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Blood pressure refers to the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels,
and constitutes one of the principal vital signs.

The pressure of the circulating blood decreases as blood moves through arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, and veins; the term blood pressure generally refers to arterial pressure, i.e., the
pressure in the larger arteries, arteries being the blood vessels which take blood away from
the heart.

Blood pressure is always given as two numbers - systolic pressure (when the heart beats) and
diastolic pressure (when the heart relaxes). When the measurements are written down, both
are written one above or before the other with the systolic being the first number.

 - Blood pressure reading below 120/80 is considered normal.

 - Blood pressure of 140/90 or higher is considered high blood pressure.
If one or both numbers are usually high, you have high blood pressure.

 - Blood pressure that is too low is known as hypotension. The
similarity in pronunciation with hypertension can cause confusion.



210 120 Stage 4
180 110 Stage 3
160 100 Stage 2
140 90 Stage 1



130 85 High Normal Blood Pressure
120 80 Normal Blood Pressure
110 75 Low Normal Blood Pressure



90 60 Borderline Low blood Pressure
60 40 Too Low Blood Pressure
50 33 Dangerously Low Blood Pressure


This chart shows the average blood pressure range by age.

'  ! " ' '  '( ' %$%% ' '  '(
Systolic Range 105 117 120 Systolic Range 112 125 137
Diastolic Range 73 77 81 Diastolic Range 79 83 87

' #$#% Min Average Max ' %!%" Min Average Max
Systolic Range 108 120 132 Systolic Range 115 127 139
Diastolic Range 75 79 83 Diastolic Range 80 84 88

' #!#" Min Average Max ' !$!% Min Average Max
Systolic Range 109 121 133 Systolic Range 116 129 142
Diastolic Range 76 80 84 Diastolic Range 81 85 89

' &$&% Min Average Max ' !!!" Min Average Max
Systolic Range 110 122 134 Systolic Range 118 131 144
Diastolic Range 77 81 85 Diastolic Range 82 86 90

' &!&" Min Average Max ' )$)% Min Average Max
Systolic Range 111 123 135 Systolic Range 121 134 147
Diastolic Range 78 82 86 Diastolic Range 83 87 91

*     (        +##$, -
 '(    .


Signs of high blood pressure include, headache dizziness, pounding in ears, and a bloody
nose. These symptoms typically don't occur until high blood pressure has reached an
advanced and even a possibly life threatening stage. see other Signs of High Blood Pressure


For most people who suffer with hypertension, there is no obvious cause why their blood
pressure is high. This condition is called essential hypertension and it is especially important
that it is kept under control. More information on What causes High Blood Pressure?

'      .

Healthcare professionals use a stethoscope and a manual sphygmomanometer to measure

your blood pressure. Typically they take the reading above your elbow. The
sphygmomanometer has a bladder, cuff, bulb, and a gauge. When the bulb is pumped it
inflates the bladder inside the cuff, which is wrapped around your arm. This inflation will
stop the blood flow in your arteries. The stethoscope is used to listen for sound of the
heartbeat, and no sound indicates that there is no flow. As the pressure is released from the
bladder, you will hear the sound of the blood flowing again. That point becomes systolic
reading. The diastolic reading is when you hear no sound again, which means that the blood
flow is back to normal.

Medical research shows that as we age blood pressure rises slightly to accommodate an
increased demand of oxygen and nutrients. It is completely natural for the first number
(systolic) to be 100 plus our age. A recent study by a group of UCLA researchers came very
close to corroborating Dr. Piette's guide for blood pressure of 100 plus your age for men,
subtracting 10 for women, and this is after this rule had been in use for five or more decades.
Are we now being taught that Dr. Piette's guide for blood pressure is wrong merely for drug
company profit?


The heart requires blood to bring oxygen, and nutrients to its muscle tissue. The narrowing of
the arteries due to blockage can cause high blood pressure. If this blockage occurs in the
arteries of the heart, coronary arteries, heart muscle damage can occur, resulting in a heart

Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, however most heart attacks start slowly with mild
pain and discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts
more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable
pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain. Shortness of breath may occur, as well as nausea, or
lightheadedness. It is vital to get help immediately if any of these symptoms occur.


The brain requires unobstructed blood flow to nourish its many functions. Very high,
sustained blood pressure will eventually cause blood vessels to weaken. Over time these
weaken vessels can break, and blood will leak into the brain. The area of the brain that is
being fed by these broken vessels start to die, and this will cause a stroke. Additionally, if a
blot clot blocks a narrowed artery, blood ceases to flow and a stroke will occur.

Symptoms of a stroke include sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg,
especially on one side of the body, confusion, trouble speaking, or seeing, sudden severe
headache. If you or someone with you has one or more of these signs, don't delay, call 911.

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a) You smoke - Cigarette smokers are at greater risk than pipe and cigar smokers, but all
forms of tobacco are proven to be detrimental to the hearts health.

b) You have diabetes.

c) You are overweight - Persons that have an excess of body fat are at a higher risk than
persons of normal weight.
d) Your diet is high in saturated fats.

e) Family History - Children of parents that developed heart disease before the age of 55 have
a higher risk of developing heart disease.

f) You exercise less than 30 minutes per day - Inactivity puts a person at higher risk of
developing heart disease.

g) You are over 40 or a post-menopausal woman - Risk of heart disease increases over the
age of 45 in males, over 55 in females.

h) You consume more than two alcoholic drinks per day.

i) You have high blood pressure or need medication to control your blood pressure.

j) You have high cholesterol levels or need medication to control your cholesterol level.

If you answered yes to one or more of the above, you should talk to your doctor about how
you can reduce your risk through lifestyle modifications. Your doctor will determine if
preventative therapies such as ASPIRIN 81mg are right for you.


There are several types of blood pressure medications and if one doesn't work, then ask your
doctor to switch to another until your blood pressure becomes stable.

'  - A dihydropyridine calcium blocker. It is mostly used for treating hypertension and
Angina Pectoris. Other conditions that benefit from Adalat are Raynaud's phenomenon,
Tetanus and Angina Pectoris. Brand names of the drug include Procardia and Nifedical. More
information on Adalat

'  - While regularly prescribed for high-blood-pressure patients, the drug can also be
prescribed along with other drugs. However, the drug is useful only for controlling, rather
than curing, high blood pressure. More information on Aldactone

c '

Angina is a form of heart disease where the blood flow to the heart is restricted by a blockage
in one or more of the arteries that carry blood into the heart. Usually, the first sign Angina is
a pain in the chest, not unlike a squeezing or pressing sensation. Introduction to Angina


(right click chart below and select print)

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