor PF

0.500

0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000
50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130

Frequency (Hz)

Plot of pf at 60 Hz vs. Frequency as we increase motor HP to accommodate increased loading.


1.2000

1.1000

1.0000
Motor PF Correction

0.9000

0.8000

0.7000

0.6000

0.5000

0.4000
50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130

Frequency (Hz)

Plot of pf Correction at 60 Hz vs. Frequency as we increase motor HP to accommodate increased loading.

Thus, from our results, it is clear that below system frequency, we do not need to make any
corrections to motor power factor, but for frequencies above system frequency, we need to
consider:

Motor HP rating.

The much lower power factor at system frequency for a motor with a nameplate speed higher
than system frequency.

The increase in motor power factor as increase speed from system frequency up to the
maximum frequency of the motor.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference AFD Data  340

The plot below takes this into consideration for our typical 100 HP motor, and presents the
corrections needed with a curve fit equation used to simulate this action. The corrections
from this plot are used in EasyPower to simulate the increased frequency effects on AFD
motors.

1.1000

1.0000

70 Hz Sim
80 Hz Sim
0.9000 90 Hz Sim
Motor PF Correction

100 Hz Sim
110 Hz Sim
120 Hz Sim
0.8000
120 Hz Fit
110 Hz Fit
100 Hz Fit
90 Hz Fit
0.7000
80 Hz Fit
70 Hz Fit

0.6000

0.5000
50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 120.0 130.0

Frequency (Hz)

Correction to motor pf when specified with over-frequency capability

The best way to read the plot above is to look at one curve in relation to a given AFD motor
application. If we have an AFD and need to operate its motor at say a maximum frequency of
100 Hz, then we first select the aqua curve set that has its highest correction value of 1.0 at
100 Hz. If the motor specified for this application has a rated speed of 100 Hz (i.e. an actual
speed of 1800 RPM for 60 Hz and a rated maximum speed of 3000 RPM at 100 Hz) then if
the motor were actually running at 60 Hz, its power factor would be about 0.75 times the
motor’s rated power factor. If it were running at 80 Hz, the motor’s power factor would be
about 0.92 times the motor’s rated power factor.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference ATS Data  341

ATS Data

ATS Data dialog

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the automatic transfer switch (ATS). This ID name is
sometimes referred to as the ATS name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names
default to ATS-1, ATS-2, ATS-3... as you enter new ATS’s on the one-line diagram, but you
can change those names later if desired.

Base kV: Base kV for the ATS. An ATS has three buses as shown by the nodes in the
symbol. Note that the bus must have a kV entered before equipment can be connected to the
bus. Anything less than 1kV is considered low voltage, anything 1kV or more is high
voltage.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference ATS Data  342

Specifications

Area: Area numbers are used to uniquely define different areas of the electrical system.
These areas can then be used for creating specific text reports from analysis operations that
represent subsets of the system. For example, typical paper plant areas may be the power
house (Area 1), caustic plant (Area 2), pulp mill (Area 3), and paper machine (Area 4). Area
numbers are positive integers between 1 and 999.

Zone: A zone number is simply a sub-area. This allows even more specific reporting. You
may wish to define the pulp mill as Area 3 and the digester electrical equipment as Zone 2.
Specific reports can then be generated for this combination without including the entire pulp
mill or the other digesters.

Switch Type: To select the one-line graphics (symbol).

Source Connection: Normal connection of the switch. “Source 1Bus” corresponds to the bus
on the left. To have the switch normally connect to the right side bus, select “Source 2 Bus”
in the combo box.

ATS Model: You can specify the short circuit ratings of the ATS as switch or LV circuit
breakers, depending upon their construction. Selecting Edit Data… button will open the
dialog for Switch Data or LV Breaker Data.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference ATS Data  343

Stability

Enable: Check box enables stability data

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of ATS manufacturers available in the device library.
If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the library.

Type: ATS types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Model: ATS models available from the type chosen in the Type field above. If the desired
style is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Lib button: Populates ATS data from the library.

Trip Voltage: ATS disconnects from the source when voltage drops below this value.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Battery Data  344

Del on Start (sec): Time delay when

Arc Flash Hazard


See Bus Data.

Battery Data

Battery Data dialog

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the battery. The names default to BAT-1, BAT-2, BAT-3... as
you enter new battery on the one-line, but you can change those names later if desired.

To Bus: This is the ID Name of the bus to which the battery is connected. The Base kV of
the bus is indicated on the right.

Specifications

Total Rated kV: This is the total voltage rating of the battery string.

Charging Multiplier: This is multiplier for the battery voltage reflecting the charge
condition. For example a fully charged battery could have 1.05 and a slightly drained battery
may have 0.95 as the charging multiplier.

Total R: This is the internal resistance of the battery string in Ohms.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Bus Data  345

Rated Amps: The rated amperes of the battery or battery string. Most batteries typically
have the ampere-hour rating on an 8-hour basis. The nominal amp rating is the ampere-hour
divided by 8 for such batteries. If the battery rating in ampere-hours is given at a different
discharge duration, then divide by the stated number.

Note

Batteries are modeled as a straight Thevenin voltage source behind a resistance. Thus, they
HOLD voltage behind an internal resistance like a Swing Bus. Batteries thus have the ability
to be the single source that will allow a system to enter power flow and solve the system.

Bus Data

Bus Data Dialog Box

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the bus. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the bus
name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to BUS-1, BUS-2, BUS-3... as
you enter new buses on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names later if
desired.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Bus Data  346

Base kV: Base kV for the bus. Note that the bus must have a kV entered before equipment
can be connected to the bus. Anything less than 1kV is considered low voltage, anything
1kV or more is high voltage. MCCs and Panel Schedules can only be connected to low
voltage buses.

Lock Auto Sizing: When check box is checked, bus will not allow auto sizing.

Specifications

Area: Area numbers are used to uniquely define different areas of the electrical system.
These areas can then be used for creating specific text reports from analysis operations that
represent subsets of the system. For example, typical paper plant areas may be the power
house (Area 1), caustic plant (Area 2), pulp mill (Area 3), and paper machine (Area 4). Area
numbers are positive integers between 1 and 999.

Zone: A zone number is simply a sub-area. This allows even more specific reporting. You
may wish to define the pulp mill as Area 3 and the digester electrical equipment as Zone 2.
Specific reports can then be generated for this combination without including the entire pulp
mill or the other digesters.

Rating (A): Continuous current rating of the bus in amperes.

Bracing (kA): Short circuit rating of bus bracing in kA. The testing standard unit is specified
on the right side as follows:

High voltage Bus can have one of the following units:

 Asymmetrical kA.

 Peak kA (crest).

Low voltage bus has symmetrical kA unit.

Type: Type of equipment inside which the bus exists. This may be open air, MCC,
switchgear, ATS, etc. The Bus Type definition is important for Auto-Design and arc flash
hazards calculations. In arc flash hazard calculations, the parameters affected by Type are
gap between conductors and distance exponent. The various types are:

 Switchgear: This can be low voltage or high voltage switchgear.

 Open Air: The bus has no enclosures.

 Conductor: wire ways, bus ways, etc.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Bus Data  347

 MCC: Motor Control Center.

 Panel: Small and lighting panels.

 Panelboard: Low voltage power panelboards.

 Switchboard: This can be low voltage or high voltage switchboard.

 NEMA E2 Contactor: NEMA E2 motor starter enclosures. The power voltage is at


medium voltage. For low voltage control circuits this type can be used.

 Int Switch: Interrupting or disconnect or safety switch.

 VFD: Variable frequency drive or some type of motor drive.

 UPS: Uninterruptible power supply.

 ATS: Auto or manual transfer switch.

 Transformer Terminal: Enclosure transformer terminals/bushings.

 Vault: Underground space such as manhole for cable connections, transformers, etc.

 Padmount Equipment: Padmount switches, padmount transformers cabinets, etc.

 Control Panel: Enclosure for control circuits.

 Junction Box – Large: Large or deep junction box.

 Junction Box – Small: Small or shallow junction box.

 Network Protector: Spot or grid network protectors used in network distribution systems.

 Other: Any other type not specified.

One-line Graphics – Line Style: Box drawn around the bus symbol in the one-line. Any line
style can be selected from the combo box to represent an enclosure such as switchgear.

DC Bus - Base Voltage Specification

On DC buses, the base kV defined is not LL nor is it LG. It is a DC average value. If the
system you are defining is completely DC with nothing but DC sources, then defining the bus
base voltage can be done by finding the rated DC voltage on the gear you are simulating, and
then enter it for the bus.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Bus Data  348

However, if you are simulating a DC system that connects to an AC system via a Rectifier or
Inverter, then the proper DC voltage (that works in line with Rectifier and Inverter equations)
needs to be specified. For such systems, the DC voltage is related to the AC voltage under no
load conditions as follows:

This equation includes the ripple on the DC bus, and is typically used on DC systems that do
not include a large smoothing capacitor; systems such as HVDC and simple large rectifiers.
If you know that the DC bus includes a DC bus capacitor, and that under loaded conditions
ripple is minimal, you should use:

Base Voltage Consistency

DC Buses that are connected using DC Cables must have the same base kV. Consistency
checks are included in the code that should not allow differing kV buses to be connected by a
DC Cable.

Switchgear/Panelboard/Switchboard

Switchgear tab of Bus Data dialog

This tab allows you to calculate downstream loads on all the branches breakers connected to
the bus. This tab can be labeled as Siwtchgear, or Panelboard, or Switchgear depending on
the Bus Type selected in the Specifications tab.

Enable Switchgear Spreadsheet: Checking this checkbox allows you to modify


information, enter load data and calculate downstream loads. Once you make the necessary
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Bus Data  349

data entry and calculations you can you can uncheck the box to prevent changes. When
unchecked, the data can still be read.

 Diversity: Enter the diversity factor for the bus. The factor is used in calculating connected,
demand, code, and design kVA. The range is 1 to 10.

Calculate Downstream Load: Clicking on this button calculates all downstream loads for
each breaker/fuse/branch connected to this bus. All branches are considered downstream
unless there exists a source such as UPS, Generator or Utility in the direction of the branch.
The program traverses through all the paths and determines whether or not there is a power
source in the path. All loads are summed and reported in the spreadsheet if there is no power
source in the path.

Unit: You can display downstream loads in kVA or Amps.

 Elevation: You can choose the elevation layout of the switchgear such that protective
devices in stacked in columns or rows. For Columns, the breakers in one unit will be
vertically stacked. For Rows, you can have a single breakers, or breaker on the left or right.
See section on Elevation in Chapter 2.

Spreadsheet Column Headings:

ID Name: ID name of the equipment connected to the bus. If any branch has a protective
device such as a switch, fuse or breaker connected to the bus, then the ID name of the
protective device is reported. Otherwise the branch ID name is reported.

Section Space: This is a field in which users can enter their own text to describe the space
for the protective device or branch.

Description: Text field to describe the branch connected to this bus.

Device: You can specify the protective device/branch as Feeder, Main or Tie. This is for
record only and does not affect calculations.

Diversity: Number shown is the diversity factor of the downstream bus with equipment type
Switchgear, Switchboard, or Panelboard. If other equipment type is selected, diversity factor
is defaulted to 1. Diversity factor is used in calculating the connected, demand, code and
design kVA. Press Calculate Downstream Load button to update diversity factor. The range
is from 1 to 10.

Device Rating(A): Continuous current rating of the protective devices in Amps.

Cond Rating (A): Amp rating of branch conductors.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Bus Data  350

User Values: Check box to allow users to enter their own load. When checked, the entered
values are used and the calculated downstream values from the one-line are ignored.

Arc Flash Hazard

The Arc Flash Hazard tab allows you to specify the necessary details of the equipment for
arc-flash hazard calculations.

AF For This Bus: Specify how you would like Arc Flash results determined for this bus.
The (3) selections to choose from:

 Calculated

 Excluded

 Forced To

Bus Data Arc Flash Hazard tab


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Bus Data  351

Calculated: When calculated is selected, ‘Trip times for this bus’ and ‘Working Distances’
sections become active. Select method for determining trip times for this bus by choosing on
the following:

 Pre-defined Fixed Times: Obtains arc clearing time for the bus from the library default
values. This is not the same as the trip times calculated form the TCC curves of the
upstream trip device. The values stored in the library are simply predefined approximate
trip times. This method is not recommended. This option is a legacy method.

 User-defined Times: With this option you can specify the protective device clearing
time for each bus. The details of arcing time for the bus can be specified in the fields –
Device ID, Relay Function and Time (s). If no time is specified then the arc flash results
do not appear.

 TCC Times (Automatically Calculated): Arc flash incident energy are calculated based
on time characteristic current curves specified in each protective device data dialog box.

Working Distances: Specifying working distances shown on one-line and in arc flash hazard
report.

 Default from Options: When selected, workings distances used are from Default
Working Distances spreadsheet in the Arc Flash Hazard Options.

 User Specified: Selecting this option allows user to enter the working distance for this
bus only.

 Excluded: Select to exclude the bus from arc-flash reports. Some examples of when
“Excluded” may be selected are buses that are on utility side (not worked on by company
employees) but still modeled on the one-line and buses where energized work is not
likely (splices).

 Forced To: When selected an additional cell will appear. Enter the user-defined incident
energy for this bus. The arc flash value incident energy entered for this bus is shown on
the one-line and in the Arc Flash Hazard Report. This is typically used for buses where
the NFPA-70E has stated a particular PPE level can be assumed if certain conditions
exist. Particularly, 208 volt equipment fed by 125 KVA or smaller transformers.

AF Output For This Bus: This specifies what whether to display results on the line side or
the load side of the Main protective device of the bus equipment. If the arc flash hazards
output for this bus needs to be different from the global option, then this field is used. The
choices in this combo box are:

 <<Use Global Option>>: Use the option specified in Short Circuit Options.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Bus Data  352

 Including Main: Always display the arc flash hazard results on the load side of the Main
protective device for this bus equipment regardless of what options are selected in the
Short Circuit Options.

 Excluding Main: Always display the arc flash hazard results on the line side of the Main
protective device for this bus equipment regardless of what options are selected in the
Short Circuit Options.

 Both (Incl & Excl Main): Always display the arc flash hazard results on both the line side
and the load side of the Main protective device for this bus equipment regardless of what
options are selected in the Short Circuit Options.

Orientation: This is the orientation of the bus with respect to a worker that may be exposed
to arc flash. This is not related to the vertical and horizontal buses in MCC and Switchgear.
Arc travels away from source and extends from the tip of the conductors. Based on the
orientation of the conductors, the incident energy can vary. This choice affects the
calculations factor (Cf) used in the arc flash hazard equations.

 Vertical: The load side end of conductor does not point towards a worker. IEEE
1584-2002, NFPA-70E (2009) and calculation methods preceding these were based on
lab tests with the conductor orientation being vertical. The orientation is vertical for most
equipment. In a switchgear or MCC, both the horizontal and vertical buses are considered
to be “vertical” orientation if the tips of the conductors do not point outwards towards a
worker.

Examples of Vertical orientation


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Bus Data  353

 Horizontal: The load side end of conductor points towards a worker. Since the arc
extends away from the source towards the worker, the incident energy would be higher.
Arc flash tests carried out more recently had conductors in “horizontal” orientation and
hence the name. Reference: “Effect of electrode orientation in arc flash testing,” Wilkins,
R.; Allison, M.; Lang, M., Industry Applications Conference, 2005, Volume 1, Issue , 2-6
Oct. 2005 Page(s): 459 - 465 Vol. 1.

Example of Horizontal Orientation

 Vertical into Barrier: The load side end of conductors has a block of insulation
(perpendicular to the conductors). This is not the same as interphase barriers. See figure
below. The insulation holds the arc in position (not allowing the arc to move away from
conductors as in the case of open air). This results in higher incident energy. Reference:
“Effect of Insulating Barriers in Arc Flash Testing,” R. Wilkins, M. Lang and M. Allison,
September 2006, Ferraz Shawmut, Inc.

Insulation

Example of Vertical Into Barrier


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Busway Data  354

Busway Data

Busway Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the busway. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
busway name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to BWY-1, BWY-2,
BWY-3... as you enter new busways on the one-line diagram, but you can change those
names if desired.

From Bus: The bus which the busway connects “from”, which must already exist on the
one-line. You must be careful that the From Bus has the same base kV as the busway’s To
Bus. For your reference, the From Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

To Bus: The bus which the busway connects “to”, which must already exist on the one-line.
You must be careful that the To Bus has the same base kV as the busway’s From Bus. For
your reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Busway Data  355

Show Entire Line: This box is checked by default and causes the entire line to be displayed.
By un-checking the box, the line will only be shown as a short section at each end with labels
indicating which bus the other end is attached to.

Busway Specifications

Unit: Choose either U.S. or Metric.

Mfr: Provides a drop down list of busway manufacturers available in the device library.

Type: Provides a drop down list of busway types available in the device library.

Length: The length of the busway in feet or meters.

Ampacity: Busway rating in amperes. After you choose a Mfr and Type, the available
ampacities will be displayed in the drop down menu of the Ampacity field. If the desired
manufacturer is missing from the list, choosing “Generic” in Mfr field and “(std)” in the Type
field will cause the Ampacity field to be filled with several possible values.

Material: The busway material (copper or aluminum).

Impedances

Impedances are described in ohms/100 feet or ohms/100 meters . Zero sequence impedances
are found from the positive sequence impedance using a Z0/Z1 multiplier from Reference14.

R1: Positive sequence resistance.

X1: Positive sequence reactance.

R0: Zero sequence resistance. If you enter this value as zero (0.0), the positive sequence
impedance will be used.

X0: Zero sequence reactance. If you enter this value as zero (0.0), the positive sequence
impedance will be used.

Calculate Button: Fills in computed values for the Impedances R1, X1, R0, and X0 fields.
You can override these values by typing in different numbers. The calculations are based on

14 Let's Be More Specific About Equipment Grounding, R.H. Kaufmann, General Electric Co., GER
1974
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Cable Data  356

the specific manufacturers’ data for the type of busway chosen with the Mfr, Type, Ampacity,
and Material fields.]

Harmonics

See Harmonics tab of Filter Data, Page 374.

Cable Data

Cable Data Dialog Box


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Cable Data  357

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the cable. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the cable
name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to C-1, C-2, C-3... as you
enter new cables on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names later if desired.

From Bus: The bus which the cable connects “from”, which must already exist on the one-
line. You must be careful that the From Bus has the same base kV as the cable’s To Bus.
For your reference, the From Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

To Bus: The bus which the cable connects “to”, which must already exist on the one-line.
You must be careful that the To Bus has the same base kV as the cable’s From Bus. For your
reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Show Entire Line: This box is checked by default and causes the entire line to be displayed.
By un-checking the box, the line will only be shown as a short section at each end with labels
indicating which bus the other end is attached to.

Lock Auto-Sizing: While sizing cables with SmartDesign (Auto-Design feature), the cable
data is not changed if this field is checked. However, Auto-Design report will be created for
the cable to show what would have been designed. Use this field to prevent cable data from
being changed in Smart-Design.

Cable Specifications 1

Unit: Choose either U.S., CSA, Metric or Per Unit. If you choose Per Unit, all fields except
those in the Impedance (PU) section will be grayed out.

No/Phase: Total number of cables modeled. The default of one (1) means one conductor
per phase. Two (2) means two conductors in parallel per phase, etc. When two or more
conductors are in parallel, the impedance of the circuit will be decreased by that factor. The
impedances shown in the dialog box are for one conductor only, and are not based on the
No./Phase field. So if you enter these values instead of using Calculate, make sure they are
for one conductor only. This lets you easily check handbook values without additional
arithmetic. The per-unit impedances listed in a database report considers the total number of
conductors.

Type: Five different cable types can be modeled. Cable type is used in determining the
impedance of the conductor.

 1/C - One conductor. Three separate conductors are used for a circuit, one each for A
phase, B phase and C phase.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Cable Data  358

 3/C - Three conductor. This is the same as three separate conductors, except that the
conductors are encased with an insulated overall outer jacket effectively forming one
cable. The cable may or may not have an interstitial ground wire.

 IAA - Interlocked armor aluminum. This is the same as the a three conductor cable
except that the outer jacket is made of aluminum instead of protective insulation. IAA is
a generic term for describing any type of aluminum jacket including continuous sheath
products such as Okonite CLX.

 IAS - Interlocked armor steel. This is the same as IAA except that the outer jacket is
made of steel instead of aluminum.

 MAC - Messenger aerial cable. Messenger aerial cable is three separate conductors
bundled together with a messenger cable easy hanging from poles. Because the
conductors are held in a triangular fashion with the bundling, the impedance of this
configuration is the same as for the 3/C cable.

 Teck cables: Choose CSA unit. For single conductor Teck, choose “1/C” and for 3-
conductor Teck, choose IAA for aluminum armor or IAS for Steel Armor. Look for Teck
or Teck-90 in the Insulation type.

Size: Conductor size in AWG, MCM, or mm2. Cable size is used in determining the
impedance of the conductor.

Length: Length of the cable in feet or meters.

Insulation:

US Low Voltage Insulation (1000 volts or less):

 EPR - Ethylene Propylene Rubber

 PVC - Polyvinyl chloride.

 RH - Heat Resistant Rubber, 75oC

 RHH - Heat Resistant Rubber

 RHW - Moisture and Heat Resistant Rubber. This is the 480 volt equivalent of EPR.

 THHN - Heat Resistant Thermoplastic

 THWN - Moisture and Heat Resistant Thermoplastic


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Cable Data  359

 THW - Moisture and Heat Resistant Thermoplastic

 TW - Thermoplastic insulated moisture resistant cable.

 XHHW - Moisture and Heat Resistant Crosslinked Synthetic Polymer. This is the 480
volt equivalent of XLPE.

 US High Voltage Insulation (Over 1000 volts):

 XLPE - Crosslinked Polyethylene

 XLPE-133% - Crosslinked Polyethylene with 133% insulation

 XLPE-NJ - Non-Jacketed Crosslinked Polyethylene

 XLPE-NJ-133% - Non-Jacketed Crosslinked Polyethylene with 133% insulation

 XLPES - Shielded Crosslinked Polyethylene

 XLPES-133% - Shielded Crosslinked Polyethylene with 133% insulation

 EPR - Ethylene Propylene Rubber

 EPR-133% - Ethylene Propylene Rubber with 133% insulation

 EPR-NJ - Non-Jacketed Ethylene Propylene Rubber

 EPR-NJ-133% - Non-Jacketed Ethylene Propylene Rubber with 133% insulation

 EPRS - Shielded Ethylene Propylene Rubber

 EPRS-133% - Shielded Ethylene Propylene Rubber

 PILC - Paper Insulated Lead Sheath

 PILC-133% - Paper Insulated Lead Sheath with 133% insulation

Material: The conductor material.

Raceway Configuration

Type: Medium in which the conductor is supported or run (conduit, cable tray, air, or direct
buried). If “none” is selected, the cable ampacity will default to 10A
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Cable Data  360

Material: Raceway material, which can be either metallic such as steel, or non-metallic such
as aluminum, PVC, IMT, or EMT. This value is used in determining reactances.

Buried Conduits: Choose Buried for Type, then choose the material (Steel, PVC, etc.). You
can apply the derating for ampacity via the “Duct Config” field. The NEC does not have a
table for buried conduits. Therefore we need to apply the appropriate derating.

Impedances

Impedances are described in Ohms/1000 feet, Ohms/KM or PU. Zero sequence impedances
are found from the positive sequence impedance using a Z0/Z1 multiplier from Reference15.

R1: Positive sequence resistance.

Rdc (One way length): This is the resistance per 1000 feet for each conductor of DC cables
only. (Not applicable for AC cables.)

X1: Positive sequence reactance.

R0: Zero sequence resistance. If you enter this value as zero (0.0), the positive sequence
impedance will be used.

X0: Zero sequence reactance. If you enter this value as zero (0.0), the positive sequence
impedance will be used.

Rating: Conductor rating in amperes. If you use Calculate, this value will be brought from
the device library and is for one conductor. You will need to input the proper rating. The
75(C) rating is shown, to indicate lug ratings, below the rating field if calculate is used to
determine the rating (low voltage only). You can derate cable Amp rating based on Ambient
temperature and number of conductors in conduits or raceways by specifying the Ambient
temperature and the Duct Config field in the Specification 2 tab of the dialog. For the
Ambient Temp derating to take effect, you need to specify the derating standard in Tools 
Options  Equipment dialog.

Calculate Button: Fills in computed values for the R1, X1, R0, X0, Xc, Xc0,and Rating (A)
fields. You can override these values by typing in your own numbers. The calculations are
based on the cable specifications and the type of ground circuit16.

15 Let's Be More Specific About Equipment Grounding, R.H. Kaufmann, General Electric Co., GER
1974
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Cable Data  361

Cable Specifications 2

All fields have a substantial effect on conductor impedances when using the Calculate
button.

Ampacity Derating: Cable ampacities can be derated in two ways – Duct Config field and
Ambient Temp (C) field.

Specifications 2 tab of Cable Data

Duct Config: This field allows for cable ampacity derating based on the number of
conductors in the conduit, tray or duct. Select from D-1, D-2, etc. which correspond to NEC
Detail 1, NEC Detail 2, etc. of the National Electric Code. If this field is left blank, a 1.0
multiplier will be assumed for the ampacity calculations. The rating factors are stored in the

16 General Electric Wire and Cable Handbook, March 31 1983


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Cable Data  362

standard device library and can be customized if desired. If you need to derate cables based
on number of conductors in the conduit or tray, you can add to the library.

Cable Derating in the Standard Device Library

Detail 1 (left) and Detail 2 (right)

Detail 1: 11.5” X 11.5” Electrical duct bank. One electrical duct.

Detail 2: 19” X 19” Electrical duct bank. Three electrical ducts.

For a complete listing of duct configurations, please see article 310 in the National Electric
Code.

Ambient Temp: Ambient air temperature. This is used for ampacity derating based on the
standard selected in Tools  Options  Equipment. You can choose US (based on NEC),
CSA (based on CEC) or <None> in the Options. No derating is applied when the option is
<None>.

Field Temp of Conductor (C): Temperature of the loaded conductor. This can be varied
from 25C to 250C depending on the type of study being performed. Cable temperature is
used in determining the resistance of the conductor. The resistance increases with the
conductor temperature. NOTE: This is not the Ambient air temperature or the ground
temperature.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Cable Data  363

Cond Spacing: Distance between the outside insulation or jacket edges of adjacent phase
conductors. This will affect the reactance calculations. All three spacings are modeled as the
same or as a GMD equivalent. NOTE: This is not the center to center distance. See figure
below.

Conductor spacing: zero spacing (left) and with spacing (right)

Conductor Lay: Lay of the conductor, which affects the impedance. 3/C, IAA, IAS, and
MAC configurations are always defined with a triangle configuration and zero spacing even
if you choose a different configuration. Single conductor cables, however, can be in flat,
triangle or a right triangle configuration with any spacing factor.

Conductor Form: Conductor form is determined by the extrusion process of the copper or
aluminum. Choose either round or sectored.

Conduit Size & Num: Size and number of conduits. This does not affect the impedance or
ampacity calculations, but is stored as data. SmartDesign populates this field while
automatically sizing the cables.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Cable Data  364

Ground Wire

Ground Wire tab of Cable Data Dialog Box

Type: Ground conductor type (none, interstitial, separate, or as part of a group of


conductors). This choice has an effect on the zero sequence impedance calculation. See
Reference1 for more information on ground impedance calculations.

 None: No ground conductor.

 Interstitial: The ground wires in a three conductor cable (or IAA, IAS, CLX, TEC).
Typically there are three bare ground wires spaced evenly between the phase conductors.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Cable Data  365

Interstitial

 Separate: A separate ground conductor in a conduit for a specific circuit.

Separate

 Group: A ground conductor in a duct bank or tray that is used for multiple circuits.

Number: Number of ground wires in the circuit. This value is for reference only and does
not affect analysis.

Size: Ground conductor size. This value is for reference only and does not affect analysis.

Material: Ground conductor material. This value is for reference only and does not affect
analysis.

Insulation: Type of insulation for the ground wire. Select <None> for bare conductor. This
value is for reference only and does not affect analysis.

NOTE: The size of ground wire may not have a direct influence on the effective zero
sequence resistance (R0) and reactance (X0). Refer to Kaufmann’s paper on grounding. For
steel conduits, ground currents flow through the conduit close to the outer surface because of
skin effect.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference DC Cables  366

Neutral Wire

All neutral wire fields are for reference only and do not affect analysis.

 Number: Number of neutral wires.

 Size: Size of neutral wire.

 Rating: Amp rating of the neutral conductor. Enter amp rating based on size.

 Material: Neutral material type (copper or aluminum).

 Insulated: Whether or not the neutral conductor is insulated.

Harmonics

See Harmonics tab of Filter Data, Page 374.

DC Cables
DC Resistance Specification

Resistance specification

Rdc (One way length): The DC resistance of the cable, specified in Ohms per 1000 feet and
as the one way (i.e. not out and back) value.

Rating (A): Ampacity of the DC Cable.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Capacitor Data  367

Notes - Doubling of Cable Length


Since DC systems are not “balanced”, cable runs need to simulate the total out and back DC
resistance. Thus, internally, all DC line lengths are doubled to properly simulate the total
voltage drop correctly.

Capacitor Data

Capacitor Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the capacitor. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
capacitor name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to CAP-1, CAP-2,
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Capacitor Data  368

CAP-3... as you enter new capacitors on the one-line diagram, but you can change those
names if desired.

To Bus: The bus the capacitor connects to, which must already exist on the one-line. For
your reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Capacitor Specifications

Rated kV: Capacitor rated kV. This is used to determine the per-unit impedance of the
capacitor for a given base kV.

Rated Size: Capacitor MVAR or kVAR rating at the rated voltage. The unit is specified in
the combo box on the right.

Inrush: Specify the inrush current and duration for the capacitor. This is used in auto-
coordination.

Harmonics

See Harmonics tab of Filter Data, Page 374.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Current Limiting Reactor Data  369

Current Limiting Reactor Data

Current Limiting Reactor Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the C. L. Reactor. This ID name is sometimes referred to as


the C. L. Reactor name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to CLR-1,
CLR-2, CLR-3... as you enter new C. L. Reactors on the one-line diagram, but you can
change those names if desired.

From Bus: The bus which the C. L. Reactor connects “from”, which must already exist on
the one-line. You must be careful that the From Bus has the same base kV as the C. L.
Reactor’s To Bus. For your reference, the From Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus
name.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Current Limiting Reactor Data  370

To Bus: The bus which the C. L. Reactor connects “to”, which must already exist on the
one-line. You must be careful that the To Bus has the same base kV as the C. L. Reactor’s
From Bus. For your reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

C. L. Reactor Specifications

Ampacity: This field provides a list of industry standard reactor ampere ratings. But you
can also type in a rating which is not listed.

Impedance kVA: 3-phase reactor impedance kVA. This value is used to determine the
impedance and X/R ratio of the reactor. If this value is not known, you must enter the
positive and zero sequence impedance (X1 and X0) to compute the X/R ratio with the
Calculate button. The Impedance kVA is calculated with the following equation:

Impedance kVA3ph = 3(IL)2(Xohm)/1000

Material: Reactor material (copper, aluminum, or high-Q aluminum). This value is used to
determine the X/R ratio of the reactor.

X1: Positive sequence impedance. When filled in with the Calculate button, this field’s
value is based on the reactor impedance kVA.

X0: Zero sequence impedance. When filled in with the Calculate button, this field’s value
is considered the same as the positive sequence impedance X1. If you enter this value as
zero (0.0), the positive sequence impedance will be used.

X/R Ratio: The reactance to resistance ratio of the reactor. When filled in with the
Calculate button, this field’s value is based on the impedance kVA and the material type of
the reactor.

Calculate Button: Fills in computed values for the X1, X0, and X/R fields. You can
override these values by typing in different numbers.

Harmonics

See Harmonics tab of Filter Data, Page 374.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Current Transformer Data  371

Current Transformer Data

CT Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the current transformer. This ID name is sometimes referred
to as the CT name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to CT-1, CT-2,
CT-3... as you enter new current transformers on the one-line diagram, but you can change
those names if desired.

Conn Relay: The relay connected to the CT. The ID Name of the connected relay is
displayed here.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Current Transformer Data  372

Conn Bus: The bus connected to the CT. The ID Name of the connected bus is displayed
here.

Conn Item: The item connected to the CT. The ID Name of the connected item is displayed
here.

Specifications

CT Function: Number of CT ratios. You can select either “Single Ratio” or “Multi-Ratio”.
If you select Multi-Ratio, you will also need to enter the CT ratio that has been set.

Connected: The connection type. You can select either “Wye” or “Delta”.

CT Ratio: The ratio of rated primary to rated secondary amps of the current transformer.
Specify both ratings in the form: (primary amps) / (secondary amps).

Set CT Ratio: The ratio that has been set in the case of Multi-Ratio CT.

Multi-Ratio

No. of CTs: The number of current transformers in the group.

One-line Graphics: To select the way the CT symbol appears in the one-line diagram. The
available choices are as follows:

Positive Sequence Zero Sequence

Show Entire Line: If you check this box, the CT will appear connected to the relay with a line.
If it is unchecked, the entire line is not shown. “TO (Relay ID)” appears next to the CT symbol
as shown below.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Filter Data  373

Filter Data
A filter is a passive tuned circuit that presents a low impedance “sink” to currents at a given
frequency or frequencies. The button on equipment palette toolbar, inserts a filter in the
one-line diagram. The Application of harmonic filters can cause the creation of parallel
resonance below the filter tuning point (single tuned notch). Therefore, the filter must be
designed to minimize the impact of this resonant point.

Filter Data Dialog Box


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Filter Data  374

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the filter. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the filter
name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to FL-1, FL-2, FL-3... as you
enter new filters on the one-line diagram, but these names can be changed if desired.

To Bus: The bus which the filter connects to, must already exist on the one-line. For your
reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Specifications

Type: You can choose from four different types of filters by choosing one of the radio
buttons in the dialog box. When you choose the type of filter, EasyPower will gray out those
filter data fields which are inappropriate.

Filter Data:

Resistor: Resistance of resistor of the filter in ohms.

Inductor: Real and imaginary impedances (ohmic resistance and inductive reactance) at
system frequency in ohms.

Capacitor Bank (1 and 2): The reactive power of capacitors for the system frequency in
MVARs at the voltage level specified in kilovolts.

Harmonics

The database dialog boxes for motors, loads, motor control centers and panel schedules also
contain a tab labeled Harmonics. This is where it may be indicated whether or not this
equipment item is introducing harmonics into your power system.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Filter Data  375

Harmonics tab of Filter Data dialog box

Resistance Factor: EasyPower offers two methods for calculating RH:

1. Resistance varying with a power of the harmonic (R-EXP):

RH = RFund * H R-EXP

2. Resistance varying with a percent eddy current factor (%ECF):

RH = RFund * (1+ECF*H2)/(1+ECF)

EasyPower defaults all skin effect correction to R-EXP and a value of 0.5.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Filter Data  376

R-EXP %ECF

Transformer 0.5-1.0 1.0-3.0

Utility 0.0-0.8 -

Generator 0.3-0.6 -

Line/Cable 0.5 -

Reactor 0.5-1.0 0.8-3.0

Motor 0.2-0.4 -
Typical Resistance Correction Factors

Fundamental Amps: These are radio buttons. Equipment Rating will set Fundm Amps to
the equipment rating of the item described in the Specifications tab. User Specified will
activate the Fundm Amps field, allowing specification of a value. To use fundamental
current calculated by power flow, choose the Power Flow button in the Summation
Fundamental Voltage field of the Harmonics Options Control dialog box.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Fused Switch Data  377

Fused Switch Data

Fused Switch Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the fused switch. This ID name is sometimes referred to as
the fused switch name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to FS-1, FS-
2, FS-3... as you enter new fused switches on the one-line diagram. You can change the ID
Name as desired.

Open: Normal state of the fused switch. If “Open” is chosen, the one-line will show
“OPEN” next to the fused switch symbol.

Closed: If “Closed” is chosen, the one-line symbol will not show the “OPEN” tag.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Fused Switch Data  378

On Bus: The bus connected to the fuse switch, which must already exist on the one-line.

Base kV: The kV of the bus to which the fuse switch is connected. The options available in
the Specifications tab and Short Circuit tab depend upon the bus voltage. Either LV or HV
fused switches can be selected from this dialog box. Although the EasyPower Device
Library has HV and LV Fused Switches as separate devices, the same dialog box is used to
select both types.

Connection Type: Whether the fused switch is connected as a “Feeder”, (e.g., to a cable,
busway, transformer, etc.) or as a “Tie” (between two buses).

Lock Auto-Sizing: When checked, equipment will not allow auto sizing if selected.

Lock Auto-Coordination: When checked, equipment will not allow Auto Coordination if
selected.

Specifications

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of fused switch manufacturers available in the device
library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the
library.

Type: Fused switch types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If
the desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Style: Fused switch styles available from the type chosen in the Type field above. If the
desired style is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Find Style button: Allows user to search the library for a fuse style.

One-line Graphics: To select the symbol that appears on the one-line diagram, you can
select either “Fused Switch”, “Fused Contactor” or “Fuse Only” for symbol.

Fused Switch: Default setting that will show a fused switch symbol on the one-line
diagram.

Fused Contactor: If “Contactor” is chosen, a fused contactor symbol will show on the one-
line diagram.

Fuse Only: Shows fuse only in the fuse symbol, i.e. without either contactor or switch.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Fused Switch Data  379

Plot Phase TCC: Check this box to plot the TCC for the Fused Switch. If the Plot Phase
TCC box is not checked, the TCC for the device will not be plotted.

Model: This field allows you to view available models of the Fuse style that you have
chosen and select a specific model.

Library kV: Choose the section of the library the fuse data is entered. In most cases the
selected Library kV will be approximately the base kV of the fuse. For LV fuses this field is
blank.

Size: This field allows you to view available sizes of the Fuse model that you have selected
and select a specific size.

One-line Data Text: To select text to appear on one-line diagram, you can select either
“Automatic (Based on ‘Size”)” or “User Specified Field”. For text to appear next to symbols
on the one-line diagram, choose Tools Options  Text Visibility and check box for
Fused Switch.

Automatic (Based on ‘Size”): When selected, fuse ‘Size’ will appear next to the fused switch
on the one-line diagram.

User Specified Field: When selected, adjacent field is activated and text information can be
entered.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Fused Switch Data  380

Short Circuit

Fused Switch Short Circuit Dialog Box

Ratings:

Fused Interrupting (kA): The interrupting rating of the fused switch.

Test X/R: Test X/R ratio of the circuit. ANSI Standard test ratios may be different for the
same fuse depending on the voltage level at which the fuse is applied.

Testing Standard: The Testing Standard comes directly from the device library and cannot
be changed.

Calculate Button: Fills in computed values for the Test X/R and Fused Interrupting fields,
based on the device library entry for Mfr, Type, Style, and the base kV. You can override
these values by typing in different numbers. This button also causes the appropriate Testing
Standard to be displayed for your information.

TCC Defaults: Data entered in this section is used to place tick marks representing short
circuit values on the TCC plot.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Fused Switch Data  381

TCC Clipping: You can clip the time current curve (TCC) for the breaker at the specified
current in kA for Momentary (1/2 cycle), 5-cycle or 30-cycle. Select <None> to avoid
clipping of TCC.

SC Tick Marks: Check the appropriate boxes to display the tick mark on the TCC plot.
You can display Momentary, Interrupting and 30 Cycle short circuit values. Enter the
corresponding short circuit values in kiloamps in their respective edit fields for phase short
circuit.

Phase SC Values: The values in kA, entered in these fields can be displayed for phase
currents on TCC plots.

Switch

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of switch manufacturers available in the device library.
If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the library.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Fused Switch Data  382

Type: Switch types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Style: Switch styles available from the type chosen in the Type field above. If the desired
style is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Cont. Current (A): Continuous current rating of the switch.

Momentary / C&L (kA): Momentary or Close and Latch rating of the switch.

Calculate Button: Fills in device ratings based on library entries for the specified switch

Stability

Enable: Enables stability data.

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of contactor manufacturers available in the device


library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the
library.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Fused Switch Data  383

Type: Contactor types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Model: Lists available contactor models in the library.

Lib button: Populates contactor data from the library.

Mtr O/L (Motor Overload)

Fused Switch Mtr O/L Dialog Box

Plot Motor Overload Relay TCC: To plot the TCC of an attached motor overload relay
with the fused switch TCC, check this box. If you do not check this box, then no TCC will
be plotted for an attached motor overload relay.

Motor Overload Relay: To specify the motor overload relay associated with the breaker in
protecting the motor.

Mfr: Provides a list of motor overload relay manufacturers available in the device library. If
the desired manufacturer is not listed, you may add it to the library.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Fused Switch Data  384

Type: Provides a list of motor overload relay types available from the manufacturer chosen
above. A type would include a group of models or brands with similar functions. If the
desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Style: Provides a list of motor overload relay styles available from the type chosen above.
Styles are essentially models. If the desired style is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Motor Parameters: Determines the pickup level for the motor overload relay.

User Specified: The Motor Overload Relay is user specified only in this version.

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the relay being specified. This ID name is sometimes
referred to as the relay name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to R-1,
R-2, R-3... as you enter new relays on the one-line diagram. You can change the ID Name as
desired.

Full Load Amps (FLA): The full load amps specified for motor, or the relay rating.

Service Factor: Overload factor of the rated amps. This factor does not increase the rating
but simply increases the pickup level. You may enter any value between 1.0 and 1.25

Harmonics
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  385

Fused Switch Harmonics Dialog Box

EasyPower can monitor whether or not the IEEE 519 guideline for harmonics is met at the
point of common coupling.

Monitor IEEE 519 Point of Common Coupling: If the checkbox is checked, then the
Harmonics Report will report this guideline not being met.

KVA Demand: The kVA Demand.

PCC Isc/Load: The ratio of short circuit current to load current at the point of common
coupling.

DC Fused Switch

DC fused switch is modeled similar to AC fuses.

Generator Data

Generator Data Dialog Box


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  386

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the generator. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
generator name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to GEN-1, GEN-2,
GEN-3... as you enter new generators on the one-line diagram, but you can change those
names later if desired.

To Bus: The bus the generator connects to, which must already exist on the one-line. You
must be careful that the To Bus has approximately the same base kV as the generator. For
your reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Conn: This specifies the type of connection of the generator windings. This affects the
symbol of the generator in the on-line. The options are:

D: Delta connection. ………………

Y: Star connection. ………………

YG: Star connection with grounded neutral ……

For wye-grounded connections, you can attach CTs or relays to the ground as shown in the
figure below.

Generator Specifications

kV: Generator rated kV.

MVA: Generator nominal MVA. Generators may be represented as a group or individually.

Type: Generator type. This value is for reference only except for HG and SYN-SP types,
which have their momentary reactances determined by X’dv.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  387

 IND - Induction

 SYN-DP - Distributed pole synchronous

 SYN-SP - Salient pole without amortisseur winding

 SYN-SPA - Salient Pole with amortisseur winding

 SYN-COND - Condenser

 HG w/o A - Hydro generator without amortisseur winding (same as SP)

Power Factor: Generator operating power factor. This value is for reference only and does
not affect analysis.

Efficiency: Generator operating efficiency. This value is for reference only and does not
affect analysis.

RPM: Revolutions per minute of the machine. This value is for reference only and does not
affect analysis.

X/R: Generator reactance to resistance ratio, which is used to determine resistance values in
short circuit studies. Typical range is 30-150 for most generators greater than 10 MVA.

Calculate Button: Fills in a representative computed value for the X/R field, based on ANSI
C37.010. You can override this value by typing in a different number.

GSU Transformer: This field is available only when you configure your system to IEC
short circuit. If the generator has a unit substation, then the ID Name of the unit transformer
is specified in this field. This association is required in order to implement the impedance
correction on the generation station unit (GSU) or power station unit (PSU).
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  388

DC Generator Specifications

DC Generator Specifications tab

Rated kV: Name plate rated voltage in kV.

kW: Name plate (rated) power in kW.

RPM: Rated speed in revolutions per minute.

Efficiency: efficiency in per unit.

R (armature): internal resistance of dc generator in ohms.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  389

Power Flow

Power Flow tab of Generator Data dialog box

Model: Generator bus type used in modeling the power flow simulation. When you choose
a particular model, those fields which are not appropriate will be grayed out.

 PV - Constant power, constant voltage generator. This is also known as a regulated


generator. This model tries to hold a user-specified bus voltage within generator MVAR
limits.

 Swing - A swing bus holds the bus voltage and angle constant. To do this there cannot be
limits on the amount of MW or MVAR the swing machine can accept or provide. (See
“Swing Sources” on page 200.)

 PQG - Constant power, constant var generator. This is also known as an unregulated
generator. This model holds the MVAR generation within given voltage limits.

Ctl kV PU: Desired control voltage for a regulated generator (PV). The generator will try to
control the voltage at the controlled bus to a given value. If the generator bus is the swing
bus this voltage serves as the reference voltage. The voltage is entered in per-unit.

Ctl Angle: Controlled angle is used only when a generator is designated as a swing bus.
The value is entered in degrees.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  390

Ctrl Bus: For a PV generator (regulated), the bus that is to be controlled to the control
voltage. If this field is blank in the database, EasyPower will fill it in with the name of the
bus listed in the To Bus field. (Note that this does not take effect until you accept it by
choosing OK to close the database dialog box.) This field is ignored if the Model field is set
to “Swing”.

MW: Generator output MW. This may be actual operating or a rated value. This applies
only to a PV or PQG generator.

MVAR: Generator output MVAR. This is only used when the generator is a constant
power, constant var (PQG) machine or when a PV generator MVAR limit has been reached
and the machine automatically switches to PQG.

MVAR Limits: Minimum and maximum MVAR limits for regulated generators (PV). The
generator will switch to type PQG if these limits are violated. If there is only one swing
generator (Model = “Swing”) on a bus, it should not have any MVAR limits. If there are
more than one swing generators on a bus, at least one of them must be unlimited.

DC Generator Power Flow

DC Generator Power Flow tab


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  391

Model

DC Gens have three control modes:

1. Regulated

2. Un-Regulated

3. Constant Power

In Regulated mode, the voltage is controlled directly on the terminal of the generator. Thus, a
Regulated DC Generator has the ability to be the single source that will allow a system to
enter power flow and solve the system.

In Un-Regulated mode, the voltage is held constant internally as a Thevenin source. The
terminal of the generator will thus change with loading. An Un-Regulated DC Generator has
the ability to be the single source that will allow a system to enter power flow and solve the
system.

In Constant Power mode, the generator is modeled as a constant power generator, similar to a
PQ generator in the AC power flow. A Constant Power DC Generator DOES NOT have the
ability to be the single source that will allow a system to enter power flow and solve the
system. To enter power flow focus, at least one other source must be modeled that supplies
the system with stiff internal or external source.

Generator Impedance

Impedance tab of Generator Data Dialog Box

X”dv: Subtransient reactance in percent on generators MVA base. Most synchronous


generators have subtransient reactances in the 9-20% range17. The subtransient reactance is

17 Short Circuit Calculations, General Electric , GET 3550


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  392

used for ½ cycle, 5 cycle and 30 cycle short circuit calculations in accordance with ANSI
Standards.

X’dv: Transient reactance in percent on generators MVA base. This value typically ranges
from 15-30%. The transient reactance is not used in ANSI standard calculations except for
hydro and salient pole generators without amortisseur windings (Xpu = 0.75X’).

X0v: Zero sequence reactance in percent on generators MVA base. This value may range
from 3-15% for typical generators. Zero sequence values are used in all ground fault
calculations.

Xlr: Locked rotor impedance for induction machines. When actual data is not available, use
16.7%.

Ground R: Generator neutral ground resistance in ohms. This is the most common method
of grounding generator neutrals and is usually given in amperes. The impedance is found
from the following equation.

R = Vln / I

If the generator is grounded through a grounding transformer with a secondary resistance,


this resistance must be converted to the primary winding. If you know the Amp value for the
resistor, you can enter the amp value in the Amp Class field and use the <<Calculate button
to find the resistance.

Ground jX: Generator neutral ground reactance in ohms.

Amp Class: This is the current in amps through the ground impedance at the rated voltage.
You can enter data in this field directly in Amps or calculate it based on the voltage and
ground impedance R +jX using the Calculate>> button.

Generator TCC

You can plot short circuit decrement curves “with” and “without” excitation field forcing.

Plot Generator Decrement Curves

Without Field Forcing: Plots TCC for “without field forcing” option.

With Field Forcing: Plots TCC for “with field forcing” option. You can plot both with and
without field forcing options for comparison purpose.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  393

Maximum Plot Time: The amount of time in seconds that the generator can sustain
overcurrents without exceeding safe temperature limits.

TCC tab of Generator Data dialog

Synchronous
Xd: Synchronous reactance of the generator, percent.

T”d: Direct axis sub-transient short circuit time constant.

T’d: Direct axis transient short circuit time constant in seconds.

Ta: Armature time constant in seconds.

A typical generator datasheet will provide the Ta value. However, some manufacturers may
not provide Ta in the datasheet. The armature time constant is associated with the rate of
change of dc current in the stator when the generator is subjected to a 3-phase fault. Ta for
different types of generator is provided in the book “Power System Control and Stability”, by
Paul M. Anderson and A. A. Fouad, IEEE Press, 1994.

Ta = (Ld’ + Lq) / 2r
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  394

Where Ld’ is the d axis transient inductance and Lq is q axis inductance. A typical value of
Ta is 0.15 seconds for fault on the machine terminal.

Prabha Kundur’s book “Power System Stability and Control”, McGraw-Hill, 1994, provides
the following equation for Ta:

Ta = (Ld” + Lq”) / 2/ Ra

Typical value for Ta lies between 0.03 and 0.35s.

Forcing Field: Forced excitation current at a given load expressed as per unit value of field
current at no load, Ifd0.

Thermal Damage Curve

This section allows you to plot “I^2t” thermal damage curve for the generator.

Plot Thermal Damage Curve: Check this box to allow plotting of the damage curve and to
enter data for this section.

I2t Value: This defines the (I^2)t line for the damage curve. I is in per-unit of generator rated
current and t is in seconds. If I2t Value is 20, then the extrapolated damage curve line would
intersect with the FLA of the generator at 20 seconds.

Plot From/To: The damage curve is drawn on the TCC plot within these values as the lower
and upper limits in seconds.

Harmonics

See Harmonics tab of Filter Data, Page 374.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  395

Stability 1

Generator Model:

Enable: Enables stability data entry for Generator Model

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of generator manufactures available in the device


library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the
library.

Type: Generator types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Model: Lists available generator models in the library.

Lib button: Populates generator data from the library.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  396

Exciter Model:

Enable: Enables stability data entry for Exciter Model

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of exciter manufacturers available in the device


library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the
library.

Type: Exciter types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Model: Lists available exciter models in the library.

Lib button: Populates exciter data from the library.

Governor Model:

Enable: Enables stability data entry for Governor Model

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of governor manufacturers available in the device


library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the
library.

Type: Governor types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Model: Lists available governor models in the library.

Lib button: Populates governor data from the library.

For details on the parameters see Dynamic Stability Chapter19.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Generator Data  397

Stability 2

Stabilizer Model:

Enable: Enables stability data entry for Stabilizer Model.

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of stabilizer manufacturers available in the device


library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the
library.

Type: Stabilizer types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Model: Lists available stabilizer models in the library.

Lib button: Populates stabilizer data from the library.

For details on the parameters see Dynamic Stability Chapter19.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference High Voltage Breaker Data  398

High Voltage Breaker Data

High Voltage Breaker Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the high voltage breaker. This ID name is sometimes referred
to as the high voltage breaker name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default
to BH-1, BH-2, BH-3... as you enter new high voltage breakers on the one-line diagram, but
you can change those names if desired.

Open/Closed: Normal state of the high voltage breaker. If “Open” is chosen, the one-line
will show “OPEN” next to the high voltage breaker symbol. If “Closed” is chosen, the one-
line symbol will not show the “OPEN” tag.

On Bus: The bus the high voltage breaker connects to, which must already exist on the one-
line. For your reference, the On Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Connection Type: Whether the high voltage breaker is connected as a “Feeder”, (e.g., to a
cable, busway, transformer, etc.) or as a “Tie” (between two buses).
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference High Voltage Breaker Data  399

High Voltage Breaker Specifications

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of high voltage breaker manufacturers available in the
device library. After you choose a manufacturer, the available styles are displayed in the
Style field. If the desired manufacturer is missing from the list, choose “Other”.

Type: High voltage breaker types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field
above.

Style: High voltage breaker styles which correspond to the yellow column on the device
library page for the manufacturer and type chosen.

Normally: Normal state of the high voltage breaker. If “Open” is chosen, the one-line will
show “OPEN” next to the high voltage breaker symbol. If “Closed” is chosen, the one-line
symbol will not show the “OPEN” tag.

Continuous Current: The continuous current of the high voltage breaker. This value is for
reference only and does not affect analysis.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference High Voltage Breaker Data  400

Short Circuit

Max kV: Maximum voltage for which the breaker is designed and the upper limit for
operation.

Rated kA @ Max kV: Rated interrupting kA of the breaker at the breaker’s maximum
voltage.

Interrupting (kA): Interrupting rating of the breaker.

Close & Latch (kA): Close & latch rating of the breaker.

K-factor: Ratio of rated maximum voltage to the lower limit of the range of operating
voltage in which the required symmetrical and asymmetrical interrupting capabilities vary in
inverse proportion to the operating voltage.

Cycles: Interrupting time of the breaker in cycles.

Testing Standard: The data in the library for the breaker is applicable for the specified test
standard. The following testing standards are defined:
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Inverter Data  401

 ANSI-TOTAL: The interrupting and momentary close & latch ratings are both in
asymmetrical kA (total rms kA). Circuit breaker prior to 1964 used this test standard.

 ANSI-SYM: The interrupting rating is in symmetrical kA whereas the momentary close


& latch rating is in asymmetrical kA (total rms kA).

 ANSI-Crest: The interrupting rating is in symmetrical kA whereas the momentary close


& latch rating is in peak kA.

 IEC: the circuit breaker ratings are as per IEC test standard.

Calculate Button: Fills in computed values for the Max kV, Rated kA @ Max kV, K-factor,
Cycles, Interrupting, and Close & Latch fields, based on the device library entry for Mfr,
Type, Style and the base kV. You can override these values by typing in different numbers.
This button also causes the appropriate Testing Standard to be displayed for your
information. (The Testing Standard comes directly from the device library and cannot be
changed.)

Harmonics

See Harmonics tab of Filter Data, Page 374.

Inverter Data
ID Name: Uniquely identifies the lumped load. This ID name is sometimes referred to as
the inverter name, and can be up to 16 characters long. The names default to INV-1, INV-2,
INV-3... as you enter new inverters on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names
if desired.

Input Bus: The DC bus the inverter connects to, which must already exist on the one-line.
For your reference, the Input Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Output Bus: The AC bus the inverter connects to, which must already exist on the one-line.
For your reference, the Output Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Inverter Data  402

Specifications

Inverter data dialog

kVA: Rated output kVA of the inverter.

X/R: X/R ratio of the inverter short circuit contribution as seen from the load side.

IGBT / Thyristor: Type of inverter. This affects power flow simulation methods. If IGBT,
there are three control modes possible. For Thyristor, the output real and reactive power
conditions are simulated using Kimbark’s equations.

Fault x FLA: Maximum fault current expected on the load side in multiples of the full load
amps (FLA) rating.

Fault Time: Duration the inverter can supply the fault current. The time can be specified in
cycles or seconds.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Inverter Data  403

Power Flow

Power Flow tab of Inverter dialog

Model: Describes the way the output of the inverter is controlled for IGBT type. The options
are:

 Stand Alone: The inverter will supply any amount of required load, just like an AC grid
Swing Bus. The specified voltage magnitude (Ctrl kV PU) and angle (Ctrl Angle) will
be maintained. Users should carefully check the capability (limits) of the inverter.

 Voltage Controlled: This model supplies the specified amount of kW to connected


system, keeping the voltage magnitude at specified value (Ctrl kV PU) on the load side
bus. There must be a Stand Alone system present when an inverter is operating in
Voltage Controlled mode. Specify the kVAR Min and kVAR Max limits for the inverter.

 Const PQ Output: This model supplies the specified amount of kW and kVAR to
connected system. There must be a Stand Alone system present when an inverter is
operating in Const PQ Output mode. Specify the kVAR Min and kVAR Max limits for
the inverter.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Inverter Data  404

Ctrl kV PU: The per unit magnitude of Inverter output voltage. This is maintained at the
specified value for a Stand Alone model, and is maintained at the specified value while
within var limits for a Voltage Controlled model.

Ctrl Angle: The angle in degrees of the controlled output voltage for Stand Alone model.

Eff: Efficiency of the inverter. This is the ratio between output and input power in percent.

kW: Specified controlled output active power in kW for Voltage Controlled and Const PQ
Output models.

kVAR: Specified controlled output reactive power in kVAR for Const PQ Output models.

kVAR Min: Minimum kVAR capability of the inverter in voltage controlled mode.

kVAR Max: Maximum kVAR capability of the inverter in voltage controlled mode.

Min Voltage Threshold: For an IGBT inverter only, if the DC voltage on the input to the
inverter drops below this value, then the inverter begins stepping its specified kW loading
down until the input voltage rises above Min Voltage Threshold.

Note that the power flow will not solve when loading on Photovoltaics causes them to
experience a severe terminal under-voltage. Therefore, this special control was added so that
Inverters fed by Photovoltaics reduce load when voltage drops below VMP so that
Photovoltaics are required to supply less power, thus helping the DC voltage on the
Photovoltaics increase into a range where a power flow solution can be reached..

Gamma Min: Minimum inverter margin angle in degrees for thyristor type inverter.

Gamma Max: Maximum inverter margin angle in degrees for thyristor type inverter.

Commutation Impedance: Commutation impedance used to calculate the power flow using
Kimbark’s equations with Thyristor type. The inverter must feed a dedicated transformer that
matches these same values one-for-one.

Z1: Commutation impedance in percent on kVA base specified below. This must correspond
to the downstream transformer.

X/R: X/R ratio of the commutation impedance. This must correspond to the downstream
transformer.

kVA: kVA rating base for Z1. This must correspond to the downstream transformer
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Inverter Data  405

Notes on Inverter Model

DC Rated kV

When simulating a DC system that connects to an AC system via an Inverter, then the proper
Rated DC voltage needs to be specified for the Inverter. The DC voltage is related to the AC
voltage under no load conditions as follows:
3× 2 ×VAC-LL
VDC = = 1.35 VAC-LL
π

This equation is for a 6-pulse rectifier and includes the ripple on the DC bus, and is typically
used on DC systems that do not include a large smoothing capacitor; systems such as HVDC
and simple large rectifiers. If you know that the DC bus includes a DC bus capacitor, and
that under loaded conditions ripple is minimal, you should use:

VDC = 2 VAC-LL

Mandatory Commutation Impedance

When an Inverter is specified as Thyristor, mandatory commutation impedance must be


specified on the Power Flow tab. This impedance is used to calculate terminal conditions on
the output of the Inverter according Kimbark’s Equations. In addition, we mandate a
transformer be placed downstream of the Inverter that has the exact same impedance
specification as the commutation impedance. This is the reason why the commutation
impedance specification in the Power Flow tab is specified just like a transformer; so that
there is a one-to-one correspondence. Kimbark’s equations have been written with a basis
from high voltage DC lines, which always incorporate and isolation and voltage
transformation transformer from the AC line voltage where the converter is specified, and the
converter itself. Thus, to use the equations, there must always be a converter-transformer
pair, or the equations are not correct for the model.

Power Flow Modeling

An Inverter source has three source control modes similar to the AC power flow source
control modes. The control modes are:

1. Stand Alone (i.e. SWING)

2. Voltage Controlling (i.e. PV)


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Inverter Data  406

3. Non-Voltage Controlling (i.e. PQG)

An Inverter also requires knowledge of rectifier behavior if a Thyristor type is specified;


which includes the need for more data. That data is commutating reactance and firing angle
min and max. Since Kimbark’s DC equations are written with Alpha for the rectifier and
Gamma for Inverter, we will follow this convention, and require Gamma Min and Gamma
Max limits be specified.

Now, if the user fails to enter a commutation impedance matching an external inverter
transformer, the DC bus voltage will not properly reflect the AC side bus voltage drop. This
will result in the DC Bus voltage being different than it actually would be if the commutation
impedance had been included properly.

From several analysis efforts, we have come to realize that Kimbark’s equations are not
perfect. Tests show they may not produce exactly the same kW on the AC side as seen on the
DC side; an obvious violation of conservation of energy. If the user notes that he/she has set
the efficiency of a Rectifier or Inverter to 100%, and notices that the kW values are slightly
different, it simply is an issue of Kimbark’s equations supplying a very close approximation
to the AC side power, versus an exact match for an ideal “lossless” converter.

Note also that Thyristor Inverters have their Type forced to be PQG, and that Q is not
specified since Kimbark’s equations determine it.

Stand Alone Control Mode

In the Stand Alone control mode, the output of the Inverter is basically a SWING source.
Thus, whatever DC source is on its input, needs to supply the load that the output of the
inverter is forced to serve. This means that we could have conditions where the system
doesn’t solve. Consider these conditions:

We have a Battery, DC Gen or DC Util operating as unregulated sources. If the voltage drop
on the input to the inverter is too severe, we could never reach a solution, as the Invert input
load is constant power.

A Photo-Voltaic is loaded incorrectly to cause its voltage to drop below VMP, thus creating a
condition where its power must be dropped to hold its terminal current at ISC.

Under such conditions, we need the inverter to reduce its loading on the DC system.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Inverter Data  407

Min Load Voltage Set Point

Due to the discussion in the previous section, it is clear (especially for Photovoltaics), that we
need a method to reduce the specified load of the Inverter if we are creating a voltage
collapse condition on the DC system. Thus, a feature was implemented that reduces the
specified load until the DC voltage rises above the Min Load Voltage Set Point.

This feature works for Voltage Controlling and Non-Voltage Controlling modes, but does not
function when in Stand Alone mode. In Stand Alone mode, we are required to satisfy the
load on the AC output (i.e. it is a SWING). In this mode of control, no change to the load can
be made, even if the DC input voltage is collapsing. And thus, we are led into the next
section.

Min Solution Voltage Set Point – For Photovoltaics Only

Since a legitimate voltage collapse can occur on the input to the Inverter, we must cover for it
and alert. We have thus implemented the Min Solution Voltage Set Point. However, this
really is only a condition that will occur with a Photo Voltaic that is being loaded to a point
where it drops voltage to maintain ISC on its output. And so, when the DC voltage on any
Photo-Voltaic drops below this value, the solution is terminated, and the user is informed that
a solution cannot be reached due to issues with the loading of Photovoltaics.

Voltage Controlling Mode

In voltage controlling mode, the Inverter source is basically a PV generator with a specified
real power output and control voltage set point. Var limits are active. If the input DC voltage
drops below the Min Load Voltage Set Point, the specified real power is reduced until that
set point is met. The source still controls voltage and includes var limits during this real
power control action.

Non-Voltage Controlling Mode

In non-voltage controlling mode, the Inverter source is basically a PQ generator with a


specified real and reactive power output. If the input DC voltage drops below the Min Load
Voltage Set Point, the specified real power is reduced until that set point is met.

Islanding of DC Input

Due to the need for inverters to detect having their inputs offline, we have added island
checking code that detects all islands. After every switching action, islands are detected and
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Inverter Data  408

tagged. If the input to the Inverter is in an island without a SWING, the output source of the
Inverter is taken out of service with an additional switching action and subsequent island
check. This then allows us to remove the DC input to the Inverter, and its output will zero
out.

Islanding of AC Output

Inverters also need to make sure that if the AC output is in an island with no SWING, that no
load is placed on the DC input. If an island condition is created on the output of the Inverter,
then the DC load draw on the input of the Inverter is zeroed out, and the DC system will not
be loaded by the Inverter.

Load Reduction Deadband

This setting is used to help the solution solve quicker when Inverters are reducing their load
to meet their Min Voltage kW Reduction Threshold (MVKWRT). In a condition where the
input DC voltage to an Inverter drops below MVKWRT, we need to reduce the scheduled
kW required on the DC side by the inverter. This is accomplished on each iteration using:

kWReduction =  MVKWRT-VTerm  kWScheduled 

if  kWReduction < InvLRDB 


{
kWReduction = InvLRDB
}

where InvLRDB is this registry variable.

Name: InvLoadReductionDeadband
Location: Options
Type: DWORD
Represents: Values in percent
Default: 5
Example: A value of 5 is 5% which is 0.05 pu in the engine.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Load Data  409

Load Data

Load Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the lumped load. This ID name is sometimes referred to as
the load name, and can be up to 16 characters long. The names default to L-1, L-2, L-3... as
you enter new loads on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names if desired.

To Bus: The bus the load connects to, which must already exist on the one-line. For your
reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Specifications

Load Class: To specify the class of in terms of importance. You can select “Essential” or
“Critical” or “Non-essential”. This field does not affect analysis. It can be used in database
query to distinguish a certain load class from others. Please see Advanced Query, page
Error! Bookmark not defined..
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Load Data  410

Load Model

Specified: Designates the Load Data field to a user-entered model. Any combination of
constant kVA, constant I, or constant Z load may be entered.

SCADA: Designates the Load Data field to an imported real-time SCADA model. Data can
also be user input in the SCADA fields just like Specified data.

Load Data

Any combination of constant kVA, constant current, or constant impedance loads may be
modeled. Different types of loads can also be mixed and matched to model a specific type of
equipment such as variable speed drives.

Load Unit: Specifies the units that will be used for load data. Use combo box to choose the
unit.

Constant kVA/MVA: Constant kVA load entered in MW and MVAR. Note that the term
“constant kVA” seems to be an industry standard even though MVA seems to be the more
common unit for large industrial uses.

Constant I: Constant current load given in MW and MVAR. These values should be
entered in 1.0 per-unit volts.

Constant Z: Constant impedance load given in MW and MVAR. These values should be
entered in 1.0 per-unit volts.

Scaling Factor: Each load can be varied by applying a different scaling factor. This lets
you model the actual panel or lumped load on a bus, then study different loading conditions.
This allows quick “what if” studies and prevents errors that occur from data entry.

Demand Factor: Demand factor for the load.

Code Factors: NEC code factor for the load.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Load Data  411

DC Load Specifications

DC Load Specifications

Load Class: To specify the class of in terms of importance. You can select “Essential” or
“Critical” or “Non-essential”. This field does not affect analysis. It can be used in database
query to distinguish a certain load class from others.

Load Value: Rated load in kW or Amps.

Scaling Factor: Ratio of actual load to rated load in percent. This is used in power flow
calculations.

Load Type: Choose one of the following types:

 Constant kW: the kW consumed remains constant even when terminal voltage changes.

 Constant I: Constant current is drawn by the load even when terminal voltage changes.

 Constant R: The resistance is constant, so the kW and current will vary based on the
terminal voltage.

Harmonics

The database dialog boxes for motors, loads, motor control centers and panel schedules also
contain a tab labeled Harmonics. This is where it may be indicated whether or not this
equipment item is introducing harmonics into your power system.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Load Data  412

Harmonic tab of Load Data Dialog Box

Load Type: The default is to linear, indicating the equipment does not produce harmonics.
Choosing harmonic makes the item a harmonic source and will activate the other fields under
this tab.

Fundamental Amps: These are radio buttons. Equipment Rating will set Fundm Amps to
the equipment rating of the item described in the Specifications tab. User Specified will
activate the Fundm Amps field, allowing specification of a value. To use fundamental
current calculated by power flow, choose the Power Flow button in the Summation
Fundamental Voltage field of the Harmonics Options Control dialog box.

Harmonic Spreadsheet: This spreadsheet allows you to enter the harmonic spectrum
produced by this item. You may enter up to 30 different harmonics in each equipment item.
In the spreadsheet, enter the Harmonic Number (i.e. 5 for the 5th harmonic), the Harmonic
Current in percent of the Fundamental Amps, and the Current Angle. By indicating the
current angle, you can simulate transformer phase shift effects on rectifiers so appropriate
canceling can take place. The harmonic may be integer or non-integer.

Library Load: Common harmonic spectra may be entered from the device library. For
instructions on how to enter your own spectra information, see Chapter 13. After choosing a
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Load Data  413

particular device library spectrum from the Mfr and Type drop down lists, click on Import,
and that spectrum will be entered into the harmonic spreadsheet.

. Resistance Factor: EasyPower offers two methods for calculating RH:

Resistance varying with a power of the harmonic (R-EXP)

RH = RFund * H R-EXP

Resistance varying with a percent eddy current factor (%ECF)

RH = RFund * (1+ECF*H2)/(1+ECF)

EasyPower defaults all skin effect correction to R-EXP and a value of 0.5.

R-EXP %ECF

Transformer 0.5-1.0 1.0-3.0

Utility 0.0-0.8 -

Generator 0.3-0.6 -

Line/Cable 0.5 -

Reactor 0.5-1.0 0.8-3.0

Motor 0.2-0.4 -
Typical Resistance Correction Factors
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  414

Low Voltage Breaker Data

Low Voltage Breaker Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the low voltage breaker. This ID name is sometimes referred
to as the low voltage breaker name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default
to BL-1, BL-2, BL-3... as you enter new low voltage breakers on the one-line diagram, but
you can change those names if desired.

On Bus: The bus connected to the low voltage breaker, which must already exist on the one-
line. Next to the bus name, the Base kV of the bus is displayed.

Connection Type: If the low voltage breaker is connected to two buses, then the connection
type is “Bus Tie”. For all other connections, the Connection Type is “Feeder”.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  415

Open: Normal state of the low voltage breaker. If “Open” is chosen, the one-line will show
“OPEN” next to the low voltage breaker symbol.

Closed Normal state of the low voltage breaker. If “Closed” is chosen, the one-line symbol
will not show the “OPEN” tag.

Lock Auto-Sizing: When checked, equipment will not allow auto sizing if selected.

Lock Auto-Coordination: When checked, equipment will not allow Auto Coordination if
selected.

Low Voltage Breaker Specifications

Class: Low voltage breakers are separated into three categories: low voltage power circuit
breakers (LVPCB), insulated case circuit breakers (ICCB), and molded case circuit breakers
(MCCB). These classes of breakers are each listed separately in the equipment field of the
device library. Depending upon the class of breaker you select, the list of manufacturers for
the breaker class will be available in the Manufacturer (Mfr) combo box.

Breaker Mfr (Manufacturer): Provides a list of low voltage breaker manufacturers


available in the device library. After you choose a manufacturer, the available types are
displayed in the Type field. If the desired manufacturer is missing from the list, you may
enter the data in the EasyPower library. The list of manufacturers shown in the combo box
depends upon the Class of breaker. Select Class before selecting manufacturer.

Breaker Type: Provides a list of low voltage breaker types available from the manufacturer
chosen above. After you choose a type, the available styles are displayed in the Style field.
A type would include a group of models or brands with similar functions.

Breaker Style: Low voltage breaker styles available from the manufacturer for the type
chosen above. Styles are essentially models. Breaker frame size for selected style will appear
under breaker style field.

One-line Graphics: Choosing “Breaker Only”, “Fused Breaker” or “Breaker Contactor”


will change the symbol on the one-line:

Breaker Only: LV breaker

Fused Breaker: Fused LV breaker

Breaker Contactor: LV breaker with a contactor


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  416

Trip: Type of trip device or mechanism. Selecting the type of trip device affects the
contents of the dialog box. For LVPCB class, you can select “Solid State Trip” or “Non-
Solid State Trip”. For ICCB and MCCB classes, you can select “Solid State Trip” or
“Thermal Magnetic”.

Solid State Trip

Description of the solid state trip unit of the low voltage breaker. This section is available for
selection only when “Solid State Trip” is selected in the Trip field.

Solid State Trip box

 Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of solid state trip unit manufacturers available in the
device library.

 Type: Provides a list of solid state trip unit types (or brands) available from the
manufacturer chosen above.

 Style: Solid state trip unit styles (or models) available from the manufacturer for the type
chosen above.

 Sensor: Sensor rating of the trip unit for the style chosen above. The sensor feeds the trip
unit with a current proportional to the current in circuit. Selected sensor value may be used
in calculation to plot TCC.

 Plug / Tap: The plug or tap values available for the sensor selected. Selected plug or tap
value may be used to determine trip pickup. Either Plug or Tap field will appear, depending
on the data entered in the library.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  417

Non-Solid State Trip

Description of the non-solid state trip unit of the low voltage breaker. This section is
available for selection only when “Non-Solid State Trip” is selected in the Trip field. This is
similar to the Solid State Trip section described above, except that sensor and plug/tap are
not applicable to the non-solid state trip. The manufacturer, type and style need to be
selected in this section.

Non-Solid State Trip box


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  418

Short Circuit

Short Circuit dialog box

Ratings Based On: In many cases the type of trip or the application of the breaker
determines the interrupting current of the breaker. Older (pre-1964) low voltage power
circuit breakers with instantaneous trips typically have higher interrupting ratings than the
same device without instantaneous trips. The LVPCB device library allows instantaneous
and non-instantaneous trip ratings. All ICCB and MCCB breakers are equipped with
instantaneous trips. The old cascade application for LVPCBs is not supported in this library.
However, you can determine this rating and enter the value directly into the Interrupting kA
field.

Recent standards allow ICCBs and MCCBs to be rated for series application. This provides
increased interrupting kA for some devices. The ICCB and MCCB device libraries allow
instantaneous and series rated trip ratings.

Interrupting (kA): Interrupting rating of the breaker


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  419

Calculate Button: Fills in computed value for the Interrupting kA field, based on the device
library entry for Mfr, Type, Style and the base kV. (The Interrupting kA value is based on
the breaker multi-pole rating at the 480 volt level.) You can override interrupting kA by
typing in different numbers. This button also causes the appropriate Testing Standard to be
displayed for your information. (The Testing Standard comes directly from the device
library and cannot be changed.)

Calculation of series ratings: When you calculate the Interrupting kA based on Series Rating,
you will first need to define the upstream breaker Mfr, Type and Style. If the library has the
series rating data, then the data will be imported from the library. If not, the fully rated Inst
trip value will be sued.

Testing Standard: The standard to which the device complies for testing procedure.

TCC Defaults: Data entered in this section is used to place tick marks representing short
circuit values on the TCC plot.

TCC Clipping: You can clip the time current curve (TCC) for the breaker at the specified
current in kA for Momentary (1/2 cycle), 5-cycle or 30-cycle. Select <None> to avoid
clipping of TCC.

SC Tick Marks: Check the appropriate boxes to display the tick mark on the TCC plot.
You can display Momentary, Interrupting and 30 Cycle short circuit values. Enter the
corresponding short circuit values in kiloamps in their respective edit fields for phase short
circuit and ground short circuit.

Phase SC Values: The values in kA, entered in these fields can be displayed for phase
currents on TCC plots.

Ground SC Values: The values in kA, entered in these fields can be displayed for ground
currents on TCC plots. Ground SC values section is applicable only for solid state trip units
with ground fault trip.

Phase Trip

The Phase Trip dialog box stores data which determine the TCC curves of the device for
phase currents. Pickup and delay settings for long time, thermal, short time, and
instantaneous trip of the device are selected here. The fields and contents that appear on the
dialog box depend upon the type of trip unit selected in Specification tab.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  420

Phase Trip for Thermal Magnetic

Plot Phase TCC: For thermal magnetic devices, this field cannot be checked or unchecked
in the Database Edit mode. However, you can check or uncheck it in Temporary Thermal
Magnetic Data dialog box in Coordination mode to avoid plotting the TCC.

Breaker: This message shows the Manufacturer (Mfr), Type and Style of low voltage
breaker that was selected.

View Notes…: Press View Notes… button to view notes recorded in library for device.
Information may include data sheets or manufactures information used the model device or
assumptions needed to model device.

Thermal Magnetic: The title of this section indicates the kind of trip unit selected.

 Frame: Frame description. This may be the frame size, the largest rating in the range of
similar models, or a range of sizes that have similar curves.

 Trip Setting: Nominal rated amps the device is rated to carry without tripping.

 Instantaneous: Nominal instantaneous trip amps, multiple, or pickup setting. When you
highlight or select a choice, the corresponding trip amps will appear in parenthesis.

Phase Trip dialog box for Thermal Magnetic

Phase Trip for Solid State Trip

Plot Phase TCC: For solid state trip devices, this field can be checked to plot TCC or
unchecked to avoid plotting the TCC of the phase trip characteristics. To obtain a TCC plot
of Ground Trip only this box is left unchecked.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  421

Solid State Trip: This message shows the kind of trip unit selected and other descriptions of
device selected in the Specifications tab such as the Manufacturer (Mfr), Type, Style, Sensor
rating, and Plug/Trip value of the trip unit.

View Notes…: Press View Notes… button to view notes recorded in library for device.
Information may include data sheets or manufactures information used the model device or
assumptions needed to model device.

Phase Trip dialog box for Solid State Trip

LT Pickup: The long time pickup and delay are selected in this section. The pickup
calculation depends on the device selected. It may include LTPU Mult, but it will include
Setting (C) and either Sensor or Plug/Tap. After the settings are selected, the actual pickup
in amperes appears in parentheses.

 Setting (C): The long time pickup current setting below which the device will not trip.
This is a fraction of the sensor or plug/tap amps. For some trip units LTPU multiple may
also be required to set the pickup current.

 LTPU Mult: Multiple of Setting (C), which can be adjusted to “fine-tune” the long time
pickup setting. Some trip units may not have this feature.

 Curve: Some solid state curves may have multiple LT delay curves to choose from. This
field allows you to choose the curve shape.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  422

LT Delay Curve

 LT Delay: Long time delay setting to select the delay band.

ST Pickup: Short time pickup and delay settings. This section is applicable to only devices
with short time trip. After the settings are selected, the actual pickup in amperes appears in
parentheses.

 Pickup: The short time pickup current setting below which the device will not trip for
short time trip. The short time pickup setting may be a multiple of long time pickup,
sensor rating, plug or tap value, or the current setting times the sensor or plug/tap.

 (I^x)t: To select shape and slope of delay short time band. When you select “In”, the
(I^x)t function is enabled. The delay band has a slope of minus “x”. When you select
“Out”, the (I^x)t function is disabled, and the short time delay is independent of the
current. For some new circuit breakers, the (I^x)t delay may be adjustable. In such case
they choices available will be the various possible delay settings.

 Delay: Short time delay setting to select the delay band.

Inst Pickup: Nominal instantaneous trip amps, multiple, or pickup setting. When you
highlight or select a choice, the corresponding trip amps will appear in parenthesis.

 Pickup: The instantaneous trip pickup setting.

 Enable Override: Selecting Enable Override disables tripping based on pickup setting.
The device trips at an override value that depends on the device style. This feature may
or may not be applicable to the device selected.

Maint-Inst: This is the additional instantaneous setting used during maintenance to lower the
arc flash hazard. The name of this section may be manufacturer specific such as ARMS,
Maint Mode, RELT, Quick-Trip, etc.

 On: Checked box indicates the maintenance switch is on. In analysis focus, you can
select the breakers and with a right mouse click you can toggle the maintenance mode
switch on or off.

 Pickup: Setting for maintenance mode trip.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  423

Phase Trip for Non-Solid State Trip

Phase Trip dialog box for Non-Solid State Trip

Plot Phase TCC: For thermal magnetic devices, this field cannot be checked or unchecked
in the Database Edit mode. However, you can check or uncheck it in Temporary Thermal
Magnetic Data dialog box in Coordination mode to avoid plotting the TCC.

Non-Solid State Trip: This message shows the kind of trip unit selected and other
descriptions of device selected in the Specifications tab such as the Manufacturer (Mfr), Type
and Style of low voltage circuit breaker.

View Notes…: Press View Notes… button to view notes recorded in library for device.
Information may include data sheets or manufactures information used the model device or
assumptions needed to model device.

Frame: Frame and Trip descriptions.

 Frame: This may be the frame size, the largest rating in the range of similar models, or a
range of sizes that have similar curves.

 Trip: Nominal rated amps the breaker is rated to carry without tripping.

LT Pickup: The long time pickup and delay are selected in this section. After the settings
are selected, the actual pickup in amperes appears in parentheses.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  424

 Setting: The long time pickup setting below which the device will not trip. This is a
multiple of the Trip amps or the trip unit rating.

 Band: Long time delay band to adjust the delay.

ST Pickup: Short time pickup and delay settings. This section is applicable to only devices
with short time trip. After the settings are selected, the actual pickup in amperes appears in
parentheses.

 Setting: The short time pickup setting below which the device will not trip for short time
delay. This is a multiple of the long time pickup.

 Band: Short time delay band to adjust the delay.

Instantaneous: The instantaneous pickup setting, which is a multiple of long time


pickup. When you highlight or select a choice, the corresponding trip amps will appear
in parenthesis.

Gnd Trip

Ground Trip dialog box for Solid State Trip

This tab section is applicable for solid state trip devices, but not for thermal magnetic and
non-solid state trip devices.

Plot Ground TCC: For solid state trip devices, this field can be checked to plot TCC or
unchecked to avoid plotting the TCC of the ground trip characteristics.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  425

Solid State Trip: This message shows the kind of trip unit selected and other descriptions of
device selected in the Specifications tab such as the Manufacturer (Mfr), Type, Style, Sensor
rating, and Plug/Trip value of trip unit.

GF Pickup: This section is for setting the ground fault pickup, the type of delay and the
delay time.

 Pickup: The ground fault pickup setting, which is either in amps or multiple of sensor,
plug, or setting C.

 (I^x)t: To select shape and slope of ground fault delay band. When you select “In”, the
(I^x)t function is enabled. The delay band has a slope of minus “x”. When you select
“Out”, the (I^x)t function is disabled and the delay is independent of the current.

 Delay: Ground fault delay setting to select the delay band.

Maint-Inst: This is the ground instantaneous setting used during maintenance to lower the
arc flash hazard. The name of this section may be manufacturer specific such as ARMS,
Maint Mode, RELT, Quick-Trip, etc. The On/Off for the maintenance mode is the checkbox
as the Phase Trip tab.

 Pickup: Setting for maintenance mode trip for ground fault.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  426

ZSI

ZSI tab of LV Breaker Data dialog

The ZSI tab specifies the zone selective information for LV breakers. This information is
used in Coordination, fault simulations and arc flash calculations. EasyPower automatically
determines the fault zone for each breaker and trips only the breakers in the fault zone. The
ZSI feature is available in some breakers only and is specified in the device library.

ST ZSI: Checkbox to indicate if the Short Time Trip ZSI is set “On”. In analysis focus
(Short Circuit, Coordination, etc.), ST ZSI can be turned “On” or “Off” temporarily using the
right mouse context menu.

Ground ZSI: Checkbox to indicate if the Ground Trip ZSI is set “On”. In analysis focus
(Short Circuit, Coordination, etc.), Ground ZSI can be turned “On” or “Off” temporarily
using the right mouse context menu.

Upstream Breaker ID: List of upstream breakers that receive restraining signal from this
breaker. Typically there will be one upstream breaker. All LV breakers immediately
upstream, downstream or adjacent, will be available in the combo box. Pick the appropriate
breaker. The ZSI status for the upstream breaker will be indicated in the column on the right
(Upstream ZSI).
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  427

Upstream ZSI: This column automatically indicates whether the ZSI is “On” in the breaker
selected in Upstream Breaker ID column.

Auto Select: Command button to automatically list all the immediately upstream,
downstream or adjacent breakers in the Upstream Breaker ID column. After choosing this
button, you can delete the undesired breakers from the spreadsheet.

Self Restrained: Self-restrained breakers have the ZSI “Out” terminals jumpered to the ZSI
“In” terminals so that the breaker always trips on restrained mode. Restrained mode is
typically a short time delay trip. If a breaker is self-restrained, then check this checkbox. If a
breaker is self restrained, it allows downstream breakers without ZSI to trip. At the same
time it would send restraining signal to an upstream breaker to allow the self restrained unit
to trip first (preventing the upstream breaker to trip on instantaneous). This provides selective
coordination.

NOTE: Since the ZSI information depends on other breakers, it would be best to fill in ZSI
information only after other data have been entered.

Fuse

This section is applicable for fused breakers only, and the fields in this dialog box are used to
select the fuse.

Fuse dialog box for fused breakers


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  428

Plot Fuse TCC for Fused Breakers: For fused breakers, this field can be checked to plot
TCC or unchecked to avoid plotting the TCC of the fuse trip characteristics.

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of low voltage fuse manufacturers available in the
device library. After you choose a manufacturer, the available types are displayed in the
Type field.

Type: Provides a list of low voltage fuse types available from the manufacturer chosen
above. After you choose a type, the available styles are displayed in the Style field. A style
may be a brand name or the name of the group of fuses with similar functions.

Style: Low voltage fuse styles available from the manufacturer for the type chosen above.

Size: The ampere rating of the fuse.

View Notes…: Press View Notes… button to view notes recorded in library for device.
Information may include data sheets or manufactures information used the model device or
assumptions needed to model device.

Motor Overload (Mtr O/L)

Motor Overload Relay dialog box

Plot Motor Overload Relay TCC: This field can be checked to plot TCC or unchecked to
avoid plotting the TCC of the motor overload relay which trips the LV breaker.

Motor Overload Relay: To specify the motor overload relay associated with the breaker in
protecting the motor.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  429

 Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of motor overload relay manufacturers available in


the device library. After you choose a manufacturer, the available types are displayed in
the Type field.

 Type: Provides a list of motor overload relay types available from the manufacturer
chosen above. After you choose a type, the available styles are displayed in the Style
field.

 Style: Motor overload relay styles available from the manufacturer for the type chosen
above.

Motor Parameters: Determines the pickup level for the motor overload relay. The values
are user specified.

 Full Load Amps (FLA): The full load amps specified for motor, or the relay rating.

 Service Factor: Overload factor of the rated amps. This factor does not increase the
rating but simply increases the pickup level. You may enter any value between 1.0 and
1.25.

Harmonics

Harmonics dialog box for LV Breaker

Monitor IEEE 519 Point of Common Coupling: EasyPower can monitor whether or not
the IEEE 519 guideline for harmonics is met or not at the point of common coupling. If the
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Low Voltage Breaker Data  430

checkbox is checked, then the Harmonics Report will report about the guideline not being
met.

kVA Demand: The kVA Demand .

PCC Isc/ILoad: The ratio of short circuit current to load current at the point of common
coupling .

Stability

Enable: Enables stability data fields for Contactor model.

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of Contactor manufacturers available in the device


library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the
library.

Type: Contactor types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Model: Lists available Contactor models in the library.

Lib button: Populates contactor data from the library.

DC LV Breaker

DC LV breakers are modeled similar to AC breakers. Only molded case thermal magnetic
circuit breakers are currently supported for DC. Enter data in the Specifications tab and
Phase Trip tab.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Meter Data  431

For fused breaker, you can enter additional fuse data in the Fuse tab.

Meter Data
The meter allows EasyPower to connect to on-line metering systems. Historical data stored
in a database can be displayed directly on the EasyPower one-line and stored in SCADA
fields for analysis purposes.

Meter Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the meter. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
meter name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to MET-1, MET-2,
MET-3... as you enter new meters on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names
later if desired.

Status: When the meter is “On” or active, it is processed as part of the system. When “Off”
or inactive, it is ignored during analysis. Choosing “On” or “Off” here has the same effect as
choosing Activate or Deactivate. See page Error! Bookmark not defined..
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Meter Data  432

Bus Conn: The meter is connected to one end of an equipment item. This states the bus to
which that equipment item is in turn connected.

Equip Conn: This states the bus to which that equipment item is connected. Unlike most
equipment, the connectivity of meters cannot be changed from the Meter Data Dialog Box.

Load Equipment

The meter can be assigned to a particular Motor, Load, MCC, or Panel. Choosing Motor will
place all available motors in the drop down menu in the ID Name field. Multiple meters can
be assigned to one meter, but only data from the last one assigned will be saved to that
equipment item’s SCADA fields.

Association

When EasyPower is connected to a SCADA database and the SCADA focus is entered, the
data for the associated meter will be displayed on the one-line. Once a meter is associated, it
will no longer be available from the drop down lists in Site and Meter.

When meter information is available, choosing Save or Store Scenario will store the
information into the SCADA fields of the equipment item assigned in the Load Equipment
ID Name field above.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  433

Motor Data

Motor Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the motor. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
motor name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to M-1, M-2, M-3... as
you enter new motors on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names later if
desired.

To Bus: The bus the motor connects to, which must already exist on the one-line. You must
be careful that the To Bus has approximately the same base kV as the motor. For your
reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Model

Individual: Labels motor as an individual motor.

Group: Labels motor as a group of motors.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  434

Motor Specifications

Unit: Choose either US or Metric.

kV: Motor rated kV. This is normally 460 volts on a 480 volt base, or 2300 volts on a 2400
volt base.

Hp: Motor horsepower. Motors may be represented individually or as a lumped group. For
grouped motor, enter the total horsepower for the group.

RPM: Revolutions per minute. Used in output reports and defining equipment for ANSI
standard short circuit calculation multipliers.

Load Class: To specify the class in terms of importance. You can select “Essential” or
“Critical” or “Non-essential”. This field does not affect analysis. It can be used in database
query to distinguish a certain load class from others. Please see Advanced Query, page
Error! Bookmark not defined..

FLA: Calculate button will look up FLA from NEC tables if the motor HP is listed in
NEC table. The Full Load Amps field is not required to be filled in, but a value greater than
0 will affect how kVA is calculated. See Motor kVA Calculations below.

PF: Motor operating power factor. This is used with the Efficiency field to determine kVA.
Motor groups should use an average value of power factor.

Eff: Motor operating efficiency. This is used with the Power Factor field to determine
kVA. Motor groups should use an average value of efficiency.

Service Factor: The factor by which the motor can be safely overloaded. You may select
any value between 1.0 and 1.25.

Demand Factor: This factor is used to calculate the Demand kVA or Amps for the motor.
The demand factor for a motor would be the ratio of maximum motor load to total rating of
the motor.

One-line Graphics

Type: Motor type (induction, synchronous, synchronous condenser, or DC). This choice
affects the motor impedances for short circuit calculations. The one-line symbol for the
motor will follow the selection.

With Adjustable Frequency Drive: Enabling this check box changes the motor symbol in
the one-line as shown below.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  435

Motor symbol with adjustable frequency drive

Motor kVA Calculations

There are two ways to calculate motor kVA in the Motor Specifications section of the motor
dialog box. The one EasyPower uses depends on which fields you decide to enter. Below
the kVA calculation methods are shown in priority order:

If the FLA is greater than 0, the motor kVA will be determined by the following equation.

KVA = (1.73)(FLA)(kVmtr)

If the FLA is left blank or 0, the motor kVA will be determined from the following equation.

KVA = (HP)(0.746)/(EFF)(PF)

Keep in mind that the above applies to the Motor Specifications kVA. The Short Circuit
focus always uses the Motor Specifications kVA for a base value when calculating a motor’s
short circuit current. However, the Power Flow focus, which uses the Motor Specifications
kVA by default, has the option of using the real-time SCADA kW and kVAR values to
calculate kVA. This option is in the motor Power Flow tab of the Motor Data dialog box.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  436

DC Motor Specifications

DC Motor Specifications

Unit: Choose either US or Metric.

Rated kV: Motor rated kV.

Hp: Motor rated horsepower.

RPM: Revolutions per minute.

Ia (Armature): Rated armature current in Amps.

Efficiency: Ratio of output mechanical power to input power.

R (Ohms): Armature resistance in Ohms. This affects the short circuit contribution.

Connected (%): Scales the short circuit contribution from the motor.

Load Class: To specify the class in terms of importance. You can select “Essential” or
“Critical” or “Non-essential”. This field does not affect analysis. It can be used in database
query to distinguish a certain load class from others.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  437

Short Circuit

Short Circuit tab of Motor Data dialog box

ANSI Code: Provides an easy way to enter ANSI Standard impedances and interrupting
duty multipliers. Code numbers are chosen according to the motor types, sizes and modeling
method. Regardless of the code chosen, ANSI Standard interrupting value multipliers are
used.

The codes available in this drop down list will change depending on what you have chosen in
the Type field of the Specifications tab. Using the ANSI Code field is the recommended
method to enter motor impedances to assure that the proper interrupting duty impedance
multiplier is used for ANSI Standard calculations18,19,20,21

18 AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis, ANSI/IEEE Std. C37.010-1979

19 Calculation of Fault Current for Application of AC High Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Total Current Basis,
ANSI/IEEE St. C37.5-1979

20 Low Voltage Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures, ANSI/IEEE Std. C37.13-1981

21 Calculation of Short Circuit Currents with Contributions From Induction Motors, Walter C. Huening Jr.,
IEEE/IAS Mar/Apr 1982
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  438

Momentary Duty Interrupting Duty


Code Motor First Cycle 1.5 - 4 Cycles

Synch Synchronous 1.0 X"dv 1.5 X"dv

Ind>1000 Induction Motor > 1000 Hp 1.0 X"dv 1.5 X"dv

> 250 @ Induction Motor > 250 Hp at 3600 RPM 1.0 X"dv 1.5 X"dv
3600

>50 Induction Motor or Motor Group > 50 Hp 1.2 X"dv 3.0 X"dv

<50 Induction Motor Group < 50 Hp 1.67 X"dv Infinite X"dv

Lumped Lumped Induction Motor Group 1.0 X"dv (X=25%) 3.0 X"dv
Impedance Multipliers for ANSI Std. Short Circuit Calculations

Note: X" for induction motor groups >50 HP and <50 HP are typically assumed equal to
16.7%. Using the impedance multipliers, this corresponds to an equivalent motor
contribution of 3.6 to 4.8 times the full load current.

If the Adjustable Frequency Drive field is checked in the Specifications tab, the following
choices are available for the ANSI Code field:

 Non-Regenerative: Motor does not contribute short circuit currents to upstream faults.

 Regenerative: Motor contributes to upstream faults. The impedance multipliers are used
as per Conrad St. Pierre’s A Practical Guide to Short –Circuit Calculations.

X/R: You can either type in the reactance to resistance ratio, or choose Calculate to have
EasyPower fill in this field.

X" or Xlr: Subtransient reactance in percent on the motor Hp base. Normally this is 16.7%
for induction motors.

Calculate: Click this button to have EasyPower fill the X/R and X" or Xlr fields. Choose
Tools Options from the Menu bar, and pick the Equipment tab to specify the average Hp
for grouped motors.

Connected: Provides an easy way to adjust the total motor horsepower used in determining
short circuit currents. By changing the percent connected, the actual Hp (total connected
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  439

value) entered in the Hp field can remain static. This reduces modeling errors and eliminates
multiple databases for different contingencies.

For example, an MCC has a group of induction motors (all over 50 HP) that add up to a total
load of 600 HP. However, 300 HP is considered backup and is not on-line. In order to keep
proper records of the MCC HP, 600 would be entered in the HP field. Since only 300 HP is
spinning at any one time and can contribute short circuit current, the connected field is set to
50%.

TCC

TCC tab of Motor Data dialog box

Motor Starter Type: Provides a list of motor starters. Select the appropriate starter from
the following:
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  440

 Full Voltage: The motor starts at the rated voltage, without any starting device connected
to it.

 Auto-transformer: An auto-transformer is used as a starting device to reduce the starting


current. The tap value of the auto-transformer, as a percentage of the rated motor
voltage, is entered in the edit field Auto-Xfrmr Tap at the bottom of the dialog box.

 Part-Winding: Part-winding start motors, in which only a part of the winding is used for
starting. The entire winding is energized after start up. The Winding Tap must be
specified at the bottom of the dialog box.

 Wye-Delta: The starter keeps the motor windings in wye-connection while starting to
reduce the starting current. After start up the starter connects the windings in delta
configuration.

 Reduced Voltage: The starting voltage during starting is less than the rated voltage. The
inrush current for reduced voltage starting, as a multiple of full load amps, must be
specified at the bottom of the dialog box.

Largest Motor: In grouped motorn data, you can specify the size of the largest motor. This
field is grayed out when your select the motor as individual motor. When you plot the motor
starting curve on a time-current curve (TCC), the program plots the curve such that the
largest motor is being started and the rest of the motors in the group are running at full load.

Full Voltage Starting Parameters

This section specifies the motor current characteristics during starting at the rated motor
voltage.

Locked Rotor Multiple: Locked rotor current as multiples of full load amps.

Asymmetrical (Asym) Offset: Factor by which the inrush current is higher due to the
asymmetry current.

Plot Thermal Limit Curve: Check box to plot thermal limit time-current curve of the
motor. The curve is shown within the limits of the Stall Time described below. The curve is
an I2t curve passing through the Stall Time and the locked rotor amps.

Stall Time: The maximum time in seconds that the motor can safely withstand stalling.

To: The maximum time in seconds of the thermal limit curve of motor we wish to plot.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  441

Reduced Voltage Starting Parameters

Specifies the starting time and the current or voltage ratio under reduced voltage. Depending
upon the motor starter type selected enter one of the following. The starting current will be
calculated from this.

 Auto-Xfrmr Tap: The auto-transformer tap ratio as a percentage of rated voltage.

 Winding Tap: Starter winding ratio as a percentage of full motor winding.

 Reduced Inrush Mult: The inrush current at reduced voltage, as a multiple of full load
amps.

Acceleration Time: The starting time in seconds.

Power Flow

Power Flow tab of Motor Data Dialog Box

Load Model: Allows the user to select the motor kVA from the Specified data or from
SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) data. SCADA data can be read in by
choosing File Import from the Menu bar.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  442

Motor Specifications

Motor kVA: Calculated from motor specifications. This is for user reference only and
cannot be changed except by new specifications.

Load Type: Motors can be modeled for the power flow solution in several different ways.

 Constant kVA - This is the most common model. It is conservative, and will result in
slightly lower voltage values than would be measured on an actual system.

 Constant Current - This model is generally not used in motor modeling. It more closely
matches an induction motor's characteristics in the reactive component than other models,
but is technically incorrect because kW is relatively constant throughout the voltage
range for an induction motor.

 Constant Impedance - This model is used for starting induction and synchronous
machines, and closely matches motor characteristics during low voltages.

 Constant kW + j Current - This model is a combination of the above models and more
closely matches actual motor characteristics within normal operating voltages.

Scaling Factor: Provides an easy way of adjusting the total motor load used in determining
power flows. By changing the scaling factor, the actual Hp (total connected value) entered in
the Hp field can remain static. This reduces modeling errors and eliminates multiple
databases for different contingencies.

SCADA Model

SCADA data is derived from real time, or metered data, and converted to an ASCII format
which can be read into EasyPower. SCADA data is read in as a 100% scaling factor load.
When saving data, the load value is multiplied by the user defined scaling factor. This
provides a way to adjust SCADA loads to form new cases. The SCADA load fields can be
changed by the user, or entered as a new value and saved using the File Save Load command
from the main menu.

kW: The kW value as read in from the SCADA ASCII file.

kVAR: The kVAR value as read in from the SCADA ASCII file.

Load Type: SCADA data can be modeled in the power flow solution in several different
ways. SCADA load type is set in the ASCII file, and can be changed by the user.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  443

 Constant kVA - This is the most common model. It is conservative, and will result in
slightly lower voltage values than would be measured on an actual system.

 Constant Current - This model is generally not used in motor modeling. It more closely
matches an induction motor's characteristics in the reactive component than other models,
but is technically incorrect because kW is relatively constant throughout the voltage
range for an induction motor.

 Constant Impedance - This model is used for starting induction and synchronous
machines, and closely matches motor characteristics during low voltages.

 Constant kW + j Current - This model is a combination of the above models and more
closely matches actual motor characteristics within normal operating voltages.

Scaling Factor: Provides an easy way of adjusting the total SCADA load used in
determining power flows. By changing the scaling factor, the actual kW +j kVAR read in
from the ASCII file remains static, however the load used in the power flow is adjusted by
this factor. If the SCADA data is saved using the File Save Load command, the values will
be adjusted by the scaling factor.
Load Speed Exponent: When you run power flow calculations, the motor load is scaled
based on the frequency of the AFD. Speed is proportional to frequency. The simplified load
model used is:

Output Power = (Rated Power) * (AFD frequency / System Frequency) ^ x.


Where, x is the Load Speed Exponent.

If you have a machine in which the load (power) is independent of the speed, then set
exponent to 0. If machine load (power) is proportional to speed, then set exponent to 1. Pump
loads are closer to speed squared model. So set exponent to 2. This is the default.

Example:
A 100HP motor rated at 60Hz is fed by AFD at 30Hz. If the Load Speed Exponent is 2, the
power output at 30Hz would be:
100 * ( 30 / 60 ) ^ 2 = 25HP.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  444

Load Speed Exponent Data in Power Flow tab of Motor Data dialog box
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  445

DC Motor Power Flow

DC Motor Data - Power Flow

Scaling Factor: ratio of actual load to connected (rated) load in percent. This is used in
power flow calculations.

Load Type: Choose one of the following models:

 kW: The kW consumed remains constant even when terminal voltage changes.

 Current: Constant current is drawn by the motor even when terminal voltage changes.

 Impedance: The equivalent resistance for steady state is constant, so the kW and current
will vary based on the terminal voltage.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  446

Harmonics

Please see Harmonics of Load Data, Page 411.

Stability

Stability tab of Motor Data dialog

Enable Motor Model: Enables the dynamic stability model for the motor. Without this, you
cannot run a dynamic simulation for the motor.

Motors

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of motor manufacturers available in the device library.
If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the library.

Type: Motor types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  447

Model: Lists available motor models in the library.

Lib button: Populates motor models from the library.

Define parameters button: Allows user to obtain an estimate of the motor circuit
parameters from the torque vs. speed characteristics.

Starting: This setting selects the method by which the motor will be initialized. The two
options for this setting are:
 Init Using Rated Power
 Init Using Rated Slip

When initialized using rated power (default), the motor determines the slip necessary to
maintain the terminal power conditions (kW) from the power flow case. Motor kVar is
determined completely by the induction motor machine equations.

When initialized using rated slip, the motor forces terminal real power conditions (kW) to
correspond to the specified rated slip of the motor. Thus, power conditions defined in the
power flow case are abandoned to match slip. Motor kVar is determined completely by the
induction motor machine equations.

Explanation: There are conditions where a motor parameter derivation has significant errors
in rated conditions (i.e. upwards to 10%) when attempting to match a manufacturer's torque
vs. speed curve. This is most likely created by inconsistencies in the supplied data for various
reasons. For such conditions, initializing to rated power defined by the power flow will cause
a new slip to manifest via initialization, which is not equal to the specified rated slip. This
then creates a condition where the torque produced by the motor during starting can be
significantly greater than the torque vs. speed curve generated in the parameter derivation.
For a motor in a borderline start condition (near stalling), the results may show an incorrect
successful start (we have seen up to 12% greater torque over the motor's speed range). To
correct for this, select "Init Using Rated Slip". This will force the motor to re-create the exact
torque vs. speed curve generated in the parameter derivation. Note however that the rated
conditions reached after starting will have the error accepted in the parameter derivation.

Motor Starting Load

This section defines the model for load characteristics while the motor is starting.

Manufacturer (Mfr) & Type: Provides a list of starting load characteristics available in the
device library.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  448

Model: Lists available models for starting load in the library. The choices are:

 Speed Squared: The torque is proportional to the square of the speed.

 Speed Cubed: The torque is proportional to the cube of the speed.

 Torque vs. Speed: User defined spreadsheet.

Lib button: Populates data from the library.

Motor Running Load

This section defines the model for load characteristics while the motor is running.

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of manufacturers available in the device library for
load running characteristics. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library,
you may add it to the library.

Type: Contactor types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired type is not listed, you may add it to the library.

Model: Lists available Contactor models in the library.

Lib button: Populates Contactor data from the library.

Define Motor Paramaters :

This feature is used to obtain an estimate of the motor circuit parameters from the name-plate
values and the speed-torque curve of the motor. Notes provided in the upper left corner are
instructions on how to use this tool to derive the motor parameters.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  449

Define Induction Motor Parameters-Step 1

Load image : Allows user to load image of motor curve to be digitized.

Set max torque : Enter motor maximum torque in %.

Flip speed axis : Curve axis can be flipped to match manufacturer.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Data  450

Define Induction Motor Parameters (Step 2)

Define Induction Motor Parameters-Step 2

Gravity Points : The Gravity Points are movable points used to optimize the
derived torque speed curve to the actual torque speed curve.

Flip speed axis : Curve axis can be flipped to match manufacturer.

Minimize : The Minimize button attempts to reduce the error.(TBD-to be discussed)


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  451

Motor Control Center Data

MCC Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the MCC. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the MCC
name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to MCC-1, MCC-2, MCC-3...
as you enter new MCCs on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names later if
desired.

Base kV: The base kV of the MCC. MCC’s are modeled like a bus in many ways. You can
connect cables, busways or transformers to it, and perform fault calculations.

Lock Auto-Sizing: When checked, equipment will not allow auto sizing if selected.

Specifications

These are the specifications for the MCC including the bus.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  452

Service: The drop down menu allows you to choose 3Phase-3Wire or 3Phase-4Wire.

Unit: Choose either U.S. or Metric.

Description: Use this text field to describe the particular MCC.

Location: Use this text field to indicate where the MCC is located in the power system you
are modeling.

Fed By: Use this field to indicate the transformer or the power supply source feeding the
Panel Schedule.

Comment: Use this field for any comment on the MCC.

Last Updated: The date and time the MCC data was last updated is displayed here.

Bus Rating

These are all user defined fields.

Mfr: Use this text field to describe the MCC manufacturer.

Type: Use this text field to further describe the MCC manufacturer model.

Bus SC Rating (kA): The rating of the bus used in calculating the Short Circuit duties for
SmartDuty™.

Horz Bus Rating (A): The current rating of the horizontal bus.

Vert Bus Rating (A): The current rating of the vertical bus.

Bus Data

Area: Area numbers are used to uniquely define different areas of the electrical system.
These areas can then be used for creating specific text reports from analysis operations that
represent subsets of the system. For example, typical paper plant areas may be the power
house (Area 1), caustic plant (Area 2), pulp mill (Area 3), and paper machine (Area 4). Area
numbers are positive integers between 1 and 999.

Zone: A zone number is simply a sub-area. This allows even more specific reporting. You
may wish to define the pulp mill as Area 3 and the digester electrical equipment as Zone 2.
Specific reports can then be generated for this combination without including the entire pulp
mill or the other digesters.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  453

Incoming

Incoming tab in MCC Data

Incoming Device Type: You can select the type of incoming protective device type for the
MCC. The choices available are:

 Main Lug Only: No protective device is present.

 Main Breaker: LV breaker protects the MCC bus. You can select the breaker using the
button “Incoming Device Settings…”.

 Main Fuse: Fuse protects the MCC bus. You can select the fuse using the button
“Incoming Device Settings…”.

Incoming Branch: You can select the incoming branch equipment such as cables,
transformers or busways. All the branches connected to the MCC in the one-line will be
displayed in the combo box.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  454

Incoming Device Settings…: Pressing this button will open the data dialog for the main fuse
or main breaker, whatever has been specified as the incoming device type. Refer to LV
Breaker Data or Fuse Data section in this chapter for details.

Description

This is a spreadsheet listing similar to the Device Library. When you place a new MCC on
the one-line, the first time you open its database dialog and click on the Description tab,
EasyPower will bring up the MCC/Panel Schedule Spreadsheet Creation Wizard which
allows you to select the number of rows you want. Uncheck the box at the bottom of the
Wizard dialog if you don't want it to appear with each new MCC/Panel Schedule. You can
insert or append new rows in the spreadsheet should you need them later.

Description tab of MCC Data dialog box

MCC Spreadsheet Creation Wizard dialog


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  455

You will notice that whenever you click on the Description tab, additional buttons are placed
on the MCC dialog box Toolbar. Some of these buttons are the same as those in the Device
Library (see chapter 7 pages 3 through 5) and are the way to add rows if the Wizard is not
used.

MCC Library: The drop down list contains all of the same Schedules as the Device
Library. To enter a listing other than those contained in the drop down list, create a New
Page in the MCC section of the Device Library.

Schedule: This drop down list allows you to specify which Device Library Schedule your
chosen Library Load spreadsheet is located in. To enter a listing other than those contained
in the drop down list, create a New Page in the MCC section of the Device Library.

Export: The spreadsheets can be exported to metafiles and delimited files. The Export
button is beside the Print button on the MCC/Panel dialog box toolbar when the viewing
the Description tab.

Spreadsheet

The Section Space and Equipment Name are not necessary for calculation purposes but are
used to match the way they are organized in the MCC.

Section Space: Enter the location of the individual bucket in the MCC. Typical entries
would be 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 2C, ...etc.

Equipment Name: Allows you to identify each piece of equipment.

Library Load: This is a drop down list and corresponds directly to the Library Load column
in the Device Library. After you have made selections in the MCC Library, Schedule and
Library Load fields, all of the following data cells will be automatically filled in as soon as
you click on another cell. You may also double-click on the cell to enter something different
than what is listed.

Status: The third column is a toggle "On/Off" to indicate if this particular item is currently
connected to the MCC Schedule. This affects the power flow and short circuit current
contribution.

Load Type: You can select different kinds of loads such as motors, loads, or sub-
MCC/panel. Based on the load type selected, various analyses are possible. When this
selection is made, the inappropriate cells in that row will be grayed out. Some buttons with
the label “Data…”may appear indicating you need to click the button to enter data specific to
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  456

the load type. The following load types are available. Cells highlighted in red require data in
order to perform any analysis.

Motor: The motor data required for analysis are usually Motor HP, Motor X/R, and the
X/R Ratio in the short circuit tab. The required data fields are highlighted in red. If you do
not know the motor X/R ratio, you can calculate typical X/R ratio for the motor based on size
by selecting the cell for Motor X/R and pressing the Calculate button on the toolbar or by
pressing [F9] on the keyboard. A motor contributes to the short circuit current. You can enter
other data in the row, such as, cable description, protective device and starter description and
capacitor data. When “Motor” is selected as load type, you can plot its curves on the TCC
plot.

Load: The load data is entered in the columns Static kW and Static kVAR. Other data are
optional. You cannot plot curves for devices in the TCC plot.

Sub-MCC: This means the current MCC is feeding another MCC. You need to specify the
sub-MCC ID Name and the cable connecting the two MCC’s. You also need to enter the
protective device data for the sub-MCC. You can plot the protective device curve on a TCC.

Sub-Panel: This is similar to a sub-MCC type, except, it is used when connecting the MCC to
a sub-panel.

Motor w/ TCC: The load type is motor. However, you can plot the cable damage curve,
protective device trip curve and the motor starting curve on a TCC plot. You need to specify
the motor data, protective device data and the cable data.

 Load w/ TCC: You can plot the curves for cable and protective device on a TCC plot. The
load is specified in kW and kVARs.

 <50 HP Lump: This is to model a group of motors all of which are under 50 HP rating.
No TCC plot is obtained for this type of load.

 >50 HP Lump: This is to model a group of motors all of which are larger than 50 HP
rating. No TCC plot is obtained for this type of load.

The rest of the fields correspond directly to those in the Device Library. MCCs are validated
upon creation. That means that if you create an MCC and do not input any data, you can still
go into an analysis focus without receiving an error message. However, once you create a
row in this spreadsheet, you will not be allowed to enter an analysis focus until all required
data is input. The cells which require data for analysis are highlighted in red.

If you are making a custom entry, you will notice that many of the data cells contain drop
down list of items. Some of the cells have Bold headings, and when they are selected the
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  457

Calculate button becomes active. Clicking on it will calculate the data for those cells. You
can select several cells at a time before clicking on the Calculate button. For instance,
clicking on the header itself will select the entire column.

Because the MCC is a library, along with the Calculate button, all of the other editing
features are identical to those listed in the Customizing section for the Device Library.

Spreadsheet View

Spreadsheet View is used to configure the columns that display in the spreadsheet. You can
create new configurations that display only selected columns. To create a new configuration,
click on Configure… button. This will open the Database Print Config dialog. Type the
new configuration name in the Configuration field, check the desired column headings from
the Columns: window, and choose the Save button. The Select All button will include all the
columns, and the Clear All will uncheck the columns. The Delete button will delete the
selected configuration. The Close button will close the dialog without cancelling the changes
– note that this is different from the Cancel command found in most dialogs.

If you have multiple configurations saved, you can display the desired configuration by
simply selecting it in the MCC dialog.

Database Print Config dialog


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  458

Export MCC or Panel Schedule

Export dialog for MCC or Panel Schedule

Save as type: You can save the schedule as a “csv” (spreadsheet) file or as a “wmf” (picture)
file.

Print Range: Choose one of the following.

 All: Prints all of the possible columns in the Description tab.

 Current Configuration: Prints only the columns that appear in the current configuration.

Export All MCCs/Panels: When unchecked only this MCC or panel is exported. When
checked, all the MCC and Panels are exported.

Summary

The Summary tab of MCC Data dialog provides the total load on the MCC and the load that
must be used in designing.
 Calculate Downstream Load: This button calculates the total load on the MCC, taking
into account, the connected load, demand factors, diversity factors and NEC code factors.
 Override with User values: This check box allows you to enter data in the column Total
Downstream Load – kVA.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  459

The Summary spreadsheet has two sections – MCC Load and Total Downstream Load.

Summary tab of MCC Data Dialog Box

MCC Load
This spreadsheet section provides the summary of the loads fed by the feeders of the MCC.
The loads from the sub-MCC and sub-panels are not included in this.
 Total kVA: This is the aggregate load.
 Total FLA: Total load in amps.
 Motor HP: The total HP for the items with "On" in the Status column of the Description
section.
 Motor kVA >= 50 HP: The total KVA for connected items equal to or greater than
50HP.
 Motor kVA < 50 HP: The total KVA for connected items less than 50HP.
 Static kVA: Total kVA of the loads.
 Capacitor kVAR: Total kVARs of all the capacitors.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  460

 Connected kVA = [(kW)2 + (kVAR)2]1/2


 Demand kVA = [(kW * DF)2 + (kVAR * DF)2] ½
 Where DF is the individual demand factor of each MCC circuit.
 Code Factors kVA = [(kWL + kW)2 + (kVARL + kVAR)2]1/2
 Where, kWL = Code Mult Factor * kW for largest motor in MCC.
 KVARL = Code Mult Factor * kVAR for largest motor in MCC.
 And, kW, kVAR are for the rest of the loads.

The Code Multiplying Factor can be specified in Tools  Options  Equipment as shown
in the figure below.

Setting Code Factor for MCC

Design kVA = Code Factors kVA * Diversity Factor * Design Factor


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  461

Diversity Factor is specified in the Specifications tab of MCC Data. The Design Factor is
specified in Tools  Options  Equipment.

Total Downstream Load

This provides the sum of the loads fed by feeders inside the MCC and the sub-MCC and sub-
panels.
kVA: Total kVA load calculated. You can enter your own values in these fields by checking
the check box for Override with User Values.

Power Flow

Power Flow tab of MCC Data Dialog Box

Load Model: Allows the user to select the motor kVA from the Specified data or from
SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) data. SCADA data can be read in by
choosing File Import from the Menu bar-.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  462

MCC Specifications

kVA: Use these radio buttons to choose between Connected, Demand, Code and Design.

Load Type: Motors can be modeled for the power flow solution in several different ways.

 Constant kVA - This is the most common model. It is conservative, and will result in
slightly lower voltage values than would be measured on an actual system.

 Constant Current - This model is generally not used in motor modeling. It more closely
matches an induction motor's characteristics in the reactive component than other models,
but is technically incorrect because kW is relatively constant throughout the voltage
range for an induction motor.

 Constant Impedance - This model is used for starting induction and synchronous
machines, and closely matches motor characteristics during low voltages.

 Constant kW + j Current - This model is a combination of the above models and more
closely matches actual motor characteristics within normal operating voltages.

Scaling Factor: Provides an easy way of adjusting the total motor load used in determining
power flows. By changing the scaling factor, the actual Hp (total connected value) entered in
the Hp field can remain static. This reduces modeling errors and eliminates multiple
databases for different contingencies.

SCADA Model

SCADA data is derived from real time, or metered data, and converted to an ASCII format
which can be read into EasyPower. SCADA data is read in as a 100% scaling factor load.
When saving data, the load value is multiplied by the user defined scaling factor. This
provides a way to adjust SCADA loads to form new cases. The SCADA load fields can be
changed by the user, or entered as a new value and saved using the File Save Load command
from the main menu.

kW: The kW value as read in from the SCADA ASCII file.

kVAR: The kVAR value as read in from the SCADA ASCII file.

Load Type: SCADA data can be modeled in the power flow solution in several different
ways. SCADA load type is set in the ASCII file, and can be changed by the user.

 Constant kVA - This is the most common model. It is conservative, and will result in
slightly lower voltage values than would be measured on an actual system.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  463

 Constant Current - This model is generally not used in motor modeling. It more closely
matches an induction motor's characteristics in the reactive component than other models,
but is technically incorrect because kW is relatively constant throughout the voltage
range for an induction motor.

 Constant Impedance - This model is used for starting induction and synchronous
machines, and closely matches motor characteristics during low voltages.

 Constant kW + j Current - This model is a combination of the above models and more
closely matches actual motor characteristics within normal operating voltages.

Scaling Factor: Provides an easy way of adjusting the total SCADA load used in
determining power flows. By changing the scaling factor, the actual kW +j kVAR read in
from the ASCII file remains static, however the load used in the power flow is adjusted by
this factor. If the SCADA data is saved using the File Save Load command, the values will
be adjusted by the scaling factor.

Short Circuit

Short Circuit tab of MCC Data Dialog Box


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  464

kVA >50Hp: Total kVA of the motors which are greater than 50Hp.

X"dv or Xlr: Is set at the default value for >50Hp. You can enter your own value and it
applies to all the motors greater than 50Hp.

X/R Avg: The Calculate button fills this field using values from the spreadsheet. You may
enter your own X/R Average.

KVA <50Hp: Total kVA of the motors which are less than 50Hp.

X"dx or Xlr: Is set at the default value for <50Hp but you can change this. You can enter
your own value and it applies to all the motors less than 50Hp.

X/R Avg: The Calculate button fills this field using values from the spreadsheet. You may
enter your own X/R Average.

Harmonics

Please see Harmonics of Load Data, Page 411.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Motor Control Center Data  465

Arc Flash Hazard

Arc Flash Hazard tab of MCC Data

Since the MCC can be analyzed like a bus, you can also obtain arc flash hazard assessment
results for MCC. The arc flash tab is similar to that of Bus Data. However, the Equipment
Type is forced to MCC/Panel, since an MCC cannot be another type. You can specify the trip
time as available in the default library, enter the incident energy or you can enter the trip
times in the fields. For detail descriptions see section on Bus Data.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Panel Schedule Data  466

Panel Schedule Data

Panel Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

Specifications

These are the specifications for the Panel Schedule including the bus.

Service: The drop down menu allows you to choose 3Phase-3Wire, 3Phase-4Wire, 1Phase-
2Wire or 1Phase-3Wire.

Unit: Choose either U.S. or Metric.

Description: Use this field to describe the particular Panel Schedule.

Location: Use this text field to indicate where the Panel Schedule is located in the power
system you are modeling.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Panel Schedule Data  467

Fed By: Use this field to indicate the transformer or the power supply source feeding the
MCC.

Comment: Use this field for any comment on the MCC.

Last Updated: The date and time the MCC data was last updated is displayed here.

Bus Rating

These are all user defined fields.

Mfr: Use this text field to describe the Panel Schedule manufacturer.

Type: Use this text field to further describe the Panel Schedule manufacturer model.

Panel SC Rating (kA): The rating of the bus used in calculating the Short Circuit duties for
SmartDuty™.

Main Bus Rating (A): The current rating of the main bus.

Bus Data

Area: Area numbers are used to uniquely define different areas of the electrical system.
These areas can then be used for creating specific text reports from analysis operations that
represent subsets of the system. For example, typical paper plant areas may be the power
house (Area 1), caustic plant (Area 2), pulp mill (Area 3), and paper machine (Area 4). Area
numbers are positive integers between 1 and 999.

Zone: A zone number is simply a sub-area. This allows even more specific reporting. You
may wish to define the pulp mill as Area 3 and the digester electrical equipment as Zone 2.
Specific reports can then be generated for this combination without including the entire pulp
mill or the other digesters.

Incoming

Incoming Device Type: You can select the type of incoming protective device type for the
panel schedule. The choices available are:

 Main Lug Only: No protective device is present.

 Main Breaker: LV breaker protects the panel bus. You can select the breaker using the
button “Incoming Device Settings…”.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Panel Schedule Data  468

 Main Fuse: Fuse protects the panel bus. You can select the fuse using the button
“Incoming Device Settings…”.

Incoming Branch: You can select the incoming branch equipment such as cables,
transformers or busways. All the branches connected to the panel in the one-line will be
displayed in the combo box.

Incoming Device Settings…: Pressing this button will open the data dialog for the main
fuse or main breaker, whatever has been specified as the incoming device type. Refer to LV
Breaker Data or Fuse Data section in this chapter for details.

Device Information: Information on selected main breaker or main fuse.

Incoming tab in Panel Data

Description

This is a spreadsheet listing similar to the Device Library. When you place a new Panel
Schedule on the one-line, the first time you open its database dialog and click on the
Description tab, EasyPower will bring up the MCC/Panel Schedule Spreadsheet Creation
Wizard which allows you to select the number of rows you want. Uncheck the box at the
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Panel Schedule Data  469

bottom of the Wizard dialog if you don't want it to appear with each new MCC/Panel
Schedule.

You will notice that whenever you click on the Description tab, additional buttons are
placed on the Panel Schedule dialog box Toolbar. These buttons are the same as those in
the Device Library (see chapter 9 pages 3 through 5) and are the way to add rows if the
Wizard is not used.

Description tab of Panel Data Dialog Box

Library: The drop down list contains all of the same Schedules as the Device Library. To
enter a listing other than those contained in the drop down list, create a New Page in the
Panel Schedule section of the Device Library.

Schedule: This drop down list allows you to specify which Device Library Schedule your
chosen Library Load spreadsheet is located in. To enter a listing other than those contained
in the drop down list, create a New Page in the Panel Schedule section of the Device
Library.

Show Panel: These radio buttons allow you to choose which of the panels you want to
view: Left, Right or Both. The choice 3 Phase shows the ABC buses in the middle with the
loads on both sides of the spreadsheet.

Export: The spreadsheets can be exported to metafiles and delimited files. The Export
button is beside the Print button on the MCC/Panel dialog box toolbar when the viewing
the Description tab.

Spreadsheet

Library Load: This is a drop down list and corresponds directly to the Library Load
column in the Device Library. After you have made selections in the Library, Schedule and
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Panel Schedule Data  470

Library Load fields, all of the following data cells will be automatically filled in as soon as
you click on another cell. You may also double-click on the cell to enter something
different than what is listed.

Status: The second column is a toggle "On/Off" to indicate if this particular item is
currently connected to the Panel Schedule. Turning any load as “off” is similar to de-
activating them in the one-line.

Load Type: You can select from three types of load:

Load: Specify loads in kW and kVARs.

Motor: Specify motor HP and X/R ratio.

Sub-Panel: Specify the ID Name of the connecting cable and the sub-panel.

The rest of the fields correspond directly to those in the Device Library. Panel Schedules
are validated upon creation. That means that if you create a Panel Schedule and do not input
any data, you can still go into an analysis focus with out receiving an error message. When
you create a row in this spreadsheet the loads are set to zero until you change them. This
means the Panel Schedule (unlike the MCC) remains validated for analysis even after you
have created rows but have not input any data.

If you are making a custom entry, you will notice that many of the data cells contain drop
down lists of items. Some of the cells have Bold headings, and when they are selected the
Calculate button becomes active. Clicking on it will calculate the data for those cells. You
can select several cells at a time before clicking on the Calculate button. For instance,
clicking on the header itself will select the entire column.

Because the Panel Schedule is a library, along with the Calculate button, all of the other
editing features are identical to those listed in the Customizing section for the Device
Library.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Panel Schedule Data  471

Summary

Summary tab of Panel Data Dialog Box

The summary tab sums all the connected loads and displays results for total connected,
demand, code factor and design. There are two sections in this summary: Pnael Load and
Total Downstream Load.

Panel Load

This summarizes the loads fed directly from this panels. It does not include loads fed through
downstream sub-panels. These are not user-definable fields. They are updated automatically
when you make changes in the spreadsheet of the Description tab. The watts and vars shown
in this table do not reflect the downstream load of the sub-panels.


n
Connected W (A phase): Total of the 1
of (VAA * PF)

Total of the 
n
Connected VAR(A phase): 1
of (VA2A - W2A)1/2


n
Connected W (B phase): Total of the 1
of (VAB * PF)

Total of the 
n
Connected VAR(B phase): 1
of (VA2B - W2B)1/2


n
Connected W (C phase): Total of the 1
of (VAC * PF)

Total of the 
n
Connected VAR(B phase): 1
of (VA2C - W2C)1/2
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Panel Schedule Data  472


n
Demand W (A phase): Total of the 1
of (VAA * PF) * DF

Total of the 
n
Demand VAR(A phase): 1
of (VA2A - W2A)1/2 * DF


n
Demand W (B phase): Total of the 1
of (VAB * PF) * DF

Total of the 
n
Demand VAR(B phase): 1
of (VA2B - W2B)1/2 * DF


n
Demand W (C phase): Total of the 1
of (VAC * PF) * DF

Total of the 
n
Demand VAR(B phase): 1
of (VA2C - W2C)1/2 * DF

Total Downstream Load

Loads connected through downstream sub-panels and buses are summarized in this section.

Override with User Values: This checkbox allows you to enter your own data. You can enter
measured data or assumed data in the available fields. If this chaeckbox is not enabled then
the program checks all the downstream loads and displays the total. In order for this feature
to work, it is necessary to have a source upstream to the panel. This feature is applicable only
to radial distribution systems. Downstream branches with any power source are not
accounted for.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Panel Schedule Data  473

Power Flow

Power Flow tab of Panel Data dialog box

Load Model: Allows the user to select the motor kVA from the Specified data or from
SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) data. SCADA data can be read in from
the File Import command in the main menu.

Panel Specifications

kVA: Use these radio buttons to choose between Connected, Demand, Code and Design.

Load Type: Motors can be modeled for the power flow solution in several different ways.

 Constant kVA - This is the most common model. It is conservative, and will result in
slightly lower voltage values than would be measured on an actual system.

 Constant Current - This model is generally not used in motor modeling. It more closely
matches an induction motor's characteristics in the reactive component than other models,
but is technically incorrect because kW is relatively constant throughout the voltage
range for an induction motor.

 Constant Impedance - This model is used for starting induction and synchronous
machines, and closely matches motor characteristics during low voltages.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Panel Schedule Data  474

Scaling factor: Provides an easy way of adjusting the total motor load used in determining
power flows. By changing the scaling factor, the actual Hp (total connected value) entered in
the Hp field can remain static. This reduces modeling errors and eliminates multiple
databases for different contingencies.

SCADA Model

SCADA data is derived from real time, or metered data, and converted to an ASCII format
which can be read into EasyPower. SCADA data is read in as a 100% scaling factor load.
When saving data, the load value is multiplied by the user defined scaling factor. This
provides a way to adjust SCADA loads to form new cases. The SCADA load fields can be
changed by the user, or entered as a new value and saved using the File Save Load command
from the main menu.

kW: The kW value as read in from the SCADA ASCII file.

kVAR: The kVAR value as read in from the SCADA ASCII file.

Load Type: SCADA data can be modeled in the power flow solution in several different
ways. SCADA load type is set in the ASCII file, and can be changed by the user.

 Constant kVA - This is the most common model. It is conservative, and will result in
slightly lower voltage values than would be measured on an actual system.

 Constant Current - This model is generally not used in motor modeling. It more closely
matches an induction motor's characteristics in the reactive component than other models,
but is technically incorrect because kW is relatively constant throughout the voltage
range for an induction motor.

 Constant Impedance - This model is used for starting induction and synchronous
machines, and closely matches motor characteristics during low voltages.

Scaling factor: Provides an easy way of adjusting the total SCADA load used in
determining power flows. By changing the scaling factor, the actual kW +j kVAR read in
from the ASCII file remains static, however the load used in the power flow is adjusted by
this factor. If the SCADA data is saved using the File Save Load command, the values will
be adjusted by the scaling factor.

Harmonics

Please see Harmonics of Load Data, Page 411.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Photovoltaic Data  475

Arc Flash Hazard

The arc flash hazard tab is similar to that of an MCC. Refer to MCC Data section for details.
Since the panel can be faulted like a bus, you can perform arc flash hazard analysis directly.

Photovoltaic Data

Photovoltaic Data dialog

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the Photovoltaic/solar power device. This ID name can be up
to 16 characters long. The names default to PVC-1, PVC-2, PVC-3... as you enter new
photovoltaics on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names later if desired.

To Bus: ID Name of the dc bus connected to this photovoltaic. The Base kV of this bus is
shown on the right.

Specifications

Max Power Rating: Maximum power (peak power) rating of the photovoltaic in kW.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Photovoltaic Data  476

Isc: Short circuit current of the photovoltaic in Amperes.

kVoc: Open circuit voltage in kV.

kVmpp: Voltage at which the maximum (peak) power is generated.

Notes on Data Specification

Care should be taken to specify data correctly for a Photovoltaic equipment item in
EasyPower. The data items should correspond directly to an actual VI curve for a
Photovoltaic panel. For example, a curve could be as follows:

For this curve, we see that for this panel, we have:

VMP V at Maximum Power 16 V


VOC V at Open Circuit 21 V
ISC I Short Circuit 3.3 A

This curve has been simplified in EasyPower as follows:


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Photovoltaic Data  477

ISC

V
VMP VOC

For this simplified approach, the maximum kW would then be calculated as:

kW Max =  ISC  VMP 

This simplified curve is used in the PF Engine to simulate the Photovoltaic. Thus, as terminal
voltage of device drops from VOC down to VMP, the power output of the device will
increase. As the voltage drops below VMP, power decreases to near zero when V = Zero. To
properly get solutions under a number of circumstances (i.e. voltage conditions, and other
DC Load Types on the same DC system the Photovoltaic is connected to) there are a number
of algorithmic additions made.
Now, in most cases, one should make the defined DC Bus rated Base kV equal to VOC for
an entire string of panels that have been hooked both in series or series and parallel. In
EasyPower, we do not have any method for representing a set of series connections, and so
we must rely upon specifying a series string as the lowest common denominator. In this way,
we get the VOC definition at the voltage that will be applied to the Inverter, and many strings
(each represented by ONE (1) EasyPower Photovoltaic equipment item) can then be put in
parallel to generate a total Photovoltaic array.

Test Case 1

A couple example systems have been built that show such construction. The first is “Photo
Voltaic – Large Array.dez”. This case creates a single a Photovoltaic Array up to a single
Inverter where each EasyPower Photovoltaic equipment item is a string of panels defined by:

Max Power: 2.7 kW


VMP 0.38 kV
VOC 0.43 kV
ISC 7.5 A
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Photovoltaic Data  478

This data was extracted from a paper documenting a Photovoltaic power plant in Tucson,
Arizona. This paper can be located at http://www.greenwatts.com/Docs/TEPSolar.pdf.
Notice that the base voltage for all DC Buses is defined at 0.43 kV, which is the open circuit
voltage for the series string.

Solving the system in the PF Focus will reveal all DC Buses highlighting red due to voltages
dropping below the default 0.95 pu under-voltage threshold for display. A quick check on the
ratio of VMP / VOC shows that the voltage at maximum power is 0.38 kV / 0.43 kV which is
0.88 pu. Thus, we should expect the voltage to be somewhere near this value when at
maximum power.

Now since this case has the Inverter specified at 125 kW, after some testing with the case,
one will find that when the specified power of the Inverter (the kW field in the Inverter PF
Tab) is such that the voltage on its input bus drops below the Minimum Voltage Threshold
(the Minimum Voltage Threshold field in the Inverter PT Tab), that the Inverter will back off
its power requirement in steps until that is met. This special behavior is described further
below.

For this test case, the Minimum Voltage Threshold was set to 0.9 pu, and thus the loading
was not allowed to reach the maximum capability of each string. Note that the power flow
solution also included all of the losses in the DC distribution equipment so that the power at
the Inverter input should be equal to All Photovoltaic Outputs + DC Cable Losses.

Running short circuit fault simulations will reveal how each Photovoltaic produces the output
current specified as ISC. Since the EasyPower fault calculation method is classical and based
on an injection method, this current output is completely dependent upon DC Cable
impedances being small. If the Cable impedances become significant compared to the
equivalent internal fault resistance of the Photovoltaic, one will see a reduction in the
Photovoltaic’s output current under fault conditions.

Test Case 2

The second test case is “Photo Voltaic – Large System.dez”. This case uses one Photovoltaic
equipment item to represent an entire array connected to a single Inverter. In such a case, we
are more interested in the AC distribution system than we are in the DC distribution system,
as modeled in detail in the first test case. If one desired, the full detail of the array could be
substituted into for each single Photovoltaic equivalent. That would produce a case with
extensive detail. That is left for the reader to mess with.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Photovoltaic Data  479

Notes on Power Flow Modeling

During a power flow solution, the photovoltaic considers the two voltage conditions that
have a shutdown and limiting effect. These conditions need to be automatically handled
during a solution so that reasonable solutions can be reached. These conditions typically
happen when the photovoltaic system and the load demanded of it, or the voltage conditions
applied to it are not in line with normal operating conditions.

A Photovoltaic has the ability to be the single source that will allow a system to enter power
flow and solve the system.

The Photo Voltaic Has a Terminal Voltage Greater Than VOC

For this condition, we force the Photovoltaic current output to zero. If this were not
controlled, the device would go into a reverse power condition which does not follow after
the photovoltaic characteristic.

The Photovoltaic Terminal Voltage Is Less Than VMP

For this condition, we need to limit the photovoltaic output current to ISC. We typically get
into this condition when:

There are no inverters in the model being fed by this photovoltaic, and we need to current
limit to properly simulate a DC system with other DC sources and other DC loads.

An inverter being fed by this photovoltaic has reached a condition where it cannot lower
loading any more, and so the voltage drop cannot be improved.

Note that this current limiting is typically active only when:

There are no inverters being fed by this photovoltaic.

If the inverter fed by this photovoltaic has already limited out on its load reduction in an
attempt to keep DC input voltage above the inverter Minimum Voltage Threshold.

Photovoltaic Loading 1

When building a DC system that has Photovoltaics AND Loads, care should be taken to
specify the Loads properly. Photovoltaics will prevent a power flow solution if the voltage on
the Photovoltaic drops below a threshold (defaulting to 0.4 pu bus voltage). Testing has
shown as the voltage drops on a DC system with Photovoltaics that a run-away voltage
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Photovoltaic Data  480

collapse condition can occur due to inappropriate load specification. An automatic check is
made on the Photovoltaics so that when voltage reaches a severe under-voltage condition
(actually an impractical condition due to desiring to always extract maximum power out of a
Photovoltaic array) during the power flow solution, the solution is terminated for this
unreasonable condition.

We recommend the load be specified as Constant Impedance so that loading drops with a
drop in DC voltage. If the load is specified as Constant Power or Constant Current, then
loading can actually increase as voltage drops, thus causing an additional drop in the DC
voltage at the Photovoltaic. When using Constant Power or Constant Current loads, great
care should be taken to properly specify the load to match the output capability of the
Photovoltaic.

Photovoltaic Loading 2

When a Photovoltaic is used with an Inverter, care must be taken to properly specify the kW
set-point of the Inverter so that the Photovoltaics feeding the Inverter are loaded properly. If
the Photovoltaics are loaded beyond their capability, such that their terminal voltage falls
below VMP, their loading capability will drop according to their defined VI Curve. If this
power output drop continues while the Inverter continues to demand the same power during
the power flow solution, then the power draw (a constant power load) of the Inverter
obviously cannot be met. The power flow solution will fail in this condition. The setting Min
Voltage Threshold is supplied with the Inverter model to allow for automatic load reduction
of the Photovoltaic systems (stepping the kW set point down on each iteration as needed to
drop load so a power flow solution can be reached).

Photovoltaic Minimum Voltage Limit

This limit is specified in the Registry, and defaults to a value of 0.4. It is used to terminate
the power flow solution if the terminal voltage on a Photo Voltaic drops below this setting.
The condition of extreme low voltage typically occurs when a Photovoltaic is supplying a
constant power load that cannot be met by the Photovoltaic. Voltage proceeds to drop, and
the solution spirals into a voltage collapse condition.

Name: PFPVMinVoltSolnLimit
Location: Options
Type: DWORD
Represents: Value in percent
Default: 40
Example: A value of 40 is 40% which is 0.40 pu voltage in the engine.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Photovoltaic Data  481

Photovoltaic Voltage Reduction Acceleration

This setting is used to accelerate the voltage reduction on a Photovoltaic for a condition
where the terminal voltage of the Photovoltaic has dropped below VMP, and we need to hold
ISC. In this condition, the power flow solution is dropping the Photovoltaic’s internal voltage
model on each iteration by:

VInt =VInt +  ISC - ITerm  R PV AccPV-VRA


where:
 VOC - VMP 
R PV =
ISC
and AccPV-VRA is this registry variable .

Name: PFPVVoltReductionAcc
Location: Options
Type: DWORD
Represents: Values in percent
Default: 300
Example: A value of 300 is 300% which is 3.0 pu in the engine.

Short Circuit Modeling

The Short Circuit modeling of the Photovoltaic is forced to be that of a simple Thevenin
model like that of a utility or generator with the exception of modifying the internal
resistance so that the desired Times FLA short circuit current is delivered when VDrive is set
to 1.0 pu. Due to the simplistic (but fast) short circuit method of connecting all sources to the
reference bus through their short circuit impedance, and then using a single current injection
to get the driving point impedance at the point of the fault, we need to compensate the
internal resistance of the Photovoltaic. This is done using the following equation:
BusKV
R DC = 1000.0
ISC
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Rectifier Data  482

Rectifier Data

Rectifier Data dialog

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the rectifier. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
rectifier name, and can be up to 16 characters long. The names default to RTF-1, RTF-2,
RTF-3... as you enter new rectifiers on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names
as desired.

Input Bus: ID Name of the AC bus on the input side of rectifier. The based kV of the bus is
shown on the right.

Output Bus: ID Name of the DC bus on the output side of rectifier. The based kV of the bus
is shown on the right.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Rectifier Data  483

Specifications

DC Rated kV: Name plate voltage rating of dc output in kV.

DC Rated FLA: Name plate current rating of dc output in Amps.

Type: Specify the component for the rectifier. Choose from Diode, Thyristor and IGBT. This
will affect power flow simulation methods. Diode and Thyristor types use Kimbark’s
equations to determine the real and reactive power on the Rectifier input, and to control DC
voltage or current. The IGBT type controls power factor and voltage. Control fields are
specified in the power flow tab.

Fault FLA: Expected fault current on the DC side, in multiples of full load amp rating.

Fault Time/Block Time: Duration the fault current will last. The unit can be seconds or
cycles.

Power Flow

Rectifier Data – Power Flow tab


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Rectifier Data  484

Thyristor Control: When the rectifier type is thyristor, the control can be one of the
following:

 Voltage: If the output is voltage controlled, specify the per unit control voltage in the
Ctrl kV PU field.

 Current: If the output is current controlled, specify the output current in the Current
Set Point field.

Commutation Impedance: Commutation impedance is used to calculate the power flow


using Kimbark’s equations. The rectifier must be fed by a dedicated transformer, where the
characteristics are also defined here:

Z1: Equivalent impedance in percent. Corresponds to the upstream rectifier transformer.

X/R: X/R ratio of the upstream rectifier transformer.

kVA: kVA rating base for Z1.

Input PF: When the rectifier type is IGBT, this specifies the control input power factor.

Efficiency: Ratio of output power to input power in percent.

Ctrl kV PU: For IGBT type or voltage control thyristor type, this is the controlled output
voltage in per unit.

Current Set Point: The fixed value of output current in Amps for current controlled thyristor
type.

Alpha Min: Minimum firing angle of the rectifier.

Alpha Max: Maximum firing angle of the rectifier.

Modeling Notes

DC Rated kV

When simulating a DC system that connects to an AC system via a Rectifier, then the proper
Rated DC voltage needs to be specified for the Rectifier. The DC voltage is related to the AC
voltage under no load conditions as follows:
3 2 VACRated LL
VDC = = 1.35 VAC-LL
π
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Rectifier Data  485

This equation is for a 6-pulse rectifier and includes the ripple on the DC bus, and is typically
used on DC systems that do not include a large smoothing capacitor; systems such as HVDC
and simple large rectifiers. If you know that the DC bus includes a DC bus capacitor, and
that under loaded conditions ripple is minimal, you should use:

VDC = 2 VAC-LL

Mandatory Commutation Impedance

When a Rectifier is specified as either Diode or Thyristor, a mandatory commutation


impedance must be specified on the Power Flow tab. This impedance is used to calculate
terminal conditions on the input of the Rectifier according Kimbark’s Equations. In addition,
we mandate a transformer be placed upstream of the Rectifier that has the exact same
impedance specification as the commutation impedance. This is the reason why the
commutation impedance specification in the Power Flow tab is specified just like a
transformer; so that there is a one-to-one correspondence. Kimbark’s equations have been
written with a basis in high voltage DC lines, which always incorporate and isolation and
voltage transformation transformer from the AC line voltage where the converter is specified,
and the converter itself. Thus, to use the equations, there must always be a converter-
transformer pair, or the equations are not correct for the model.

Note: Specification of Diode is modeled as Thyristor with Alpha forced to zero at all times.
Thus, Kimbark’s equations are used for all Diode modeling.

Parallel Rectifiers and Short Circuit

If parallel rectifiers are not connected to the same bus and they have two independent parallel
paths that supply a summing fault contribution, the total fault contribution will simply be the
total of the two sources as defined by their Times FLA value. This is an adequate
approximation for all rectifier types.

However, if we have two Diode or Thyristor rectifiers in parallel, and they have the same
supply side transformer, then the total short circuit on the DC side will not be represented
correctly, as their Times FLA values represent two independent rectifiers. The short circuit
current on the DC bus will be nearly double what it actually is if the rectifiers are the same
size. The paralleled converter resistance plays very little part in the fault level, which is
controlled mostly by the single up-stream supply transformer.

For example, if we have two diode rectifiers in parallel with independent supply
transformers, then the short circuit on the output will be an excellent representation.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Rectifier Data  486

UTIL-1 UTIL-1
100000MVA
150 (X/R)
100000MVA
150 (X/R)

0.000

0
00
kV

1.
BUS-3 BUS-3

0.000

0.000
TX-1 TX-2 TX-1 TX-2
1000 kVA 1000 kVA
1 - 1 kV 1 - 1 kV
5% 5%

0.000

0.000
0

0
kV

kV

00

00
1.

1.
BUS-5 BUS-4 BUS-5 BUS-4
1

0.000

0.000
RTF-1 RTF-2 RTF-1 RTF-2
1000.0 FLA 1000.0 FLA
1.50 Times FLA 1.50 Times FLA

1.500

1.500
kV

0
35

00
1.

3.
BUS-2 BUS-2

Acceptable representation if Times FLA for each rectifier is determined independently


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Rectifier Data  487

UTIL-1
UTIL-1
100000MVA
150 (X/R)
100000MVA
150 (X/R)

0.000

00
0
1.
BUS-3

kV
BUS-3
1

0.000
TX-1
TX-1
1000 kVA
1 - 1 kV
5%

0.000

0
00
1.
kV
BUS-1
BUS-1
1

0.000

0.000
RTF-1 RTF-2 RTF-1 RTF-2
1000.0 FLA 1000.0 FLA
1.50 Times FLA 1.50 Times FLA

1.500

1.500
kV

0
00
35

3.
1.

BUS-2 BUS-2

Inaccurate representation, since the total fault current is NOT the sum of the individually determined Times
FLA values for the two rectifiers.

Power Flow Modeling

Voltage Control Mode

The Rectifier has two control modes. The first is voltage control. In this mode, the output of
the Rectifier is held at the specified voltage set point unless the following limiting conditions
occur:

Diode Rectifier: The control mode is disabled. The Rectifier will produce a DC voltage in
accordance with Kimbark’s DC equations. This mode is also the same as forcing Alpha to
zero.

Thyristor Rectifier: Voltage control will hold the specified voltage, and a phase back
(increase in Alpha) is calculated to hold the specified voltage. The DC voltage will be the
result of Kimbark’s DC equations. Note that the combination of the input AC voltage and the
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Rectifier Data  488

Thyristor phase back action can create limiting conditions. Consider these two limiting
conditions:

Alpha Max: If the AC voltage is too high and the Thyristor control phases back and hits
Alpha Max, the Rectifier will stop at Alpha Max, and the DC voltage will be calculated for
this condition using Kimbark’s equations.

Alpha Min: If the AC voltage is too low and the Thyristor control hits Alpha Min, the
Rectifier will stop at Alpha Min, and the DC voltage will be calculated for this condition
using Kimbark’s equations. When Alphas Min is equal to zero, this is basically the same
conditions as a Diode Rectifier.

IGBT Rectifier: Since the controls and limiting conditions for IGBT’s are not well known
and vary significantly between manufacturers, the DC voltage is held like a SWING bus. No
AC input voltage condition will have any effect on the DC voltage.

Current Control Mode

In Current Control Mode, the Rectifier holds the DC current on the Rectifier output at the
specified current level unless a limit is hit. If a limit is hit, the DC current is determined by
Kimbark’s equations and the DC system on the output of the Rectifier.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Relay Data  489

Relay Data

Relay Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the Relay. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
Relay name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to R-1, R-2, R-3... as
you enter new relays on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names if desired.

Specifications

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of relay manufacturers available in the device library.
After you choose a manufacturer, the available types are displayed in the Type field. If the
desired manufacturer is missing from the list, you may enter the data in the EasyPower
library.

Type: Provides a list of relay types available from the manufacturer chosen above. A type is
essentially a model name.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Relay Data  490

No. of Units: Number of relay units of the same type that are part of a relay system.

One-line Symbol Graphics: You can make the desired text appear inside the relay symbol
by typing in the edit fields for “Function Text (upper)” and “Function Text (lower)”. You
may type up to 4 characters each. EasyPower assigns the text “R” in the upper field by
default.

Motor/Equipment Parameters: These are parameters of the equipment being protected by


the relay. For example a motor relay would require as parameters the Full load current.

Motor/Equipment Parameters

Generator Parameters: Full load amps (FLA) of the generator is entered here. This section
appears in the dialog box only for those relays which have been entered in the library as
generator protection relays. EasyPower calculates pickup amps from FLA and pickup setting

Generator Parameters for generator relays

Relay: Number of trip units or relay functions set differently. You may select either “Single
Function” or “Multi-Function”. One device function can have a time-overcurrent function
and an instantaneous over-current function. A relay with only one device function is a single
function relay. A multi-function relay may have more than one device function. For
example, a relay with time-overcurrent and instantaneous over-current trip functions for
phase current, negative sequence current and ground current, is a multi-function relay.

The description of different device functions is entered row by row. If you select Single
Function, you will be able to enter only device function. If a relay has been entered in the
library as a single function relay, then you will not be able to select it as a multi-function
relay.

TCC Clipping: Combo box to select the type of fault current to clip the relay TCC with.
Select <None> to avoid clipping.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Relay Data  491

Function ID: A unique ID name for each device function in the relay. The ID name can
have up to 12 characters. Type the desired ID name.

Plot TCC: Check box to enable plotting TCC. Any device function with the box unchecked
will result in a plot without the TCC of that device function.

Device Function: Provides a list of device functions available for the relay. The following
table of ANSI/IEEE relay device functions modeled in the EasyPower library. The table
includes suffixes added to clarify applications:

Device Description Suffix Description


No.

46 Phase Balance Current Relay P Phase

49 Thermal Relay G Ground

50 Instantaneous Overcurrent Relay N Neutral

51 Time Overcurrent Relay Q Negative Sequence

51/50 Time and Instantaneous Overcurrent Relay IAC IAC Curves

67 AC Directional Overcurrent Relay IEEE IEEE Curves

79 AC Reclosing Relay IEC IEC Curves

87 Differential Protective Relay DT Definite Time Curves

Dev Fctn Type: The Device Function Type provides the description of the selected relay
function. Arc flash calculations may or may not use the device function trip time based on
the device function type. For example, while performing a 3-phase fault calculation, the
device function type Ground OC is ignored and Phase OC and Maint Phase OC are included.
The types Differential and Other are always excluded from arc flash calculations.

CT: Provides a list of current transformers connected to the relay in the one-line diagram.
The CT ratio of the selected CT will be used in calculations to obtain TCC plots. In the one-
line diagram, up to 6 CTs may be connected to a relay. In the case of multifunction relays,
different CTs may be used for different device functions.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Relay Data  492

Default SC Values (kA): To mark the short circuit values in the TCC plot check the box
below “Tick” and enter the short circuit values in kilo amperes for Momentary (1/2 cycle),
Interrupting (3-5 cycles), or 30 cycles.

Breaker Trip: Specify the breaker or switching device opened by the relay upon tripping.

Eqp Type: Choose the switching device from HV Breaker, LV Breaker, Fuse and Switch.

Eqp ID: ID Name of the equipment on the one-line.

Aux Time: Additional relay time or time delay of auxiliary relays.

For arc flash and auto-coordination calculations the Aux Time and HV breaker opening time
are taken into account.

Settings

Relay Data - Settings dialog

System: Shows the Function ID, Device Function name and CT Ratio of the device
function selected. The values entered in the remaining sections of the Specifications tab are
for the device function shown in Function ID field.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Relay Data  493

Lock AC: Check box to lock from Auto Coordination. Any device function with the box
checked will not auto coordinate.

Maintenance Mode: Specifies whether the maintenance mode instantaneous trip switch is
on or off for the device function. Some relays may not have maintenance mode trip switch.
When the checkbox is on, the TCC can be plotted and arc flash calculation will the trip time.

View Notes: Button to view notes on the relay. Notes may contain source of data for the
relay, specific instructions or any other pertinent details. Notes are stored in the device data
library (stdlib.mdb).

Tap: The tap settings or the pickup settings for time-overcurrent function. The name may be
relay specific, such as Pickup, I>, etc.

Tap Range: The range of tap settings which is applicable to the relay. Some relays may
have only one range of tap settings, but relays of the same model may come with different
tap ranges. In such cases all possible ranges may be included in a relay type in the library.

Tap Setting: Depending upon the tap range selected, the available tap choices are listed here.
The selected tap sets the pickup current.

Tap Amps: The pickup current in the one-line circuit is displayed below Tap Setting.

Time Dial: Selection of type of time-overcurrent curve, and the time dial (delay). This
section is name as Time Dial in the library by default. In some cases, for example motor
protection relays, they may be called by other names such as Thermal Overload, etc.

Curve: Provides a list of available curves for the device function.

Time Dial Setting: Provides the range of time delays that can be set for the curve selected.
Some relays call this time multiplier. In some recloser relays, the time dial (or time
multiplier) also affects the instantaneous time delay.

Shift Mult: Shift Multiplier shifts the curve in the vertical direction. This is functionally
similar to the time dial and is available in only some relays.

Time Adder: Some relays (mostly recloser relays) have additional time delays to the regular
trip curves. This field increases the trip time by the selected value of time in seconds or
cycles.

Minimum Time: Some relays (mostly recloser relays) have a minimum time setting. The
time-overcurrent function never trips faster than the specified time. In a TCC plot, the curve
becomes flat at this time even if the inverse time curve is programmed to trip at faster times.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Relay Data  494

Instantaneous: The instantaneous pickup range and setting, and time delay are entered in
this section. Some relays may have different names for this section, such as Short Circuit
Instantaneous, Locked Rotor Instantaneous, etc. For relays that have both high and low
instantaneous settings, it may be necessary to use two device functions.

Instantaneous Range: Provides a list of ranges of instantaneous pickup values applicable to


the relay. The Instantaneous settings available depend on the Instantaneous Range selected.

Instantaneous Setting: The instantaneous pickup setting.

Instantaneous Amps: The instantaneous pickup current in the one-line circuit is displayed
below Tap Setting.

Instantaneous Delay: Time delay for instantaneous trip.

ST Pickup: Relays with three stage overcurrent relays have the second instantaneous trip
with time delay (also called short time in some relays).

ST Pickup Range: Provides a list of ranges of short time or second instantaneous pickup
values applicable to the relay. The ST Pickup settings available depend on the ST Pickup
Range selected.

ST Pickup Setting: The second instantaneous or shot time pickup setting.

ST Pickup Amps: The instantaneous pickup current in the one-line circuit is displayed
below Tap Setting.

ST Delay: Time delay for short time trip.

Some relays have settings and time current curves just like the low voltage breaker solid state
trip devices. The common type is direct action trip (DAT) units found in some medium
voltage breakers. The settings tab for these relays has a slightly different layout as described
below.

Plug: Select the rating plug on the trip unit. The sensor is equal to the CT primary amps.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Relay Data  495

Relay Data – Settings dialog for DAT

LT Pickup: The long time pickup and delay are selected in this section. The pickup
calculation depends on the device selected. It may include LTPU Mult, but it will include
Setting (C). After the settings are selected, the actual pickup in amperes appears in
parentheses.

Setting (C): The long time pickup current setting below which the device will not trip. This
is a fraction of the sensor or plug/tap amps. For some trip units LTPU multiple may also be
required to set the pickup current.

LTPU Mult: Multiple of Setting (C), which can be adjusted to “fine-tune” the long time
pickup setting. Some trip units may not have this feature.

Curve: Some relays may have multiple LT delay curves to choose from. This field allows
you to choose the curve shape.

LT Delay Curve
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Relay Data  496

LT Delay: Long time delay setting to select the delay band.

ST Pickup: Short time pickup and delay settings. This section is applicable to only devices
with short time trip. After the settings are selected, the actual pickup in amperes appears in
parentheses.

Pickup: The short time pickup current setting below which the device will not trip for short
time trip. The short time pickup setting may be a multiple of long time pickup, sensor rating,
or plug.

(I^x)t: To select shape and slope of delay short time band. When you select “In”, the (I^x)t
function is enabled. The delay band has a slope of minus “x”. When you select “Out”, the
(I^x)t function is disabled, and the short time delay is independent of the current. For some
new circuit breakers, the (I^x)t delay may be adjustable. In such case they choices available
will be the various possible delay settings.

Delay: Short time delay setting to select the delay band.

Inst Pickup: Nominal instantaneous trip amps, multiple, or pickup setting. When you
highlight or select a choice, the corresponding trip amps will appear in parenthesis.

Pickup: The instantaneous trip pickup setting.

Enable Override: Selecting Enable Override disables tripping based on pickup setting. The
device trips at an override value that depends on the device style. This feature may or may
not be applicable to the device selected.

Maint-Inst: This is the additional instantaneous setting used during maintenance to lower the
arc flash hazard. The name of this section may be manufacturer specific such as ARMS,
Maint Mode, etc.

On: Checked box indicates the maintenance switch is on. In analysis focus, you can select
the breakers and with a right mouse click you can toggle the maintenance mode switch on or
off.

Pickup: Setting for maintenance mode trip.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Shunt Reactor Data  497

Shunt Reactor Data

Shunt Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the shunt reactor. This ID name is sometimes referred to as
the shunt name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to SH-1, SH-2, SH-
3... as you enter new shunts on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names if
desired.

To Bus: The bus the shunt connects to, which must already exist on the one-line. For your
reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Shunt Specifications

R+jX: Shunt data is entered as R+jX in ohms. Standard shunt reactor data is entered using
positive impedances, although negative numbers can also be entered.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Switch Data  498

Harmonics

Please see Filter Harmonics, Page 374.

Switch Data

Switch Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the switch. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
switch name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to SW-1, SW-2, SW-
3... as you enter new switches on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names if
desired.

On Bus: The bus the switch connects to, which must already exist on the one-line. For your
reference, the On Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Switch Data  499

Connection Type: Whether the switch is connected as a "Feeder", (e.g., to a cable, busway,
transformer, etc.) or as a "Tie" (between two buses).

Open/Closed: Normal state of the switch. If "Open" is chosen, the one-line will show
"OPEN" next to the switch symbol. If "Closed" is chosen, the one-line symbol will not show
the "OPEN" tag.

Switch Specifications

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of switch manufacturers available in the device library.
If the desired manufacturer is missing from the list, choose "Other".

Type: Switch types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired manufacturer is missing from the list, choose "Other".

Style: Switch styles available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above in the
type specified. After you choose a manufacturer and type, the styles available in the yellow
column of the corresponding device library page are displayed here.

Continuous Current: Continuous current of the switch. This value is for reference only
and does not affect analysis.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Switch Data  500

Short Circuit

Short Circuit tab of Switch Data dialog box

Mon/C&L (kA): Momentary or close & latch rating of the switch. The values available
from the device library are typically the close and latch values for spring and mechanically
operated switches, since this is the lowest rating. Some switches, however, have only
momentary ratings.

Calculate Button: Fills in a computed value for the Mon/C&L field, based on the device
library entry for Mfr, Type, Style, and the base kV. You can override this value by typing in
a different number. This button also causes the appropriate Testing Standard to be displayed
for your information. (The Testing Standard comes directly from the device library and
cannot be changed.)

Harmonics

Please see Harmonics of Fused Switch Data.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Three-Winding Transformer Data  501

Three-Winding Transformer Data

Three-Winding Transformer Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the transformer. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
transformer name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to TW-1, TW-2,
TW-3... as you enter new transformers on the one-line diagram, but you can change those
names if desired.

Primary Bus: The bus which is connected to the main transformer winding, or the largest
MVA winding. This bus must already exist on the one-line. You must be careful that the
Primary Bus has approximately the same base kV as the transformer's Primary Rated kV.
(However, EasyPower can model any off-nominal kV rating.) For your reference, the
Primary Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Three-Winding Transformer Data  502

Secondary Bus: The bus which is connected to the secondary transformer winding. This
bus must already exist on the one-line. You must be careful that the Secondary Bus has
approximately the same base kV as the transformer's Secondary Rated kV. (However,
EasyPower can model any off-nominal kV rating.) For your reference, the Secondary Bus
base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Tertiary Bus: The bus which is connected to the tertiary transformer winding. This bus
must already exist on the one-line. You must be careful that the Tertiary Bus has
approximately the same base kV as the transformer's Tertiary Rated kV. (However,
EasyPower can model any off-nominal kV rating.) For your reference, the Tertiary Bus base
kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Conn: The transformer winding connection type, which is either "Delta" (D), "Wye
Ungrounded" (Y), or "Wye Grounded" (YG). If "Wye Grounded" is chosen, grounding
impedances can be entered in the Grounding tab.

Transformer Specifications

Type: Type of transformer (oil, gas, dry, silicone, or vapor). This field is used to determine
the rating capacity of the transformer for the power flow overload solution.

Class: Type of cooling used by the transformer. Various combinations of forced air, water
and forced oil are available. This field is used to determine the rating capacity of the
transformer for the power flow overload solution.

Temp: ANSI temperature rating of the transformer. Various combinations can be chosen
and are dependent upon the type of transformer. Dual ratings such as 55/65 increase the
overload capability of the transformer by 12 percent.

Form: Either core or shell type transformers can be chosen. This value is for reference only
and does not affect analysis.

Winding Information

Rated kV: Rated kV of a winding. The rated kV can be different than the base kV or the
tap kV. EasyPower automatically adjusts the model to account for different taps, turns ratio
and bases you choose.

Tap kV / Tap% : Tap kV of a winding. You can also specify the tap kV in terms of
percentage of the rated value. To select the unit, choose Tap kV or Tap % form the combo
box. If the actual tap kV is not known, enter the rated kV. Load tap changer control can be
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Three-Winding Transformer Data  503

used to determine final tap settings if desired. EasyPower automatically adjusts the model to
account for different taps, turns ratio and bases you choose.

MVA/kVA: Self cooled rating of the transformer. To select the unit in MVA or kVA, use the
combo box.

MVA OL: The overload rating is based on the temperature and class ratings. It is filled in
using the Calculate button or you can type in a different rating.

Impedance

Impedance

Transformer impedance is in percent on the self-cooled MVA of the winding and nominal
voltage rating. The strict definition is the percent of rated voltage impressed on the high
voltage winding to produce rated full load current in the short circuited low voltage winding.

In this dialog box, Zps stands for Primary to Secondary, Zpt stands for Primary to Tertiary,
and Zst stands for Secondary to Tertiary.

Manufacturers provide impedance data in many different formats depending on the test
facility and transformer size. The data entry format for EasyPower was chosen from one of
the most common testing procedures.

You may specify the impedances in any MVA base: the primary, secondary, or tertiary.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Three-Winding Transformer Data  504

Impedance tab of Three-Winding Transformer Data Dialog Box

R1: Positive sequence winding resistance in percent.

X1: Positive sequence winding leakage reactance in percent.

R0, X0: Zero sequence winding leakage impedance in percent. If you don't know this value,
enter the positive sequence impedance (Z) for shell transformers (see the Form field on the
transformer's main dialog box). For core transformers, use approximately 85% of Z. If you
enter this value as zero (0.0), the positive sequence impedance will be used.

MVA Base: The winding MVA based upon which the percent impedance value is specified.

Grounding

Clicking the Grounding tab lets you enter grounding impedances. They only apply to wye
grounded connections. The units are R + jX in ohms. If you only know the ground amperes
of the circuit, divide the line to neutral voltage of the circuit by the amperes to get the
impedance. This can be achieved in EasyPower by entering the Amp Class first and then
clicking on Calculate button.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Three-Winding Transformer Data  505

R: Transformer neutral ground resistance in ohms. This is the most common method of
grounding the transformer neutral winding. Grounding resistors are usually given in
amperes. The impedance is found from the following equation.

R = Vln / I

If the transformer is grounded through a grounding transformer with a secondary resistance,


this resistance must be converted to the primary winding. Only wye grounded transformers
are modeled with grounds. Mid or corner tapped delta windings are not modeled.

jX: Transformer neutral ground reactance in ohms.

Amp Class: This is the current in amps through the ground impedance at the rated voltage.
You can enter data in this field directly in Amps or calculate it based on the voltage and
ground impedance R +jX using the Calculate button

Load Tap Changer (LTC)

LTC tab of Three-Winding Transformer Data Dialog Box

Tap: Load tap changers (LTC) can be placed on one or two windings of a three-winding
transformer. Any combination of primary, secondary or tertiary is allowed, provided that
they do not specify the same winding. Also, if only one LTC is used, it must be LTC #1. If
the transformer does not have an LTC, choose the "None" radio button for standard fixed
taps. Fixed off-nominal taps can be entered in the main dialog's Tap kV field.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Three-Winding Transformer Data  506

Step Size: The default is 0.625 but you can type in your own percentage step size both here
and in the power flow three-winding transformer temporary dialog box.

Min Tap kV: Minimum tap kV is used to determine the bottom limit to which the tap can
be adjusted during a power flow analysis. This value should be the lowest tap on the
transformer to get meaningful results. The default of 0.12 kV is not realistic and should be
changed to the actual values if the LTC is used.

Max Tap kV: Maximum tap kV, which is used to determine the upper limit that the tap can
be adjusted to during a power flow analysis. This value should be the highest tap on the
transformer to get meaningful results. The default of 1500 kV is not realistic and should be
changed to the actual values if the LTC is used.

Control Value (Ctrl Value): Control value, which is determined by the Control Type field.
If "Voltage" is chosen, the control value should be entered in per-unit voltage. A typical
range would be .975-1.01 per-unit, with 1.0 per-unit as a starting point. If "MVAR" is
selected, the value should be enter in actual MVAR rather than adjusted per-unit. To
determine what MVAR range is appropriate for a given transformer size, determine the
MVAR flow without using an LTC then multiply by .975-1.01 for an approximate starting
place. It should be mentioned that LTC control is much more limited in strength and range
than large generator control.

Control Type: Determines how the LTC model is used. You can select either “Voltage” or
“MVAR”. If "Voltage" is chosen, the LTC will attempt to control the voltage of the bus on
the same side of the LTC. For example, if LTCs are chosen on both the secondary and
tertiary sides, voltage will be controlled at those buses. This works well if the secondary and
tertiary sides are load buses as is common for split winding transformers. However, if the
primary side is chosen for the LTC and the secondary and tertiary sides are load buses, the
primary side (source side) cannot control the load bus voltage. For this type of system
standard fixed taps will work well.

If "MVAR" is chosen, the LTC will attempt to control the MVAR flow through the
transformer to a given value.

TCC

Transformer damage Curve

Plot 100% Withstand TCC: Check box to plot transformer damage curve for 100%
withstand. This is without taking into consideration the derating factor for winding
connection type and the type of fault.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Three-Winding Transformer Data  507

Plot Unbalanced Derating (58% or 87%) TCC: Check box to plot transformer damage
curve taking into consideration the derating factor for winding connection type and the type
of fault. The transformer curve shifts left by 58% or 87% depending on the connection type.

Use Frequent Fault Curve(s): Check box to plot the transformer damage curves as
Category II to IV (thermal and mechanical withstand) for frequently occurring faults. The
curve shifts towards the left depending upon the transformer impedance.

Standard: The standard according to which the curve is plotted.

Maximum Plot Time: The maximum time in seconds for which the transformer damage
curve is plotted.

TCC tab for Three Winding Transformer Data dialog box

Magnetizing Inrush

FLA x: Magnetizing inrush current as multiples of full load amps for the primary winding.

Cycles: Time taken by magnetizing inrush current in terms of number of cycles.

FLA Based on: Calculation basis for full load amps. “MVA O/L” is MVA capacity for
overload and “Rated MVA” is self-cooled capacity.

Plot Side: The side of transformer for which the short circuit withstand is plotted. Short
circuit is applied on Secondary or Tertiary side. The primary line current is shown in the
plot.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Transmission Line Data  508

Auto-Coordination Setting: Specify whether the protective device is accessible only to


qualified personnel (supervised) or unsupervised. This affects the protective device settings
based on NEC rules.

Z System: While plotting the transformer damage curve, typical practice assumes infinite
source (zero system impedance) on the upstream side of the transformer. You can include the
upstream system impedance to lower the maximum fault current that the transformer will see.
The system impedance must be converted to per unit impedance on the transformer MVA
base.

Harmonics

See Harmonics tab of Filter Data, Page 374.

Rated eddy-current loss, PEC-R: Eddy-current loss under rated conditions expressed as a
percentage of rated I2R loss.

Transmission Line Data

Transmission Line Data Dialog Box


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Transmission Line Data  509

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the transmission line. This ID name is sometimes referred to
as the transmission line name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to X-
1, X-2, X-3... as you enter new transmission lines on the one-line diagram, but you can
change those names if desired.

From Bus: The bus which the transmission line connects "from", which must already exist
on the one-line. You must be careful that the From Bus has the same base kV as the
transmission line's To Bus. For your reference, the From Bus base kV is displayed next to
the bus name.

To Bus: The bus which the transmission line connects "to", which must already exist on the
one-line. You must be careful that the To Bus has the same base kV as the transmission line's
From Bus. For your reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Show Entire Line: This box is checked by default and causes the entire line to be displayed.
By un-checking the box, the line will only be shown as a short section at each end with labels
indicating which bus the other end is attached to.

Transmission Line Specifications

Unit: Choose either US or Metric.

No/Phase: Total number of lines modeled. The default of one (1) means one conductor per
phase. Two (2) means two conductors in parallel per phase, etc. When two or more
conductors are in parallel, the impedance of the circuit will be decreased by that factor. The
impedances shown in the dialog box are for one conductor only, and are not based on the
No./Phase field. So if you enter these values instead of using Calculate, make sure they are
for one conductor only. This lets you to easily check handbook values without additional
arithmetic. The Calculate button does not consider bundled conductors at this time.

Material: Material (copper, aluminum, aluminum cable steel reinforced, or copper weld).

Size: Conductor size in AWG or MCM. For more information, see the Aluminum Electrical
Conductor Handbook .

Length: The length of the line in miles or meters.

Temp: Temperature of the loaded conductor. This can be varied from 25°C to 250°C
depending on the type of study being performed. This temperature is used in determining the
resistance of the conductor.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Transmission Line Data  510

Earth Res: Earth resistivity in ohm-meters. This value is used to determine ground
impedance. A default value of 100 ohm-meters is typically used when measured data is not
available.

GMD: Geometric Mean Distance of the conductor spacing. This value is used to determine
the impedance of the line. Typical default values are used based on the kV of the line.

Average Height: Average height of the transmission line in feet. This value is also used to
determine the line impedance. Typical default values are used based on the kV of the line.

Impedances

Impedances are described in ohms/mile or ohms/km, except for Xc, which is in megaohm
miles or megaohm km. For more information, see the Westinghouse Transmission and
Distribution (T&D) book.

R1: Positive sequence resistance.

X1: Positive sequence reactance.

R0: Zero sequence resistance. If you enter this value as zero (0.0), the positive sequence
impedance will be used.

X0: Zero sequence reactance. If you enter this value as zero (0.0), the positive sequence
impedance will be used.

Xc: Shunt capacitive reactance. If you enter this value as zero (0.0), "infinity" is assumed.

Xc0: Shunt capacitive zero sequence reactance. If you enter this value as zero (0.0),
"infinity" is assumed.

Rating: Conductor rating in amperes. This field is used to determine line overloads in
power flow analysis. If you use Calculate, this value will be brought from the device library
and is for one conductor. EasyPower will not calculate a new rating if there are multiple
conductors per phase. You will need to input the proper rating.

Harmonics

See Harmonics tab of Filter Data, Page 374.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Two-Winding Transformer Data  511

Two-Winding Transformer Data

Two-Winding Transformer Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the transformer. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
transformer name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to TX-1, TX-2,
TX-3... as you enter new transformers on the one-line diagram, but you can change those
names later if desired.

From Bus: The bus which the transformer connects "from", which must already exist on the
one-line. You must be careful that the From Bus has approximately the same base kV as the
transformer's From Rated kV. For your reference, the From Bus base kV is displayed next to
the bus name.

To Bus: The bus which the transformer connects "to", which must already exist on the one-
line. You must be careful that the To Bus has approximately the same base kV as the
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Two-Winding Transformer Data  512

transformer's To Rated kV. For your reference, the From Bus base kV is displayed next to
the bus name.

Conn: The transformer winding connection type, which is either "Delta" (D), "Wye
Ungrounded" (Y), or "Wye Grounded" (YG). If "Wye Grounded" is chosen, grounding
impedances can be entered in the Grounding tab.

Lock Auto-Sizing: When this is checked, Auto-Design does not change the size of the
transformer.

Transformer Specifications

Type: Type of transformer (oil, gas, dry, silicone, or vapor). This field is used to determine
the rating capacity of the transformer for the power flow overload solution.

Class: Type of cooling used by the transformer. Various combinations of forced air, water
and forced oil are available. This field is used to determine the rating capacity of the
transformer for the power flow overload solution.

Temp: ANSI temperature rating of the transformer. Various combinations can be chosen
and are dependent upon the type of transformer. Dual ratings such as 55/65 increase the
overload capability of the transformer by 12 percent.

Form: Either core or shell type transformers can be chosen. This value is for reference only
and does not affect analysis.

Winding Information

Rated kV: Rated kV of a winding. The rated kV can be different than the base kV or the
tap kV. EasyPower automatically adjusts the model to account for different taps, turns ratio
and bases you choose.

Tap kV / Tap% : Tap kV of a winding. You can also specify the tap kV in terms of
percentage of the rated value. To select the unit, choose Tap kV or Tap % form the combo
box. If the actual tap kV is not known, enter the rated kV. Load tap changer control can be
used to determine final tap settings if desired. EasyPower automatically adjusts the model to
account for different taps, turns ratio and bases you choose.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Two-Winding Transformer Data  513

Rated: Self cooled rating of the transformer. To select the unit in MVA or kVA, use the
combo box on the right.

MVA O/L: The overload rating as filled in using the Calculate button or you can type in a
different rating.

Impedance

Impedance tab of Two-Winding Transformer Dialog Box


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Two-Winding Transformer Data  514

Z: Transformer nameplate impedance in percent. By definition, this is the positive sequence


leakage impedance in percent on the self-cooled MVA and nominal voltage rating. The strict
definition is the percent of rated voltage impressed on the high voltage winding to produce
rated full load current in the short circuited low voltage winding.

Z0: Transformer zero sequence leakage impedance in percent. If you don't know this value,
enter the positive sequence impedance (Z) for shell transformers (see Form field above). For
core transformers, use approximately 85% of Z. If you enter this value as zero (0.0), the
positive sequence impedance will be used.

X/R Ratio: Transformer reactance to resistance ratio, which is used to determine resistance
value.

Calculate Button: Fills in a computed value for the X/R field, based on the transformer's
MVA rating. You can override this value by typing in a different number. The calculated
X/R ratio curve is based on the medium ANSI Standard curve [ANSI C37.010-1979]. This
curve was developed mainly for power transformers and is typically high for low voltage unit
substations less than 2500 kVA.

Grounding

Grounding impedances only apply to wye grounded connections. The units are R+jX in
ohms. If you only know the ground amperes of the circuit, enter the amp class and use the
Calculate button to calculate the grounding impedance.

R: Transformer neutral ground resistance in ohms. This is the most common method of
grounding the transformer neutral winding. Grounding resistors are usually given in
amperes. The impedance is found from the following equation.

R = Vln / I

If the transformer is grounded through a separate grounding transformer with a secondary


resistance, this resistance must be converted to the primary winding. Only wye grounded
transformers are modeled with grounds. Mid or corner tapped delta windings are not
modeled.

jX: Transformer neutral ground reactance in ohms.

Amp Class: This is the current in amps through the ground impedance at the rated voltage.
You can enter data in this field directly in Amps or calculate it based on the voltage and
ground impedance R +jX using the Calculate button.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Two-Winding Transformer Data  515

Load Tap Changer (LTC) Data

Tap: Load tap changer (LTC) position can be placed on either side of the transformer by
choosing the "From" or "To" radio button. If the transformer does not have an LTC, choose
the "None" radio button for standard fixed taps. Fixed off-nominal taps can be entered in the
main dialog's Tap kV field.

Step Size: The default is 0.625 but you can type in your own percentage step size both here
and in the power flow two-winding transformer temporary dialog box.

LTC tab of Two-Winding Transformer Data Dialog Box

Min Tap kV: Minimum tap kV, which is used to determine the bottom limit that the tap can
be adjusted to during a power flow analysis. This value should be the lowest tap on the
transformer to get meaningful results. The default of 0.12 kV is not realistic and should be
changed to the actual values if the LTC is used.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Two-Winding Transformer Data  516

Max Tap kV: Maximum tap kV, which is used to determine the upper limit that the tap can
be adjusted to during a power flow analysis. This value should be the highest tap on the
transformer to get meaningful results. The default of 1500 kV is not realistic and should be
changed to the actual values if the LTC is used.

Control Value: Control value, which is determined by the Control Type field. If "Voltage"
is chosen, the control value should be entered in per-unit voltage. A typical range would be
.975-1.01 per-unit, with 1.0 per-unit as a starting point. If "MVAR" is selected, the value
should be entered in actual MVAR rather than adjusted per-unit. To determine what MVAR
range is appropriate for a given transformer size, determine the MVAR flow without using an
LTC, and multiply by .975-1.01 for an approximate starting place. It should be mentioned
that LTC control is much more limited in strength and range than large generator control.

Control Type: Determines how the LTC model is used. If "Voltage" is chosen, the LTC
will attempt to control the voltage of the bus on the other side of the LTC. For example, if
the LTC is chosen to be on the "From" side, voltage will be controlled on the "To" side. If
"MVAR" is chosen, the LTC will attempt to control the MVAR flow through the transformer
to a given value.

Control Side: The LTC can control the voltage or MVAR on either side of the transformer,
regardless of which side the tap is located.

TCC Data

Please see TCC tab of Three Winding Transformer Data, page 506.

Stability
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Two-Winding Transformer Data  517

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of Transformer manufacturers available in the device


library. If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the
library.

Type: Transformer types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If
the desired type is not listed, you may addit to the library.

Model: Lists available transformer models in the library.

Lib button: Populates transformer data from the library.

Harmonics

Please see Harmonics tab of Filter Data, Page 374.

Rated eddy-current loss, PEC-R: Eddy-current loss under rated conditions expressed as a
percentage of rated I2R loss.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference UPS Data  518

UPS Data

UPS Data dialog

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the UPS. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the UPS
name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to UPS-1, UPS-2, UPS-3... as
you enter new UPS’s on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names later if
desired.

Input Bus: The ID name of the bus connected to the input branch. The bus voltage
determines the input voltage rating of the UPS.

Output Bus: The ID name of the bus connected to the output branch. The bus voltage
determines the output voltage rating of the UPS.

Specifications

UPS kVA: kVA rating of the UPS.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference UPS Data  519

X/R: X/R ratio used for short circuit calculations at the output.

Short Circuit Output

½ Cycle Short Circuit Capabilities: Momentary short circuit contribution. Value is entered as
multiple of kVA rating. Example: A 500kVA/0.48kV UPS has a momentary short circuit
contribution of 3000Amps. The short circuit capability in multiples of kVA rating is 4.988
(~5.0). [ multiple = sqrt(3)*3kA*0.48kV/500kVA.]

Interrupting Short Circuit Capabilities: Short circuit contribution at 5 cycles.

30 Cycle Short Circuit Capabilities: Short circuit contribution at 30 cycles.

Power Flow

UPS Data Power Flow tab


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Utility Data  520

Normal Mode Settings

%Efficiency: Efficiency of UPS in delivering active power to load. When there is no battery
charging, input active load is equal to output active load divided by efficiency.

% Battery Charging: Power consumed in charging battery, expressed as percentage of


Rated kVA of UPS.

Input PF: Power factor of input.

Source Output

Ctrl kV PU: The per unit output voltage of the UPS, which the UPS tries to maintain.

Ctrl Angle: The output voltage angle of the UPS, which the UPS tries to maintain.

Utility Data
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Utility Data  521

Utility Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the utility. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
utility name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to UTIL-1, UTIL-2,
UTIL-3... as you enter new utilities on the one-line diagram, but you can change those names
later if desired.

To Bus: The bus the utility connects to, which must already exist on the one-line. For your
reference, the To Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.

Utility Specifications

Utility kV: Utility operating kV for calculation of per-unit impedance. This does not affect
the power flow controlled voltage.

Fault Duty Unit: Specifies the unit in which the short circuit information is entered. Any of
the four following units may be selected from the combo box.

Fault Duty Unit Name Short Circuit Units

MVA MVA X/R

kA kA X/R

Ohms R jX

Zpu Rpu jXpu

Utility MVA Base: When Zpu is selected as the fault duty unit, you will also need to specify
the MVA Base of the utility for the per unit values.

3-Phase Short Circuit MVA: Utility 3-phase short circuit MVA. Used in determining
short circuit reactance values.

3-Phase Short Circuit X/R: Utility reactance to resistance ratio for a three-phase bolted
fault (positive sequence impedance). Used in determining the resistance value in short circuit
studies.

SLG Short Circuit MVA: Utility line to ground short circuit MVA. Used in determining
short circuit reactance values. This value is calculated using:
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Utility Data  522

MVASLG=SQRT(3)VLLI1ph

SLG Short Circuit X/R: Utility zero sequence reactance to resistance ratio. Used in
determining the resistance value in short circuit studies.

DC Utility Specifications

DC Utility Specifications

kV: DC Utility operating kV. If this value is different than the bus base kV, then the
controlled voltage will be scaled appropriately.

Fault Duty: Expected fault value (in Amperes) or the Thevenin equivalent resistance (in
ohms) at the DC utility connection point.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Utility Data  523

Power Flow

Power Flow tab of Utility Data dialog box

Model: Utility bus type used in modeling the power flow simulation. When you choose a
particular model, those fields which are not appropriate will be grayed out. A utility is
normally modeled as the reference or swing bus, but may be modeled as another generator
bus. (See "Swing Sources" on page 200.)

 PV - Constant power, constant voltage utility. This is also known as a regulated utility.
This model tries to hold a user-specified bus voltage within utility MVAR limits.

 Swing - A swing bus holds the bus voltage and angle constant. There cannot be limits on
the amount of MW or MVAR the swing machine can accept or provide.

 PQG - Constant power, constant var utility. This is also known as an unregulated utility.
This model holds the MVAR generation within given voltage limits.

MW: Utility output MW. This may be actual operating or a rated value. This applies only
to a PV or PQG utility.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Utility Data  524

MVAR: Utility output MVAR. This is only used when the utility is a constant power,
constant var (PQG) machine, or when a PV utility MVAR limit has been reached and the
machine automatically switches to PQG.

MVAR Limits: Minimum and maximum MVAR limits for regulated utilities (PV). The
utility will switch to type PQG if these limits are violated. If there is only one swing utility
(Model = "Swing") on a bus, it should not have any MVAR limits. If there is more than one
swing utility on a bus, at least one of them must be unlimited.

Ctl kV PU: Desired control voltage for a regulated utility (PV). The utility will try to
control the voltage at the controlled bus to a given value. If the utility bus is the swing bus,
this voltage serves as the reference voltage. The voltage is entered in per-unit.

Ctl Angle: Controlled angle is used only when a utility is designated as a swing bus. The
value is entered in degrees.

Ctrl Bus: For a PV utility (regulated), the bus that is to be controlled to the control voltage.
If this field is blank in the database, EasyPower will fill it in with the name of the bus listed
in the To Bus field. (Note that this does not take effect until you accept it by choosing OK to
close the database dialog box.) This field is ignored if the Model field is set to "Swing".

DC Utility Power Flow

DC Utility Power Flow tab

Model

The power flow can be one of the following models:

 Swing (Regulated): Holds the utility bus voltage at specified per unit value (Ctrl kV PU).

 Swing (Un-Regulated): The utility bus voltage drops with the increase of load current
based on Thevenin impedance.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Utility Data  525

 Constant Power: Outputs the specified amount of kW (Output kW).

Harmonics

Harmonics tab of Utility Data dialog

Resistance Factor: EasyPower offers two methods for calculating RH:

Resistance varying with a power of the harmonic (R-EXP)

RH = RFund * H R-EXP

Resistance varying with a percent eddy current factor (%ECF)

RH = RFund * (1+ECF*H2)/(1+ECF)

EasyPower defaults all skin effect correction to R-EXP and a value of 0.5.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Utility Data  526

R-EXP %ECF

Transformer 0.5-1.0 1.0-3.0

Utility 0.0-0.8 -

Generator 0.3-0.6 -

Line/Cable 0.5 -

Reactor 0.5-1.0 0.8-3.0

Motor 0.2-0.4 -
Typical Resistance Correction Factors

Fundamental Amps: These are radio buttons. Equipment Rating will set Fundm Amps to
the equivalent Amp rating calculated from System base MVA. User Specified will activate
the Fundm Amps field, allowing specification of a value. These values are used to calculate
the percentage harmonic flow – the absolute harmonics amps will not be affected.

Table Values in: When the frequency response of the utility is specified in the table
(spreadsheet), the impedance can be in per-unit of a specified MVA or in Ohms.

Harm Calcs Use: The utility response to harmonics can be based on the impedance
calculated from short circuit values in the Specifications tab or based on the table.

Harmonic Table: If the Tables Values is selected for Harm Calcs Use, then this table will
be active. For each harmonic number you can enter the impedances: R Pos, X Pos, R Zero
and X Zero. For each harmonic number entered in the spreadsheet the row must be complete
with data. The harmonic may be integer or non-integer.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Utility Data  527

Stability

Manufacturer (Mfr): Provides a list of Utility manufacturers available in the device library.
If the desired manufacturer is not listed in the device library, you may add it to the library.

Type: Utility types available from the manufacturer chosen in the Mfr field above. If the
desired type is not listed, you may addit to the library.

Model: Lists available utility models from the library.

Lib button: Populates Utility data from the library.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Zigzag Transformer Data  528

Zigzag Transformer Data

Zigzag Data Dialog Box

Connection Information

ID Name: Uniquely identifies the transformer. This ID name is sometimes referred to as the
transformer name, and can be up to 12 characters long. The names default to TZ-1, TZ-2,
TZ-3... as you enter new transformers on the one-line diagram, but you can change those
names later if desired.

From Bus: The bus which the transformer connects "from", which must already exist on the
one-line. For your reference, the From Bus base kV is displayed next to the bus name.
Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Zigzag Transformer Data  529

Specifications

Voltage Rating (kV): Transformer nameplate rated kV.

Impedance (Ohms): Transformer nameplate impedance in ohms. This is the impedance


between each line terminal and neutral.

R: Transformer neutral ground resistance in ohms.

jX: Transformer neutral ground reactance in ohms.

Harmonics

See Harmonics tab of Filter Data, Page 374.


Chapter 12 Database Technical Reference Zigzag Transformer Data  531
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Overview  532

Chapter 13
Harmonics With Spectrum
Overview
In the Harmonics analysis focus you can do frequency scans, current flows and summations.
The display of one-line results, frequency scan plots, and text reports are all designed to help
you understand and control the effects of harmonics on your power system.

Harmonics Ribbon

Harmonics ribbon

Harmonics Toolbar
You can view menus and toolbars by choosing Style  Toolbars.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Harmonics Status Bar  533

Harmonics toolbar

Harmonics Status Bar

Spectrum Status Bar

The Harmonics Status Bar indicates the following settings:

Grid Snap Status: Shows "SNAP" if grid snapping is on. See "The Snap Grid" on page
736 of Chapter 2 for more information.

Voltage Unit: Either kV or per-unit, as set in Harmonic Options One-line Output.

Current Unit: Either Amps or per-unit, as set in Harmonic Options One-line Output.

Losses Unit: Either kVA or MVA, as set in Harmonic Options One-line Output.

Harmonic Load Data


Loads with harmonic content can be specified as harmonic loads. To specify any load or
motor as having harmonic content, you need to be in Database Edit focus. The equipment
data dialog, for example Load Data, has a tab called Harmonics.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Analysis Results  534

Harmonics tab of Load Data dialog

Specify the Load Type as Harmonic. A spreadsheet will be enabled. You can specify the
harmonic content of the load in this spreadsheet. If you do not have any data on the harmonic
content you can browse the Library Load data and select the appropriate load type.
EasyPower offers several types of typical harmonic load data.

When entering harmonic content in the spreadsheet, DO NOT ENTER the fundamental
component. This may lead to erroneous results. The fundamental is accounted for through the
rated load value or through user specifed field.

Analysis Results
The Harmonics focus may be entered the same as any other analysis focus. Choose
Harm button in the ribbon (or Analysis Harmonics from the menu). Since there are
some criteria that need to be met before entering an analysis focus, and some analysis
features are the same, you may want to review Chapter 3, "Analysis Overview".

EasyPower allows three major types of harmonic analysis: frequency scan, current flow, and
summation.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Analysis Results  535

Frequency Scan

Frequency scans show how a system under study responds to an injected current at increasing
frequency. The output of a frequency scan is a plot of per unit voltages, per unit currents, or
both. From these plots you can derive results such as voltage and current amplification,
resonant points and natural filter points. Frequency scanning utilizes a 1.0 per unit current
injection at a single, user-selected location. Since Z=V/I, a 1.0 per unit current makes Z=V.
Therefore, the bus voltage at the point of injection is the driving point impedance.

To obtain a frequency scan at a bus by injecting current at the same bus, simply double click
on the bus. You will obtain a window with a plot and spreadsheet as shown below. To
obtain frequency scan at a bus by injecting current at another bus, you need to define plots.
The scan of bus at which current is injected appears on the tab called “AutoPlot”.

Frequency scan at a bus

The plot feature in the Harmonics focus allows you to select as many as ten plots with up to
five buses or items each. For buses, the per-unit voltage is plotted; and for branch items, the
per unit current is plotted.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Analysis Results  536

Plot Viewing Window

Defining a Plot

1. To enter Define Plot Mode, choose the Define Plot button in the ribbon (or Plot 
Define Plot from the menu bar). This will activate the Define Plot ribbon and provide the
Plot Select cursor .

Define Plot ribbon

2. Choose a Plot from the drop down list in the Plot to Define field.

3. Select up to five bus or branch items to plot. Remember that new items can be selected,

without deselecting others, by holding down the shift key. Choose Add button or
Remove button to add or remove items from the Plot.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Analysis Results  537

4. Click on the Plot to Define field and choose another Plot, until all desired items are assigned
to one plot or another.

5. To clear the selections on a plot choose Clear button. To clear the selections on all

plots choose Clear All button.

6. To exit Define Plot Mode choose Close button on the Define Plot ribbon.

Performing a Frequency Scan

1. Choose Harmonic Options button and pick the Plot Output tab. In the Frequency
Scan Range section enter the range and step size of frequencies to be scanned. Choose the
Text Output tab and check any text reports for output. Then choose OK. You can also

access the dialog for Text Output formatting by clicking on Harmonics Reports button.

Note: The plot viewer is limited to 5000 data points per item. Therefore, selecting a very
small step size (ie .001pu) may limit the scan range and increase computer processing time.

2. Use the Define Plot button to add or remove items to be plotted.

3. Select the bus where harmonic current is to be injected, then choose Scan button from
the ribbon, (or Solve Frequency Scan from the menu bar) and EasyPower will perform
the frequency scan and open the plot viewer. Or just double-click the bus to injection on.

Shortcut: When the scan range is already set and there are no plots defined, you can
automatically plot the voltage for a bus by double-clicking on that bus.

Plotting Results

Even though EasyPower opens the plot viewer automatically, there are many aspects of the
plot window that are user controlled.

Viewing Plots

Similar to other windows, the Plot Window has scroll bars which function as described in
"Moving Around the One-line". The zoom buttons are also available for viewing plots, and
they work as discussed in "Zooming In and Out".
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Analysis Results  538

To view any of the ten different plots, just click on the tab for that plot. The default is to
show only a few of the tabs. Click on the arrow keys to the left of the tabs to scroll through
the other tabs.

Scrolling Through Plot Tabs

To view a separate Y-axis for each curve, choose Y-Axis (Format Y Axis) button from
the Plot ribbon, go to Appearance tab of Format Y-Axis dialog and select the check box for
Multiple Y-Axis field. To toggle whether data is viewed or just the plot, choose the
checkbox Data View. To view more of the data window, use the vertical splitter window
cursor to drag the window boundary one way or the other. Change column widths by using
the column resizing cursor or by using the Format Plot Data dialog box.

Changing Column Boundaries

Selecting data is performed by using the same method as the device library. Selected data
can be copied to the clipboard and then pasted into other applications.

Formatting Plots

The Format group in the Plot ribbon has several buttons for matting the plot. Each
command: Data, Title, Plot Area, X Axis, Y Axis, Legend, and Curves, opens a different
dialog box for customizing that respective area.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Analysis Results  539

Format Curves Dialog Box

These dialog boxes can also be opened by double-clicking on the area to be formatted. For
instance, double-clicking on any of the curves opens the Format Curves dialog box, and
allows formatting of one or all of the curves.

A right mouse click in either the plot or data area will bring up a context menu for that area
containing the Format and View commands.

To change the default settings, open the appropriate format dialog box and change the
desired parameters. Then click the Default button in the lower-left corner. Any changes
made will be reflected in all new plots.

Printing Plots and Data

Quick Access Toolbar

If the plot viewer is open, choose Print button from the Quick Access Toolbar. The
Print Plot dialog will appear.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Analysis Results  540

Print Plot Dialog Box

The Print Plot dialog box is similar to the others discussed in Printing and Plotting (Chapter
8). However, the radio buttons in Print What choose whether to print Data or Plots.
EasyPower gives the option of printing multiple plots at the same time.

When Data is selected, the Scaling field will be inactive. If Plots is selected, Scaling
remains active, and the plot size (full, ½, or ¼) is determined by the radio buttons.

Current Flow

Clicking on (Single Point Current Flow) button or (All Point


Current Flow) button in the Harmonics ribbon will output equipment currents and bus
voltages. A Single Point Current Flow is a current flow with a single harmonic source
injected on user-defined bus at the magnitude, angle and frequency set in the Control tab of
the Harmonic Options dialog. An All Source Current Flow will consider every harmonic
source in the system which has that selected frequency.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Analysis Results  541

Performing a Current Flow

1. Choose Harmonics Options and select the Control tab. In the Harmonic Current Flow
section, enter the current flow frequency to be injected. Choose the Text Output tab and
check any output text reports. Then choose OK.

2. Select the bus for source current injection.

3. Choose (Single Point Current Flow) and EasyPower will display the bus voltages
throughout the system, in either kV or per-unit. Select the One-line Output tab of the
Harmonic Options dialog to set the kV type display.

4. Choose (All Point Current Flow) and EasyPower will inject harmonic currents
at the specified frequency for every harmonic source in the system which contains that
frequency in its harmonic spectrum. These currents will be injected at the magnitude and
angle specified in the Harmonics tab of the source equipment item. Buses do not need to be
selected prior to solving. The output will again be kV or per-unit as selected.

Summation

Summation analysis performs a system solution using injected harmonic currents from each
harmonic source defined. Results are accumulated over all available injection frequencies
and presented on the one-line and in text reports.

Most of the remaining toolbar buttons control which results of Summation are displayed on
the one-line.

Performing a Current Summation

1. Select a section of the one-line.

2. Choose Summation button in the ribbon (or Solve Summation from the menu bar)
and only the results for the sections selected will be displayed.

These results are stored so viewing is as fast as clicking different toolbar buttons. To solve
for summations of all harmonic contributions, choose button without selecting any item
on the one-line.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Analysis Results  542

Choose the Text Output tab of the Harmonic Options dialog box to select the different
summary report options.

Branch Currents

Branch currents results consist of ITHD, IRSS, and IT Product. The calculations
are:

1/ 2
H 
 
2

I THD =  I pu-sys  * 100% (Percent)


 h 1 

1/ 2
 2

= I RATING  +  I h  
H
2
I RSS (Amps)
 h 1 

2 1/ 2
 
IT Product =  0.25 * I RATING  +  I  TIF 
H
2 2
h FACTOR  (Amps)
 h 1 

Losses and Derating

Losses and derating of branch equipment consists of Losses, Transformer


Derating via ANSI/IEEE C57.110-1986, K Factor , and Conductor Derating.
The results are displayed at the center of a branch item. The calculations for these figures of
merit are:


    *  R   * Base MVA
H
MW Losses =  I RATING pu-sys * R1pu-sys +  I h pu-sys
2 2
h pu-sys (MW)
 h 1


    * X  * Base MVA
H
MVar Losses =  I RATING pu-sys * X1pu-sys +  I h pu-sys
2 2

h pu-sys (Mvar)
 h 1

1 + P  EC-R

1 + P 
Transformer Derating% = *100% (Percent)
EC-R * K - Factor

 I  h 
h 1
h
2 2

K - Factor = (dimension less)


I Rating
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Analysis Results  543

The K-factor equation is based on UL 1561, and differs slightly from the IEEE 519 K-Factor
which in turn is based off of ANSI C57.110. In the K-Factor equation above, the value IRating
is the transformer name plate rating and Ih is the current magnitude for each harmonic.

Bus Voltages

Voltage results are displayed at the right end of a bus and consist of VTHD, VRSS,
Telephone Interference Factor, and VSUM. These are calculated using:

 
1/ 2
H 2
VTHD =  Vh pu-sys  * 100% (Percent)
 h 1 

 
1/ 2
 H 2
VRSS = V1pu-sys +  Vh pu-sys 
2
* kVBase (kV)
 h 1 
1/ 2
 
  +  V  TIF
2


H
2
 0.25 * V1kV
2
kV FACTOR 
 h 1 
VTIFpu = (dimensionless)
VRSSkV

H
VSUM = V1pu-sys + V
h 1
h pu-sys (Per - unit)

Notes on Voltage Displayed

When the Harmonics Options Control is set to calculate based on Positive Sequence, the
voltage THD values displayed are positive sequence values. When the option is set to
calculate based on Positive Sequence with Zero Seq. Triplens, the voltage THD values
displayed are zero sequence values.

The phase voltage for systems with harmonics zero sequence currents can be calculated from
the sequence voltages:

Vph = (V1 + V2 +V0) / 3


Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Analysis Results  544

Plotting Bar Charts

Once you have defined plots, the plot viewer will open displaying bar charts whenever
Bar Chart button is chosen. The bars show the per-unit voltage for defined buses and per-
unit current for defined branch items at the respective harmonics.

Plot Viewer Showing Bar Chart

1. Choose Harmonics Options button in the ribbon (or Tools Harmonic Options in
the menu bar) and pick the Plot Output tab. In the Summation Bar Chart Range section
enter the range and step size of frequencies to be analyzed. Choose the Text Output tab and
check any text reports for output. Then choose OK.

2. Use the Define Plots button to add or remove items to be plotted.

3. Choose Bar Chart button in the ribbon (or Solve Summation Bar Chart from the
menu bar). EasyPower will display bar charts.

4. Format plots if desired.


Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Harmonics Options  545

Harmonics Options
Harmonics Control

Choose Harmonics Options button in the ribbon (Tools Harmonics Options from
the Menu bar), and pick the Control tab to specify various parameters for controlling the
behavior of the harmonic analysis routines.

Summation Fundamental V&I: Choosing Calculated from Power Flow will cause the
fundamental voltages and currents calculated in the Power Flow to be used for Summation
calculations. Choosing User Defined activates that field allowing the user to enter a per-unit
fundamental voltage and causing the fundamental current to be determined by the
Fundamental Amps setting in the Harmonics tab of the equipment dialog boxes.

Harmonic Current Flow: This field specifies the frequency for Single Point Current
Flow or All Source Current Flow calculations.

Summation/All Source Network: All solutions will use positive sequence unless Pos Seq
with Zero seq triplens is chosen, in which case the solution for the 3, 6, 9, etc. harmonics will
use the zero sequence/network.

Scan/Single Point Injection: Magnitude is defined in either Amps or Per-unit. The Angle
of the current being injected may also be entered. For Network you can choose to have the
network solved based on the Positive Sequence or the Zero Sequence.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Harmonics Options  546

Control tab of the Harmonics Options Dialog Box

Transformer Branch Side: For items using a pi-model impedance representation (cable,
transmission lines, and transformers), the branch side currents may differ. Choose either the
From or To, indicating which branch side to use for determining item losses, K-factor and
derating. Frequency scans are also affected by this choice, where the current value plotted
for a branch is selected here.

Summation Thresholds: VSUM, VRSS, and K-Factor violations can be highlighted on the
one-line using threshold values.

Harmonics One-line Output

To specify parameters which control how results are displayed on the one-line, choose
Harmonics Options, and pick the One-line Output tab.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Harmonics Options  547

One-line Output tab of the Harmonics Options Dialog Box

Show Units: Enabling this displays the units of the one-line results.

Show THD Per-unit in Percent: When this is enabled, the THD values are displayed in
percent. Otherwise they are displayed in Per-Unit.

Global Decimal Precision: This sets the number of digits past the decimal point for values
displayed on the one-line. This is applicable for all values except voltages.

Bus Voltage Precision: This sets the number of digits past the decimal point for bus
voltages displayed on the one-line.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Harmonics Options  548

Branch Side: Display branch flows which are "From" the bus, "To" the bus, or both "From"
and "To" the bus.

Bus Voltage: The output can be displayed in either V(LL), kV(LL) or Per-unit.

Current Unit: Current can be displayed in Amps, Per-unit (system base), or Per-unit
(equipment rating base).

Losses Unit: Choose either “kW and kVAR” or “MW and MVAR”.

Harmonics Text Output

To select output report types choose Harmonics Options, and pick the Text Output tab.

You could also click on the Harmonics Reports button.

Text Output tab of the Harmonics Options Dialog Box


Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Harmonics Options  549

Current Flow Report: By checking Current Flow Report, a text report will be generated
whenever a Single Point Current Flow or All Source Current Flow is performed. This
report will contain bus voltages and angles, as well as equipment currents and angles.

Summation Detail: The Summation Detailed Report contains a list of each bus and its
attached equipment items along with the output analysis related to each item.

Summation Spectra: When Summation is chosen, the Summation Spectra Report will
contain a list of buses with per-unit voltages and branch items with per-unit currents. All
harmonics present will be listed, insignificant amounts will be represented with a zero value.

To obtain a report of all harmonic sources, choose the drop down arrow below button in
the ribbon and choose Query (Edit Query from the menu bar) Then check Item Types
(Motor, Load, Motor Control Center, Panel Schedule), choose Output Item Selection, then
in the Advanced tab pick Load Class Any and Load Type Harmonic.

Summation Summary: Choose one or more of these reports, or choose All Reports to have
EasyPower create the complete report list.

Bus Voltage: The output can be displayed in either V(LL), kV(LL) or Per-unit.

Current Unit: Current can be displayed in Amps, Per-unit (system base), or Per-unit
(equipment rating base).

Plot Output

The Plot Output tab lets you control the Frequency Scan plots and the Summation Bar Chart
plots.

Y-Axis Frequency Scan Units

Plot Bus Output: Allows you to specify the unit for frequency scan Y-axis. The choices are
kV(LL), Vpu, Ohms, Zpu, Rpu, Xpu, and Angle (Deg).

Plot Branch Current: Allows you to specify the unit for frequency scan Y-axis for branches
such as cables and transformers. The choices are Ipu and Amps.

Y-Axis Bar Charts Units

Bus Voltage: Allows you to specify the unit for Summation Bar Chart Y-axis. The choices
are Vpu, V(LL) and kV(LL).
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum Harmonics Options  550

Branch Current: Allows you to specify the unit for frequency scan Y-axis for branches such
as cables and transformers. The choices are Amps, Per-unit (system base) and Per-unit
(Equipment rating base).

X-Axis: You can set the x-axis units to either frequency in hertz or harmonic multiple.

Harmonics Options Plot Output dialog

Frequency Scan Range: These fields control the Start and Stop points and the Step size for
frequency scans. Be aware that a data point will be generated and output for each step.
Since the plot output is limited to 5000 data points per curve, choosing a very small step size
may limit the scan range.

Summation Bar Chart Range: When plots are defined, choosing Summation will open the
plot viewer and display bar charts. These fields specify the bar chart range.
Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum DC Effects in Harmonics  551

DC Effects in Harmonics
In Harmonics, we have the following behavior from DC components:

 A Rectifier provides a harmonic injection on its input or load side.

 An Inverter, if specified as “Harmonic” will be a harmonic source injection on its output


with NO SINK; i.e. the source to reference bus admittance is not built into the network.

 An Inverter, if specified as “Linear” will be a SINK with its source admittance added to
the network on the output of the Inverter.

 No harmonics are simulated on any portion of a DC network.


Chapter 13 Harmonics With Spectrum DC Effects in Harmonics  553
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Overview  554

Chapter 14 Coordination With


PowerProtector
Overview
EasyPower PowerProtector Coordination includes multiple easy-to-use graphical tools to
solve protective device coordination problems. Using the data stored in the Device Library,
EasyPower can plot time-current characteristics (TCC) curves of protective devices as well
as the damage curves of other devices. Individual plots can be coordinated with each other
and with the short circuit analysis results. Selection of the type and settings of the protective
devices can be made using the coordination features.

Coordination Focus

After you complete entering data of protective devices in the one-line diagram, you can plot
their TCC curves. To do so, choose Coordination button in the ribbon (or choose
Analysis  Protective Device Coordination from the menu bar). When you enter the
coordination focus, the Coordination ribbon will appear. When you plot a TCC the TCC
ribbon will appear.

Coordination Ribbon

Coordination ribbon

TCC Ribbon

TCC ribbon
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Short Circuit Analysis in Coordination Focus  555

TCC Status Bar

The TCC Status Bar indicates the following settings:

Grid Snap Status: Shows “SNAP” if grid snapping is on. See “The Snap Grid” on the 8th
page of Chapter 2 for more information.

Fault Type: Displays the selected fault type.

Calc Method: Calculation method selected in Tools  Options  System dialog.

Voltage: Either kV or per-unit.

Coordinates: Displays the coordinates of the cursor arrow on the time-current curve by
current (amperes) @ time (seconds).

Short Circuit Analysis in Coordination


Focus
Basic ANSI short circuit calculation procedures are provided in the coordination focus. The
calculated short circuit currents can be used in TCC plots to clip the TCC curves of devices
or to simply indicate their coordinates.

Fault Bus: To fault a particular bus or a number of buses, select the bus(es) in the one-line,

and then choose Fault Bus button in the Coordination ribbon (or Solve Fault Bus
from the menu bar). The fault currents will be displayed. For details on short circuit
procedures, please see Chapter 4- Short Circuit Technical Reference. To fault all buses,
simply choose the fault command without selecting any bus on the one-line.

Calculate Remote Bus Voltage and Current: After faulting a single bus you may view the
resulting voltage and currents on any other bus in the one-line diagram by selecting the bus
and choosing the drop down arrow below the Fault Bus button to select on the button
Remote V and I command. To view the voltage and current of a number of remote buses
you may either select all the desired buses at once or continue to select and choose the
Remote V and I command one after another. The remote bus values that appear on the
window will be cleared when you fault another bus.
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Coordination Options  556

Viewing Remote V & I

Line End Fault: You can perform line end fault on a branch by selecting a breaker/fuse at

the end of the branch and clicking on the drop down arrow below the Fault Bus button
and choosing Fault Line End.

Coordination Options
You may specify some features of TCC appearance using the Coordination Options. When

you are in Coordination focus, choose PDC Options (Coordination Options) to open
the dialog box. The Coordination Options will not be available when the TCC plot window
is open.
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Coordination Options  557

General

Coordination Options dialog box

TCC Defaults: Check boxes to confirm commands with pop-up dialog and to show title
block on new TCC plots.

- Confirm when creating blank TCC: When you plot a TCC without selecting any equipment, a
blank TCC will be created. This checkbox allows you to bring up a message when a blank
TCC is being created.

Message box for blank TCC

- Show Title Block on new TCCs: Allows you to show or hide the TCC title block while
creating a new TCC. Once the TCC is created you can choose to show or hide the title block
using the Title Block checkbox in the ribbon.

- Allow multiple TCC windows: When this option is checked, you can create multiple TCC
windows. When this option is unchecked, creating a new TCC will close the previously
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Coordination Options  558

opened TCC window. Before closing the previously open TCC, you will be asked if you
want to store the TCC.

- Synch TCC one-line colors to TCC curve colors: When this option is checked, the protective
device symbols on the one-line window will have the same color as the corresponding curves
in the TCC window.

- Show cable ampacity tick marks: When this option is checked, a tick mark will be placed at
the top of the TCC to indicate the ampacity of the cable.

- Show selective CD table tick marks: When this option is checked, a tick mark will be placed
on the TCC at the amp value up to which a pair of protective devices (typically LV breakers)
are selectively coordinated as per tables published by manufacturers.

Blank TCC Settings: Sets the default base voltage for calculating current on the new blank
TCC.

Default One-line Box Position: Sets the location of the one-line box on the lower left or
upper right corner of the TCC plot area when making a new TCC plot.

Default TCC Short Circuit Currents: The short circuit currents used in the TCC may be
“User-Specified” or “Calculated from SC”. If you select “User-Specified”, then you must
enter the short circuit current in edit fields provided in the Short Circuit tab of device data
dialog box or the temporary data dialog box of the protective device in order to use TCC
clipping or show the tick mark on the TCC plot. When you select “Calculated from SC”,
EasyPower calculates the maximum fault current that may pass through the protective
device. The selection for TCC Short Circuit (SC) Currents can also be made in the TCC
Options dialog box.

Sequence of Events Display: You can choose to either show the absolute trip times or the
trip time difference from the next downstream device for a faulted bus on the one-line.

Create Sequence of Events Report: With this option checked, this creates the Sequence of
Events report when a bus is faulted in the Coordination focus.

TCC Curve Styles

You can change the default format (color, lines, weight) of the curves that are plotted for
various devices. To change the default color of any device, select that device in the Curve
window of the dialog, and choose the Change… button for the order of the curve. The order
of the curve, 1, 2, 3, etc., is the first, second, third, etc. curve plotted for the same type of
device.
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Short Circuit Options  559

TCC Curves Style tab of Coordination Options

Auto Coordination

The Auto Coordination options are discussed in the Chapter 20 on Auto Coordination. This
option is available if you have the SmartPDC (auto-coordination) feature.

Short Circuit Options


To configure the short circuit type, calculation methods, units, and appearance of results in

the one-line diagram, choose SC Options button from the Coordination ribbon. The
procedures are the same as Short Circuit Options in the Short Circuit focus. Please see
Chapter 4 - Short Circuit Technical Reference for details.
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector TCC Options  560

TCC Options
TCC options can be used in the coordination focus to select the type of fault, the short circuit
values, the calculation type, and the output pictures in the TCC plots. When the TCC

window is open, choose TCC Options button from the TCC ribbon.

SC Control tab of TCC Options dialog box

Short Circuit Control

Fault Type: Four different types of faults are available during a short circuit analysis. The
default is 3 Phase which is generally used to determine the highest available currents for
equipment duty comparisons, and relaying. You may also select 3Phase fault by clicking on
the button on the TCC ribbon. The other types, Line to Ground (button ), Double
Line to Ground (button ), and Line to Line (button ) are generally used for specialized
relaying applications or system trouble shooting. The green dots in the buttons indicate the
ground fault type.

TCC Short Circuit (SC) Currents: The short circuit currents used in the TCC may be
“User-Specified” or “Calculated from SC”. If you select “User-Specified”, then you must
enter the short circuit current in edit fields provided in the Short Circuit tab of device data
dialog box or the temporary data dialog box of the protective device in order to use TCC
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector TCC Options  561

clipping or show the tick mark on the TCC plot. When you select “Calculated from SC”,
EasyPower calculates the maximum fault current that may pass through the protective
device. The selection for TCC Short Circuit (SC) Currents, can also be made in the
Coordination Options dialog.

Driving Point kV PU: System fault point voltage in per-unit. This value defaults to 1.0 per-
unit.

X/R Calculation Type: Short circuit calculations are based on one of three methods: ANSI
Standard, Standard Complex or Characteristic Current method calculation. The ANSI
Standard method uses a separate R network for the interrupting duty (2-5 cycle) network to
determine a conservative Z/R ratio. This ratio is then used as the Thevenin equivalent fault
point X/R ratio for determining the appropriate breaker contact parting time multipliers and
NACD ratios. Current and voltage calculations are based on a complex (R+jX) network
reduction. Both the momentary (1/2 Cycle) and 30 cycle calculations use a complex network
reduction for all voltage, current, and X/R ratio calculations.

The Standard (non-ANSI) calculation uses a complex network reduction for all momentary,
interrupting duty, and 30 cycle voltage, current, and X/R ratio calculations.

The Characteristic Current Method (CCM) calculates the dc component of each branch based
on phase angle of the current flowing in it and then sums the dc component is each branch
contributing to the fault current. The ratio of the total dc to the total ac is used to determine
the equivalent X/R at fault point. Branch current flows having different current phase angles
(X/R ratios) will have the current peak at slightly different times before the first-half cycle.
To simplify calculations, the dc component is taken at 0.5-cycle for all branches using the
expression in equation below.

IDC = 2 IAC RMS SYM exp (- /|X/R|)

After each dc component is determined and totaled, the equivalent X/R ratio is found from
the equation below.

Equivalent X/R = -/ ln ( IDC /  IAC RMS SYM / 2)

The CCM method provides a conservative approach to obtain the fault point X/R ratio and
appears to do the best overall job without being over-conservative.

Reference: Parise G., “A new approach to calculate the decaying AC contributions to short-
circuit: the ‘characteristic’ currents method”; IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications,
Vol. 31, No. 1, January/February 1995.
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector TCC Options  562

TCC One-line

The contents of the Short Circuit One-line Output tab of the TCC Options dialog box are the
same as those described for Short Circuit Options dialog box. Please see Chapter 4 - Short
Circuit Technical Reference for details.

Arc Flash Hazard Analysis in Coordination Focus

You can perform arc flash hazard analysis in coordination focus by selecting the desired bus
to fault and choosing the (Arc Flash) button. For this application, you must have the arc
flash hazard feature enabled in your software.

Insert SC Tick Mark

To insert user defined short circuit tick marks on the TCC plot, click on the (Insert SC
Tick Mark) button on the TCC ribbon.

Insert SC Tick Mark dialog box

Current: You can select Symmetrical or Asymmetrical current to choose the appearance of
the symbol that represents the short circuit current type. A symmetrical current appears as an
arrow with unfilled head. An asymmetrical current appears as an arrow with solidly filled
head as shown in the figure below. These are default settings and can be edited by formatting
tick marks. You can also save the format as new default tick marks.
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector TCC Options  563

Short Circuit Tick Marks

Fault: Selection of fault type affects the time coordinates of the tick mark. The choices are
Momentary for half cycle, Interrupting for 5 cycles, and 30-cycle. The short circuit tick mark
may be dragged vertically within a limited distance.

Short Circuit Current: Enter the short circuit current value in kilo amps. The tick mark
will be placed on the TCC plot at the specified current value times the ratio of short circuit
reference voltage to TCC plot reference voltage.

Reference Voltage: Enter the reference voltage at the short circuit point in kilo volts. The
tick mark will be placed on the TCC plot at the specified current value times the ratio of short
circuit reference voltage to the TCC Scale reference voltage.

Formatting SC Tick Marks

To format a short circuit tick mark to the desired shape, color and size, click on the drop

down arrow below the Format TCC button and choose SC Tick Mark from the list.
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector TCC Options  564

Format SC Tick Mark

You can also set the default format for tick marks by choosing the default button.

Arcing Current Tick Mark

Arcing current tick mark represents the current through a protective device for an arcing fault
(Arc flash). You can insert an arcing current tick mark by right clicking on the TCC curve
and choosing from the context menu Insert Arcing Current tick Mark. Before you insert
this tick mark, you will first need to fault a bus on the one-line window. This command is
available only if your program has the ArcFlash feature.

LV Breaker Series Coordination Tick Mark

As per manufacturers’ publications, LV Breakers in series may be selectively coordinated in


the instantaneous trip region up to a certain short circuit level although the TCC plot may
indicate otherwise. If two breakers plotted on the TCC have series coordination data
specified in the library, then a tick mark will appear to indicate the maximum short circuit
current up to which coordination is possible. If a breaker style is changed in a TCC plot, the
TCC will need to be plotted again to get the new series coordination tick mark.
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Plotting a TCC Curve from a One-Line  565

Series Coordination Tick Mark

Plotting a TCC Curve from a One-Line


To plot a Time Current Characteristic (TCC) Curve from a one-line diagram, you must first
enter the Coordination focus of EasyPower. You can enter the Coordination focus by
clicking on the Coordination button in the ribbon (or by going to Analysis 
Protective Device Coordination in the menu bar.) After entering the Coordination focus,
the one line diagram will still appear, but the Coordination ribbon will appear in place of the
Home ribbon. Select the device(s) for which you would like to plot TCC Curves. You may
select only one item by left clicking the mouse button over the item that you would like to
select. If you would like to select more than one item, hold down the Control [Ctrl] key and
select items individually by left-clicking the mouse over the items that you would like to plot.
You may also hold the left mouse button down and drag the mouse, forming a box, that
contains the items you would like to plot. After selecting the items that you would like to

plot, click on the Plot TCC button. Clicking this button will cause the TCC Curve of
the selected items to appear next to a one-line diagram of the selected items. If there is not
sufficient data to plot an item, the following dialog box will appear:
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Plotting a TCC Curve from a One-Line  566

Dialog box indicating an item not fully specified

Clicking on yes will produce a report informing you of areas not specified for the item(s) that
coordination is unable to plot and the data that is missing. Clicking on no will prevent
EasyPower from plotting the TCC Curve for that item. If more than one item is selected to
plot TCC Curves, then only the items not fully specified will be eliminated from the plot.

Error Report for Unspecified Data

If all data is entered correctly, then Coordination will plot TCC Curves for all items selected
as shown below.

One Line Diagram of Note about TCC One Line Diagram


Selected Items for Curve’s Device of Selected Items
Coordination for Coordination
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Plotting Motor Starting Curve on TCC  567

TCC Curve

Title Block

Coordination Plot of TCC Curves

Plotting Motor Starting Curve on TCC


You can plot motor starting curves on the TCC plot by:

 Select the motor and other items you wish to include in the TCC plot.

 Choose Plot TCC command.

Plotting Individual Motor Curve

The plot below shows a motor starting curve for a 50 HP motor as well as a solid state trip
curve for a breaker. The motor starting curve parameters are specified in the Motor Data
dialog. After plotting the TCC, you can access the Temporary Motor Data dialog and change
the parameters for the motor starting curve.
Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Plotting Motor Starting Curve on TCC  568

Motor Thermal
FLA Limit Curve

Maximum
Allowable
Stall Time

Acceleration
time

Locked rotor
current

TCC Plot for 50 HP motor start


Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Plotting Motor Starting Curve on TCC  569

Temporary Motor Data dialog for TCC

Plotting Grouped Motor Curve

When plotting the starting curve for grouped motors, you need to specify the largest motor
size in addition to other data required for individual motors. The plot assumes that the largest
motor is starting and the rest of the motors are already operating at steady state. Therefore the
current in the plot is calculated as follows:

During Acceleration:

Total Amps = Locked rotor amps of largest motor + FLA of the rest.

After Acceleration:

Total Amps = Total FLA of all the motor.


Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Plotting Motor Starting Curve on TCC  570

Grouped motor data

The following plot shows the starting curves of two motors:

1. Grouped motor with total of 500HP and largest motor of 100 HP.

2. Individual motor of 100 HP.


Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Plotting Items in MCC and Panels  571

TCC Plot for 100 HP individual motor and 500 HP grouped motor

Plotting Items in MCC and Panels


You can plot the following items in an MCC:

 Incoming cable and protective device (breaker or fuse).

 Load type specified as “Motor w TCC”: you can plot the motor, cable and feeder
breaker.

 Load type specified as “Load w TCC”: you can plot the cable and feeder breaker.

 Feeder cable and breaker/fuse for feed to sub-MCC or sub-panel.


Chapter 14 Coordination With PowerProtector Editing TCC Curves  572

You can plot the following items in a panel:

 Incoming cable and protective device (breaker or fuse).

 Feeder c