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Anda di halaman 1dari 38

Å Regulatory Requirements

Å Ship’s Lines and Geometry, Form Coefficients

Å Numerical Integration (e.g. Simpson’s rules)

M423/ MP4J01 - NAVAL ARCHITECTURE

Å Hydrostatic curves

& MARINE ENGINEERING Å Archimedes’ principle

Å Effects of weights on trim and draft

Dr Sim Siang Kok Å Initial Stability

(N3-2c-99) Å Inclining Experiment

Å Watertight subdivision

Å Damaged Stability

1

2

ÅBulk cargo carriers ÅCatamaran Å Aircraft carrier

Å Cargo liners Å Hovercraft Å Corvettes

Å Container Å Hydrofoils

Å Destroyers

Å Ferries - RORO ÅHigh Speed Small Craft

Å Frigates

Å Passenger

Å Tanker

Å Minehunters/Minesweepers

Å Tugs Å Offshore Patrol Vessel

3 4

Ship Types Ship Types

General ship

Cargo ship

5 6

Oil Frigate

Tanker

Liquefied Natural

Gas Carrier

Tug

7 8

The design Spiral Main Dimensions

Å Decisive effect on many of the ship’s

characteristics

Å stability

Å hold capacity

Å power requirements

Å Form an important phase of overall design

Å The main dimensions are:

Å Length, L (LBP, LOA, LWL)

Å Breadth, B

Å Draught, T

Å Depth, D (Molded Depth)

9 Å Freeboard, F = D - T 10

11 12

Dimensions Dimensions

ÅL

Å Breadth, draught and depth

Å determined as a function of displacement, speed,

Å related in such a way that the following are

number of days at sea per annum and other factors

satisfied:

affecting economic efficiency

ÅSpatial requirements

Å Block coefficient - Å Stability

Å determined as a function of the Froude No. and Å Statutory freeboard

factors affecting length Å Reserve buoyancy

13 14

Å Size of locks, canals, slipways and bridges Å A ship’s displacement significantly influences its behaviour

at sea.

Å Maximum dimensions for the following canals

Å Displacement is a force and is expressed in newtons.

Å Panama L < 290 m, B ≤ 32.24 m, T < 13 m

Å Mass displacement expressed in tonnes is used to denote

Å Suez T < 14.63 m, 18.29 scheduled for 1984. mass.

Å Water depth - most common restriction that affects Å Deadweight or deadmass in terms of mass measures a

inland vessels and ocean-going ships of large ship’s carrying capacity, that is its earning power.

dimensions Å The difference between the load displacement up to the minimum

permitted freeboard and the lightweight or light displacement.

Å Lightweight is the weight of the hull and machinery.

Å Deadweight includes the cargo, fuel, water, crew and

effects.

Å Cargo deadweight is used for cargo alone.

15 16

Tonnage Gross Tonnage (GT), Net Tonnage (NT)

ÅGT is based on the volume of all enclosed spaces

Å The number of tun (a wine cask) was a measure a ship’s ÅNT is the volume of cargo space plus the volume of

capacity. passenger spaces multiplied by a coefficient.

Å Two tonnages are of interest to the international community:

GT = K1V

Å One to represent the overall size of a vessel - measure of the difficulty 3

= K 2 Vc ⎛⎜

of handling and berthing. 4T ⎞ ⎛ N2 ⎞

Å One to represent its carrying capacity - a measure of its earning

NT ⎟ + K 3 ⎜ N1 + ⎟

⎝ 3D ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⎠

ability.

Å Anomalies arose because of differences in systems adopted where: V = total volume of all enclosed spaces of the ship in m3

by different countries. K1 = 0.2 + log10V

Å To remove the anomalies and establish an internationally Vc = total volume of cargo spaces in cubic metres

approved system, the International Convention on Tonnage K2 = 0.2 + log10Vc

Measurement of Ships was adopted and became fully K3 = 1.25(GT + 10000)/10000

operative in 1994. D = moulded depth amidships in metres

T = moulded draught amidships in metres

17 18

Gross Tonnage (GT), Net Tonnage (NT) International Maritime Organisation (IMO)

N1 = number of passengers in cabins with not more than 8 berths Å Set up in 1959 under the aegis of UN to deal with safety of

life at sea

N2 = number of other passengers

Å Represents 150 maritime nations

N1 + N2 = total number of passengers the ship is permitted to

carry. Å Promotion the adoption of some 30 conventions related to

maritime safety and prevention of pollution.

When N1 + N2 < 13, N1 and N2 are taken to be zero

Å Conventions adopted are:

(4T/3D)2 < 1 K2Vc(4T/3D)2 > 0.25GT

1 Safety of life At Sea (SOLAS)

NT > 0.3GT

– minimum standards for the construction, equipment and operation of

All volumes included in the calculation are measured to the ships covering watertight subdivision, damaged stability, fire, life

inner side of the shell or structural boundary plating. saving appliances,

GT and NT are stated as dimensionless number. radio equipment, navigation, machinery and electrical installations.

2 International Convention on Load Lines (ILLC)

3 Convention on Maritime Pollution (MARPOL)

4 International Convention on the International Maritime

19 Satellite Organisation (INMARSAT) 20

Design of Ship lines Projection of Ship’s lines

Å Lines are considered in relation to the primary

criterion of speed in calm water.

Å Lines - decisive influence on the following:

Å Resistance increase in a seaway

Å Manoeuvrability

Å Course-keeping quality

Å Roll-damping

Å Sea-keeping ability: motion characteristics in waves,

slamming effects

Å Size of under-deck volume.

21 22

y axis

x axis

23 24

Reference lines and planes Table of Offsets

Å Forward Perpendicular (FP): A vertical line through the

forward extremity of the design waterline, this is the Åbasically a digitized form of the lines

waterline at which the ship is designed to float. drawing.

• Aft Perpendicular (AP): A vertical line at or near the stern ÅAfter a ship has been designed and its

of the ship. This passes through the aft extremity of the hull form determined and graphically

design waterline (naval ships) or through the rudder post

described as above, it is customary to

(merchant ships).

set up a matrix system for numerical

• Midship Section: A plane passed athwartships halfway calculations.

between the FP and the AP.

ÅThis matrix, arranged in tabular form is

• The Centerline: A vertical plane passing fore and aft down called the table of offsets (i.e. x, y, z

the center of the ship. coordinates).

• The Baseline: A fore-and-aft line passing through the

lowest point of the hull. 25 26

Why are areas of sections important?

How do you calculate these areas and show them?

27 28

Hydrostatics Hydrostatics

Å Properties of Waterplane Å Derived Properties

1. Area of Waterplane (Aw) 1. Height of metacentre above keel (KM)

2. Centre of Flotation (LCF)

2. Height of longitudinal metacentre above

3. Longitudinal Moment of Inertia (IL)

keel (KML)

4. Transverse Moment of Inertia (IT)

3. Tonnes per centimeter immersion (TPC)

Å Properties of the Immersed Volume

1. Volume of Displacement (∇), 4. Moment to change trim 1 cm (MT1cm)

2. Displacement (∆) 5. Coefficient of forms, CM, CP, CW

3. Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy (LCB) 6. Wetted Surface (WS)

4. Vertical Centre of Buoyancy (KB)

29 30

Areas of Planes

Å Waterplanes

Å Transverse sections

Å Flat decks

Å Bulkheads

Å Curve of areas

Å Expansion of curved

surfaces 1 2

1 M *y = ∫ y dx

1 2

x = ∫ xy1dx y = ∫ x1 ydy

A = ∫ ydx A A

y =

1 2

∫ y dx

2A

31 32

Area of Waterplane, AW Centre of Flotation

+L/2

AW = 2 ∫ ydx dm = xdA = x( ydx) If a ship is trimmed without change of displacement, it must rotate about

−L / 2

the centre of flotation (CF)

1st Moment of entire waterplane area about amidships: That is the volume of the emerged and submerged wedges are equal.

L/2 2 ∫ y F ( xFθ )dx = 2 ∫ y A ( x Aθ )dx ∫ xydx forward = ∫ xydx aft

M⊗ = 2 ∫ xydx i.e. the condition for the centre of area of waterplane, xF

−L / 2 33 34

M⊗

LCF = x =

AW

positive, or aft it is negative.

Å The position of CF in the WP will be the same

regardless of the moment of axis chosen.

Moment of inertia about amidships of the element is

Å The moment about the axis passing through CF

would be zero because the forward (positive) dI ⊗ = x 2 dA = x 2 ydx

moments would exactly cancel the aft (negative) L/2

moments of the elemental areas I⊗ = 2 ∫x

2

ydx

−L / 2

35 36

Longitudinal Moment of Inertia of WP (IL) Longitudinal Moment of Inertia of WP (IL)

Å MI to evaluate longitudinal stability must be Centre of flotation

determined about the transverse axis passing through

centre of flotation, CF.

Å Parallel axis theorem of mechanics states that 2nd

MI of an area about 2 parallel axes, one passes

through the centroid of area are related as follows:

2

I = I centroid + Ah

par I L = I ⊗ − Aw (LCF)2

Icentroid = I of the area about the axis through the centroid

A = Area, h = distance of parallel axis from the centroid

axis

Ipar = I of the area about the given parallel axis (e.g. 37 38

Å IT is the 2nd moment of area about the longitudinal Elements of the half area of

axis passing through the CF (i.e. the centreline of the station are given by:

WP)

Å The elemental area has a MI about its base: dAS = y ( z )dz

dI T = 2

3 y 3 dx T

AS = 2 ∫ ydz

L / 2 0

∫

3

IT = 2

3

y dx

− L / 2

y = half breadth of station

T = draft at station

39 40

Volume of Displacement ∇ Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy LCB

Å The elemental moment of volume about amidships:

dM = xA S dx

Å Moment of the immersed volume about amidships:

L /2

M ∇⊗ = ∫ xA S dx

−L /2

M

The elemental volume dV is given as: dv = AS dx LCB = ∇⊗

∇

L / 2

∇ = ∫ A S dx

− L / 2 41 42

T

∇ = ∫ AW dz

0

T

M ∇K = ∫ zAW dz

0

M ∇K

KB =

∇

Å Should the ship not be symmetrical below the waterline, CB

will not lie in the middle line plane.

Å The CB of a floating body is the centre of volume of the

displaced fluid in which the body is floating.

43 44

Height of Metacentre above keel (KM, KML) TPI or TPC

Å Quantity to determine initial transverse stability

IT

KM = KB + BM = KB +

∇

BM = transverse metacentric radius

KB = height of CB above keel

Volume of the layer or added buoyancy v = AWt

IL

KM L = KB + BM L = KB + Buoyancy force created by this layer of buoyancy b = ρgv

∇

This must be equal to the added weight, w

w = b = ρgv = ρgAWt w/t = ρgAW

i.e. the weight that will increase the draft of ship by t feet or m

45 46

Å Tonnef per cm of immersion of a WP is the weight required Å TF = Draft forward

to effect the parallel sinkage of the ship at that waterline of

one centimeter. (Assume the area of WP is Aw) Å TA = Draft Aft

Å The weight required to effect a parallel sinkage of 1 metre Å TM = Mean Draft or Draft at Amidships = 0.5(TA + TF)

is: Å TO = Draft at CF (corresponding even keel draft)

kg Mg g Å t = Trim

Aw m 2 ρ Å f = Forward difference in draft, even keel to trimmed WLs

m 3 1000kg g

Å a = Aft difference in drafts, even keel to trimmed WLs

1m kg Mg g For additional weight Å m = Midships difference in drafts, even keel to trimmed WLs

TPC = Awm2 ρ 3 W, parallel sinkage = Å θ = Angle of trim

100cm m 1000kg g

W/TPI

TPC = ρAw 10−5 tonnef per cm t = TA − TF for trim by the stern

TPC = 1025Aw 10−5 for salt water Precise for wall-sided

vehicle

t = TF − TA for trim by the bow

47 48

Trim, Angle of Trim Trim and Longitudinal Stability

t f a m

tan θ = = = =

L F A LCF

SI Units

t = 100(TA − TF ) [drafts in metres t in cm]

t f a m

tan θ = = = =

L F A 100 LCF

Å LCF = Distance of CF from amidships

Å F = Distance of CF from FP or mark = L/2 + LCF

Å A = Distance of CF from AP or mark = L/2 - LCF

49 50

M = ∆GZ

G’

GG’ to weight shift

= ∆GML θ

d

θ = t/L

w w M = ∆.BM.t/L

M/t = ∆.BM./L

Apply a trimming moment M at the CF, causing a rotation θ, immersing perpendicular distance between the lines of buoyancy and weight i.e.

a wedge of water aft and a wedge to emerge forward.

Å For small angles, sin θ ≅ θ, ∴ M = ∆GML θ

The change in underwater shape due to the movement of the wedges, Å In practice, GML and BML are both large numbers, ∴ GML = BML

causes B to move aft to say, B1

∆ BM L 1 .025 I 0 .01005 I

The buoyancy ∆ acts vertically upwards at right angles to the new W1L1. MCT 1m = = tonnef m = MNm

51 L L L 52

Trimming Moment MCT1cm

t GG ' wd If t is change in trim in cm over length, L, m

∆ × GG ' = w×d tan θ = = =

L GM L ∆GM L tan θ = t / 100 L

w×d

GG ' = w × d × 100 L

∆ thus t =

∆ × GM L

θ= angle of change of trim

w× d is known as the trim min g moment ,

GG’ = longitudinal shift of G t × ∆ × GM L

where trim min g moment = MNm

wd = trimming moment caused by shifting weight w 100 L

longitudinally by distance d ∆ × GM L

MCT 1cm = MNm

GML = longitudinal metacentric height 100 L

trim min g moment

∴ t = cm

wd Assumption: MCT 1cm

t =

⎛ ∆ m GM ⎞ =

w× d

⎜ L

⎟ GG’ ≈ GZ

cm

⎝ 100 L ⎠ MCT 1cm

53 54

Å If trim change t is equal to 1 cm or 1 inch, the

quantity in the denominator and the trimming

moment wd must be equal to one another.

∆ m GM L

In SI units , MCT 1cm = IL

100 L BM L =

∆ GM ∇

=

L

In British units , MCT 1in

12 L

wd

In SI units, t =

MCT1cm

wd BML = Longitudinal metacentric radius

In British units, t =

MCT1in

IL = Longitudinal moment of inertia of the Waterplane

55 56

Coefficients of Form Coefficients of Form

AW

∇ CWP =

CB = LWL B

BTLPP

Prismatic Coefficient

Midship Coefficient

∇

CP =

AM AM LPP

CM =

BT ∇

CVP =

AW T

57 58

(TM)

Å Determine the ∆ from the hydrostatic curves at

corresponding even keel draft (To)

Å Integrate the immersed sectional area corresponding to the

trimmed WL from the bow to stern, to determine the actual

immersed volume of the trimmed ship

59 60

Numerical Integration Trapezoidal Rule

Å Trapezoidal rule

Å Simpson’s rules

Å Newton - Cotes’ rules

Å Tchebycheff’s rules

trapezoids by covering it with n equally spaced ordinates, h

apart.

Å The breadth at the ordinates being y1, y2, y3, … yn.

61 62

Å Commencing with the left hand trapezoid, the areas of each

trapezoids are given by:

2 h ( y1 + y 2 )

1

2 h ( y 2 + y3 )

1

2 h ( y3 + y 4 )

1

A = 12 h( y1 + 2 y2 + 2 y3 + ... + yn )

= h( 12 y1 + y2 + y3 + ... + 12 yn )

The more numerous the ordinates, the more accurate the answer. having ordinates y1, y2 and y3.

Å The curve can be represented by an equation of the 3rd order,

y = a +a x+a x +a x

0 1 2

2

3

3

63 64

Simpson’s Rules Simpson’s 1st Rule

A = ∫ −h h ydx = ∫ −h h (a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + a3 x 3 )dx Å Equating the coefficients of a in Eqns (i) and (iii)

⎡ x2 x3 x4 ⎤

+h Eqn i L + M + N = 2h

= ⎢a0 x + a1 + a2 + a3 ⎥ = 2a0 h + 23 a2 h 3

⎣ 2 3 4 ⎦ −h L−N = 0

Å Assume that the area, A can be given by the expression L+ N = 2

3 h

Now A = 1

3 hy1 + 43 hy2 + 13 hy3 = 1

3 h( y1 + 4 y2 + y3 )

y1 = a0 − a1h + a2 h 2 − a3 h 3 Eqn(ii )

y2 = a0

y3 = a0 + a1h + a2 h 2 + a3 h 3

Å Substituting in Eqn (ii)

A = (L + M + N ) a0 − (L − N )a1h + (L + N )a2 h 2 − ( L − N )a3h3 Eqn(iii)

65 66

A1 A2

A1 = 1

3 h( y1 + 4 y2 + y3 )

A2 = 1

h( y3 + 4 y4 + y5 ) Å For four evenly spaced ordinates the rule becomes

3

A3 = 1

3 h( y5 + 4 y6 + y7 ) A = 3

8 h( y1 + 3y2 + 3y3 + y4 )

and so on For a l arge number of ordinates

A = 1

h( y1 + 4 y2 + 2 y3 + 4 y4 + 2 y5 + 4 y6 + 2 y7 + ... + yn )

3 A = 3

8 h( y1 + 3y2 + 3y3 + 2y4 + 3y5 + 3y6 + 2y7 +...+ yn )

A = 2

3 h( 12 y1 + 2 y2 + y3 + 2 y4 + y5 + 2 y6 + y7 + ... + 12 yn )

67 68

Example – Simpson’s 1st Rule Archimedes’ Principle

½ 3

Ord.

no.

Ord. S.M

Func. Lever x Func.

Of y f(h) Of xy

Lever x

f(h)

Func. ½ Ord.

2

Of x y 3

Func.

Of y

3 When a body is floating freely in the fluid, the weight of the

y

y

body equals the buoyancy, which is the weight of the fluid

1 0.2 0.5 0.1 5 0.5 5 2.5 0.008 0.004

2 2.4 2 4.8 4 19.2 4 76.8 13.824 27.648 displaced.

3 4.6 1 4.6 3 13.8 3 41.4 97.336 97.336

4 6.7 2 13.4 2 26.8 2 53.6 300.76 601.53

5 8.1 1 8.1 1 8.1 1 8.1 531.44 531.44

6

7

9.0

9.4

2

1

18

9.4

0

-1

0

-9.4

0

-1

0

9.4

729 1458

830.58 830.58

∆ tonnef = ρ∇g

8 9.2 2 18.4 -2 -36.8 -2 73.6 778.69 1557.4 newtons = ∇w

9 8.6 1 8.6 -3 -25.8 -3 77.4 636.06 636.06

10 6.3 2 12.6 -4 -50.4 -4 201.6 250.05 500.09 where w = ρg is the

11 0.0 0.5 0 -5 0 -5 0 0 0 weight density.

98 -54 544.4 6240.1

Common interval, h = 220/10 = 22

Total area = 2 × ⅔ × 22 × 98 = 2874.7 m

2 = 9964 newtons.

3

First moment = 2 × ⅔ 22×22 ×54= 348482 m

CF abaft 6 x = 22 × f(xy)/ f(y) = 22 x 54/ 98 = 12.1 m

Second moment about, Oy = (i.e. ord. 6), I = 2 × ⅔ × 22 × 22 × 22 × 544.4 = 772900

2 2

I L = I - Ax = 7729000 - 2874.7 × (12.1) = 7309000 m4 69 70

Second moment about, Ox, I T = 2 × ⅓ × ⅔ × 22 × 6240.0 = 61000 m4

Å If a rigid body is said to be in equilibrium when the resultant

of the forces acting on it is zero, then the resultant moment of

forces is also zero.

Stable equilibrium Neutral Unstable equilibrium line of action of the buoyant force at Z.

Righting Moment Heeling Moment The moment ∆ × GZ is the righting moment

71 72

Initial Stability Metacentric Radius BM

Å The point, M, the transverse metacentre is defined as

the intersection of the upright condition buoyancy

vector and the buoyancy vector for small angle of

heel, the rotation having taken place at constant

displacement

Å Path of centre of buoyancy for successive small

angles of heel is a circular arc.

Å All such buoyancy vectors will intersect at point M

Å The radius of the circle is BM called the metacentric Å Elemental wedge volumes is given as:

radius

Å The relative position of G and M determine the dv e = dv i = 1

2 y ( y tan ϕ ) dx

magnitude of the righting arm, GZ = GMsinϕ The transference of the buoyant volume is from point be to

Å GM is called the metacentric height bi i.e.

bebi =4

3 y

73 74

Moment of transference of buoyant volume is The righting moment as a result of the shift in centre of

volume of displacement to B’ parallel to bebi is given as:

dm = bebi dv = ( 43 y )( 12 y 2 tan ϕdx ) = 2

3 y 3 tan ϕdx

For the whole ship moment of transference, ∇ BB ' = vbebi = IT tan ϕ

L

v b e bi = ( 2

3

) ∫y

3

dx (tan ϕ ) From Figure BB' = BM tan ϕ

0

L Thus ∇BM tan ϕ = IT tan ϕ

∫y

3

But I = 2

3 dx I

0 BM = T

The moment of transference of buoyancy is given:

∇

Hence, BM is determined entirely by the geometry of the

vb e bi = I T tan ϕ immersed hull. Since KM = KB + BM, so is KM

GM = KB + BM - KG

75 76

Effect of free surfaces of liquids Effect of free surfaces of liquids

Å A tank of liquid in a ship affects the ship’s initial stability.

Å Ship has tanks of different liquids:

φ

Å FW for drinking and boiler Buoyancy

Å SW for ballast force

Å Fuel of various types and lubricating oils

B1

Å Allowance to be made for density of liquid that is different

from that of seawater

given by: Is

∆ s BM sin φ = ∆s φ = ρ s I sφ

∇s

The transfer of weights due to the movement of the liquid

in the tank is Il

∆l φ = ρ l I lφ

77

∇l 78

Å This transfer of weight opposes the righting moment due to the

transfer of buoyancy.

Å The resulting reduction in the effective righting moment is:

∆ s GZ = ∆ S GM F φ = ∆ s GM φ − ρ l I lφ

ÅThe effective metacentric height allowing for the action of

the liquid free surface is:

ρl I l

∴ GM F = GM s −

∆s

⎛ρ ⎞ I

= GM s − ⎜⎜ l ⎟⎟ l Å When a ship unloads her cargo using her own derricks.

⎝ ρs ⎠ ∇s Å The line of action of the weight of the cargo being lifted

always passes through S.

The effect of the free surface is independent of the position

of the tank in the ship. 79 80

Centre of Gravity Centre of Gravity

Å depends on the distribution of weights aboard the Calculating the ship weight (∆) and KG is as given as:

ship, including the ship itself and everything it

carries. ∆ = ∑ wi

Å Each individual weight, w is defined by: ∆ × KG = ∑ (wi × kgi )

1. Magnitude of weight

KG = ∑ wi × kgi

2. Location of CG of weight with reference to the ship’s

principal planes (vertical cg (i.e. kg), transverse cg, ∆

horizontal cg)

If any weight is shifted, added or removed from a ship in

equilibrium, the equilibrium will be disrupted and the ship

will adjust itself to a new and different equilibrium.

81 82

Å causes the CG to shift in the direction parallel to the

direction of the weight shift with no change of ∆.

∆ × GG' = w × d

wd

GG' =

∆

Where w = weight or mass of shifted item

1 1

W∫

VCG( KG) from keel = zdW LCG from Oy = ∫ xdW

W d = distance it is shifted

=

1 ∆ = weight or mass of ship (includes w)

TCG from middle line plane ∫ ydW

W

GG’ = distance moved by ship’s G

The first moment of weight about the CG is zero.

83 84

Loading or discharging a weight Effect of added weight

Å involves a change in ∆ as well as the KG. G d

Å the draft and the KM will also change Tilting moment about G

=w×d

w

G’

G

Tilting moment about G

= (W + w) × GG’

W+w

These tilting moments must be equal, i.e.

(W + w) × GG’ = w × d w× d

GG ' =

W +w

85 86

A tanker 1,045 ft long with a ∆ of 305,000 tons floats in SW at

drafts of 62’0” forward and 65’ aft. KB = 33.0 ft, KG = 45.0

ft, KML = 740 ft, and the CF is 15.5 ft aft of amidships. What

final drafts will result if 2,200 tons of cargo are shifted from

cargo tanks #2 to #5, a distance of 285 ft aft?

wd 2 , 200 × 285

Å Taking moments about B Taking moments about G t = =

⎛ ∆ GM L ⎞ ⎛ 305 , 000 × 695 ⎞

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

W Bb = (∆ + W ) BB' W Gg = (∆ + W )GG ' ⎝ 12 L ⎠ ⎝ 12 × 1045 ⎠

= 37 . 1 inches change of trim

W Bb W Gg

BB' = GG ' =

∆ +W ∆ +W Since the weight was shifted toward the stern, the trim

∆ + W now acts through the ∆ + W now acts through the change is by the stern.

new centre of buoyancy, B’ new centre of gravity, G’

87 88

Example 1 Stability at Large Angles

L 1045

F = + LCF = + 15 .5 = 538 '

2 2 Righting moment

L 1045 acting the ship =

A = − LCF = − 15 .5 = 507 '

2 2 ∆GZ1

⎛F⎞ ⎛ 538 ⎞ The buoyancy

f = ⎜ ⎟t = ⎜ ⎟37 .1 = 0.515 × 37 .1 = 19 .1"

⎝L⎠ ⎝ 1045 ⎠ force vector

= 1'7.1" decrease of draft forward does not pass

through M.

⎛ A⎞ ⎛ 507 ⎞

a ⎜ ⎟t = ⎜

= ⎟37 .1 = 0.485 × 37 .1 = 18 .0"

⎝L⎠ ⎝ 1045 ⎠

= 1'6.0" increase of draft aft Å It is necessary to have a knowledge of the stability at large

TF = (62 '0") − (1'7.1") = 60 '4.9" angles of inclination for the transverse planes since ships do

TA = (65'0") + (1'6.0") = 66 '6.0" roll and heel beyond 10 degrees

Å It is not normally required for longitudinal stability because

89 of the relatively small angles of trim of a ship in practice. 90

Å Since the displacement to W1L1 is the same as that to WL, Å An arbitrary but fixed pole S is assigned.

Å ∇i = ∇e Å Its perpendicular distance from the line of action of the

Å Let δ = buoyancy force associated with immersed wedge. buoyancy force, SZ depends on the geometry of the ship.

Å b1, b2 = centroids of ∇e and ∇i respectively Å SZ can be calculated for various angles of heel and for

Å R = foot of the perpendicular from B on to the line of action various values of displacement without reference to a loading

of the buoyancy force through B1. condition.

Å When G has been calculated for a particular loading

Å Then ∆ BR = δ h1h2

condition, GZ1 can be calculated as follows:

∆GZ1 = ∆ BR − ∆ BG sin φ

Å

⎡δ ⎤

= ∆ ⎢ h1h2 − BG sin φ ⎥ GZ 1 = SZ + SG sin φ

⎣∆ ⎦

G depends upon the loading of the ship and is not fixed

position.

91 92

Cross curves of stability Curves of statical stability

Å Present stability in the form of righting moments or levers

about the CG as a ship is heeled at constant displacement.

given displacement ∆1, values of SZ can be obtained by

reading along a vertical line AA1.

93 94

a ship can sustain without capsizing.

Range of stability - At some angle called the angle of vanishing

Å Area under the curve represents the ability of the ship to stability θv, the GZ value reduces to zero and becomes negative for

absorb energy imparted to it by winds, waves and other larger inclination. For angle less than θv , a ship will return to the

external agency. upright state.

95 96

Example 2: Statical Stability Curve Example 2: Statical Stability Curve

The angles of inclination and corresponding righting lever for The height of the CG is found by taking moments about the

a ship at an assumed KS of 6.5 m are: keel:

Item Mass (tonnes) KG(m) Moment about

Inclination (°) 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 keel

Righting lever (m) 0 0.11 0.36 0.58 0.38 -0.05 -0.60 Lightship 4200 6.0 25,200

Cargo 9100 7.0 63,700

Fuel 1500 1.1 1,650

In a particular loaded condition the displacement mass is made Stores 200 7.5 1,500

up of: Total 15,000 92050

Item Mass (tonnes) KG (m)

Lightship 4200 6.0

Cargo 9100 7.0 KG = 92,050/15,000 = 6.14 m

Fuel 1500 1.1

Stores 200 7.5 Since G is below S the actual righting lever values are given

by: GZ1 = SZ + SG sinφ

Plot the curve of statical stability for this loaded condition and SG = KS – KG = 6.5 - 6.14 = 0.36 m

and determine the range of stability. The GZ values for values angles of inclination can be

97 determined as shown in Table 98

Inclination (°) sin φ SG sin φ (m) SZ (m) GZ (m)

0 0 0 0 0

15 0.259 0.093 0.11 0.203

30 0.500 0.180 0.36 0.540

45 0.707 0.255 0.58 0.835

60 0.866 0.312 0.38 0.692

75 0.966 0.348 -0.05 0.298

90 1.000 0.360 -0.60 -0.240

By plotting GZ against inclination the range of stability is Å By analogy with the upright case, the reduction in slope of the

found to be 82°

⎛ ρ l ⎞ (I l )φ

GZ curve at angle φ is given by

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ ρs ⎠ ∇ s

Åwhere (Il)φ is the moment of inertia of the liquid surface at

99 angle φ 100

Effect of free liquid surfaces on stability Effect of free liquid surfaces on stability

Å Navy Department of the Ministry of Defence’s practice:

Åcompute the GM and GZ value for 45 degrees heel for the

free surface.

Å The effective GZ curve up to 45 degrees inclination through

the 45 degree spot, following the general character of the

uncorrected curve and fairing into the modified tangent at the

origin.

Å For angles greater than 45 degrees, the reduction of GZ at 45

degrees is applied as a constant correction.

101 102

Å The DS of a ship at a given angle of heel is defined as the

work done in heeling the ship to that angle very slowly and at

a constant displacement.

heeling a ship

through δφ = Mφ δφ

The total work in

heeling to an angle φ

is

Φ Φ

∫ M φ dφ = ∫ ∆GZφ dφ

0 0

103 104

Stability Assessment Criteria for Stability Assessment

Å Circumstances which will cause a ship to heel over: Å Beam winds and rolling

Å The action of wind which will be most pronounced on ships with high

Heeling Arm(HA) Imperial Units SI Units

freeboard or large superstructure At sea level

Å The action of waves in rolling the ship especially in large ocean 0.0035V 2 Al cos 2 φ 0.0038V 2 Al cos 2 φ

HA = ft HA = m

Å The action of rudder and hull forces when the ship is manoeuvring 2240∆ 2240∆

Å the loading and unloading of cargo. At height above sea

level 0.004V 2 Al cos 2 φ 0.0043V 2 Al cos 2 φ

HA = ft HA = m

2240∆ 2240∆

Å shifting of cargo in rough weather

V = nominal wind velocity, knots (100 V = nominal wind velocity, knots (100

Å If a ship experiences a heeling moment in perfectly calm knots) knots)

A = projected area (ft2) of ship above WL A = projected area (m2) of ship above

water it would be sufficient if the curve of statical stability l = lever arm (ft) from half draft to the WL

had a lever in excess of that represented by the heeling centroid of A l = lever arm (m) from half draft to the

centroid of A

moment.

Å A certain reserve of DS is required to enable the ship to

absorb the energy imparted to it by waves or gushing wind

105 106

Å To allow for the rolling of the ship the curves are extended

back to a point 25° to windward of φs.

Å The areas A1 and A2 are computed.

Å For stability to be considered as adequate, the following

conditions must be made by USN ships:

ÅGZs < 0.6 × GZmax

ÅArea A1 > 1.4 × Area A2.

the statical stability curve for the intact ship

Å The angle φs at which the 2 curves cross is the steady heel

angle the ship would take up if the wind were perfectly steady

and there were no waves. The corresponding righting arm is

GZs 107 108

Stability Assessment - Lifting of load Stability Assessment - crowding of passengers

Å The heeling arm is given by Wa cos φ/∆.

where W = weight of passengers,

a = transverse distance from the centre line to CG of

passengers,

∆ = displacement including W.

Å The stability criteria applied by the USN are:

ÅGZs < 0.6 × GZmax

Å The heeling arm is given by Wa cos φ/∆.

Åφs < 15 °

Å where W = weight of lift, a = transverse distance from the

centre line to end of boom, ∆ = displacement including W. ÅShaded area > 40% of total area under the statical stability

curve

Å The stability criteria applied by the USN are:

Å GZs < 0.6 × GZmax

Å φs < 15 °

Å Shaded area > 40% of total area under the statical stability curve 109 110

Å When a ship is turning steadily, a force F directed towards the ÅUsing the tabulated values of GZ from the previous

centre (centripetal force) is given by: ∆V 2 example, determine the dynamic stability of the

F =

ÅThe approximate heeling moment MH

gR vessel at 60° inclination.

is given by:

∆V 2 ⎛ T⎞ Inclination GZ (m) Simpson’s Area

MH = ⎜ KG − ⎟ cos φ (°) multiplier product

gR ⎝ 2⎠ 0 0 1 0

15 0.203 4 0.812

V2 ⎛ T⎞ 30 0.540 2 1.080

ÅThe heeling arm curve is: AH = ⎜ KG − ⎟ cos φ 45 0.835 4 3.340

gR ⎝ 2⎠ 60 0.692 1 0.692

ÅThe stability criteria adopted are as for case (b) - lifting of The area under the GZ curve to 60° = 15/57.3 ×1/3 ×5.924

heavy weights over the side. = 0.517 m rads

Dynamical stability = 15000 × 9.81 × 0.517 = 76.08 MN

111 112

The Inclining Experiment Inclining Experiment Procedure

Å The position of the CG must be known before stability can

be assessed for a given ship condition.

Å Since KG may be as great as 10 times that of GM, it must

be known accurately.

Å KG can be calculated for a variety of conditions provided

it is accurately known for one precisely specified ship

condition.

Å This is achieved by conducting the inclining experiment.

Å The ship is surveyed to determine weights to be removed, to come

Å Main purposes: on board or be moved for final completion.

Å To determine the displacement and the position of CG in Å The state of all tanks is noted accurately.

an accurately known condition (e.g. when the ship is as Å The drafts are accurately read at each set of draught marks, at

nearly completed as possible). amidships, on both sides of the ship.

Å The density of water in which the vessel is floating is measured at

113

a number of positions and depths around the ship 114

Å Weights, arranged on the deck in 4 groups are moved in the

following sequence.

Å weights A to a position in line with weights C

Å weights B to a position in line with weights D

Å weights A and B returned to original positions.

Å weights C to a position in line with weights A

Å weights D to a position in line with weights B

Å weights C and D returned to original positions.

Å The weight groups are often made equal.

Å The angle of heel is recorded by noting the pendulum Å Due to the shift of weight w through a distance d, G will

positions or inclinometer before the first movement of move parallel to the movement of the weight to G’ where:

weight and after each step given above.

wd

GG ' =

∆

115 116

Inclining Experiment - Analysis Inclining Experiment - Analysis

Å Since GG’ is normal to the centre-line plane of the ship

GM = GG ' / tan φ

wd

=

∆ tan φ

y on a horizontal batten

y

tan φ =

l

117 118

1 The ship must be floating upright and freely without restraint Å Reasons to isolate the flooded volume:

from ropes. Å Minimise the loss of transverse stability

2 There should be no wind on the beam. Å Minimise damage to cargo

Å Prevent plunge, i.e. loss of longitudinal stability

3 All loose weights should be secured.

Å Minimise the loss of reserve buoyancy

4 All cross-connections between tanks should be avoided.

Å The dangerous effect of asymmetric moment on the GZ curve

5 Tanks should be empty or pressed full. Otherwise, the level have been highlighted under stability assessment.

of liquid in the tank should be such that the free surface effect

is readily calculated. Å To avoid flooding and foundering of ship, divide the entire

ship transversely by longitudinal bulkhead or by sills.

6 The number of people on board should be kept to a minimum

and should go to specified positions for each reading of the Å The effect of subdivision is to minimise the free surface

pendulums. effect.

7 Any mobile equipment used to move the weights across the

deck must return to a known position for each set of readings.

119 120

Effects of Flooding Effects of Flooding

Lost buoyancy

Buoyant ∇

between WoLo

and the flooded

waterline W’L’

and outside of

the flooded

compartment is

As flooding progresses, many changes occur regained

simultaneously in the draft, freeboard, trim, and transverse buoyancy R

and longitudinal stability

121 122

If equilibrium is not restored before the trimmed WL Waves washing over the deck and the rolling motion

immerses any part of the bulkhead deck, downflooding of the ship are likely to cause water to enter nontight

through openings in the deck can take place and the ship deck openings, flooding additional spaces and causing

may be lost through progressive flooding. loss of ship

123 124

Watertight subdivision Watertight subdivision

Å Isolate common and likely form of damage:

Å Collision bulkhead - to prevent/minimise ingress of water

through the bow

Å SOLAS 1960 recommended a second collision bulkhead for ships

over 100 m in length.

Å Second watertight skin - to prevent flooding from grounding

Å Merchant ships over 249 ft in length are required to have a double

bottom which is continuous from collision to after peak bulkheads.

Å Serves as useful tank capacity

effects of contact explosion by mine or torpedo

To absorb the energy of the explosion without allowing

water to penetrate to the ship’s vital

125 126

Å To define the degrees of flooding in the design stage

Å For warship, a range of examples are chosen by expert Sea

assessment based on the likely weapon damage. Water

Å For merchant ships, statutory figures (e.g. UK Board of Trade

in Merchant shipping (Construction) Rules. Rectangular vessel

Å It is necessary to discover: ÅAs a result of flooding, the ship sinks from WL to W1L1.

Å the damaged waterline, heel and trim ÅThe amount of weight added is represented by ABFE

Å the damaged stability for which minimum standards are laid down in

the same Rules. ÅThe additional buoyancy required to support it is represented

by W1L1LW.

Å To calculate the added weight, a guess of the new waterline is

necessary followed by its verification.

Å The process is by trial and error.

127 128

Flotation Calculations - Loss buoyancy Flotation Calculations - permeability

Å Compartments of ships open to the sea do not fill totally

with water because some space is already occupied by

Lost

Buoyancy

structure, machinery, or cargo.

Å The ratio of the volume which can be occupied by water to

the total gross volume is called permeability.

ÅThe flooded portion is considered as a loss of buoyancy which Space Permeability %

must be made up by the buoyancy of W1ACW and BL1LD. Watertight compartment 97 (warship)

ÅThe lost buoyancy CDEF can be calculated exactly because it 95 (merchant ship)

is up to the original waterline. Accommodation spaces 95

Å The additional buoyancy up to W1L1 is calculated by tonnef Machinery compartment 85

parallel immersion of the waterplane excluding the portion AB. Cargo holds, stores 60

Å Weight and buoyancy of portion ABDC cancel each other out. Å Gross floodable volume should be multiplied by the

permeability to give the lost buoyancy or added weight.

129 130

Å Required to ensure that there is sufficient effective longitudinal

Å Calculate permeable volume of compartment up to original

waterplane remaining in the damaged condition to prevent plunge, i.e.

waterline loss of longitudinal stability.

Å Calculate TPI (TPC), longitudinal and transverse CF for the Å The margin line is a line 3 in. below the upper surface of the bulkhead

waterplane with the damaged area removed. deck line at side.

Å Calculate the revised second moments of areas of the Å The floodable length at any point in the length of the ship is the length,

with that point as centre, which can be flooded without immersing any

waterplane about the CF in the two directions and hence the part of the margin line when the ship has no list. Damaged Waterline

new BM. W1L1

Å Calculate parallel sinkage and rise in CB due to the vertical

transfer of buoyancy from the flooded compartment to the

layer.

Å Calculate new GMs

Å Calculate angles of rotation due to the eccentricity of the loss

of buoyancy from the new CFs. Intact Waterline

W0L0

131 132

Floodable Length Calculations Factor of Subdivision

Å Factor whereby floodable length is converted into permissible

length

Å Depends on the length of the ship and a criterion of service

numeral (Cs) to represent the criterion of service of the ship.

Å Cs is calculated from the volumes of the whole ship, the machinery

spaces and accommodation spaces and the number of passengers.

Å Ensures that one, two or three compartments must be flooded

before the margin line is immersed.

Loss buoyancy, w= V1 – V0

Centroid of lost buoyancy: V1 × B0 B1

x =

V1 − V0

Knowing V1 – V0 it is possible to convert this into a length

of ship that can be flooded.

The calculation is one of iteration until reasonable figures

are obtained.

133 134

Portion of a curve

derived from the

Bonjean curves at

the waterline WL

which is tangential to

the margin line

Å Permissible length = Floodable length × factor of subdivision

Å Centroid of the added weight or lost buoyancy w is on the ordinate A.

Å Methods for flooding calculations are:

Å Determine an area under the curve which have its centroid on this

Å Direct method ordinate at A and represent the volume v = 0.975w/µ.

Å Standard comparative parametric diagrams available from BOT. Å This process is one of trial and error.

Å A triangle erected from the corners of a compartment with Å Let the first estimation of the ordinate at A be A1

height equal to base must have an apex below the permissible 0.975w × 100

length curve. l1 =

v

= ρw = 1.025 tonnes/m3

A1 µ

135 = 0.975 m3/tonnes 136

Floodable Length Bulkhead locations with floodable length

Å This length is laid off so that the middle is one side or other

of the ordinate at A according to the shape of the curve.

Å The volume and position of the centroid corresponding to l1

can be determined by Simpson’s rule using 3 ordinates.

Å The length so determined is known as the floodable length.

Å By a similar set of calculation for a series of waterline

tangential to the margin line at different points throughout the L/2 L/2

length of the ship, it is possible to determine a series of values

for plotting of a set of curves of floodable length. If L is the floodable length at some point, the positions of

bulkheads giving the required compartment length are given

by setting off distances l/2 either side of the point.

137 138

Å Define bulkhead deck and margin line Å Rules for freeboard governed by an International Load Line

Convention

Å Calculate factor of subdivision

Å Minimum permissible freeboard affects the amount of cargo

Å Calculate permeabilities carried.

Å Assess floodable lengths Å The statutory freeboard results in a load line painted boldly

Å Plot permissible lengths on the ship’s side.

139 140

Loss of Stability on Grounding Example 4

Upward force

at keel, w due A vessel of constant rectangular cross-section is

to grounding

60m long and 10m wide. It floats at a level

Movement of M to

M’ is due to fall of keel draught of 3m and had a centre of gravity

B and the change 2.5m above the keel. Determine the fore and

in BM due to

φ aft draughts if an empty, full-width, fore end

change in I and ∇

compartment 8m long is flooded. 8m

w

Å Righting moment MR at inclination φ before the application of w is

MR = ∆GM sin φ

Å After application,

⎛ w ⎞

MR = (∆ − w)GM ' sin φ − w KG sin φ = ∆⎜ GM ' − KM ' ⎟ sin φ

⎝ ∆ ⎠ 141 142

60 m

Example 4 Example 4

Lost Buoyancy Method W × GM L

MCT1m =

L

Area of intact waterplane, A = (60 – 8) × 10 = 520 m2 KB1 = T1/2 = (3 + 0.46)/2 = 1.73 m

Volume of lost buoyancy, v = 8 × 10 × 3 = 240 m3 IL 1 / 12(52) 3 × 10

Parallel sinkage,s = 240/520 = 0.46 m BM L = = = 65.1m

∇ 60 × 10 × 3

The vessel will now trim about the new centre of flotation, F1 can KG = 2.5 m (constant)

be found by taking moments about midships:

(60 × 10 × 0) – (8 × 10 × (30 – [8/2])) = ((60 × 10) – (8 × 10)) F1

∴GML = 1.73 + 65.1 – 2.5 = 64.33 m

ie, (8 × 10 × 26) = ((60 × 10) ×- (8 × 10)) F1 ∴ MCT 1m = 60 × 10 × 3 × 1.025 × 9.81 × 64.33

2080 = 520 F1 60

- 4 m or 4 m aft of midships.

= 19405.6 kNm

143 144

Example 4 Example 4 (Added Weight Method)

ρgv x 1.025 × 9.81× 240 × 30 Assumed damaged WL at 3 m draught

Trim = = = 3.73m

MCT 1m 19405.6 Mass added at 3m draught = 3 × 8 × 10 × 1.025 = 246 tonnes

⎛ 26 ⎞ Parallel sinkage, 246

Draught aft = 3 + 0.46 − ⎜ × 3.73 ⎟ = 1.84m s = = 0 .4 m

⎝ 60 ⎠ 1.025 × 60 × 10

New displacement ∆ = 60 × 10 × 3.4 × 1.025 = 2091 tonnes

⎛ 34 ⎞

Draught forward = 3 + 0.46 + ⎜ × 3.73 ⎟ = 5.57 m

⎝ 60 ⎠ ∆GM L

MCT1m =

L

x is the distance between the centroid of the lost

buoyancy and centre of buoyancy of the added layer 3 + 0 .4

KB1 = = 1 .7 m

2

x = (4 + 22 + 4) = 30 BM 1 =

IL

=

1 / 12(60) 3 ×10

= 88.2m

∇ 60 × 10 × 3.4

145 146

The new centre of gravity, KG1, can be found by taking Å Just before entering dry dock a ship of 5000 tonnes mass

moments about the keel: floats at draughts of 2.7m forward and 4.2 m aft. The LBP is

(60×10×3×1.025×2.5) + (246 × 1.5) = 2091 KG1 150 m and the water has a density of 1025 kg/m3. Assuming

4981.5 = 2091KG1 the blocks are horizontal and hydrostatic data given are

∴KG1 = 2.38m GML = KB + BM – KG1 constant over the variation in draught involved, find the force

∴ on the heel of the stern frame, which is at the aft

2091 × 9.81 × (1.7 + 88.2 − 2.38) perpendicular, when the ship is just about to settle on the

MCT1m = dock blocks, and the metacentric height at that instant.

60

= 29,933.3 kNm Å Hydrostatic data:

Å KG = 8.5 m, KM = 9.3 m,

246 × 9.81 × 26

Trim = = 2.1m Å MCT 1 m = 105 MNm,

29,933.3

Å LCF = 2.7 m aft of amidships.

Draught aft = 3 +0.4 - 2.1/2 = 2.35m

Draught forward = 3 + 0.4 + 2.1/2 = 4.45 m

147 148

Example 5 - Stability when docking References

Trim lost when touching down = 4.2 - 2.7 = 1.5 m Å KJ Rawson and EC Tupper, Basic Ship Theory, 5th Edition,

Distance from heel of sternframe to LCF = 150/2 - 2.7 = 72.3 m Butterworth Heinemann, 2001.

Moment applied to ship when touching down = w × 72.3 Å Principles of Naval Architecture, Editor, John P Comstock,

Trimming moment lost by ship when touching down = 1.5 × 105 Society of Marine Engineers and Naval Architecture, 1967.

= 157.5 MNm Å DA Taylor and Alan ST Tang, Merchant Ship Naval

Hence, thrust on keel, w = 157.5/72.3 = 2.18 MN Architecture, IMarEST, 2006, www.imarest.org/publications/

Loss of GM when touching down = (w/W) KM

= 2.18 × 103 × 9.3/(5000 × 9.81)

= 0.41 m

Metacentric height when touching down = 9.3 - 8.5 - 0.41

= 0.39 m

GMn = KM –KG – loss of GM

149 150

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