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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new welding process that has produced low
cost and high quality joints of aluminium alloys. FSW is solid state welding process in
which material is not melted during welding process so it overcomes many welding
defects compared to conventional fusion welding process. This process is initially
developed for low melting materials like Aluminium, Magnesium, Zinc but now
process is useful for high melting materials like steel and also for composites
materials.

1.1 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION:

Defects in conventional welding:

• This type of welding Uses electrode to join two materials

• Causes porosity

• Smoke which is emitted from electrode may lead to eye irritation

• Current setting, arc length, arc angle decides quality of weld

• It requires skilled labor to weld the joints perfectly

• Welding of alloy materials is serious issue in this welding.

1.2 OBJECTIVE

• In this project we are going to vary the process parameters of friction stir
welding & weld the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy

• Also to find the strength of the welded joints by conducting various mechanical
tests

1
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 TITLE

Mechanical Behavior of Friction Stir Welding Joints of Aluminium alloy of


AA6351 with AA6351 and AA6351 with AA5083

AUTHORS

G.Gopala Krishna, P.Ram Reddy, M.Manzoor Hussain

ABSTRACT

The present study describes the effect of FSW process involving butt joining of
similar Aluminium alloy combinations of AA6351 with AA6351 and dissimilar
Aluminium ally combinations of AA6351 with AA5083 on the tensile, hardness and
impact behavior.The results indicated strong relation between the rotational speed of
tool and tensile properties of the welded joint

2.2 TITLE

An overview of friction stir welding: A new perspective

AUTHORS

H.M.Anil kumar, Dr.v.venkata ramana

ABSTRACT

Tool rotation and transverse speeds, to be considered in FSW how fast the tool
rotates and how quickly it transverses the interface. These two parameters have
considerable importance and must be chosen with care to ensure a successful and
efficient welding cycle Quality of welded joint is based on finding the best
combination of welding parameter

2
2.3 TITLE

Comparison of friction stir welding with Conventional arc welding methods

AUTHORS

Mr.Karan singla, Dr.D.Deepak bharatwaj

ABSTRACT

Fatigue strength of friction stir welds is based on welding speed of the FSW
Significantly lower welding speed fatigue strength was improved considerably due to
the amount of heat supplied to the weld per unit length Friction Stir Welding (FSW)
process efficient and cost effective process. FSW is solid state welding process in
which material is not melted during welding process so it overcomes many welding
defects compared to conventional fusion welding process which is initially used for
low melting materials.

2.4 TITLE

A review of friction stir welding of aluminium matrix composites

AUTHORS

Mr.K.Omar S.Saliyah, Mr.S.Hengan ou, Mr.T.sivasakthi

ABSTRACT

In friction stir welding the process parameters including tool rotation speed,
transverse speed and axial force affect the amount of friction heat generation and
mixing process Therefore ,optimum welding parameters must be selected in order to
produce the best jot strength The maximum strength was achieved by using a rotation
speed ranging from 1000 to 1200 rpm

3
CHAPTER 3

COMPARISON OF FRICTION STIR WELDING (FSW) TO OTHER


WELDING PROCESSES

Comparison of FSW to other welding processes is typically done within the


context of justifying the use of the process over other, more conventional techniques.
Successful application of FSW depends upon a clear misunderstanding of the
characteristics of the process, so favourable technical and economic justification can
be developed.

The unique, favourable characteristics of FSW compared to traditional arc


welding methods provide several sources for technical justification for use of the
process.

The main points for technical justification of FSW compared to arc welding
processes are:

 Improved weldability
 Reduced distortion
 Reduced residual stress, improved fatigue, corrosion, and stress corrosion
cracking performance
 Improved cosmetic performance
 Elimination of under matched filler metal
 Improved static strength and ductility
 Mechanized process
 High robustness, few process variables

4
3.1 IMPROVED WELDABILITY

According to Mishra and Ma (2005), a solid-state welding process patented by


The Welding Institute (TWI), in 1991, is a potential candidate for the joining of
dissimilar materials due to the lower processing temperature over conventional fusion
welding. (Sato et al.,2004). This is especially the case in certain aluminium alloys.

Some aluminium alloys or material forms, such as castings, are difficult or


impossible to weld by traditional arc welding processes due to problems with the
formation of brittle phases and cracking. For these alloys, weldability alone may be
sufficient to form a justification for the use of FSW over conventional arc welding or
other joining techniques, such as mechanical fasteners. Further, FSW makes possible
the joining of some dissimilar alloys, which can be of significant benefit in certain
applications.

Besides, defect-free welds have now been made by FSW in the joining of
different Al alloys (for example Al 2024/Al 7075) (Cavaliere et al., 2008), Al/steel (
Lee et al., 2006), and Al/Mg (Kwon et al., 2008).

3.2 REDUCED DISTORTION

The reduced peak temperature reached in FSW compared to arc welding


processes also generally leads to reduced longitudinal and transverse distortion,
although FSW weldments are certainly not free of residual stress. The balance if
residual stress in FSW can result in essentially flat weldments in materials of virtually
any practically weldable thickness, although this is affected by welding tool design,
joint design, welding parameters and fixture design.

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3.3 IMPROVED FATIGUE, CORROSION, AND STRESS CORROSION
CRACKING PERFORMANCE

The reduced maximum temperature and residual stress can also lead to
improved performance under cyclic loading conditions. Typically, joints produced by
FSW have fatigue strength, but below base metal strength. FSW joints that are
machined after welding have been shown to approach base metal fatigue strength.
Based from the studied by D.M. Rodrigues et al. (2009), the base material is
characterized by a recrystallized microstructure with equiaxed grains, with relatively
uniform grain size.

According to P. Cavaliere et al. (2009), the studied friction stir welded joints
offer the best fatigue performances only when optimal microstructure configurations
are reached. With a revolutionary pitch in the range of 0.07-0.1, the process is in the
optimal temperature and strain rates conditions to produce good microstructure quality
without defects for butt joints and therefore sound welds are achieved. Based on the
studied longitudinal residual stresses, the residual stresses values differences depend
on the asymmetry of the FSW process, where higher deformation across the weld line
are achieved.

3.4 IMPROVED STATIC STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY

Even in cases where adequate filler metals are available, the higher temperature
reached and limited material deposition rates in arc welding can degrade the HAZ
sufficiently to reduce the joint strength compared to FSW. It is often the case in thin
section aluminium alloys that the joint strength in arc welding and FSW are
comparable. materials, up to 75mm thick.

6
CHAPTER 4

FRICTION STIR WELDING

4.1 INTRODUCTION

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process that uses a non-
consumable tool to join two facing workpieces without melting the workpiece
material. Heat is generated by friction between the rotating tool and the workpiece
material, which leads to a softened region near the FSW tool. While the tool is
traversed along the joint line, it mechanically intermixes the two pieces of metal, and
forges the hot and softened metal by the mechanical pressure, which is applied by the
tool, much like joining clay, or dough. It is primarily used on wrought or extruded
aluminium and particularly for structures which need very high weld strength.

4.2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

A rotating cylindrical tool with a profiled probe is fed into a butt joint between
two clamped workpieces, until the shoulder, which has a larger diameter than the pin,
touches the surface of the workpieces. The probe is slightly shorter than the weld
depth required, with the tool shoulder riding atop the work surface. After a short dwell
time, the tool is moved forward along the joint line at the pre-set welding speed.
Frictional heat is generated between the wear-resistant tool and the work pieces. This
heat, along with that generated by the mechanical mixing process and the adiabatic
heat within the material, cause the stirred materials to soften without melting.

As the tool is moved forward, a special profile on the probe forces plasticised
material from the leading face to the rear, where the high forces assist in a forged
consolidation of the weld.

This process of the tool traversing along the weld line in a plasticised tubular
shaft of metal results in severe solid state deformation involving dynamic
recrystallization of the base material.

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4.3 WELDING PARAMETERS

4.3.1 TOOL DESIGN

The design of the tool is a critical factor as a good tool can improve both the
quality of the weld and the maximum possible welding speed.It is desirable that the
tool material be sufficiently strong, tough, and hard wearing at the welding
temperature. Further it should have a good oxidation resistance and a low thermal
conductivity to minimise heat loss and thermal damage to the machinery further up the
drive train.

Hot-worked tool steel such as AISI H13 has proven perfectly acceptable for
welding aluminium alloys within thickness ranges of 0.5 – 50 mm but more advanced
tool materials are necessary for more demanding applications such as highly abrasive
metal matrix composites or higher melting point materials such as steel or
titanium.Improvements in tool design have been shown to cause substantial
improvements in productivity and quality.

TWI has developed tools specifically designed to increase the penetration depth
and thus increasing the plate thicknesses that can be successfully welded. An example
is the "whorl" design that uses a tapered pin with re-entrant features

The Triflute design has a complex system of three tapering, threaded re-entrant
flutes that appear to increase material movement around the tool. The Trivex tools use
a simpler, non-cylindrical, pin and have been found to reduce the forces acting on the
tool during welding.

The majority of tools have a concave shoulder profile which acts as an escape
volume for the material displaced by the pin, prevents material from extruding out of
the sides of the shoulder and maintains downwards pressure and hence good forging of
the material behind the tool. The Triflute tool uses an alternative system with a series

8
of concentric grooves machined into the surface which are intended to produce
additional movement of material in the upper layers of the weld.

Widespread commercial applications of friction stir welding process for steels


and other hard alloys such as titanium alloys will require the development of cost-
effective and durable tools. Material selection, design and cost are important
considerations in the search for commercially useful tools for the welding of hard
materials.

Work is continuing to better understand the effects of tool material's


composition, structure, properties and geometry on their performance, durability and
cost.

4.3.2 TOOL ROTATION AND TRAVERSE SPEEDS

There are two tool speeds to be considered in friction-stir welding; how fast the
tool rotates and how quickly it traverses along the interface. These two parameters
have considerable importance and must be chosen with care to ensure a successful and
efficient welding cycle.

The relationship between the rotation speed, the welding speed and the heat
input during welding is complex but, in general, it can be said that increasing the
rotation speed or decreasing the traverse speed will result in a hotter weld. In order to
produce a successful weld it is necessary that the material surrounding the tool is hot
enough to enable the extensive plastic flow required and minimize the forces acting on
the tool.

If the material is too cold then voids or other flaws may be present in the stir
zone and in extreme cases the tool may break.

Excessively high heat input, on the other hand may be detrimental to the final
properties of the weld. Theoretically, this could even result in defects due to the
liquation of low-melting-point phases (similar to liquation cracking in fusion welds).

9
These competing demands lead onto the concept of a "processing window": the
range of processing parameters viz. tool rotation and traverse speed, that will produce
a good quality weld. Within this window the resulting weld will have a sufficiently
high heat input to ensure adequate material plasticity but not so high that the weld
properties are excessively deteriorated.

4.3.3 ADVANTAGES OF FSW

 Good mechanical properties in the as-welded condition


 Improved safety due to the absence of toxic fumes or the spatter of molten
material.
 Easily automated on simple milling machines — lower setup costs and less
training.
 Can operate in all positions (horizontal, vertical, etc.), as there is no weld pool.
 Generally good weld appearance and minimal thickness under/over-matching,
thus reducing the need for expensive machining after welding.
 Can use thinner materials with same joint strength.
 General performance and cost benefits from switching from fusion to friction.

4.3.4 DISADVANTAGES OF FSW

 Exit hole left when tool is withdrawn.


 Large down forces required with heavy-duty clamping necessary to hold the
plates together.
 Less flexible than manual and arc processes
 Often slower traverse rate than some fusion welding techniques, although this
may be offset if fewer welding passes are required

10
4.3.5 MAIN PROCESS VARIABLES

Tool design Variables Machine Variables Other variables

Machine Variables Welding speed Anvil material

Shoulder diameter Spindle speed Anvil size

Pin diameter Plunge force Workpiece size

Pin length
Tool tilt angle Workpiece properties
Thread pitch

Feature geometry

These variables all act to determine the outcome of the welding process. The
welding process affects these joint properties primarily through heat generation and
dissipation, so primary attention should be given to the effect of the welding process
variables on heat generation and related outcomes.

For FSW, two parameters are very important: tool rotation rate ( ω, rpm) in
clockwise or counterclockwise direction and tool traverse speed ( v, mm/min) along
the line of joint. The rotation of tool results in stirring and mixing of material around
the rotating pin and the translation of tool moves the stirred material from the front to
the back of the pin and finishes welding process.

Higher tool rotation rates generate higher temperature because of higher friction
heating and result in or intense stirring and mixing of material.

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However, it should be noted that frictional coupling of tool surface with
workpiece is going to govern the heating. So, a monotonic increase in heating with
increasing tool rotation rate is not expected as the coefficient of friction at interface
will change with increasing tool rotation rate.

In addition to the tool rotation rate and traverse speed, another important
process parameter is the angle of spindle or tool tilt with respect to the workpiece
surface. A suitable tilt of the spindle towards trailing direction ensures that the
shoulder of the tool holds the stirred material by threaded pin and move material
efficiently from the front to the back of the pin. Further, the insertion depth of pin into
the workpieces (also called target depth) is important for producing sound welds with
smooth tool shoulders.

The insertion depth of pin is associated with the pin height. When the insertion
depth is too shallow, the shoulder of tool does not contact the original workpiece
surface. Thus, rotating shoulder cannot move the stirred material efficiently from the
front to the back of the pin, resulting in generation of welds with inner channel or
surface groove. When the insertion depth is too deep, the shoulder of tool plunges into
the workpiece creating excessive flash. It should be noted that the recent development
of ‘scrolled’ tool shoulder allows FSW with 0 º tool tilt. Such tools are particularly
preferred for curved joints.

Preheating or cooling can also be important for some specific FSW processes.
For materials with high melting point such as steel and titanium or high conductivity
such as copper, the heat produced by friction and stirring may be not sufficient to
soften and plasticize the material around the rotating tool.

Thus, it is difficult to produce continuous defect-free weld. In these cases,


preheating or additional external heating source can help the material flow and
increase the process window. On the other hand, materials with lower melting point
such as aluminium and magnesium.

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4.3.6 JOINT DESIGN

The most convenient joint configurations for FSW are butt and lap joints. A
simple square butt joint is shown in Figure 2.3a. Two plates or sheets with same
thickness are placed on a backing plate and clamped firmly to prevent the abutting
joint faces from being forced apart. During the initial plunge of the tool, the forces are
fairly large and extra care is required to ensure that plates in butt configuration do not
separate.

A rotating tool is plunged into the joint line and traversed along this line when
the shoulder of the tool is in intimate contact with the surface of the plates, producing
a weld along abutting line. On the other hand, for a simple lap joint, two lapped plates
or sheets are clamped on a backing plate.

A rotating tool is vertically plunged through the upper plate and into the lower
plate and traversed along desired direction, joining the two plates . Many other
configurations can be produced by combination of butt and lap joints. Apart from butt
and lap joint configurations, other types of joint designs, such as fillet joints are also
possible as needed for some engineering applications.

It is important to note that no special preparation is needed for FSW of butt and
lap joints. Two clean metal plates can be easily joined together in the form of butt or
lap joints without any major concern about the surface conditions of the plates.

Fig 1

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CHAPTER 5

ALUMINUM ALLOY

5.1 6061 ALUMINUM ALLOY

6061 is a precipitation-hardened aluminium alloy, containing magnesium and


silicon as its major alloying elements. Originally called "Alloy 61S", it was developed
in 1935.It has good mechanical properties, exhibits good weldability, and is very
commonly extruded It is one of the most common alloys of aluminium for general-
purpose use.

It is commonly available in pre-tempered grades such as 6061-O (annealed),


tempered grades such as 6061-T6 (solutionized and artificially aged) and 6061-T651
(solutionized, stress-relieved stretched and artificially aged).

5.2 6061-T6 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

Modern structural application demands reduction in both the weight and as well
as cost of the fabrication and production of materials. Aluminium and aluminum
alloys are the best choice for the reduction of weight, cost and replacing steels in many
applications6061 is precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy containing magnesium and
silicon as its major alloying elements.It is one of the most common alloy for general
purpose use.It has good mechanical properties and excellent weld ability.

14
5.3 BASIC PROPERTIES OF T6-ALUMINUM ALLOY

• Melting point: 580 °C

• Thermal conductivity: 152 W/m K

• Tensile strength:290 Mpa

• Yield strength: 240 Mpa

• Density: 2.70 g/cm³

• Young's Modulus: 69 GPa

5.4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITON OF T6-AL-ALLOY

 Silicon: Minimum 0.4%, maximum 0.8% by weight

• Iron :Maximum 0.7%

• Copper :Minimum 0.15%, maximum 0.4%

• Manganese :Maximum 0.15%

• Magnesium :Minimum 0.8%, maximum 1.2%

• Chromium :Minimum 0.04%, maximum 0.35%

• Zinc : Maximum 0.25%

• Titanium: Maximum 0.15%

15
5.5 ADVANTAGES & USES

 construction of aircraft structures, such as wings and fuselages, more commonly


in homebuilt aircraft than commercial or military aircraft. 2024 alloy is
somewhat stronger, but 6061 is more easily worked and remains resistant to
corrosion even when the surface is abraded, which is not the case for 2024,
which is usually used with a thin Alclad coating for corrosion resistance.
 yacht construction, including small utility boats.
 automotive parts, such as the chassis of the Audi A8.
 some tactical flashlights
 aluminium cans for the packaging of food and beverages.
 SCUBA tanks (post 1995)

5.6 APPLICATIONS:

5.6.1 WELDING:

6061 is highly weldable, for example using tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) or
metal inert gas welding (MIG). Typically, after welding, the properties near the weld
are those of 6061-O, a loss of strength of around 80%. The material can be re-heat-
treated to restore -T4 or -T6 temper for the whole piece. After welding, the material
can naturally age and restore some of its strength as well. Nevertheless, the Alcoa
Structural Handbook recommends the design strength of the material adjacent to the
weld to be taken as 76 MPa (11,000 psi) without proper heat treatment after the
weld.Typical filler material is 4043 or 5356.

5.6.2 EXTRUSIONS:

6061 is an alloy used in the production of extrusions—long constant–cross-


section structural shapes produced by pushing metal through a shaped die.

16
5.6.3 FORGINGS:

6061 is an alloy that is suitable for hot forging. The billet is heated through an
induction furnace and forged using a closed die process. This particular alloy is
suitable for open die forgings. Automotive parts, ATV parts, and industrial parts are
just some of the uses as a forging. Aluminium 6061 can be forged into flat or round
bars, rings, blocks, discs and blanks, hollows, and spindles. 6061 can be forged into
special and custom shapes.

5.7 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS:

 Bicycle frames and components.


 Many fly fishing reels.
 The famous pioneer plaque was made of this particular alloy.
 The upper and lower receivers of many non mil-spec ar-15 rifle variants.
 Many aluminium docks and gangways are constructed with 6061-t6 extrusions,
and welded into place.
 Material used in some ultra-high vacuum (uhv) chambers
 Many parts for remote controlled model aircraft, notably helicopter rotor
components.

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CHAPTER 6

WELDING PROCEDURE

Aluminium alloy of 6061-T6 were chosen for in this experimental work.


Specially designed tool was used in this friction stir welding process. The tool material
used in this work was high speed steel (HSS) with conical shaped probe without
threads.

The FSW tool was subjected to heat treatment process to improve hardness, the
hardness of tool after heat treatment process is 54 HRC. A lathe machine is converted
in to friction stir welding machine to carry out welding process. The two rods are
partitioned in the fixture which is prepared for fabricating FSW joint by using
mechanical clamps so that the rods will not separate during welding process. Two
aluminium alloy were perfectly clamped in lathe machine with a feed rate of 20
mm/min in clockwise direction. Higher tool rotation generates temperature because of
higher frictional heating and results more intense stirring of mixing material.

Fig 2

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6.1 METHODOLOGY

Proper planning should be taken by every individual in creating successful


report writing. Before carrying on the report writing, studies must be performed
related to the problem prevailing surrounding issues and create an idea to solve the
problem. Besides that, irregular planning will create problem in producing the thesis
report writing. Methodology method can be used as guidelines for every step in
completing the thesis report writing.

The study of methodology is a method to identify how the project from the early
stages up to the final presentation. In this chapter, aspects of the report writing will be
described greater depth and detail so that it will be easy to understand.

Identification of the problem is central in the production of report writing.


Based on the identified problems, it is necessary to study methods to solve problems.

In the process of preparing the thesis report, researcher has carried out some of
the rules and procedures for obtaining a good yield and quality. First of all, when
selected the suitable title, the researcher have observed and examined the problems
and materials that can used in this project. Once the problems have been identified, the
researcher managed to get the problem statement, objectives, scope and categories of
projects that will be produced later.

Then after carried out few literature reviews in order to get the basic view for
the project, the selection of materials used for the project was identified and the testing
equipment used in this research was identified. The selection of materials is not only
seen in terms of cost, but also from the quality and durability of material when used on
the project to be produced. With the provision of adequate materials and proper, the
installation process on a project to produce to be going well soon.

19
6.2 FLOWCHART

Start

Problem statement/objective

Background study

Project
understanding

Literature review

Methodology

Welding process

Testing

End
results

20
6.3 COMPONENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS

Fig 3

Fig 3 shows the aluminum plates to be weld.

SPECIFICATIONS:

Length=150mm

Breadth=60mm

Thickness=4mm

MATERIAL :

T6 6061-aluminum alloy

PROPERTIES:

Melting point: 580 °C

Tensile strength:290 Mpa

Density: 2.70 g/cm³


21
6.4 TOOL DESIGN AND SPECIFICATIONS

Tool material: HSS

Tool pin length: 6mm

Shoulder diameter:18mm

Fig 4

Fig 4 shows the tool to be used for welding the aluminum plates.

PROCESS PARAMETERS :

Feed rate: 20mm/min

Tool rpm: 1500 rpm

Tool inclination: 1ᵒ

Axial force: 12kN

22
CHAPTER 7

TESTING METHODS

7.1 TENSILE TESTING

The tensile tests were conducted to determine the tensile properties of similar
aluminium alloys of friction stir weldments at different rotational speed of the tool
(1000 rpm to 1500 rpm) in a Universal Testing Machine (UTM) as per ASTM
standards.

Fig 5

Fig 5 shows the tensile testing machine.

23
7.2 IMPACT TESTING

The Charpy impact test was performed to determine the impact energy of
similar aluminium alloys of friction stir weldments at different rotational speed of the
tool (1000 rpm to 1500 rpm) as per ASTM standards.

Fig 6

Fig 6 shows the charpy impact testing machine.

7.3 MICROSTRUCTURE

Microstructure is the small scale structure of a material, defined as the structure of a


prepared surface of material as revealed by a microscope above 25× magnification.
These properties in turn govern the application of these materials in industrial practice

24
CHAPTER 8

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

8.1 WELDED JOINTS

Fig 7

Fig 7 shows the weld sample of force control via transverse speed

Fig 8

Fig 8 shows the welded joint of force control via tool rotation speed

25
Fig 9

Fig 9 shows the welded portion of the T6 6061 Aluminium alloy

Fig 10

Fig 10 shows the setting and welding of the aluminium alloy

26
8.2 RESULTS

Tool rotational Tensile strength Impact test


speed (N/mm²) (J/mm²)
(rpm)

1600 72.28 18

1800 65.23 10

Feed rate Tensile strength Impact test


(mm/min) (N/mm²) (J/mm²)

20 70.25 20

30 60.58 12

27
CHAPTER 9

COST ESTIMATION

S.NO LIST OF ITEMS QTY COST

1 ALUMINIUM 2Kg 600

2 TOOL 2 400

3 FRICTION 6 PIECES 3000


WELDING

4 TESTING AND 3 750


ANALYSIS

5 MACHINING COST 450

6 TOTAL 5200

28
CHAPTER 10

ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS

10.1 ADVANTAGES

 Good mechanical properties in the as-welded condition


 Improved safety due to the absence of toxic fumes or the spatter of molten
material.
 Easily automated on simple milling machines — lower setup costs and less
training.
 Can operate in all positions (horizontal, vertical, etc.), as there is no weld pool.
 Generally good weld appearance and minimal thickness under/over-matching,
thus reducing the need for expensive machining after welding.
 Can use thinner materials with same joint strength.

10.2 APPLICATIONS

 Ship building and offshore


 Aerospace
 Railways
 automotive
 fabrication
 personal computers

29
CHAPTER 11

REFERENCES

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Technology Weld Join., 2009, 14, 221-227

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CHAPTER 12

CONCLUSION

There by the nature of the welded joint is brittle fracture and breaking point
occurs in heat affected zone hence the welded joint strong by any means and above
mentioned process parameters can improve the strength of friction stir welding
method.

The experiment was conducted and results have been found.

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