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ART  ● encloses volume 

● expression  or  application  of  creative  skill  or  ● has length, width, and height 
imagination  ● kinds: g
​ eometric and organic 
   
AESTHETIC   
● concerned  with  beauty  or  the  appreciation  of  4. TEXTURE 
beauty  ● in 3d form: feeling when being touched 
● principles  that  guide  the  work  of  an  artist  or  ● in 2d form: visual feeling of a piece 
movement  ● tactile quality 
● aesthetic  judgement:  ​appreciation  for  any  ● categories: 
object  ○ method: actual or implied 
● artistic  judgement:  ​appreciation  or  criticism  ○ function: identity and orientation 
for a work of art  ○ character: rough or smooth, etc. 
   
  5. SPACE 
  ● distance  or  area  around  and  between 
ELEMENTS OF ART  components 
● the building blocks of art  ● illusion of perspectives 
● enables  us  to:  describe  and  analyze  an  ● kinds: 
artwork; communicate thoughts  ○ negative: empty space 
  ○ positive: subject 
S - C - F - T - S - L - V   
SAM COULDN'T FIND THE SMALL LILY VASE  6. LINE 
  ● a  moving  point  that  defines  and  depicts 
1. SHAPE  shapes 
● enclosed space; 2d  ● not present in nature 
● has length and width  ● qualities: ​DRAWS 
● used to breakdown a subject as a guide  ○ direction 
● kinds:  ○ rhythm 
○ geometric (common shapes)  ○ angularity 
○ organic / biomorphic (freeform)  ○ weight 
○ *modified (of common shapes)  ○ style 
   
2. COLOR  7. VALUE 
● hue: color  ● lightness and darkness 
● intensity: saturation; vividness   
● value: lightness / darkness   
   
3. FORM   
● 3d object in space   
PRINCIPLES OF ART  8. PROPORTION 
● how the elements of art are utilized  ● relationship of one thing to another 
● helps convey intent or a message   
● determines if a piece is successful or finished  9. SCALE 
  ● size  of  object  compared  to  its 
B-CEM-PR(UV)-PS  surroundings 
   
1. BALANCE   
● visual weight   
● kinds:  TYPES OF ART 
○ symmetry: mirror-image  1. FINE ARTS 
○ asymmetry: balance through contrast  ● visual  art  created  to  be  aesthetically 
○ radial  symmetry:  elements  are  equally  pleasing and intellectually stimulating 
spaced around a central point  ● requires  great  amount  of  skill  and 
  technique 
2. CONTRAST   
● difference  between  elements  made  a. drawing 
stronger in relation to each other  ● picture  or  diagram  made  with  lines  and 
  marks; linear realization of things 
3. EMPHASIS  ● basic foundation of other art forms 
● area that is visually dominant  ● emphasis on form or shape 
● instantly captures the viewer's attention  ● categories:  ​casual,  preparatory  and 
  finished 
4. MOVEMENT   
● moves the viewers around the piece  b. painting 
  ● process of art using paint 
5. PATTERN  ● emphasis on mass and color 
● uniform  repetition  and  combination  of  ● types: ​EF-TOW-GA 
elements  ○ encaustic (hot beeswax + pigment) 
● consistency  ○ fresco (water + pigment) 
  ○ tempera (water + yolk + pigment) 
6. RHYTHM  ○ oils (binder + drying agent) 
● implied  movement  through  repetition  of  ○ watercolor (water soluble pigment) 
elements  ○ gouache (water + gum arabic) 
● non-uniform but organized; variety  ○ acrylic (watercolor + oil) 
  ● techniques: 
7. UNITY & VARIETY  ○ sgraffito  ​-  scratching  through  a 
● harmony; areas of interest and rest  still-wet  paint  to  reveal  what's 
● too much unity = monotomy  underneath 
● too much variety = chaos 
○ sfumato  -  ​to  soften  the  transition  2. CONTEMPORARY ARTS 
between colors  ● art produced within the 20th - 21st century 
○ impasto  -  ​paint  is  applied  in  very  thick  a. assemblage (3d) / collage (2d) 
layers  ● an  assortment  of  different  objects 
● forms: ​MPES  together 
○ mural p (on walls / caves / temples)  b. installation 
○ panel p (on flat wood panels)  ● temporary  configuration  of  objects  in  a 
○ easel p (on canvas)  space or room 
○ scroll p (on diff lengths of paper)  ● usually  requires  interaction  from  the 
  audience 
c. printmaking  c. digital 
● production  of  images  by  varying  methods  ● artistic work using digital technology 
of replication  d. photography 
● matrix - ​single original plate  ● art of taking and processing photographs 
● techniques: R
​ ILPS  e. film / animation 
○ relief  printing  (background  /  negative  ● a  motion  picture  with  a  succession  of  still 
space is cut down)  images 
○ intaglio  printing  (outline  of  object  is  ● relies on a script / story / plot 
engraved onto metal)  f. video games 
○ lithograph (uses oil)  ● game  played  by  electronically 
○ planographic  (uses  entire  matrix  manipulating images 
surface)   
○ stencils (design cut-out)  3. DECORATIVE ARTS 
  ● functional  objects  that  are  aesthetically 
d. sculpture  pleasing 
● making  2d  or  3d  forms  using  shaping   
techniques  4. PERFORMING ARTS 
● greatest form of art  ● activity performed in front of an audience 
● forms: ​sculpture in the round & relief   
  5. APPLIED ARTS 
e. literature  ● applying  design  and  aesthetic  to  everyday 
● artistically written works  objects 
● kinds:  ● architecture,  interior  design,  graphic  or 
○ poetry  product design, body art 
○ drama (script for theater / film)   
○ prose  (poetry  without  metrical   
structure)   
○ nonfiction   
○ media (contemporary content)   
   
ART HISTORY  RENAISSANCE ART 
  1. 15TH CENTURY ITALIAN ART 
MEDIEVAL ART  ● rebirth of classical culture 
1. CHRISTIAN ART  ● golden age of florence 
● categories:  ● the  medici  -  ​powerful  family  that  funded 
○ period  of  prosecution  (catacombs,  the arts 
portable art)   
○ period  of  recognition  (churches,  2. HIGH RENAISSANCE ART 
mosaics, book-making)  ● rise  of  the  masters  (da vinci, michelangelo, 
● sculptures demoted to reliefs  raphael, donatello) 
   
2. BYZANTINE ART  3. MANNERISM ART 
● paintings  and  mosaics  that  are  abstract  ● artists did not seek their own style 
and symbolic  ● artifice over nature 
● less concerned with depth and gravity   
  4. BAROQUE ART 
3. ISLAMIC ART  ● splendor and flourish for God 
● grand decorative mosaics and architecture  ● art as a weapon for religious wars 
● maze-like designs   
  5. ROCOCO ART 
4. CAROLINGIAN PERIOD  ● heavily embellished baroque art 
● art produced by and for monasteries   
● cultural  revival  more  durable  than  the  6. NEOCLASSICISM 
empire  ● faithful copy of the classics + new 
● manuscripts and goldsmithing  elements 
   
5. OTTONIAN PERIOD  7. ROMANTICISM 
● byzantine influences  ● focused on imagination and individuality 
● ivory carving  ● emotions, feelings, moods 
   
6. ROMANESQUE ART  8. REALISM 
● cathedrals  ● rooted from experience 
● sculpture part of architecture  ● involvement in social causes 
● painting in illuminated manuscripts  ● en plein air 
   
7. GOTHIC ART  9. IMPRESSIONISM 
● soaring cathedrals and stained glass  ● pure emphasis on fleeting moments, light, 
● start of artistic renovations  and color 
  ● moved away from form 
   
  ● art without a center 
MODERN ART  ● reworking and mixing past styles 
1. POST-IMPRESSIONISM  CULTURAL AND GLOBAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ART 
● soft revolt against impressionism   
● kept emphasis on light and color  CHINESE ART 
● brought back form and other elements  ● heavily influences from Confucianism, Daoism, 
  and Buddhism 
2. FAUVISM AND EXPRESSIONISM   
● fauves - w
​ ild beasts  EARLY ART 
● wild harsh colors, primitive objects, flat  ● early  pottery  with  pictorial  decorations  (fish 
surfaces  and human faces) 
● lots of emotion  ● jade:  ​tools  &  knives,  pendants  &  plates  (with 
  birds, turtles, fish) 
3. CUBISM  ● liangzhu jade: w
​ hite, milk-bone jade 
● geometric shapes  ● bronze  casting: ritual vessels, weapons, chariot 
  fittings 
4. FUTURISM  ○ motifs​:  real  and  imaginary  animals;  ​taotie 
● embraced machinery and the industrial  (symmetrical  zoomorphic  mask 
age  symbolizing greed and sensuality) 
   
5. DADAISM  EARLY IMPERIAL CHINA 
● anti-art  1. QIN DYNASTY 
  ● the terracotta army 
6. SURREALISM  ● great wall of china 
● uncovering the hidden meaning of  2. HAN DYNASTY 
dreams  ● porcelain pottery 
● expressing the subconscious  ● TLV  mirror  (bronze  mirror  decorated  with 
  dragons, winged monsters, clouds) 
7. ART DECO  ● paper art 
● imitation of others styles like art nouveau  ● landscape art on door panels 
  3. PERIOD OF DIVISION 
8. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM  ● painting  and  calligraphy  (highest  and 
● self-expression and raw emotion  purest form of painting) 
● no form  4. SUI AND TANG DYNASTY 
  ● golden age of chinese poetry 
9. POP ART AND OP ART  ● shanshui​: landscape painting 
● glorified american culture  ○ capturing the "rhythm" of nature 
● fun and psychedelic art  5. SONG AND YUAN DYNASTY 
  ● song painting 
10. 1970s - PRESENT 
○ depth  conveyed  through  blurred  ● e-maki:  horizontal  illustrated  narrative 
outlines  handscroll 
○ spiritual  qualities  ("harmony  of  man  ○ otoko-e: ​men; historical events and battles 
and nature")  ○ onna-e: ​women; court ladies and romance 
● yuan painting  ● rimpa  /  rinpa  painting:  ​richly  embellished 
○ rejected refined and gentle brushwork  depictions  of  birds,  plants,  and  flowers  on  a 
  gold leaf 
LATE IMPERIAL CHINA  ● tarashikomi:  dropping  one  color  onto  another 
1. MING DYNASTY  while it's still wet 
● colorful  narrative  paintings  with  busier  ● ukiyo-e: genre of woodblock prints 
compositions  ● noh: c
​ lassical musical drama 
2. QING DYNASTY  ● kabuki:  ​"the art of singing and dancing"; more 
● expressive  paintings  over  the  loss  of  the  about skill than literature 
ming dynasty   
● orthodox  school:  dedicated  to  preserving   
chinese culture  FILIPINO ART 
  ● kalinga pottery: 
  ○ ittoyom (for rice cooking) 
INDIAN ART  ○ oppaya (for vegetable / meat cooking) 
● ajanta  caves:  Buddhist  monuments  with  ○ immoso (for water storage) 
paintings  ● manuggul  jar:  ​burial  jar;  has  two  figures  on 
● mughal empire:  the  handle  that  represents  the  journey  to  the 
○ miniaturist  paintings  usually  for  afterlife 
manuscripts  ● lingling-o: omega-shaped pendant or amulet 
○ taj mahal​: tomb for the emperor's wife  ● bahay kubo: n
​ ipa hut 
● rajput  painting:  miniature  court-style  ● bahay na bato 
painting  ● banaue  rice  terraces:  carved  terraces  run  by 
● mysore  painting:  about  Hindu  gods  or  an ancient irrigation system 
goddesses; muted and subtle colors  ● pintados: ​tattooed people 
● tanjore  painting:  mysore  painting  but  with  ● suyat: ​philippine indigenous script 
more colors  ○ buhid, hanunoo, apurahuano, palaw'an 
● bengal school of art: avant garde movement  ● bulul: ​wooden figure used to guard rice crops 
● rangoli:  sandpainting  made  during  Hindu  ● sarimanok: l​ egendary colorful chicken 
festivals for good luck  ● buraq: white half-mule, half-donkey animal 
  ● butuan ivory seal: only found letter sealing tool 
   
JAPANESE ART   
● dotaku:  ​copper  /  bronze bells used for harvest   
rituals   
● asuka-dera:​ f​ irst buddhist monastery   
 
 
HOW TO CRITIQUE ART 
 
1. DESCRIBE 
● look at the obvious 
● describe the artwork; general info 
● name of the artwork, artist 
● art medium 
 
2. ANALYZE 
● describe  the  artwork's  subject  matter, 
color, and style 
● color palette 
● art style 
 
3. INTERPRET 
● what does it mean? 
● how does it relate to you? 
 
4. JUDGE 
● go beyond the generic or basic phrases 
● ask if the work is successful 
● did it convey the intended message? 
● do  the  elements  successfully  represent  an 
art style?