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Module 1 - Ship Layout and Stability

Å Types of ships, General Arrangement


Å Regulatory Requirements
Å Ship’s Lines and Geometry, Form Coefficients
Å Numerical Integration (e.g. Simpson’s rules)
M423/ MP4J01 - NAVAL ARCHITECTURE
Å Hydrostatic curves
& MARINE ENGINEERING Å Archimedes’ principle
Å Effects of weights on trim and draft
Dr Sim Siang Kok Å Initial Stability
(N3-2c-99) Å Inclining Experiment
Å Watertight subdivision
Å Damaged Stability

1
2

Types of Ships Military Ships


ÅBulk cargo carriers ÅCatamaran Å Aircraft carrier
Å Cargo liners Å Hovercraft Å Corvettes
Å Container Å Hydrofoils
Å Destroyers
Å Ferries - RORO ÅHigh Speed Small Craft
Å Frigates
Å Passenger
Å Tanker
Å Minehunters/Minesweepers
Å Tugs Å Offshore Patrol Vessel

3 4
Ship Types Ship Types

Bulk Carrier Container Ship

Roll on Roll off


General ship
Cargo ship

5 6

Ship Types Ship Types

Oil Frigate
Tanker

Liquefied Natural
Gas Carrier
Tug

7 8
The design Spiral Main Dimensions
Å Decisive effect on many of the ship’s
characteristics
Å stability
Å hold capacity
Å power requirements
Å Form an important phase of overall design
Å The main dimensions are:
Å Length, L (LBP, LOA, LWL)
Å Breadth, B
Å Draught, T
Å Depth, D (Molded Depth)
9 Å Freeboard, F = D - T 10

Molded Dimensions Nomenclature

11 12
Dimensions Dimensions
ÅL
Å Breadth, draught and depth
Å determined as a function of displacement, speed,
Å related in such a way that the following are
number of days at sea per annum and other factors
satisfied:
affecting economic efficiency
ÅSpatial requirements
Å Block coefficient - Å Stability
Å determined as a function of the Froude No. and Å Statutory freeboard
factors affecting length Å Reserve buoyancy

13 14

Restrictions on Main dimensions Displacement and tonnage


Å Size of locks, canals, slipways and bridges Å A ship’s displacement significantly influences its behaviour
at sea.
Å Maximum dimensions for the following canals
Å Displacement is a force and is expressed in newtons.
Å Panama L < 290 m, B ≤ 32.24 m, T < 13 m
Å Mass displacement expressed in tonnes is used to denote
Å Suez T < 14.63 m, 18.29 scheduled for 1984. mass.
Å Water depth - most common restriction that affects Å Deadweight or deadmass in terms of mass measures a
inland vessels and ocean-going ships of large ship’s carrying capacity, that is its earning power.
dimensions Å The difference between the load displacement up to the minimum
permitted freeboard and the lightweight or light displacement.
Å Lightweight is the weight of the hull and machinery.
Å Deadweight includes the cargo, fuel, water, crew and
effects.
Å Cargo deadweight is used for cargo alone.
15 16
Tonnage Gross Tonnage (GT), Net Tonnage (NT)
ÅGT is based on the volume of all enclosed spaces
Å The number of tun (a wine cask) was a measure a ship’s ÅNT is the volume of cargo space plus the volume of
capacity. passenger spaces multiplied by a coefficient.
Å Two tonnages are of interest to the international community:
GT = K1V
Å One to represent the overall size of a vessel - measure of the difficulty 3

= K 2 Vc ⎛⎜
of handling and berthing. 4T ⎞ ⎛ N2 ⎞
Å One to represent its carrying capacity - a measure of its earning
NT ⎟ + K 3 ⎜ N1 + ⎟
⎝ 3D ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠
ability.
Å Anomalies arose because of differences in systems adopted where: V = total volume of all enclosed spaces of the ship in m3
by different countries. K1 = 0.2 + log10V
Å To remove the anomalies and establish an internationally Vc = total volume of cargo spaces in cubic metres
approved system, the International Convention on Tonnage K2 = 0.2 + log10Vc
Measurement of Ships was adopted and became fully K3 = 1.25(GT + 10000)/10000
operative in 1994. D = moulded depth amidships in metres
T = moulded draught amidships in metres
17 18

Gross Tonnage (GT), Net Tonnage (NT) International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
N1 = number of passengers in cabins with not more than 8 berths Å Set up in 1959 under the aegis of UN to deal with safety of
life at sea
N2 = number of other passengers
Å Represents 150 maritime nations
N1 + N2 = total number of passengers the ship is permitted to
carry. Å Promotion the adoption of some 30 conventions related to
maritime safety and prevention of pollution.
When N1 + N2 < 13, N1 and N2 are taken to be zero
Å Conventions adopted are:
(4T/3D)2 < 1 K2Vc(4T/3D)2 > 0.25GT
1 Safety of life At Sea (SOLAS)
NT > 0.3GT
– minimum standards for the construction, equipment and operation of
All volumes included in the calculation are measured to the ships covering watertight subdivision, damaged stability, fire, life
inner side of the shell or structural boundary plating. saving appliances,
GT and NT are stated as dimensionless number. radio equipment, navigation, machinery and electrical installations.
2 International Convention on Load Lines (ILLC)
3 Convention on Maritime Pollution (MARPOL)
4 International Convention on the International Maritime
19 Satellite Organisation (INMARSAT) 20
Design of Ship lines Projection of Ship’s lines
Å Lines are considered in relation to the primary
criterion of speed in calm water.
Å Lines - decisive influence on the following:
Å Resistance increase in a seaway
Å Manoeuvrability
Å Course-keeping quality
Å Roll-damping
Å Sea-keeping ability: motion characteristics in waves,
slamming effects
Å Size of under-deck volume.

21 22

Typical body plan Lines Plan

y axis

x axis

23 24
Reference lines and planes Table of Offsets
Å Forward Perpendicular (FP): A vertical line through the
forward extremity of the design waterline, this is the Åbasically a digitized form of the lines
waterline at which the ship is designed to float. drawing.
• Aft Perpendicular (AP): A vertical line at or near the stern ÅAfter a ship has been designed and its
of the ship. This passes through the aft extremity of the hull form determined and graphically
design waterline (naval ships) or through the rudder post
described as above, it is customary to
(merchant ships).
set up a matrix system for numerical
• Midship Section: A plane passed athwartships halfway calculations.
between the FP and the AP.
ÅThis matrix, arranged in tabular form is
• The Centerline: A vertical plane passing fore and aft down called the table of offsets (i.e. x, y, z
the center of the ship. coordinates).
• The Baseline: A fore-and-aft line passing through the
lowest point of the hull. 25 26

Curve of Areas and Bonjean Curves Hydrostatic Curves


Why are areas of sections important?
How do you calculate these areas and show them?

27 28
Hydrostatics Hydrostatics
Å Properties of Waterplane Å Derived Properties
1. Area of Waterplane (Aw) 1. Height of metacentre above keel (KM)
2. Centre of Flotation (LCF)
2. Height of longitudinal metacentre above
3. Longitudinal Moment of Inertia (IL)
keel (KML)
4. Transverse Moment of Inertia (IT)
3. Tonnes per centimeter immersion (TPC)
Å Properties of the Immersed Volume
1. Volume of Displacement (∇), 4. Moment to change trim 1 cm (MT1cm)
2. Displacement (∆) 5. Coefficient of forms, CM, CP, CW
3. Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy (LCB) 6. Wetted Surface (WS)
4. Vertical Centre of Buoyancy (KB)
29 30

Properties of Irregular Shapes - Areas Properties of Irregular Shapes - 1st Moments


Areas of Planes
Å Waterplanes
Å Transverse sections
Å Flat decks
Å Bulkheads
Å Curve of areas
Å Expansion of curved
surfaces 1 2
1 M *y = ∫ y dx
1 2
x = ∫ xy1dx y = ∫ x1 ydy
A = ∫ ydx A A
y =
1 2
∫ y dx
2A
31 32
Area of Waterplane, AW Centre of Flotation

+L/2
AW = 2 ∫ ydx dm = xdA = x( ydx) If a ship is trimmed without change of displacement, it must rotate about
−L / 2
the centre of flotation (CF)
1st Moment of entire waterplane area about amidships: That is the volume of the emerged and submerged wedges are equal.
L/2 2 ∫ y F ( xFθ )dx = 2 ∫ y A ( x Aθ )dx ∫ xydx forward = ∫ xydx aft
M⊗ = 2 ∫ xydx i.e. the condition for the centre of area of waterplane, xF
−L / 2 33 34

LCF Longitudinal Moment of Inertia of WP (I⊗)


M⊗
LCF = x =
AW

Å The CF will be forward of amidships if M⊗ is


positive, or aft it is negative.
Å The position of CF in the WP will be the same
regardless of the moment of axis chosen.
Moment of inertia about amidships of the element is
Å The moment about the axis passing through CF
would be zero because the forward (positive) dI ⊗ = x 2 dA = x 2 ydx
moments would exactly cancel the aft (negative) L/2
moments of the elemental areas I⊗ = 2 ∫x
2
ydx
−L / 2

35 36
Longitudinal Moment of Inertia of WP (IL) Longitudinal Moment of Inertia of WP (IL)
Å MI to evaluate longitudinal stability must be Centre of flotation
determined about the transverse axis passing through
centre of flotation, CF.
Å Parallel axis theorem of mechanics states that 2nd
MI of an area about 2 parallel axes, one passes
through the centroid of area are related as follows:
2
I = I centroid + Ah
par I L = I ⊗ − Aw (LCF)2
Icentroid = I of the area about the axis through the centroid
A = Area, h = distance of parallel axis from the centroid
axis
Ipar = I of the area about the given parallel axis (e.g. 37 38

Transverse Moment of Inertia (IT) Sectional Area AS


Å IT is the 2nd moment of area about the longitudinal Elements of the half area of
axis passing through the CF (i.e. the centreline of the station are given by:
WP)
Å The elemental area has a MI about its base: dAS = y ( z )dz
dI T = 2
3 y 3 dx T
AS = 2 ∫ ydz
L / 2 0


3
IT = 2
3
y dx
− L / 2
y = half breadth of station
T = draft at station

A typical station in the Body Plan


39 40
Volume of Displacement ∇ Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy LCB
Å The elemental moment of volume about amidships:
dM = xA S dx
Å Moment of the immersed volume about amidships:
L /2
M ∇⊗ = ∫ xA S dx
−L /2

M
The elemental volume dV is given as: dv = AS dx LCB = ∇⊗

L / 2
∇ = ∫ A S dx
− L / 2 41 42

Vertical Centre of Buoyancy KB Centre of Buoyancy

T
∇ = ∫ AW dz
0
T
M ∇K = ∫ zAW dz
0
M ∇K
KB =

Å Should the ship not be symmetrical below the waterline, CB
will not lie in the middle line plane.
Å The CB of a floating body is the centre of volume of the
displaced fluid in which the body is floating.
43 44
Height of Metacentre above keel (KM, KML) TPI or TPC
Å Quantity to determine initial transverse stability
IT
KM = KB + BM = KB +

BM = transverse metacentric radius
KB = height of CB above keel
Volume of the layer or added buoyancy v = AWt
IL
KM L = KB + BM L = KB + Buoyancy force created by this layer of buoyancy b = ρgv

This must be equal to the added weight, w
w = b = ρgv = ρgAWt w/t = ρgAW
i.e. the weight that will increase the draft of ship by t feet or m
45 46

TPI or TPC (tonnef per cm) Trim


Å Tonnef per cm of immersion of a WP is the weight required Å TF = Draft forward
to effect the parallel sinkage of the ship at that waterline of
one centimeter. (Assume the area of WP is Aw) Å TA = Draft Aft
Å The weight required to effect a parallel sinkage of 1 metre Å TM = Mean Draft or Draft at Amidships = 0.5(TA + TF)
is: Å TO = Draft at CF (corresponding even keel draft)
kg Mg g Å t = Trim
Aw m 2 ρ Å f = Forward difference in draft, even keel to trimmed WLs
m 3 1000kg g
Å a = Aft difference in drafts, even keel to trimmed WLs
1m kg Mg g For additional weight Å m = Midships difference in drafts, even keel to trimmed WLs
TPC = Awm2 ρ 3 W, parallel sinkage = Å θ = Angle of trim
100cm m 1000kg g
W/TPI
TPC = ρAw 10−5 tonnef per cm t = TA − TF for trim by the stern
TPC = 1025Aw 10−5 for salt water Precise for wall-sided
vehicle
t = TF − TA for trim by the bow
47 48
Trim, Angle of Trim Trim and Longitudinal Stability
t f a m
tan θ = = = =
L F A LCF
SI Units
t = 100(TA − TF ) [drafts in metres t in cm]
t f a m
tan θ = = = =
L F A 100 LCF

Å L = LBP, assumed same as draft marks


Å LCF = Distance of CF from amidships
Å F = Distance of CF from FP or mark = L/2 + LCF
Å A = Distance of CF from AP or mark = L/2 - LCF
49 50

Moment causing Trim Moment causing Trim


M = ∆GZ
G’
GG’ to weight shift
= ∆GML θ
d
θ = t/L
w w M = ∆.BM.t/L
M/t = ∆.BM./L

Å The application of M has caused a couple ∆GZ, GZ being the


Apply a trimming moment M at the CF, causing a rotation θ, immersing perpendicular distance between the lines of buoyancy and weight i.e.
a wedge of water aft and a wedge to emerge forward.
Å For small angles, sin θ ≅ θ, ∴ M = ∆GML θ
The change in underwater shape due to the movement of the wedges, Å In practice, GML and BML are both large numbers, ∴ GML = BML
causes B to move aft to say, B1
∆ BM L 1 .025 I 0 .01005 I
The buoyancy ∆ acts vertically upwards at right angles to the new W1L1. MCT 1m = = tonnef m = MNm
51 L L L 52
Trimming Moment MCT1cm
t GG ' wd If t is change in trim in cm over length, L, m
∆ × GG ' = w×d tan θ = = =
L GM L ∆GM L tan θ = t / 100 L
w×d
GG ' = w × d × 100 L
∆ thus t =
∆ × GM L
θ= angle of change of trim
w× d is known as the trim min g moment ,
GG’ = longitudinal shift of G t × ∆ × GM L
where trim min g moment = MNm
wd = trimming moment caused by shifting weight w 100 L
longitudinally by distance d ∆ × GM L
MCT 1cm = MNm
GML = longitudinal metacentric height 100 L
trim min g moment
∴ t = cm
wd Assumption: MCT 1cm
t =
⎛ ∆ m GM ⎞ =
w× d
⎜ L
⎟ GG’ ≈ GZ
cm
⎝ 100 L ⎠ MCT 1cm
53 54

MCT1cm, MCT1in Longitudinal Stability BML


Å If trim change t is equal to 1 cm or 1 inch, the
quantity in the denominator and the trimming
moment wd must be equal to one another.
∆ m GM L
In SI units , MCT 1cm = IL
100 L BM L =
∆ GM ∇
=
L
In British units , MCT 1in
12 L

wd
In SI units, t =
MCT1cm
wd BML = Longitudinal metacentric radius
In British units, t =
MCT1in
IL = Longitudinal moment of inertia of the Waterplane
55 56
Coefficients of Form Coefficients of Form

Block Coefficient Waterplane Coefficient

AW
∇ CWP =
CB = LWL B
BTLPP

Prismatic Coefficient
Midship Coefficient

CP =
AM AM LPP
CM =
BT ∇
CVP =
AW T
57 58

Typical Coefficients of form Displacement (∆) when trimmed

Å Determine the ∆ from the hydrostatic curves at mean draft


(TM)
Å Determine the ∆ from the hydrostatic curves at
corresponding even keel draft (To)
Å Integrate the immersed sectional area corresponding to the
trimmed WL from the bow to stern, to determine the actual
immersed volume of the trimmed ship
59 60
Numerical Integration Trapezoidal Rule
Å Trapezoidal rule
Å Simpson’s rules
Å Newton - Cotes’ rules
Å Tchebycheff’s rules

Å A curvilinear can be divided into a number of approximate


trapezoids by covering it with n equally spaced ordinates, h
apart.
Å The breadth at the ordinates being y1, y2, y3, … yn.
61 62

Trapezoidal Rule Simpson’s Rules


Å Commencing with the left hand trapezoid, the areas of each
trapezoids are given by:
2 h ( y1 + y 2 )
1

2 h ( y 2 + y3 )
1

2 h ( y3 + y 4 )
1

The total area A is given by:


A = 12 h( y1 + 2 y2 + 2 y3 + ... + yn )
= h( 12 y1 + y2 + y3 + ... + 12 yn )

Å Assume the origin to be in the middle of the base 2h long,


The more numerous the ordinates, the more accurate the answer. having ordinates y1, y2 and y3.
Å The curve can be represented by an equation of the 3rd order,
y = a +a x+a x +a x
0 1 2
2
3
3
63 64
Simpson’s Rules Simpson’s 1st Rule
A = ∫ −h h ydx = ∫ −h h (a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + a3 x 3 )dx Å Equating the coefficients of a in Eqns (i) and (iii)
⎡ x2 x3 x4 ⎤
+h Eqn i L + M + N = 2h
= ⎢a0 x + a1 + a2 + a3 ⎥ = 2a0 h + 23 a2 h 3
⎣ 2 3 4 ⎦ −h L−N = 0
Å Assume that the area, A can be given by the expression L+ N = 2
3 h

A = Ly1 + My2 + Ny3 ∴ L = N = 13 h and M = 43 h

Now A = 1
3 hy1 + 43 hy2 + 13 hy3 = 1
3 h( y1 + 4 y2 + y3 )

y1 = a0 − a1h + a2 h 2 − a3 h 3 Eqn(ii )
y2 = a0
y3 = a0 + a1h + a2 h 2 + a3 h 3
Å Substituting in Eqn (ii)
A = (L + M + N ) a0 − (L − N )a1h + (L + N )a2 h 2 − ( L − N )a3h3 Eqn(iii)
65 66

Simpson’s 1st Rule Simpson’s 2nd Rule


A1 A2

A1 = 1
3 h( y1 + 4 y2 + y3 )
A2 = 1
h( y3 + 4 y4 + y5 ) Å For four evenly spaced ordinates the rule becomes
3

A3 = 1
3 h( y5 + 4 y6 + y7 ) A = 3
8 h( y1 + 3y2 + 3y3 + y4 )
and so on For a l arge number of ordinates
A = 1
h( y1 + 4 y2 + 2 y3 + 4 y4 + 2 y5 + 4 y6 + 2 y7 + ... + yn )
3 A = 3
8 h( y1 + 3y2 + 3y3 + 2y4 + 3y5 + 3y6 + 2y7 +...+ yn )
A = 2
3 h( 12 y1 + 2 y2 + y3 + 2 y4 + y5 + 2 y6 + y7 + ... + 12 yn )
67 68
Example – Simpson’s 1st Rule Archimedes’ Principle
½ 3
Ord.
no.
Ord. S.M
Func. Lever x Func.
Of y f(h) Of xy
Lever x
f(h)
Func. ½ Ord.
2
Of x y 3
Func.
Of y
3 When a body is floating freely in the fluid, the weight of the
y
y
body equals the buoyancy, which is the weight of the fluid
1 0.2 0.5 0.1 5 0.5 5 2.5 0.008 0.004
2 2.4 2 4.8 4 19.2 4 76.8 13.824 27.648 displaced.
3 4.6 1 4.6 3 13.8 3 41.4 97.336 97.336
4 6.7 2 13.4 2 26.8 2 53.6 300.76 601.53
5 8.1 1 8.1 1 8.1 1 8.1 531.44 531.44
6
7
9.0
9.4
2
1
18
9.4
0
-1
0
-9.4
0
-1
0
9.4
729 1458
830.58 830.58
∆ tonnef = ρ∇g
8 9.2 2 18.4 -2 -36.8 -2 73.6 778.69 1557.4 newtons = ∇w
9 8.6 1 8.6 -3 -25.8 -3 77.4 636.06 636.06
10 6.3 2 12.6 -4 -50.4 -4 201.6 250.05 500.09 where w = ρg is the
11 0.0 0.5 0 -5 0 -5 0 0 0 weight density.
98 -54 544.4 6240.1

1 tonf = 1.016 tonnef


Common interval, h = 220/10 = 22
Total area = 2 × ⅔ × 22 × 98 = 2874.7 m
2 = 9964 newtons.
3
First moment = 2 × ⅔ 22×22 ×54= 348482 m
CF abaft 6 x = 22 × f(xy)/ f(y) = 22 x 54/ 98 = 12.1 m
Second moment about, Oy = (i.e. ord. 6), I = 2 × ⅔ × 22 × 22 × 22 × 544.4 = 772900
2 2
I L = I - Ax = 7729000 - 2874.7 × (12.1) = 7309000 m4 69 70
Second moment about, Ox, I T = 2 × ⅓ × ⅔ × 22 × 6240.0 = 61000 m4

Statical Stability Initial Stability


Å If a rigid body is said to be in equilibrium when the resultant
of the forces acting on it is zero, then the resultant moment of
forces is also zero.

In the heel condition, a horizontal line is drawn to intersect the


Stable equilibrium Neutral Unstable equilibrium line of action of the buoyant force at Z.

M above G M=G M below G The distance GZ is called the righting arm


Righting Moment Heeling Moment The moment ∆ × GZ is the righting moment
71 72
Initial Stability Metacentric Radius BM
Å The point, M, the transverse metacentre is defined as
the intersection of the upright condition buoyancy
vector and the buoyancy vector for small angle of
heel, the rotation having taken place at constant
displacement
Å Path of centre of buoyancy for successive small
angles of heel is a circular arc.
Å All such buoyancy vectors will intersect at point M
Å The radius of the circle is BM called the metacentric Å Elemental wedge volumes is given as:
radius
Å The relative position of G and M determine the dv e = dv i = 1
2 y ( y tan ϕ ) dx
magnitude of the righting arm, GZ = GMsinϕ The transference of the buoyant volume is from point be to
Å GM is called the metacentric height bi i.e.
bebi =4
3 y
73 74

Metacentric Radius Metacentric Radius


Moment of transference of buoyant volume is The righting moment as a result of the shift in centre of
volume of displacement to B’ parallel to bebi is given as:
dm = bebi dv = ( 43 y )( 12 y 2 tan ϕdx ) = 2
3 y 3 tan ϕdx
For the whole ship moment of transference, ∇ BB ' = vbebi = IT tan ϕ
L
v b e bi = ( 2
3
) ∫y
3
dx (tan ϕ ) From Figure BB' = BM tan ϕ
0
L Thus ∇BM tan ϕ = IT tan ϕ
∫y
3
But I = 2
3 dx I
0 BM = T
The moment of transference of buoyancy is given:

Hence, BM is determined entirely by the geometry of the
vb e bi = I T tan ϕ immersed hull. Since KM = KB + BM, so is KM
GM = KB + BM - KG
75 76
Effect of free surfaces of liquids Effect of free surfaces of liquids
Å A tank of liquid in a ship affects the ship’s initial stability.
Å Ship has tanks of different liquids:
φ
Å FW for drinking and boiler Buoyancy
Å SW for ballast force
Å Fuel of various types and lubricating oils
B1
Å Allowance to be made for density of liquid that is different
from that of seawater

Å For small angles of inclination the transfer of buoyancy is


given by: Is
∆ s BM sin φ = ∆s φ = ρ s I sφ
∇s
The transfer of weights due to the movement of the liquid
in the tank is Il
∆l φ = ρ l I lφ
77
∇l 78

Effect of free surfaces of liquids Freely suspended weight


Å This transfer of weight opposes the righting moment due to the
transfer of buoyancy.
Å The resulting reduction in the effective righting moment is:

∆ s GZ = ∆ S GM F φ = ∆ s GM φ − ρ l I lφ
ÅThe effective metacentric height allowing for the action of
the liquid free surface is:
ρl I l
∴ GM F = GM s −
∆s
⎛ρ ⎞ I
= GM s − ⎜⎜ l ⎟⎟ l Å When a ship unloads her cargo using her own derricks.
⎝ ρs ⎠ ∇s Å The line of action of the weight of the cargo being lifted
always passes through S.
The effect of the free surface is independent of the position
of the tank in the ship. 79 80
Centre of Gravity Centre of Gravity
Å depends on the distribution of weights aboard the Calculating the ship weight (∆) and KG is as given as:
ship, including the ship itself and everything it
carries. ∆ = ∑ wi
Å Each individual weight, w is defined by: ∆ × KG = ∑ (wi × kgi )
1. Magnitude of weight
KG = ∑ wi × kgi
2. Location of CG of weight with reference to the ship’s
principal planes (vertical cg (i.e. kg), transverse cg, ∆
horizontal cg)
If any weight is shifted, added or removed from a ship in
equilibrium, the equilibrium will be disrupted and the ship
will adjust itself to a new and different equilibrium.

81 82

Centre of Gravity Shifting a weight


Å causes the CG to shift in the direction parallel to the
direction of the weight shift with no change of ∆.
∆ × GG' = w × d
wd
GG' =

Where w = weight or mass of shifted item
1 1
W∫
VCG( KG) from keel = zdW LCG from Oy = ∫ xdW
W d = distance it is shifted

=
1 ∆ = weight or mass of ship (includes w)
TCG from middle line plane ∫ ydW
W
GG’ = distance moved by ship’s G
The first moment of weight about the CG is zero.
83 84
Loading or discharging a weight Effect of added weight
Å involves a change in ∆ as well as the KG. G d
Å the draft and the KM will also change Tilting moment about G
=w×d
w
G’
G
Tilting moment about G
= (W + w) × GG’
W+w
These tilting moments must be equal, i.e.
(W + w) × GG’ = w × d w× d
GG ' =
W +w
85 86

Buoyancy - additional weight, W Example 1


A tanker 1,045 ft long with a ∆ of 305,000 tons floats in SW at
drafts of 62’0” forward and 65’ aft. KB = 33.0 ft, KG = 45.0
ft, KML = 740 ft, and the CF is 15.5 ft aft of amidships. What
final drafts will result if 2,200 tons of cargo are shifted from
cargo tanks #2 to #5, a distance of 285 ft aft?

GML= KML – KG = 740 - 45 = 695 ft


wd 2 , 200 × 285
Å Taking moments about B Taking moments about G t = =
⎛ ∆ GM L ⎞ ⎛ 305 , 000 × 695 ⎞
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
W Bb = (∆ + W ) BB' W Gg = (∆ + W )GG ' ⎝ 12 L ⎠ ⎝ 12 × 1045 ⎠
= 37 . 1 inches change of trim
W Bb W Gg
BB' = GG ' =
∆ +W ∆ +W Since the weight was shifted toward the stern, the trim
∆ + W now acts through the ∆ + W now acts through the change is by the stern.
new centre of buoyancy, B’ new centre of gravity, G’
87 88
Example 1 Stability at Large Angles
L 1045
F = + LCF = + 15 .5 = 538 '
2 2 Righting moment
L 1045 acting the ship =
A = − LCF = − 15 .5 = 507 '
2 2 ∆GZ1
⎛F⎞ ⎛ 538 ⎞ The buoyancy
f = ⎜ ⎟t = ⎜ ⎟37 .1 = 0.515 × 37 .1 = 19 .1"
⎝L⎠ ⎝ 1045 ⎠ force vector
= 1'7.1" decrease of draft forward does not pass
through M.
⎛ A⎞ ⎛ 507 ⎞
a ⎜ ⎟t = ⎜
= ⎟37 .1 = 0.485 × 37 .1 = 18 .0"
⎝L⎠ ⎝ 1045 ⎠
= 1'6.0" increase of draft aft Å It is necessary to have a knowledge of the stability at large
TF = (62 '0") − (1'7.1") = 60 '4.9" angles of inclination for the transverse planes since ships do
TA = (65'0") + (1'6.0") = 66 '6.0" roll and heel beyond 10 degrees
Å It is not normally required for longitudinal stability because
89 of the relatively small angles of trim of a ship in practice. 90

Stability at large angles Stability at large angles


Å Since the displacement to W1L1 is the same as that to WL, Å An arbitrary but fixed pole S is assigned.
Å ∇i = ∇e Å Its perpendicular distance from the line of action of the
Å Let δ = buoyancy force associated with immersed wedge. buoyancy force, SZ depends on the geometry of the ship.
Å b1, b2 = centroids of ∇e and ∇i respectively Å SZ can be calculated for various angles of heel and for
Å R = foot of the perpendicular from B on to the line of action various values of displacement without reference to a loading
of the buoyancy force through B1. condition.
Å When G has been calculated for a particular loading
Å Then ∆ BR = δ h1h2
condition, GZ1 can be calculated as follows:
∆GZ1 = ∆ BR − ∆ BG sin φ
Å
⎡δ ⎤
= ∆ ⎢ h1h2 − BG sin φ ⎥ GZ 1 = SZ + SG sin φ
⎣∆ ⎦
G depends upon the loading of the ship and is not fixed
position.

91 92
Cross curves of stability Curves of statical stability
Å Present stability in the form of righting moments or levers
about the CG as a ship is heeled at constant displacement.

Å If a plot of SZ against angle of inclination is required for a


given displacement ∆1, values of SZ can be obtained by
reading along a vertical line AA1.
93 94

Curves of statical stability Curve of Statical Stability

Maximum GZ - proportional to the largest steady heeling moment that


a ship can sustain without capsizing.
Range of stability - At some angle called the angle of vanishing
Å Area under the curve represents the ability of the ship to stability θv, the GZ value reduces to zero and becomes negative for
absorb energy imparted to it by winds, waves and other larger inclination. For angle less than θv , a ship will return to the
external agency. upright state.
95 96
Example 2: Statical Stability Curve Example 2: Statical Stability Curve
The angles of inclination and corresponding righting lever for The height of the CG is found by taking moments about the
a ship at an assumed KS of 6.5 m are: keel:
Item Mass (tonnes) KG(m) Moment about
Inclination (°) 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 keel
Righting lever (m) 0 0.11 0.36 0.58 0.38 -0.05 -0.60 Lightship 4200 6.0 25,200
Cargo 9100 7.0 63,700
Fuel 1500 1.1 1,650
In a particular loaded condition the displacement mass is made Stores 200 7.5 1,500
up of: Total 15,000 92050
Item Mass (tonnes) KG (m)
Lightship 4200 6.0
Cargo 9100 7.0 KG = 92,050/15,000 = 6.14 m
Fuel 1500 1.1
Stores 200 7.5 Since G is below S the actual righting lever values are given
by: GZ1 = SZ + SG sinφ
Plot the curve of statical stability for this loaded condition and SG = KS – KG = 6.5 - 6.14 = 0.36 m
and determine the range of stability. The GZ values for values angles of inclination can be
97 determined as shown in Table 98

Example 2: Statical Stability Curve Effect of free liquid surfaces on stability


Inclination (°) sin φ SG sin φ (m) SZ (m) GZ (m)
0 0 0 0 0
15 0.259 0.093 0.11 0.203
30 0.500 0.180 0.36 0.540
45 0.707 0.255 0.58 0.835
60 0.866 0.312 0.38 0.692
75 0.966 0.348 -0.05 0.298
90 1.000 0.360 -0.60 -0.240

By plotting GZ against inclination the range of stability is Å By analogy with the upright case, the reduction in slope of the
found to be 82°
⎛ ρ l ⎞ (I l )φ
GZ curve at angle φ is given by
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ ρs ⎠ ∇ s
Åwhere (Il)φ is the moment of inertia of the liquid surface at
99 angle φ 100
Effect of free liquid surfaces on stability Effect of free liquid surfaces on stability
Å Navy Department of the Ministry of Defence’s practice:
Åcompute the GM and GZ value for 45 degrees heel for the
free surface.
Å The effective GZ curve up to 45 degrees inclination through
the 45 degree spot, following the general character of the
uncorrected curve and fairing into the modified tangent at the
origin.
Å For angles greater than 45 degrees, the reduction of GZ at 45
degrees is applied as a constant correction.

101 102

Development and loss of righting arm Dynamical stability (DS)


Å The DS of a ship at a given angle of heel is defined as the
work done in heeling the ship to that angle very slowly and at
a constant displacement.

The work done in


heeling a ship
through δφ = Mφ δφ
The total work in
heeling to an angle φ
is

Φ Φ
∫ M φ dφ = ∫ ∆GZφ dφ
0 0

103 104
Stability Assessment Criteria for Stability Assessment
Å Circumstances which will cause a ship to heel over: Å Beam winds and rolling
Å The action of wind which will be most pronounced on ships with high
Heeling Arm(HA) Imperial Units SI Units
freeboard or large superstructure At sea level
Å The action of waves in rolling the ship especially in large ocean 0.0035V 2 Al cos 2 φ 0.0038V 2 Al cos 2 φ
HA = ft HA = m
Å The action of rudder and hull forces when the ship is manoeuvring 2240∆ 2240∆
Å the loading and unloading of cargo. At height above sea

Å Damage leading to flooding


level 0.004V 2 Al cos 2 φ 0.0043V 2 Al cos 2 φ
HA = ft HA = m
2240∆ 2240∆
Å shifting of cargo in rough weather
V = nominal wind velocity, knots (100 V = nominal wind velocity, knots (100
Å If a ship experiences a heeling moment in perfectly calm knots) knots)
A = projected area (ft2) of ship above WL A = projected area (m2) of ship above
water it would be sufficient if the curve of statical stability l = lever arm (ft) from half draft to the WL
had a lever in excess of that represented by the heeling centroid of A l = lever arm (m) from half draft to the
centroid of A
moment.
Å A certain reserve of DS is required to enable the ship to
absorb the energy imparted to it by waves or gushing wind
105 106

Stability Assessment - Action of wind Stability Assessment - Action of wind


Å To allow for the rolling of the ship the curves are extended
back to a point 25° to windward of φs.
Å The areas A1 and A2 are computed.
Å For stability to be considered as adequate, the following
conditions must be made by USN ships:
ÅGZs < 0.6 × GZmax
ÅArea A1 > 1.4 × Area A2.

Å A wind heeling arm curve is calculated and superimposed on


the statical stability curve for the intact ship
Å The angle φs at which the 2 curves cross is the steady heel
angle the ship would take up if the wind were perfectly steady
and there were no waves. The corresponding righting arm is
GZs 107 108
Stability Assessment - Lifting of load Stability Assessment - crowding of passengers
Å The heeling arm is given by Wa cos φ/∆.
where W = weight of passengers,
a = transverse distance from the centre line to CG of
passengers,
∆ = displacement including W.
Å The stability criteria applied by the USN are:
ÅGZs < 0.6 × GZmax
Å The heeling arm is given by Wa cos φ/∆.
Åφs < 15 °
Å where W = weight of lift, a = transverse distance from the
centre line to end of boom, ∆ = displacement including W. ÅShaded area > 40% of total area under the statical stability
curve
Å The stability criteria applied by the USN are:
Å GZs < 0.6 × GZmax
Å φs < 15 °
Å Shaded area > 40% of total area under the statical stability curve 109 110

Stability Assessment - Heeling during turn Example 3: Dynamical Stability


Å When a ship is turning steadily, a force F directed towards the ÅUsing the tabulated values of GZ from the previous
centre (centripetal force) is given by: ∆V 2 example, determine the dynamic stability of the
F =
ÅThe approximate heeling moment MH
gR vessel at 60° inclination.
is given by:
∆V 2 ⎛ T⎞ Inclination GZ (m) Simpson’s Area
MH = ⎜ KG − ⎟ cos φ (°) multiplier product
gR ⎝ 2⎠ 0 0 1 0
15 0.203 4 0.812
V2 ⎛ T⎞ 30 0.540 2 1.080
ÅThe heeling arm curve is: AH = ⎜ KG − ⎟ cos φ 45 0.835 4 3.340
gR ⎝ 2⎠ 60 0.692 1 0.692

ÅThe stability criteria adopted are as for case (b) - lifting of The area under the GZ curve to 60° = 15/57.3 ×1/3 ×5.924
heavy weights over the side. = 0.517 m rads
Dynamical stability = 15000 × 9.81 × 0.517 = 76.08 MN

111 112
The Inclining Experiment Inclining Experiment Procedure
Å The position of the CG must be known before stability can
be assessed for a given ship condition.
Å Since KG may be as great as 10 times that of GM, it must
be known accurately.
Å KG can be calculated for a variety of conditions provided
it is accurately known for one precisely specified ship
condition.
Å This is achieved by conducting the inclining experiment.
Å The ship is surveyed to determine weights to be removed, to come
Å Main purposes: on board or be moved for final completion.
Å To determine the displacement and the position of CG in Å The state of all tanks is noted accurately.
an accurately known condition (e.g. when the ship is as Å The drafts are accurately read at each set of draught marks, at
nearly completed as possible). amidships, on both sides of the ship.
Å The density of water in which the vessel is floating is measured at
113
a number of positions and depths around the ship 114

Inclining Experiment Procedure Inclining Experiment - Analysis


Å Weights, arranged on the deck in 4 groups are moved in the
following sequence.
Å weights A to a position in line with weights C
Å weights B to a position in line with weights D
Å weights A and B returned to original positions.
Å weights C to a position in line with weights A
Å weights D to a position in line with weights B
Å weights C and D returned to original positions.
Å The weight groups are often made equal.
Å The angle of heel is recorded by noting the pendulum Å Due to the shift of weight w through a distance d, G will
positions or inclinometer before the first movement of move parallel to the movement of the weight to G’ where:
weight and after each step given above.
wd
GG ' =

115 116
Inclining Experiment - Analysis Inclining Experiment - Analysis
Å Since GG’ is normal to the centre-line plane of the ship
GM = GG ' / tan φ
wd
=
∆ tan φ

ÅIf the movement of each pendulum, length l, is measured as


y on a horizontal batten
y
tan φ =
l

Å Average deflection per unit of applied moment is Σmd/ Σm2.

117 118

Inclining Experiment - Precautions Flooding and Collision


1 The ship must be floating upright and freely without restraint Å Reasons to isolate the flooded volume:
from ropes. Å Minimise the loss of transverse stability
2 There should be no wind on the beam. Å Minimise damage to cargo
Å Prevent plunge, i.e. loss of longitudinal stability
3 All loose weights should be secured.
Å Minimise the loss of reserve buoyancy
4 All cross-connections between tanks should be avoided.
Å The dangerous effect of asymmetric moment on the GZ curve
5 Tanks should be empty or pressed full. Otherwise, the level have been highlighted under stability assessment.
of liquid in the tank should be such that the free surface effect
is readily calculated. Å To avoid flooding and foundering of ship, divide the entire
ship transversely by longitudinal bulkhead or by sills.
6 The number of people on board should be kept to a minimum
and should go to specified positions for each reading of the Å The effect of subdivision is to minimise the free surface
pendulums. effect.
7 Any mobile equipment used to move the weights across the
deck must return to a known position for each set of readings.
119 120
Effects of Flooding Effects of Flooding

Lost buoyancy
Buoyant ∇
between WoLo
and the flooded
waterline W’L’
and outside of
the flooded
compartment is
As flooding progresses, many changes occur regained
simultaneously in the draft, freeboard, trim, and transverse buoyancy R
and longitudinal stability
121 122

Flooding with Trim Change Flooding with Trim and Heel

If equilibrium is not restored before the trimmed WL Waves washing over the deck and the rolling motion
immerses any part of the bulkhead deck, downflooding of the ship are likely to cause water to enter nontight
through openings in the deck can take place and the ship deck openings, flooding additional spaces and causing
may be lost through progressive flooding. loss of ship
123 124
Watertight subdivision Watertight subdivision
Å Isolate common and likely form of damage:
Å Collision bulkhead - to prevent/minimise ingress of water
through the bow
Å SOLAS 1960 recommended a second collision bulkhead for ships
over 100 m in length.
Å Second watertight skin - to prevent flooding from grounding
Å Merchant ships over 249 ft in length are required to have a double
bottom which is continuous from collision to after peak bulkheads.
Å Serves as useful tank capacity

Sandwich protection in large warships - to minimise the


effects of contact explosion by mine or torpedo
To absorb the energy of the explosion without allowing
water to penetrate to the ship’s vital
125 126

Flotation Calculations Flotation Calculations - Added weight


Å To define the degrees of flooding in the design stage
Å For warship, a range of examples are chosen by expert Sea
assessment based on the likely weapon damage. Water
Å For merchant ships, statutory figures (e.g. UK Board of Trade
in Merchant shipping (Construction) Rules. Rectangular vessel

Å It is necessary to discover: ÅAs a result of flooding, the ship sinks from WL to W1L1.
Å the damaged waterline, heel and trim ÅThe amount of weight added is represented by ABFE
Å the damaged stability for which minimum standards are laid down in
the same Rules. ÅThe additional buoyancy required to support it is represented
by W1L1LW.
Å To calculate the added weight, a guess of the new waterline is
necessary followed by its verification.
Å The process is by trial and error.
127 128
Flotation Calculations - Loss buoyancy Flotation Calculations - permeability
Å Compartments of ships open to the sea do not fill totally
with water because some space is already occupied by
Lost
Buoyancy
structure, machinery, or cargo.
Å The ratio of the volume which can be occupied by water to
the total gross volume is called permeability.
ÅThe flooded portion is considered as a loss of buoyancy which Space Permeability %
must be made up by the buoyancy of W1ACW and BL1LD. Watertight compartment 97 (warship)
ÅThe lost buoyancy CDEF can be calculated exactly because it 95 (merchant ship)
is up to the original waterline. Accommodation spaces 95
Å The additional buoyancy up to W1L1 is calculated by tonnef Machinery compartment 85
parallel immersion of the waterplane excluding the portion AB. Cargo holds, stores 60
Å Weight and buoyancy of portion ABDC cancel each other out. Å Gross floodable volume should be multiplied by the
permeability to give the lost buoyancy or added weight.
129 130

Flotation Calculations - Procedure Floodable Length Calculations


Å Required to ensure that there is sufficient effective longitudinal
Å Calculate permeable volume of compartment up to original
waterplane remaining in the damaged condition to prevent plunge, i.e.
waterline loss of longitudinal stability.
Å Calculate TPI (TPC), longitudinal and transverse CF for the Å The margin line is a line 3 in. below the upper surface of the bulkhead
waterplane with the damaged area removed. deck line at side.
Å Calculate the revised second moments of areas of the Å The floodable length at any point in the length of the ship is the length,
with that point as centre, which can be flooded without immersing any
waterplane about the CF in the two directions and hence the part of the margin line when the ship has no list. Damaged Waterline
new BM. W1L1
Å Calculate parallel sinkage and rise in CB due to the vertical
transfer of buoyancy from the flooded compartment to the
layer.
Å Calculate new GMs
Å Calculate angles of rotation due to the eccentricity of the loss
of buoyancy from the new CFs. Intact Waterline
W0L0
131 132
Floodable Length Calculations Factor of Subdivision
Å Factor whereby floodable length is converted into permissible
length
Å Depends on the length of the ship and a criterion of service
numeral (Cs) to represent the criterion of service of the ship.
Å Cs is calculated from the volumes of the whole ship, the machinery
spaces and accommodation spaces and the number of passengers.
Å Ensures that one, two or three compartments must be flooded
before the margin line is immersed.

Loss buoyancy, w= V1 – V0
Centroid of lost buoyancy: V1 × B0 B1
x =
V1 − V0
Knowing V1 – V0 it is possible to convert this into a length
of ship that can be flooded.
The calculation is one of iteration until reasonable figures
are obtained.
133 134

Permissible length Floodable Length

Portion of a curve
derived from the
Bonjean curves at
the waterline WL
which is tangential to
the margin line
Å Permissible length = Floodable length × factor of subdivision
Å Centroid of the added weight or lost buoyancy w is on the ordinate A.
Å Methods for flooding calculations are:
Å Determine an area under the curve which have its centroid on this
Å Direct method ordinate at A and represent the volume v = 0.975w/µ.
Å Standard comparative parametric diagrams available from BOT. Å This process is one of trial and error.
Å A triangle erected from the corners of a compartment with Å Let the first estimation of the ordinate at A be A1
height equal to base must have an apex below the permissible 0.975w × 100
length curve. l1 =
v
= ρw = 1.025 tonnes/m3
A1 µ
135 = 0.975 m3/tonnes 136
Floodable Length Bulkhead locations with floodable length
Å This length is laid off so that the middle is one side or other
of the ordinate at A according to the shape of the curve.
Å The volume and position of the centroid corresponding to l1
can be determined by Simpson’s rule using 3 ordinates.
Å The length so determined is known as the floodable length.
Å By a similar set of calculation for a series of waterline
tangential to the margin line at different points throughout the L/2 L/2
length of the ship, it is possible to determine a series of values
for plotting of a set of curves of floodable length. If L is the floodable length at some point, the positions of
bulkheads giving the required compartment length are given
by setting off distances l/2 either side of the point.

137 138

Floodable length calculation - procedure Statutory Freeboard


Å Define bulkhead deck and margin line Å Rules for freeboard governed by an International Load Line
Convention
Å Calculate factor of subdivision
Å Minimum permissible freeboard affects the amount of cargo
Å Calculate permeabilities carried.
Å Assess floodable lengths Å The statutory freeboard results in a load line painted boldly
Å Plot permissible lengths on the ship’s side.

139 140
Loss of Stability on Grounding Example 4
Upward force
at keel, w due A vessel of constant rectangular cross-section is
to grounding
60m long and 10m wide. It floats at a level
Movement of M to
M’ is due to fall of keel draught of 3m and had a centre of gravity
B and the change 2.5m above the keel. Determine the fore and
in BM due to
φ aft draughts if an empty, full-width, fore end
change in I and ∇

Å Consider a slightly inclined vessel before and after the application of


compartment 8m long is flooded. 8m

w
Å Righting moment MR at inclination φ before the application of w is
MR = ∆GM sin φ
Å After application,
⎛ w ⎞
MR = (∆ − w)GM ' sin φ − w KG sin φ = ∆⎜ GM ' − KM ' ⎟ sin φ
⎝ ∆ ⎠ 141 142
60 m

Example 4 Example 4
Lost Buoyancy Method W × GM L
MCT1m =
L
Area of intact waterplane, A = (60 – 8) × 10 = 520 m2 KB1 = T1/2 = (3 + 0.46)/2 = 1.73 m
Volume of lost buoyancy, v = 8 × 10 × 3 = 240 m3 IL 1 / 12(52) 3 × 10
Parallel sinkage,s = 240/520 = 0.46 m BM L = = = 65.1m
∇ 60 × 10 × 3
The vessel will now trim about the new centre of flotation, F1 can KG = 2.5 m (constant)
be found by taking moments about midships:
(60 × 10 × 0) – (8 × 10 × (30 – [8/2])) = ((60 × 10) – (8 × 10)) F1
∴GML = 1.73 + 65.1 – 2.5 = 64.33 m
ie, (8 × 10 × 26) = ((60 × 10) ×- (8 × 10)) F1 ∴ MCT 1m = 60 × 10 × 3 × 1.025 × 9.81 × 64.33
2080 = 520 F1 60
- 4 m or 4 m aft of midships.
= 19405.6 kNm
143 144
Example 4 Example 4 (Added Weight Method)
ρgv x 1.025 × 9.81× 240 × 30 Assumed damaged WL at 3 m draught
Trim = = = 3.73m
MCT 1m 19405.6 Mass added at 3m draught = 3 × 8 × 10 × 1.025 = 246 tonnes
⎛ 26 ⎞ Parallel sinkage, 246
Draught aft = 3 + 0.46 − ⎜ × 3.73 ⎟ = 1.84m s = = 0 .4 m
⎝ 60 ⎠ 1.025 × 60 × 10
New displacement ∆ = 60 × 10 × 3.4 × 1.025 = 2091 tonnes
⎛ 34 ⎞
Draught forward = 3 + 0.46 + ⎜ × 3.73 ⎟ = 5.57 m
⎝ 60 ⎠ ∆GM L
MCT1m =
L
x is the distance between the centroid of the lost
buoyancy and centre of buoyancy of the added layer 3 + 0 .4
KB1 = = 1 .7 m
2
x = (4 + 22 + 4) = 30 BM 1 =
IL
=
1 / 12(60) 3 ×10
= 88.2m
∇ 60 × 10 × 3.4
145 146

Example 4 Example 5 - Stability when docking


The new centre of gravity, KG1, can be found by taking Å Just before entering dry dock a ship of 5000 tonnes mass
moments about the keel: floats at draughts of 2.7m forward and 4.2 m aft. The LBP is
(60×10×3×1.025×2.5) + (246 × 1.5) = 2091 KG1 150 m and the water has a density of 1025 kg/m3. Assuming
4981.5 = 2091KG1 the blocks are horizontal and hydrostatic data given are
∴KG1 = 2.38m GML = KB + BM – KG1 constant over the variation in draught involved, find the force
∴ on the heel of the stern frame, which is at the aft
2091 × 9.81 × (1.7 + 88.2 − 2.38) perpendicular, when the ship is just about to settle on the
MCT1m = dock blocks, and the metacentric height at that instant.
60
= 29,933.3 kNm Å Hydrostatic data:
Å KG = 8.5 m, KM = 9.3 m,
246 × 9.81 × 26
Trim = = 2.1m Å MCT 1 m = 105 MNm,
29,933.3
Å LCF = 2.7 m aft of amidships.
Draught aft = 3 +0.4 - 2.1/2 = 2.35m
Draught forward = 3 + 0.4 + 2.1/2 = 4.45 m
147 148
Example 5 - Stability when docking References
Trim lost when touching down = 4.2 - 2.7 = 1.5 m Å KJ Rawson and EC Tupper, Basic Ship Theory, 5th Edition,
Distance from heel of sternframe to LCF = 150/2 - 2.7 = 72.3 m Butterworth Heinemann, 2001.
Moment applied to ship when touching down = w × 72.3 Å Principles of Naval Architecture, Editor, John P Comstock,
Trimming moment lost by ship when touching down = 1.5 × 105 Society of Marine Engineers and Naval Architecture, 1967.
= 157.5 MNm Å DA Taylor and Alan ST Tang, Merchant Ship Naval
Hence, thrust on keel, w = 157.5/72.3 = 2.18 MN Architecture, IMarEST, 2006, www.imarest.org/publications/
Loss of GM when touching down = (w/W) KM
= 2.18 × 103 × 9.3/(5000 × 9.81)
= 0.41 m
Metacentric height when touching down = 9.3 - 8.5 - 0.41
= 0.39 m
GMn = KM –KG – loss of GM
149 150