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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)

50 Years of CPI(ML) the Indian revolution or in developing revolutionary struggles in the country,
for according to some both are to be developed prior to its formation, what
Fifty years back, on April 22, 1969, on the centenary of the birth of on earth would be the need to have a revolutionary Party. In essence,
Lenin, Communist Revolutionaries of India who came out of the CPI(M) these diehard subjective idealists denied the struggle inside the Party for a
formed revolutionary Communist Party CPI(ML). The formation of CPI(ML) correct line or in other words refused to recognize the two line struggle
was announced in a Rally held on 1st of May, 1969. Formation of CPI(ML) inside the Communist Party. CPI(ML) had to overcome these anti-dialectical
was the culmination of the struggle which has been going on in the theories which glorified the ‘historical inevitability of groups’ and the trash
communist movement in India, first in CPI and then in CPM. Breaking from of ‘pure party from below’ despite teachings of great teachers Marx, Engels,
revisionism and neo-revisionism, communist revolutionaries of India formed Lenin, Stalin and Mao. That such trash is still poured out only shows that
their Party based on Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. They adopted idealism has lives more numerous than fabled nine feline lives and is amply
a programme of New Democratic Revolution and path of Protracted People’s nourished by the petty-bourgeois milieu of our country.
War. While struggle waged by Communist Party of China under the Last fifty years have also been years of two line struggle inside CPI(ML)
leadership of Com. Mao did provide the encouragement, it was the struggle reflecting the class struggle going on in society and the complexities of
of communist revolutionaries in India against Revisionism and Neo- the revolutionary struggles in India. In fact, this two line continued as earlier
revisionism and particularly their parliamentary path which led to their rupture and it could not have been otherwise. The struggle against revisionism,
from the anti-Marxist leadership of first CPI and then CPM. that subversion of revolutionary Marxism to subordinate the struggle of the
Communist Revolutionaries who formed CPI(ML) had come out of a working class and other revolutionary sections of society to the interests
Party i.e. CPI(M). It was not a formation of a communist Party for the first of ruling classes, has continued unabated and it could not have been
time but reorganization of the communist movement in the country. It was otherwise. While such struggle has been inevitable and continues to be so,
the Naxalbari armed peasant struggle which had galvanized the revolutionary the divisions in the CPI(ML) and the revolutionary movement were not
communists inside the CPI(M) to revolt against the neo-revisionist leadership inevitable and are a failure of the communist revolutionaries of India. It has
of that Party. They formed All India Coordination Committee of Communist brought up the task of uniting the communist revolutionaries of the country
Revolutionaries which united overwhelming majority of the communist into a single Party having common ideological basis and unity on the basic
revolutionaries from one end of India to another. Then AICCCR decided to points of the programme, tactical line and organizational principles. Basis
form the Party. It said, “The growing unity within the revolutionary ranks for such a unity exists in India. But achieving it needs both a correct approach
despite the obstacles created by the reactionaries of all sorts proves that towards unification of communist revolutionary forces as well as growth of
we have overcome the main impediment to the formation of a revolutionary the revolutionary movement under the leadership of the forces having such
party in India.” a correct approach.

Formation of the Party had to overcome some idealist deviations on On this occasion of fifty years of CPI(ML) formation we should
the question of Party formation. Several organizations and individuals even rededicate ourselves to the task of developing revolutionary struggles to
now keep on criticizing CPI(ML) formation from those idealist positions. take New Democratic Revolution to victory, should revigorate our struggles
These positions saw no role for the Party in developing revolutionary against all that is decadent and reactionary in society. Even while focusing
struggles i.e. these could be developed without Party, no role for the Party on the immediate tasks, we should wage all round struggle against
in developing correct line for the revolution in India for that was the condition reactionaries and revisionists. CPI(ML) was formed to take forward
precedent for the formation of the Party. Essentially their positions were revolutionary struggle breaking the shackles imposed by parliamentary
‘idealist fantasy’ and worse these were advocacy of Party less revolution. cretinism; to overthrow this anti-people system maintained by the armed
For if the Party had to have no role either in developing a correct line for might of the state of the ruling classes through revolutionary violence.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)

JALLIANWALA BAGH : A LIGHT situation of post war crisis people’s struggles were coming up in a big way
and the British government had only one response and that was brutal
HOUSE FOR FIGHT FOR REAL repression. For this British government appointed a Committee under
Sydney Rowlatt. The purpose of this Committee was to find out the causes
INDEPENDENCE of the conspiracies and was linked to the proposal for making some laws
for solution of those problems. Committee submitted its report to the
Sardara Singh Mahil Government of India on 15th April 1918. One of the proposals of the
committee was to enact a new law. Acting on the proposal of Rowlatt
Hundred years back, on 13 April, 1919 Punjab bled profusely at the committee two bills were prepared. One was called “Amendment bill, Indian
hands of British imperialists in Jallianwala Bagh at Amritsar. It was a heinous penal code and Indian criminal procedure code amendment bill”. This was
massacre, unparalleled in the history of India, where 379 persons were known as Rowlatt Act. This bill provided that in case of some document or
killed and more than1200 were wounded, according to the figures given by literature containing matter provoking revolt against the British crown or
the British rulers, but unofficial figures of casualties are much more. any other rebellious matter, the accused could be sentenced to prison for
According to Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya 971 people were killed, the a period of two years or internment for a definite period. Any writing against
number of dead given by Swami Shradhanand was 1500. An enquiry some official, employee or representative of the government shall be
committee appointed by Congress said that more than 1000 were killed considered as rebellious literature. The Court was entitled to ask for a
and the number of injured was much more. General Dyer, a brigadier of bond, even after the person had undergone the punishment and could order
British army, leading a contingent of soldiers ordered the firing on unarmed, to not to move outside a prescribed area for a definite period of time. The
innocent people and continued firing till the stock of ammunition was second bill was titled as “Criminal law emergency powers bill “. This law
exhausted. Firing was not to control some unruly mob bent upon rioting, as provided that any person could be arrested without any arrest warrant, and
the assembly was completely peaceful and within four walls. It was intended any premise could be searched without any search warrants. It provided
to teach a lesson to the Punjabis. Later on, deposing before the Hunter for imprisonment and fine up to rupees two thousand. This bill empowered
Commission of the British government, General Dyer said he wanted to the Viceroy to bring any part of the country or the country as a whole under
break the morale of the people of Punjab. This massacre was a turning this law by notifying it in the Gazette. Any act committed even before such
point in the freedom struggle of Indian people and a milestone. area was notified, could be tried under this law. The Court was empowered
to ban the public hearing of any case and could ban the publication of court
Jallianwala Bagh massacre was not an isolated incident it was at the proceeding.
zenith of a wave of people’s struggle unleashed after the introduction of
Rowlatt bill. Moreoverwave of struggle in Punjab was perceived as A wave of anger and resentment spread across the country against this
somehow,a continuation of the Gadar party movement. Let us analyze the law. Protests erupted throughout the country. A strike call at all India level
trail of events preceding the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. was given on 30th March, 1919 but this Call was later postponed to April 6,
1919. But this postponement had no effect on Punjabis, they did not relent
CONTEXT OF THIS MASSACRECONTEXT OF THIS and observed strike on March 30, 1919. Punjab remained completely shut.
MASSACRE In Amritsar a complete strike was observed and all enterprises remained
closed. A public meeting was held in Jallianwala Bagh. According to the
British imperialism was badly shaken in the first imperialist war, 1914- reports 35 thousand people attended the public meeting. Dr. Saifuddin
1919. It was rising imperialist power America, which mostly benefitted from Kitchlew was the main speaker apart from others. This meeting adopted a
the war. Invincibility of British imperialism came under question and resolution, urging the King of England not to give assent to the Rowlatt
hollowness and degeneration of British imperialism was exposed. In the bills.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
This place, popularly known as Jallianwala Bagh, was not a garden in announcement that a public meeting would be held at Jallianwala Bagh to
the real sense of the word, but a large open space surrounded by high protest against the brutal state repression. General Dyer wanted to break
buildings on all the side which was used by the residents to dump their the resolve and determination of Punjabis by scaring them but little did he
trash. Owner of this space was one Hameet Singh Jalla, who was once an understood the mood of the people of Punjab, that is why while he was
employee of state of Nabha and had also served under Maharaja Ranjit announcing imposition of curfew and order to shoot, at the very same time
Singh. patriots were announcing from a tongafor a protest meeting. In this boiling
situation people gathered at Jallianwala Bagh and this massacre occurred.
On all India call for strike on 6th April, a strike was observed throughout
Punjab. Enterprises remained closed and life went out of gear in 45 cities Thirteenth April was Baisakhi day, a day when tenth Guru Gobind Singh
of Punjab. Again a public meeting was held at Jallianwala Bagh. This time laid the foundation of people’s army called Khalsa and this day is new year
the number of people further surged to fifty thousand. People’s upsurge day of Vikrami calendar. Large number of people, especially Sikhs visit
was fast spreading and government was alarmed. People’s upsurge was Harmandir sahib and Jallianwala Bagh is adjacent to Harmandir. So on that
cementing the unity of people. People of all religions and communities fateful day large number of people who came to Harmanndir also went to
were united in struggle against British imperialists. 9th April 1919 was Jallianwala Bagh. More than twenty thousand people were gathered to hear
Ramnavami, a Hindu festival. People of all religions, Hindus, Muslims and their local leaders. When the last speaker was delivering his speech,
Sikhs, jointly celebrated and observed it. This unnerved the British rulers General Dyer entered through the only and very small entrance along with
as their policy of “divide and rule” was falling flat. Afraid of the people’s a contingent of army soldiers and immediately ordered firing. At that time,
surge, the administration interned Dr. Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew apart from Durga Das, the last speaker, Rairam Singh, Abdul Majid, Hans
to Dharmsala, 120 miles away from Amritsar. This news spread like wild Raj, Gopi Nath and Gurbakhsh Rai were present on the dais. General Dyer
fire. People were enraged and came on the streets. They were marching was leading 50 riflemen and forty Gurkhas armed with Khukhris. He deployed
towards the inner city, towards Jallianwala Bagh. There was a police picket riflemen at the raised area in front of him and posted Gurkhas behind him.
on the railway bridge and police stopped the marchers. Deputy Without giving any warning and time to disperse, he ordered firing. Bullets
Superintendent of police and Assistant Commissioner F.A. Conner arrived were fired indiscriminately and aimed at the chest. Many people tried to
there. People were firm in marching forward and Polson ordered the police save themselves by trying to scale the high walls around but were killed by
picket to open fire. In this firing 22 persons were killed. This enraged people firing. Many jumped into the well in order to save themselves but died of
further and they went berserk on the roads. They attacked government suffocation. But Dyer continued firing till his ammunition was exhausted.
buildings, railway go-down, the post office, banks and church. In these
Deposing before the Hunter Commission appointed by British government
attacks, railway guard, Robinson, and managers of National Bank and
to enquire into the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, General Dyer gave a vivid
Alliance Bank were killed while one railway superintendent and the church
account of the whole episode. He said, “I got information from the police at
preacher Miss. Sherwood were beaten.
4 pm that a large crowd is gathering in the Jallianwala Bagh. I immediately
It enraged the government and on 11th April it handed over the city to sprang into action and deployed pickets on all the gates of the city to
the hands of the military. On April 12 General Dyer, brigade commander of control the situation. I myself took 25 riflemen of 54thand 25 Jawans from
Jalandhar cantonment, arrived in Amritsar and made an aerial survey of 59th Rifles and 40 gurkhas armed with Khukhris, entered through a very
the city to assess where people were gathering and may gather so that he small entrance and had to leave the armed cars outside. I saw there a
could make police arrangements. He ordered Indians passing certain areas dense crowd.” Commission questioned Dyer did he not think it proper to
to crawl on knees and elbows. Curfew was imposed in the city. In nineteen warn the crowd to disperse? His reply was, “I ordered fire on just entering
places, in the announcement it was stated that any person violating curfew the bagh, it took just 30 seconds for me to decide that what I am to do. I
will be shot down. At the same time some patriots were making an did not think of warning people to disperse. I felt that my orders were not

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
obeyed and martial law was violated. So it was my duty to order firing.” replied “I cannot grow long hair.” They said “We can exempt you from that.”
Responding to a question by Hunter Commission that why did you not He said “I cannot give up smoking.” They said “You can do it later on in a
think of consulting the Deputy Commissioner, who was responsible for law slow manner”. Dyer laughed it away. At the same time Majithia family of
and order in the city, General Dyer replied that, “There was no Deputy Sunder Singh Majithia, the forefather of the Akali leader who is a former
Commissioner to be consulted. I thought it is not wise to consult anybody minister and the son-in-law of Parkash Singh Badal, invited Dyer to their
or take advice from anyone. I myself had to decide urgently. I thought from house for a dinner. This is the heritage of present day rulers.
the military point of view and I concluded that I should order firing
One thing is clear from this narration, that British government wanted to
immediately.” The next question of the Commission was why did you not
teach a lesson to the Punjabis by terror and brutal repression and break
stop firing when people started dispersing? Reply of Dyer was that my
their resolve. For understanding this we have to go into the background of
opinion was that I should continue firing till all are dispersed. In reply to
this firing.
another question General Dyer said, “I could have dispersed people even
without firing but I wanted to forcefully establish the authority of British POLITICAL BACKGROUNDPOLITICAL BACKGROUND
crown by creating a scare among the people not only in Amritsar but
throughout Punjab. I wanted to break their resolve and morale, so that they At a particular phase of development of capitalism in Europe emerged
cannot dare again to rise against the British empire.” Actually that was the Colonialism for finding the markets for their goods. Britain, Portugal and
real aim of British rulers. Though the decision for this indiscriminate and France etc. embarked on expansion of their empires in colonies. This resulted
brutal firing was taken by General Dyer, as is clear from his testimony, but in bloody wars between these powers. Thus whole world was divided into
later on, Sir Michael O’Dwyer, Lt. Governor of Punjab, justified this act in colonial empires. Indian people rose in revolt against British empire in 1857.
his report submitted to Viceroy. This revolt started as a soldiers’ mutiny and later developed into a people’s
revolt, specially peasant revolt, whose titular leader was the deposed
British rulers committed this heinous crime in Jallianwala Bagh on the Mughal king Bahadur Shah Zafar. Some pro-imperialist people characterize
one hand and let loose repression on the other. Criminal cases were this as a revolt of deposed feudals to regain their lost raj. But this is entirely
registered against 852 persons, out of which 108 were sentenced to death wrong because only few feudals fought against British rulers and most of
and 265 were sent to life imprisonment. Two were jailed for long duration them supported the colonialists. Karl Marx rightly characterized it as the
and five were sentenced to imprisonment for 10 years each. Rest 194 were first war of Indian independence. Though it was suppressed but it had a
sentenced for lesser duration. Apart from this 298 people were tried under long term impact on the course of history.
martial law out of which 51 were sentenced to death and 48 were given life
imprisonment. Two were sentenced to jail for ten years each and 79 were At the fag end of the nineteenth century and in the beginning of twentieth
convicted for 7 years each, 10 for 5 years each and 11 were convicted for century, capitalism further developed to the highest stage of imperialism
lesser jail terms. British imperialist wanted to break the morale of the people as a result of emergence of monopolies and merging of industrial capital
but little did they know that it will not only further advance the freedom and banking capital thus forming finance capital in main capitalist countries.
struggle but will also prepare thousands of revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, So far these countries were exporting goods but now they started exporting
Udham Singh, Sukhdev and others. finance capital too. New imperialist powers like America, Germany and
Japan also emerged and came into contention on the world scene.
When Punjab was passing through a period of people’s upsurge and Contention between imperialist powers intensified leading to the first
severe repression, at that time Aroor Singh (the maternal grandfather of imperialist world war, 1914 -1919.
Simranjit Singh Mann, a Khalistani leader) who was the chief of Akal Takht,
gave a Saropa (sign of honour) to the butcher of Jallianwala Bagh, General War is a continuation of politics by other means i.e. military means.
Dyer, at Akal Takht. These mahants asked Dyer to become a Sikh, he This situation of war is a decisive point of time when all classes take their

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
decisive stand. At that juncture revisionist warriors of Second International army to prepare soldiers for revolt. Their model of revolution was that of
gave the slogan of “defense of fatherland” which means supporting the revolt of 1857. Their plan was to start revolution utilizing the British
bourgeoisie of one’s own country. On the other hand Bolshevik party led imperialists’ involvement in war, though war broke out earlier than their
by Lenin gave a call to turn the imperialist war into a civil war against the expectation.
rulers of one’s own country. They gave slogan of peace, bread and liberty,
Thus there were clear cut two opposite lines on the question of attitude
mobilized Russian people around these slogans, completed proletarian
towards war. One was of supporting British in war, of Gandhi and Congress,
revolution and established the first durable proletariat state whereas heroes
the other was utilizing war for organizing revolt for complete freedom andthat
of the Second International did immense damage to the cause of revolution.
was the stand point of Gadar party.
Similarly, in India too different political forces took contradictory approaches
towards the first world imperialist war. Punjab was the province which became the field of implementation of
line of armed struggle for freedom. Immediately after the war broke out,
British govt., learning from the first war of independence of 1857, took
Gadar party members and followers started returning to India in a big way.
some steps to check the recurrence of such revolts in the future. One was
But British imperialist were already cautious about Gadarites and their
Lord Macaulay introducing an education system aimed at creating such
movement back to India. Forces were deployed at the ports. Most of
Indians whose appearance would be Indian but they would think like the
Gadarites were arrested at the ports. Some of them were put behind the
English and for the English. Another step was to create a political
bars, some others were forcefully put in trains, sent to Punjab and detained
organization which can act as a link between people and Raj. For that an
in their villages. Many could escape the police and started their assigned
Englishman, AO Hume, formed a political party named Indian National
work of organizing revolt. Those detained in villages did not sit idle but
Congress. Gandhi became its main leader after returning from South Africa.
continued propaganda in a secret way. Gadarites succeeded in forming
Many distressed peasants from Punjab migrated to North America to party units in the cantonments of Ferozpur, Mian Meer, Meerut and at
earn money and improve their fortunes at home. But living in very different some other places. But British could infiltrate their ranks. The date fixed
condition they realized that Indians are not treated at par with other British for revolt was leaked. Gadarites came to know about the leak and preponed
subjects, colonial people are treated as slaves. They also realized the the date but that was also leaked. Uprising detachments were disarmed
value of freedom. Americans also helped in this realization due to imperialist and leaders were arrested. Revolt was suppressed but its impact lasted for
contention with England. They formed an organization named Hind a long time to come. Spectre of revolt continued to haunt the government.
Association on the Pacific coast on April 21, 1913 in a large gathering of
Indian people at Astoria. They started publishing a newspaper named after This was the background of the events of 1919, Rowlatt bill and
the revolt of 1857 popularly known as Gadar. They were deeply influenced movement against it. Apart from this political background, Punjab had to
by the revolt of 1857. They considered it as war of independence and also bear the brunt of world war. In this war 12,794 military men were killed,
that way of revolt as the path to freedom. So they named their paper as 24,732 went missing. Their families were in deep shock. During war a large
Gadar. It was known as Gadar Party after the name of its paper. number of people were drafted into the army but after the war came to an
end, a large number were demobilized. According to an estimate more than
These two parties, Congress party and Gadar party, took entirely opposite one and half lakh were these demobilized soldiers in Punjab. Govt. was
stands towards imperialist war. Congress, like the heroes of Second realizing the potential rebelliousness in them. Apart from them, 83 % of the
International, supported England and mobilized people for recruitment in peasantry was in severe indebtedness and 45% of land was mortgaged.
British army and funds for war. Whereas Gadar party just like Lenin gave a Taking 1914 as basis, price index rose to 154 in 1918, 175 in 1919 and 183
call to return to India for organizing a revolt against colonialists. They in1920. In order to make up the losses during war, government raised land
collected money, purchased some weapons and tried to smuggle those revenue and forcefully collected it. In this situation people were seething
into India. They sent some comrades in advance to organize units in the with anger and Rowlatt bill proved to be virtually the last straw on the

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
camel’s back. was haunting the British government which was a major factor for such a
brutal attitude.
Now the question is why did the government take such a cruel and
brutal attitude towards the people of Punjab. As General Dyer had stated in Jallianwala Massacre: A Historic MilestoneJallianwala Massacre:
his statement before Hunter Commission, he could have dispersed the A Historic Milestone
crowd without resorting to firing and continuing firing till the last bullet.
Why General Dyer ordered firing was because he wanted to teach a lesson Jallianwala massacre had a very far reaching impact and proved to be a
and break the fighting morale of the people of Punjab. There were mainly milestone in the history of freedom struggle of Indian people. It had multi
two factors responsible for such an inimical attitude of the government. layered impact on the freedom struggle and we will discuss a few of them.
One was that unlike many other places under Gandhian leadership, anti As we see that there were two clear streams in the freedom movement,
Rowlatt bill movement in Punjab did not remain confined to legal and one demanding some share in administration peacefully, as represented
peaceful limits but in Punjab it took a militant form. When leaders of the by Gandhian leadership and other was complete overthrow of imperialism
movement were sent out of the area, people did not lie low, but militant through armed struggle. This started from the rebellion of 1857 and later
protest demonstration broke out. When this demonstration was met with was represented by Gadar party. Two line struggle was going on in freedom
brutal repression and fire was opened on railway bridge on demonstrators movement. This became particularly acute after this barbaric massacre.
killing 22 people, the anger of the people knew no bounds, it broke out like Freedom movement got radicalized in general. Movements in the field were
wild fire. They attacked government buildings like railway godown, post getting radicalized and Gandhi was exposing his compromising and
office and banks etc. killing two and beating two other Englishmen. This comprador character. In eastern UP peasants were facing acute repression
militancy was the proverbial red cloth before the bull for the government. at the hands of the government. It so enraged them that they attacked the
police post at Chauri Chaura and Gandhi withdrew his non co-operation
Secondly, British government was afraid of recurrence of Gadar like
agitation. Later, after peasant movement in Bardoli of Gujrat took a militant
revolt. This was haunting the British government. On January 20th 1920,
turn, Gandhi backed off from his Satygraha.
Michael O’Dwyer, then Governor of Punjab, deposed before the Hunter
Commission in a secretly held meeting of the Commission in Mumbai. His With this massacre, the revolutionary movement got rejuvenated after
deposition reflects the policy of British government. He said that there was the failure of revolt by Gadar party. By this time October Revolution in
a serious danger to law and order in Punjab in 1919. In nine/ten districts of Russia had led to the formation of proletarian state there, which has openly
central Punjab almost ten thousand Sikhs had returned from abroad. They declared its support to the liberation movements and freedom struggles of
were deeply influenced by Gadar movement, many of them had participated colonial people against imperialism, unconditionally. Revolutionaries of
in the Gadar movement in the past. They were potential revolutionaries, Gadar party were very much impressed by it. Those who were abroad,of
could jump in if there was some revolutionary movement. He said that old them many went to Soviet Union and on coming back two veteran Gadarites
conspiracies like Gadar has not completely died down. He further said that Bhai Rattan Singh Raipurdabba and Santokh Singh Dhardeo formed Kirti
a large number, nearly one and half lakh, discharged soldiers had returned party meaning toilers party with its organ named “Kirti”. Kirti party later on
to Punjab. They were well versed with weapon handling as they were well merged with the Communist party. Jallianwala Bagh massacre had a very
trained. If they had joined the agitating people a very dangerous situation deep influence on the revolutionary youth, like Udham Singh, Bhagat Singh
could have emerged. Moreover, most of soldiery in Punjab was newly and Sukhdev etc. Contrary to the popular belief that Udham Singh was in
recruited and lacked experience in military skills. He further stated that the Jallianwala Bagh at the time of the massacre, was a survivor of the
from the very beginning government had definite information that in Amritsar massacre, pledged to take revenge and he later killed Michael O’Dwyer in
few units of the army would not remain loyal in case of mass upsurge. It is London, recent research has shown that at the time of massacre he was
more than clear from the deposition of Governor that a spectre of Gadar not in Amritsar. Rather he was in South Africa. No doubt he was deeply

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pained at this massacre but he was already in the freedom movement and emerged as the first rate imperialist power. On the other side a wave of
was a member of Gadar party. He did not fire at O’Dwyer only but four militant struggles was surging ahead. Great armed peasant struggle of
others as well, who were officials in India at different times. O’Dwyer died Telangana, Tebhaga struggle and struggle of tenants of PEPSU and many
whereas others survived. Bhagat Singh visited Jallianwala Bagh and brought more struggles were surging forward. There was a revolt in the Navy. Working
back some bloodsoaked soil in a small bottle. After coming back he could class was resorting to general strike at all India level. Imperialist rulers
not sleep many nights. Sukhdev, who was a friend of Bhagat Singh, was were caught in a whirlpool of rising struggles. Ruling in the earlier way was
deeply disturbed by this massacre. They rejected the Gandhian path and not possible for British imperialists. So this change became inevitable.
decided to follow revolutionary path i.e. overthrowing imperialism lock, stock Thus India became a semi colony in 1947.
and barrel and establishing a system free of exploitation of man by man.
Economic structure is the foundation of the whole socio-political system
The contacted the revolutionaries in other part of the country and organized
hence it is generally the decisive factor. Economic independence is a pre-
them in a single organization, named Hindustan Socialist Republican Army,
condition for real independence, in absence of it there will be formal and
later changed to Association, whose aim was to establish Socialist Republic
fake independence. In India too completely abolishing the imperialist
in India.
shackles was a pre-condition for real independence. But let us see what
Inspiration for Fight for Real FreedomInspiration for Fight for happened in this matter in 1947 and afterwards. Not only the existing capital
of imperialists was not confiscated and was allowed to freely operate, but
Real Freedom doors were opened for the capital of other imperialist powers also.
The importance of Jallianwala Bagh massacre does not lie only in the The first Prime Minister of India, addressing the Constituent Assembly
fact that it is a blood soaked chapter of history, signifying the high spirit of on 6th April 1949, spread a red carpet for foreign capital. He said, “Foreign
sacrifice of people and brutality and inhuman attitude of imperialists. Its capital will not be discriminated against in any way, it will be treated at par
importance is not confined to the fact that it proved to be the turning point with native capital. —Foreign companies shall be entitled to earn profit
in the freedom struggle of Indian people. While observing the centenary of under rules and regulations applicable to all. — Those companies can
this massacre its importance is not only historical but it is highly relevant repatriate either profits but naturally it will depend on the foreign exchange
presently. As what happened on the midnight of 15th August 1947 was situation. — If in any situation the capital of a foreign enterprise is acquired
transfer of power to the trusted compradors of imperialism,imperialist rule that company will be given its fair and equitable compensation and company
became indirect in place of direct rule, instead of one imperialists power will be completely free to repatriate capital and profit. (Parliamentary
doors were opened for all imperialists, state power passed into the hands proceedings 1948—1949, quoted by CN Vakil, Foreign Capital in India.)
of comprador big bourgeoisie and big landlords subservient to imperialism. When demands were raised in Parliament for confiscating foreign capital,
The country became a semi-colonial semi –feudal one from a colony. replying to that debate, Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru said, “I am
surprised to hear the repeated demands that foreign capital should be
Shaheed Baghat Singh was so prophetic when he said “There are two confiscated. It is completely unreal, we cannot think about, it is unthinkable.
possibilities, two ways before the country. One is not only imperialism but I cannot even imagine that.” (Lok Sabha Debates 1955. C N Vakil) Finance
its lackeys are also overthrown lock-stock and barrel and a socialist minister of that time said “Our attitude towards foreign capital always had
democratic republic is established and the other is that some compromise been of welcoming it. Our attitude towards foreign capital had been of
is reached with imperialists, state power is given in the hands of imperialists hospitality.” (A.R.Negandi) Finance Minister further said, “I understand that
lackeys or in the joint hands of both.” Second possibility materialized. a time has come when doors for foreign capital shall be further opened.”
Whatever change occurred was the result of set circumstances. Britain (ibid)
was badly shaken and considerably weakened after the Second World War.
It was not in a position to hold onto the existing vast empire. America Indian government took a number of steps between 1950 and 1960 to

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facilitate the flow of foreign capital into India. These included: looted Rs. 7250 crore rupees in year 1981-82.
— A centre for investment of foreign capital in New Delhi, which had Apart from the methods of exploitation explained above, another method
branches in New York and Dusseldorf. was exploitation through joint companies. Companies with five crores or
more, total number of such companies was 252 and out of these 252
—Super profit tax and some other taxes were abolished. companies 134 were completely or partially foreign companies or jointly
—Most of the foreign companies were given majority control facility. owned by foreign and native. Out of these 252 companies 58% of capital
was invested in these 134 companies. (India Mortgaged. T Nagi Reddy.)
— An investment guarantee treaty was signed by Government of India
with United States of America. After the disintegration of Soviet Union and evaporation of “socialist
camp” a unipolar world led by American imperialistsuperpower came into
—Industries reserved for public sector were mostly opened for foreign existence.With this imperialist offensive and exploitation intensified and
investment in 1956.—Foreign companies were permitted to establish new increased manyfold. Marrakesh treaty based on the draft prepared by Arthur
industries and expansion of already established industries. Dunkel was signed by the most of countries, including Indian government.
Ties of the economies of the backward countries to chariot wheels of
—Foreign companies were allowed total control in the industries
imperialism were strengthened and systematized. All sectors of economy
established by them. —More concessions were given in the import export
were brought under the purview of this treaty whereas it was limited to
sector.
trade only, previously. It was devastating for agriculture and small and
Plunder by imperialists not only continued but further intensified. This medium industries.
exploitation was through a number of ways which included direct and indirect
In 1990-91, when India had landed in foreign exchange crisis and was
investment, export –import, loans and joint ventures. We will present here
on the verge of default, India had to mortgage its gold reserve. Government
a few examples of exploitation through all these methods. In 1947, India
approached International Monetary Fund for a big loan for structural
had a foreign debt of Rs. 300 crores, which increased to Rs. 456.6 crores
adjustment. IMF agreed to lend but 14 conditions were attached to the
and Rs. 690 crores in 1960. Foreign debt further increased to Rs. 1542.8
loan. One of them was to appoint as Finance minister one out of two names
crores in 1968 which meant a three-fold increase in foreign debt. In 1947
given by IMF, i.e. I G Patel or Manmohan Singh, to implement the policies
India was a creditor of Rs. 1600 crores and by 1968 India was purely an
prescribed by IMF. As Patel refused the offer, Dr. Manmohan Singh was
indebted country. By 1981, situation of foreign debt was that it had increased
approached and he readily agreed. After assuming the office of Finance
Rs. 25000 crores out of which debt to USA was Rs. 5701 crore, to Britain
minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh started the policies of globalization,
was 2401 Rs. crore and to Japan was a debt of Rs. 1838 crores. India was
liberalization and privatization, popularly known as new economic policies.
indebted to World Bank to the tune of Rs. 7272 crores, to Soviet Union Rs.
Globalization here means free flow of imperialist capital, goods and services
957 crores and Eastern Europe 263 crores. (India Today, July 1982)
into India. More and more sectors were opened for imperialist capital, most
Another method of imperialist plunder was exploitation through export– of the sectors were uncapped for imperialist capital. Custom duties were
import. When import is more than export this results in trade deficit which progressively reduced to bring them down to the level prescribed by World
is a result of exploitation. Trade deficit in 1961 was Rs. 475 crores, Rs. Trade Organization. Provision of minimum access in the WTO treaty made
566.7 crores in 1965—66 and expanded to Rs. 806.3 crores in 1966-67. By import of imperialist goods to a certain level mandatory.Apart from it strong
1981-82 trade deficit reached to the tune of Rs. 6000 crores. In 1981-82 as imperialist powers had muscle outside the text, which they used to arm
stated, trade deficit was Rs. 6000 crores, apart from it Rs. 450 crores were twist native rulers to accept their terms.This intensified the imperialist
looted as repatriation of profit on capital invested and Rs. 800 crores were exploitation. For example,we have explained certain methods of imperialist
taken out as interest payment on loan. By all these means imperialists exploitation,now we can examine the situation on all those fronts. Foreign

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direct investment in the current year is 36.75 billion US dollars. Huge amount 100 Years of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
of 144.68 billion US dollars was repatriated in the form of dividends and
interest payment. Last year in July-September in the matter of foreign trade, ‘Sau saal da ho gayasaka, ajee vi jaarisamrajidaka’
current account deficit was 6.9 billion dollars which was 1.1% of GDP. But
in the same period of current year this deficit has reached 32.5 billion
[Its been a hundred years since the incident (Jalianwala Bagh
dollars and is 3% of GDP. massacre), but the imperialist loot still goes on]
Defence sector of any country has basic importance for the freedom of
that country. In the case of India it is totally dependent on the imperialist
‘Amar shaheedan di sochte, pehradeyaangethokke’
countries for its defence supplies. Main battle tank, Arjun, of Indian army (We shall zealously guard the ideals and values of our
is actually T-27 supplied by Russia.Most maligned and talked of gun, Bofors,
is from Sweden. Air force is an important wing of armed forces these days martyrs)
and the fighter planes Sukhoi and Mig are from Russia and recently acquired
Rafale is from France, C Harrier cargo plane is purchased from America ‘Hakkaan lei jedeladhde log, jailan to nahindarde log’
and helicopters from England. Submarines are purchased from Germany. (People who fight for their rights do not fear the oppressor’s
Even coffins were purchased from Israel for killed soldiers during Kargil.
prisons)
This is only the tip of the iceberg but it clearly reveals that imperialists
are still dominating the commanding heights of our economy. Their Vikas Bajpai
domination is not only in economy but in all walks of life; it is not only
intact but has strengthened. Real independence is yet to be achieved and These slogans, and many more, rendered the air thick with excitement
the fight for that has to be fought with increased vigour. Jallianwala Bagh and tumult in the quietude of Amritsar’s historic Company Bagh. They came
is a blood soaked and golden chapter in the annals of history of this struggle. from the villages, small towns and cities from all over Punjab to reclaim
It continues to be a source of inspiration in the fight for real and complete their revolutionary heritage on the occasion of 100th anniversary of the
independence. dastardly massacre of Jalianwala Bagh that happened on 13th April, 1919.
Between five to six thousand students and youth belonging to PSU (Punjab
Students Union) and NBS (Naujawan Bharat Sabha), along with some
members of other fraternal organizations, converged on Amritsar on 13th
April 2019 to throw a challenge to the anti-people policies of the country’s
rulers.
This congregation came at the end of a two-month long campaign
undertaken by PSU and NBS to reach out to the people in every nook and
corner of the state, to remind them of the rich revolutionary legacy of the
toiling masses of India which tied them together, across the divisions of
caste and religion, in their fight against both the foreign exploiters and their
Indian compradors. Much against the ritualistic sophistry of the ruling class
politicians, that is on display on such occasions, these students and youth
declared the pressing need to draw upon our revolutionary heritage to free
the people from the sub-human existence that they have endured thus far.

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Just how little seems to have changed in the last 100 years in the The demand then arose that the Indian government must not allow the
attitude of the rulers then and the rulers now, was once again demonstrated queen to visit Jalianwala Bagh. But our minions wouldn’t budge; and so, it
by the government of Punjab which imposed section 144 (banning the was decided by revolutionary organizations to stage a real protest, right in
assembly of four or more persons) around Jalianwala Bagh, seemingly front of the queen. It was some day in the October of 1997, when the queen
because a bevy of high profile ‘deshbhakts’ were scheduled to line up to was to inaugurate an exhibition of treasures from the British Museum at
pay their homage on the occasion; and so the people were required to be
kept out. Thanks to the vigorous mobilizations and protest by the
progressive sections of Punjab’s society, the government had to beat a
retreat and allow entry in the late afternoon into the Bagh.

the capital's National Museum, around 11 am. There were around 20 to 25


of us, dressed to look like municipal workers, who went and sat under the
trees in the patch of India Gate lawns right across the road in front of the
National Museum, which had been turned into a parking lot. The paramilitary
policemen shared the space with us. The leader of our motley group,
As a background, I would like to briefly narrate an interesting incident. Mrigank, lurked innocuously behind a tree closer to the road. Just as the
Queen Elizabeth had last visited India in 1997, during the reign of the queen’s limousine arrived at the anointed time, Mrigank lurched towards it,
‘National Front’ government supported by the Left, with I K Gujral as the pulling out a black flag from his pocket and shouting the slogan – ‘hatyari
Prime Minister. Somehow, the queen and her husband, Prince Philip insisted rani wapas ja’; ‘goron ki rani wapas ja.’ We all followed close on his heels.
upon visiting Jalianwala Bagh to pay their homage to the victims. A demand The police were simply befuddled. It actually became a security scandal.
arose from various sections of society in India – what homage; the queen Paradoxically, BBC was the only channel to run the footage of the protest
should apologise instead. The government of India, the faithful member of the whole day.
the ‘British Commonwealth’, however maintained an equanimous silence.
Of course, the British government rejected the demand. We spent two days in the lock-up, while the government decided what

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
Jallianwala Bagh only for 3 pm for the reason cited above. A long dias was
set up at Company Bagh and the State Committees of both PSU and NBS
were present on it. They included Coms. Raminder Patiala (President),
Karamjit Singh, Rupinder Singh, Manga Azad and Ranjit Singh from the
NBS and Ranvir Singh (President), Hardeep Kaur (Senior Vicepresident),
Gagan Sangrami (Gen. Secy.), Amandeep Singh, Mangaljit, Gursevak Singh,
Amar Nath, Sangeeta Rani, Mohan Singh, Baljit Singh and Kulvinder Singh
of PSU. The three women leaders of PSU reflected the enthusiastic
participation of girl students from various parts of Punjab. Amandeep Singh
of PSU was the stage secretary for the event.
Among the speakers at the Company Bagh meeting were Raminder Singh
Patiala (NBS), Ranvir Singh (PSU), Hardeep Kaur (PSU), Karamjit Singh
Reliving Youth (NBS) and Gagan Sangrami (PSU). Guest speaker from Delhi. Com.
Animesh Das (Treasurer, IFTU National Committee) also addressed the
to do with us. Finally, a case was lodged against us, which went on for 6 meeting.
years in the Patiala House court. Among the sections slapped on us was
section 144; used first in 1861. This section was widely used by the British Preceding the meeting, which began at 1:40 PM, was a medley of cultural
to ban nationalist assemblies in British India. Interestingly, it remains in programmes. Rasulpur Kavishri Jatha and Shaheed Bhagat Singh Rang
force both in India and Pakistan, post 1947. Manch from Punjabi University (Patiala) as well as individual performers -
Lakhwinder (PU, Patiala) and Amanjot Kaur (GNDU, Amritsar) enthralled
Our successful protest in Delhi, cost our comrades in Punjab dear. the audience. The two groups presented kavishris which are a kind of folk
Their bravado in Amritsar was brutally rewarded by the police. songs.
Meanwhile, the magistrate presiding over the case was a much-troubled At 4 PM began the procession from Company Bagh to Jallianwala Bagh.
soul. He wanted us to apologise, to set us free. We on our part assured Raising resounding slogans, the marchers passed through the streets of
him we would hold such protest under similar circumstances, were they to Amritsar, and the response of the people on the streets was sympathetic
arise again. He could neither convict us (for obvious political fallout), nor and enthusiastic.
could he let us go just like that. Finally, another magistrate disposed off
the case, 6 years later, by levying a fine of Rs 50 against each one of us. At the Jallianwala Bagh, the gathering surrounded the Memorial and
both NBS and PSU state committees paid tribute by dipping the flags of
The point pertinent to our present circumstances is, that in this election both organizations. A brief public meeting of 15 minutes was held for all
season, we are being told to choose between ‘Hindutva’ and ‘Soft-Hindutva’ present to take a pledge before the martyrs. Rupinder Singh (NBS) led the
(which is the de facto case) to redeem a secular India. This hardly is any gathering to pledge to intensify the struggle against imperialist plunder and
choice. These youth who congregated at Amritsar, had their own set of capital, to intensify struggle against Hindutva fascism and the divide and
alternatives. The question is – are we willing to bite their challenge? rule policy of the comprador rulers, while upholdng the banner of true
nationalism and secularism. Manga Azad (NBS) concluded the entire event
Meeting and Rally with a short vote of thanks.
The programme on 13th April 2019 began with a mass meeting at
Company Bagh (Amritsar). Permission was given for the march to

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JALLIANWALA BAGH MASSACRE CENTENARY discontent, but also brought to light hitherto hidden aspects of Indian
COMMEMORATION people’s united heroic fight-back. The documents exhibited were both
saddening and amazing. It was immensely saddening to watch the ‘civilized’
British indulging in acts of unprecedented violence against Indians and
Contemporary documents of the brutal amazing to see the way the people of India, collectively and individually,
massacre and people’s heroic resistance belonging to different faiths and castes, rose in revolt.
The saddest part has been that this treasure of visual and written
remain hidden in the National Archives narratives was put back into the dark rooms of the National Archives and
never exhibited again. It was not taken out even at the centenary
Shamsul Islam commemoration under way currently. It seems the rulers and managers do
not want that coming generations should know about the barbarism of the
Today India has turned into a grazing field for all kinds of religious colonial masters as well as the united great heroic resistance of the people
bigots led by the Hindutva gang. Even the PM of the country, who took of India.
oath to uphold democratic-secular polity, is identifying himself as a Hindu
nationalist as if he is in office to serve the cause of Hindutva. The RSS/ The barbarism of the British rulers
BJP rulers are openly declaring their commitment to turn India into a Hindu
Photographs in the exhibition
state where Brahmanical Codes of Manu which reduce women and Dalits
recorded heart-wrenching scenes of
to sub-human status would be the law of the land. For them India is
the barbarity of the British rulers in
Fatherland and Holyland for Hindus only. It is to be noted that as per the
coping with the unrest in Punjab
Hindutva definition only those can be considered as Hindus who have Aryan
during 1914-1919. Punjabis, specially
blood, believe in Casteism, are of fair colour and treat Sanskrit as a holy
Sikhs, tied on the wooden/metal
language. These are not Muslims and Christians only who are out of Hindu
frames being flogged or forced to crawl
nation, even faiths as Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism can survive only as
on their bellies on public roads, their
sects of Hinduism.
naked body in full view of the public,
However, this was not the scenario 100 years back when the British filling all with shame and anger.
rulers perpetrated one of the worst massacres in modern history; the Punjab had become a military camp.
Jallianwala Bagh massacre. People of India shackled by the most powerful The rulers aiming at crushing the self-
imperialist power of the world, Britain, presented a heroic united resistance. esteem of patriotic Indians, forced
It is not hearsay but proved by the contemporary official, mostly British, Indians to salute every Englishman/
documents. These amazing documents were part of the British archives woman, not to ride cycles and forcibly
which became National Archives of India after Independence. As a pleasant pulled moustaches and beards. There
surprise these documents were made public to mark the 75th commemoration is no doubt that such repression
of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre as part of an exhibition titled, ‘Archives produced revolutionaries like Bhagat
and Jallianwala Bagh: A Saga of Independence’. Singh and his comrades.

Most of the documents, concerning the most volatile period of the Indian The records narrated the story of newly married Rattan Devi who had
freedom struggle, not only showed the Britishers brazenly flouting spent the night of April 13-14, 1919 by the side of her husband. Only, he
democratic norms, indulging in barbarism while suppressing the mass was dead, lying amid the hundreds strewn all over the Bagh. The place

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
was overflowing with blood, as she narrates in the chilling statement on Rabindra Nath Tagore’s letter to the Viceroy renouncing his Knighthood to
display, and after removing the body of her husband to a comparatively dry protest the repression in Punjab. He wrote:
place,
“The time has come when badges of honors make our shame glaring
“I sat by his side… I found a bamboo stick which I kept in my hand in their incongruous context of humiliation, and I for my part wish to
to keep off dogs. I saw three men writhing in great pain and an injured stand, shorn of all special distinctions, by the side of those of my
boy, about 12 years old, entreated me not to leave the place, I told countrymen who, for their so called insignificance, are liable to suffer
him that I would not go anywhere leaving the dead body of my husband. degradation not fit for human beings.”
I asked him if he was feeling cold, if he wanted a wrapper I could
spread it over him. He asked for water, but that could not be produced Another heartening document was the original facsimile of the resignation
at that place…” letter dated March 28, 1919 of MA Jinnah from the Imperial Legislative
Assembly in protest against Jallianwala Bagh massacre and repression in
In this exhibition a stunning story from a Hindi daily, ‘Abhiuday’ (October Punjab. His letter openly blamed the British rulers for atrocities and passing
4, 1919) was included which narrated the story and photographs of two Rowlatt Act. He wrote:
friends, 18 year old Abdul Karim and 17 year old Ramchander who came
together from Lahore to attend the meeting at the Bagh against Rowlatt “A government that passes or sanctions such a law [Rowlatt Act]
Act. Both were martyred here. After the martyrdom of Abdul Karim, when in times of peace forfeits its claim to be called a civilized government.”
results of Punjab University [Lahore] came out, it was found that he had It is sad that Jinnah later joined the bandwagon of two-nation
passed the matriculate examination in the first class. protagonists.
Air bombardments How much anger Rowlatt Act generated in every part of India could be
gauged by the violent resistance the Gujarat area, generally considered to
But what really startles viewers is the hitherto unknown fact that the
be compliant. The displayed documents showed that in Gujarat within 2
British government had, during the disturbances in 1919, used Royal Air
days (11-12 April, 1919) protesting mobs burnt only in Ahmedabad and its
force planes to bombard the interiors of Punjab. A top secret document-
vicinity, offices of the Collector, City judge, flag staff, Jail, main telegraph
again, made public for the first time–was a Task 14.4.1919. It reads thus:
centre and 26 police stations.
“Aero plane No. 4491 Type BO E-2.E. Squadron No. 31. Pilot captain
Carbery. Hour at which flight started from Lahore: 14.20. Hour at which Resistance literature banned
flight concluded: 16.45. [The details] 15.20: village two miles north
On display were the copies of voluminous literature, poetry, prose and
west of Gujranwala (now in Pakistan)-dropped three bombs on party
plays which were written and circulated against the British barbarism but
of natives 150 strong…50 rounds machine gun fired into village. 15.30
banned. This treasure again depicted the united and all pervasive character
Village one mile south of above-party of 50 natives outside village.
of the resistance. It is not possible to discuss even a fraction of it while
Two bombs dropped…25 rounds machine gun fired into village. About
also noting that the exhibition must have displayed a fraction of the banned
200 natives in fields near a building. One bomb dropped, 30 rounds
literature available in the Archives. Some of the important banned books
MG fired into party who took over in house. 15.40: Gujranwala-Bombs
were; Bagh-e-Jallian, a lyrical play in Hindi authored by Ram Saroop Gupta,
dropped on large crowd of natives in south of town. 100 rounds MG
Jallianwala Bagh, a long poem in Gurmukhi penned by Firoziddin Sharf,
fired into parties of natives in the streets. At 15.50 when machine left
Punjab kaa Hatyakand, a full-fledged play in Urdu and Jallianwala Bagh, a
for Lahore no natives could be seen on the streets…”
long Gujarati play. The last two were by unknown authors in order to avoid
Another highlight of the exhibition was the hand-written original of identification by the repressive regime.

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)
Some of the representative lyrics read: However, when government repression in Punjab drew world-wide
condemnation, the British government appointed a commission of enquiry
on October 14, 1919 for investigating violence in Punjab. It was headed by
a jurist from Scotland, Hunter. This commission came to be known as
Hunter Commission. It came to the conclusion that at Jallianwala Bagh
[zulm Dyer ne kiya thaa rang jamane ke liye/Hind walon ko 381 Indians, including males, females and even a 6 month old baby were
museebat maen phansane ke liye.] killed by the General Dyer’s force. This count was highly disputable as the
unidentified bodies (of the people who were not Punjabis but were in Amritsar
as it was a famous business/religious centre where also people from other
states constantly came in search of livelihood) were disposed off.
[khoon se Punjab ke Dyer kee likhee diary/roo-baroo rakh Shockingly, even after Independence of the country nothing changed
dee mere tabiyat jalane ke liye.] for the surviving family members of the martyrs and grievously injured.
They remained discarded. In India where persons who were behind bars
during Emergency (1975-77) for less than a month receive INR 10000 and
less than 2 months INR 20000 as family pension, the demand of the families
[Bagh-e-Jallian maen shahidon kee baney gar yaadgaar/ of the martyrs that at least they should be entitled for pension and railway
jayenge aashiq-e-watan aansoo bahane ke liye.] concession have not been accepted. Disgusted, ‘the Jallianwala Bagh
Shaheed Parivar Samiti’ wrote a letter to the British PM that England should
compensate their loss! It only shows the helplessness and hopelessness
of the families of the martyrs but surely also shamelessness and
spinelessness of the Indian rulers.

Unsung martyr: Udham Singh who avenged the Jallianwala Bagh


massacre
[hum ujadte haen tau ujdaen, watan aabaad rahe/murr mitey
haen hum ke aab watan azad rahe. This exhibition displayed a telegram that went out on April 16 1940.
That was the date of Udham Singh’s trial in London. It read:
Watan kee khatir jo apnee jaan diya karte haen/marte
naheen haen who hamesha ke liye jiya karte haen.] “We understand that during the trial the accused intends to pose
as a martyr and indulge in heroics. We would be glad if steps are
British rulers overlooked martyrs, Independent India too taken to secure that press in England do not report substantially and
remained/remains indifferent that Reuters only carry as brief and unsensational a summary as
These documents make shocking revelations about the reprehensible possible.”
attitude of the foreign rules towards victims of its perpetrated massacre at This telegram from the Governor General in New Delhi to the Secretary
Jallianwala Bagh. In June 1919 the Home department came out with the of State for India clearly showed that the Britishers, glorified as great
statement which described the British causalities but kept mum on the believers in the fair-play and rule of law, germane to democracy, were
count of Indian deaths raising an idiotic argument that whatever number masters in manipulating the fourth estate.
would be made public by the British government would not be acceptable
to Indians! For more than 47 years this telegram remained a secret document in

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the British intelligence files and was kept hidden by the free India’s revolutionaries and ammunitions. It was on reaching the English shores
governments also till 1994. There were other amazing documents displayed that he took the alias of Mohammad Singh Azad. He even attempted to
in 1994 which pieced together the complete story of Udham Singh which organize fellow English labourers. Udham Singh’s choice of the name as
was so far known only in tidbits. Mohammad Singh Azad was not a fluke. He chose it to underline the cardinal
fact that India could be liberated only by collective and united efforts of all
“I did it because… he deserved it. He… wanted to crush the spirit Indians. There is a reasonable apprehension that if Udham Singh returns
of my people, so I have crushed him. For full 21 years I have been to India with this name today he may be lynched.
trying to wreak vengeance. I am happy I have done the job. I am not
scared of death. I am dying for my country.” The list of martyrs only underlines the multi-religious and multi-
He continued, caste character of the anti-British freedom struggle
“I do not care about sentence of death…I am dying for a purpose.. The Hunter Commission's list of martyrs makes it clear that the protest
We are suffering from the British Empire…I am proud to die to free meeting at Jallianwala Bagh held in protest against Rowlatt Act and arrests
my native land and I hope that when I am gone…in my place will of renowned Congress leaders, Dr Satyapal and Saifuddin Kitchlew (whose
come thousands of my countrymen to drive you dirty dogs out; to free son Toufique Kitchlew, an author died in penury), was attended by men,
my country…you will be cleansed out of India. And your British youth, women of all religions and castes. According to the list there were
imperialism will be smashed…I have nothing against the English people 381 who died due to the firing of the British army under the command of
at all…I have great sympathy with the workers of England. I am against Brigadier General Reginald Dyer. His invading force mainly consisted of
the imperialist government. DOWN WITH BRITISH IMPERIALISM!” Nepali Gurkhas, Baluch Regiment (manned by Punjabi Muslims, Hindus
and Sikhs), the 54th Sikhs and the 59th Sind Rifles soldiers, making it
These words of Mohammad Singh Azad rang out through a London clear that the British ruled India with the help of Indian stooges.
courtroom on March 13, 1940 where he was produced immediately after
killing Michael O’Dyer, the Lt. Governor of Punjab, the architect of the Out of 381 martyrs, 222 were Hindus, 96 Sikhs and 63 Muslims. Another
Jallianwala massacre who ordered the crackdown. Mohammad Singh Azad significant aspect of this gathering, which reflected in the list of martyrs
was none other than Udham Singh. Born in a Dalit Sikh family and brought too, was that if on the one hand businessmen, lawyers, journalists, literary
up in an orphanage, Udham Singh was present in the public meeting at persons, government employees, intellectuals were present, on the other
Amritsar on the fateful bloody Baisakhi day of 1919. hand large number of audience belonged to the professions like ironsmith,
weaver, barber, helper, daily-wage earner, carpet knitter, mason, cobbler
Having fallen under a heap of dead bodies, Udham Singh had and safai karamchari. Many women were also present. A notable presence
miraculously survived the carnage. But so deep was the hatred evoked by was of Udham Singh. This reality once again underlined the fact that before
it, the 20-year old vowed not to rest until he had avenged the killing of the the appearance of protagonists of Hindu and Muslim separatism, Indian
innocent hundreds. He achieved his target 21 years later. And ‘Mohammad freedom struggle was a united movement over-riding religious and caste
Singh Azad’-the name he adopted-underscored the fact that the overthrow divisions. It was a true anti-colonial movement for an inclusive India.
of the British rule was impossible without the unity of the Hindu, Muslim
and Sikh populace of the land. It is sad that such narratives of joint struggle and joint martyrdom of
Indian people lie hidden in the dark rooms of the National Archives. If only
It was 79 years ago (July 31, 1940) that Udham Singh died on the these are made accessible to the younger generation, they might quell
gallows in the Pentonville prison of London. Through the documents so far many of the communal, casteist and sectarian agendas running in the
prohibited we also got to know that before reaching London he had been to country.
Mesopotamia, Kenya, Uganda, USA and USSR, all in quest of Indian

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NEW DEMOCRACY Organ of the Central Committee, CPI(ML)

Jallianwala Bagh — Some encourage hatred among Hindus and Muslims and deepen communal and
also other divisions in India.
Aspects In the beginning of 20th Century, Bengal and Punjab had emerged as
important regions of struggle against British colonial rule. The division of
Massacre of unarmed Indians at Jallianwala Bagh is an important Bengal by Viceroy Curzon had led to widespread anger among the people
milestone in the history of the struggle of the people of India against British of Bengal. Congress Party, formed by British official A.O. Hume with the
colonial rule. This year 13th April marked a centenary of that barbaric act of blessings of the then Viceroy Dufferin, had its first taste of participating
colonial rulers. It reminds every Indian who upholds the legacy of that and leading a mass movement. Many forms of struggle were put into practice
heroic sacrifice of people of Punjab that the ideals for which our ancestors in the course of this movement like boycott of foreign goods, mass
braved bullets on their bodies have remained unfulfilled. In this issue of demonstrations and strikes etc. These forms became a regular feature of
ND there is an article by Com. SS Mahil on Jallianwala Bagh massacre people’s struggle against British colonial rulers. This movement had its
which, besides narrating the details of that heinous act of terrorizing the repercussions in the Congress with the rise of the demand for Home Rule.
people of Punjab, also deals with the political context of that massacre From the increase in the participation of Indians in the administration, this
and the continuing imperialist exploitation of the country. In this issue there new slogan of self-rule emerged. Congress suffered division into moderates
is also a write-up by Com. Shamsul Islam which brings out facts of the (Naram Dal) and hardliners (Garam Dal) i.e. those sticking to earlier position
brutal repression from the documents from the National Archives. of increase in the participation in the Administration and those favouring
It is the struggle of Indian people against British colonial rule which self-rule respectively (termed Swaraj by Tilak, the most prominent leader
forged unity among the people of India and brought them together in their of hardliners). This division came to a head in the Surat Session of the
common struggle. Though there were a number of struggles of the people Congress in December 1907. The British responded with the heavy repression
against British colonial rule including struggle of tribal peasantry and also in Bengal on the one hand and Morley Minto Reforms on the other. Agitation
valiant Vellore uprising, it was the Indian people’s revolt against British against division of Bengal spurred people’s sentiments against colonial
colonial rule in 1857 which was the first pan India uprising of the Indian rule and found support in different parts of the country. Many Congress
people and initiated the process of forging their identity. While many Indian leaders developed all India name and following owing to this upsurge.
feudal kings resisted the advance of British colonial rule over India, the Though Congress reach and following increased due to this struggle, Bengali
decline of Mughal empire and feudal disunity prevailing after that was utilized youth were drawn to militant organizations advocating all out struggle against
by the British colonial power to enslave the country. While some feudal colonial rule. British colonial rulers were alarmed with this. British colonial
forces sided with the people in 1857, it was essentially a peasant revolt rulers were forced to annul the division of Bengal in 1911. Though British
and first 'indpendent' assertion of the Indian peasantry on the Indian political rulers tried to couch this decision within the larger plan for reorganization
scene. It was essentially a “National revolt” of Indians so termed by the of old Bengal province, but the success of the people’s agitation was
then leader of opposition in British Parliament, Disraeli, who also called unmistakable and strengthened the hardliners within Congress.
Indian soldiers of the British Army as uniformed peasants. 1857 shook the Soon came the First World War, a war among imperialist powers over
British colonial empire in India to the core and it was mainly the feudal redivision of the world among them, Congress gave a call for participation
kings and princes, particularly in the critical arena of war against the East in the War and tried to mobilize the people with the hope that British rulers
India Company, who helped British to re-establish their rule over India, a will grant self-rule after the conclusion of war. British colonial rulers also
fact admitted by the then Governor General and Chief Commander of the kept up such an illusion. Congress leaders like Gandhi, who had come
British forces. After 1857 followed cementing of the alliance of British back to India from South Africa in January 1915 and Tilak campaigned for
colonial rulers and feudal forces in India, a period of brutal suppression of assisting British in the war. This hope or illusion led to unity among different
Indian people, systematization of the policy of British colonial rulers to factions in the Congress in 1914-’15 with ‘hardliners’ gaining in strength

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within the Congress though they were much mellowed with time. Punjab of the Indian people. The momentum generated by the people’s anger
had suffered the most due to participation in the War. Among the 1.7 million against Jallianwala Bagh massacre played an important part in the freedom
Indians mobilized for the First World War, 1.4 million were fresh recruits. struggle of the people of India and propelled Congress towards demanding
Of these new recruits one third were from Punjab. Punjabis were 40% of independence though it took almost a decade for the Congress to fully
the army men mobilized for the War. Indians suffered heavy casualties for endorse this demand.
the sake of their colonial masters with nearly 70,000 Indian armymen killed
Rowlatt Bills had come along with Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. These
in the war. Punjab had also suffered from Influenza epidemic during war
reforms had come as a rude shock to the people of the country but Congress
years which had led to the death of over one lakh people. Govt.'s apathetic
leaders were divided over the issue and many important leaders were
attitude to this calamity on the people was sought to be justified due to
inclined towards working these reforms. The old battle lines between
their pre-occupation with war.
hardliners and moderates had almost disappeared within Congress. Many
After the War, came the time for pay-back. And this colonial rulers did. important hard line leaders including Tilak supported working the Montagu-
They increased the taxation of the people for recovering expenditure incurred Chelmsford reforms. This issue was the main point of debate in the Amritsar
in the war. This led to sharp rise in prices of essential goods and Session of the Congress held in November 1919. Prior to that, in a Special
indebtedness of the peasantry. (See article by Com. Mahil in this issue) Session of the Congress held in Bombay in 1918, positive attitude was
British colonial rulers came up with a new set of reforms- named after adopted towards these Montford reforms. This was called Bombay
Secretary of State for India Montagu and Viceroy Chelmsford. This was compromise. This compromise was rejected in the Delhi Session of the
only an incremental advance over the already existing scheme of Congress held in the end of 1918. Now the debate was resumed in Amritsar.
participation of Indians in the administration. Congress leaders’ hope or Despite the people’s outrage after Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Congress
illusion of self-rule was given a rude shock. Besides heavy taxation and adopted a resolution which went back on Delhi resolution. C.R. Das placed
stillborn self-rule, British came out with repressive laws to continue and a draft which was against working the reforms. On Gandhi’s proposal, a
further strengthen the repressive laws enacted during the war called Defence para was added to CR Das draft. This was “‘Pending such introduction,
of India Rules. British rulers, besides the spectre of 1857 like revolt which this Congress trusts that, so far as may be possible, the people will so
haunted them earlier, came to be particularly alarmed by the influence work the Reforms as to secure an early establishment of full Responsible
exercised by October Revolution in India. Punjab had become a ground for Government….” On the proposal of Gandhi, Amritsar Session welcomed
people’s upsurge against British colonial rulers. That the anti-Rowlatt Act the proposed visit of Prince of Wales. This proposal was rejected in the
agitation was sharpest in Punjab was set in the conditions then prevailing earlier Delhi Session. In his The History of Indian National Congress,
in Punjab. Jallianwala Bagh massacre was done to teach a lesson to the Pattabhi Sitaramayya commented, “Gandhi was not willing to break with
people of Punjab for this anti-colonial upsurge. Jallianwala Bagh massacre the Government yet.”
was followed by the most brutal repression in Punjab. Martial Law imposed
Response to Jallianwala Bagh massacre set in the larger picture of
in Punjab was most vigorously implemented in the towns of Lahore, Kasur,
post- war British rule in India, had important influence over the Congress.
Gujaranwala and Sheikhura besides Amritsar. Imperialism was in its true
Some of the leaders openly endorsed the British position. One of them, Sir
colour i.e. war against Indian people.
Dinshaw Wacha, President of Congress in 1901, justified Govt. action.
Jallianwala Bagh massacre, which was condemned widely in the country Mrs. Annie Besant, Congress President in 1917, too justified military action.
as well as abroad, lent a powerful tone to the anti-Rowlatt Act agitation. It She said, "When the mob begins to pelt them (soldiers) with brick-bats, it
was the first all India agitation; though the earlier agitation in Bengal had is more merciful to order the soldiers to fire a few volleys of buckshot.”
found support outside Bengal but it was this agitation which was carried Her statement led to the expression “Bullets for brickbats”. She reached
out in almost all parts of the country on a single call. Jallianwala Bagh nadir of her prestige due to this and one Mr. Kharpade likened her to “Putana”.
became a defining moment of this agitation as well as anti-colonial struggle But on the whole, even moderate sections were drawn to condemn this

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barbaric massacre. As is well known, Rabindranath Tagore renounced his provisions of the colonial laws, ruling classes have enacted several
knighthood, Gandhi his 'HInd Kesari' award, Jinnah his membership of draconian laws like Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA), Preventive
Bombay Executive Council and Sir Sankaran Nair his membership of Detention Act and Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act not to mention laws
Viceroy's Executive Council. like NSA, ESMA and a host of others. It is worthwhile to recall that the first
amendment to the Constitution inserted "maintenance of public order" in
Change in the position of the 'hardliners' in the Congress enabled Gandhi, the proviso, limiting the scope of fundamental rights to validate Preventive
a self-professed moderate within Congress, to emerge as the undisputed Detention Act then used against Communists. Since then the assault on
leader of the Congress. He condemned the violence by the people of Punjab the democratic rights has continued unabated.
along with brutality of the colonial Govt. and withdrew the civil disobedience
movement launched against the Rowlatt Act, a pattern he was to repeat While public opinion had condemned Mrs. Besant's opinion as "Bullets
whenever people's actively resisted the Govt. repression. On Punjab for Brickbats", the same is now openly propagated by the military and
situation, Gandhi admitted that he had made "a blunder of Himalayan political leaders of ruling classes while dealing with people's agitation in
dimensions which enabled ill-disposed persons, not true passive resisters Kashmir. Bullets are not only being used against Kashmiri children pelting
at all, to perpetrate disorders. .. But the Government went mad at the time; stones, the same is being justified in the name of 'national security', a
we went mad also at the time." (P. Sitarammaya, The History of Indian change of words from the colonial language of security of state to national
National Congress) In the Amritsar Session of the Congress, Gandhi security, but only a linguistic change. The objectives for which people faced
threatened to withdraw from the Congress after his condemnation of the bullets in Jallianwala Bagh, a century earlier they remain unfulfilled.
'mob violence' was thrown out by the Subjects Committee. However, a
resolution was approved "amidst the whinings and whimperings of the bulk The true homage to martyrs of Jallianwala Bagh is to continue and
of delegates" i.e. despite opposition of the bulk of delegates. (Ibid) It was intensify the struggle for which they had laid down their lives and remain
not the first time that the views of the delegates were ignored and vigilant that the forces not committed to these objectives are neither able
sidetracked. The same thing had happened in Surat Session when bulk of to usurp nor derail the people's struggle.
the delegates had supported the 'hardliners'. Once again, as happened on
several occasions in history, the leadership of the people's movement had
come into hands which were least committed to the course expected by
the people. IFTU CALL ON MAY DAY 2019
Even as we observe the centenary of Jallianwala Bagh massacre, we HOLD ALOFT THE BANNER OF STRUGGLE
see that little has changed with regard to rights of the people. Imperialist
exploitation of the country. (It has been discussed in Com. Mahil's article FIGHT FOR JOBS & IN DEFENCE OF JOBS
in this issue). The situation with regard to the democratic rights of the
people continues to be abysmal, rather it has deteriorated in many respects. FIGHT FOR REGULARISATION OF JOBS
Today several laws have provisions even more draconian than the infamours
Rowlatt Bills. Rulers of India, who came to rule after transfer of power by “The first and great necessity of the present to free labour from capitalist
the British, retained all the provisions of criminal law which were meant to slavery,is the passing of a law by which 8 hours will be the normal working
curb the democratic rights of the people like IPC provisions against sedition, day.”
criminal defamation, immunity to Govt. officers for whatever they do,
provisions providing for collective punishment to the people (Section 144 This was the resolution passed in the Founding Convention of National
to 149) to name only a few. Not only retaining such anti-democratic Labour Union in America in 1886, the year that witnessed a spate of workers

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struggles for shorter working day.Chicago became the epicentre of the creation under the NDA rule when he asks, “If there was no job creation in
militant workers movement and the incidents at the Hay Market square in the country why do we not see social unrest which would have been there.”
the first days of May,1886 lead to the birth of May Day. A farce of a trial
was conducted on the violent incidents and four were sentenced to death. While unemployment and job losses are causes of serious concern to
The four believed that capitalism was an evil system based on the the people, a feature in the employment structure of the economy is the
exploitation of the working class for amassing wealth.They believed that it increasing trend towards employment on contract or on temporary basis.
was this system that caused the immiserisation of the people and the In many sectors of the economy it is this segment of the workforce that
terrible conditions in which the working was placed. They contended that constitutes half or more than half of the total workers employed. Low wages,
the struggle of the working class should be directed against this system deplorable work conditions and job insecurity are issues confronting this
while fighting for shorter working hours. That is why they, while being sent large pool of workers engaged in both public and private sectors. On 16-03-
to the gallows, stated that it was only socialism that secured a life of 2018, the NDA government issued a notification to incorporate Fixed Term
dignity for every human being. Fischer,Parson,Engels and Spies, firmly Employment in the Industrial Standing Orders which is another form of
believed in socialism. On the occasion of the 133rd May Day we salute contractualization of labour.Earlier this form of employment was confined
these martyrs and those thousands and thousands of workers who bared to the garment,leather and textile sectors but now it is extended to all
their breast in the struggle for an eight hour working day. sectors. One of the stipulations in this kind of employment is to allow easy
termination of workers without any notice or notice pay.This is one of the
In our country,working class will organise May Day programmes in the gifts to Capital by the Modi government that suits the needs of the capitalists
midst of general elections in which as usual huge promises are being made to realize labour flexibility. It has already begun the process of tailoring the
by ruling class parties to woo the people to vote for them. There were labour laws in the service of native big capital and foreign capital. Welfare
promises in the last 2014 elections too and the BJP-led NDA came to of workers has also come under attack in the last five years.
power. One of the such promises was creation of jobs for the teeming In the last five years there has been an increase in the number of
millions of unemployed in the country. It was said that two crore jobs would industrial accidents and in all such incidents it is the workers who are
be created per year but the reality is otherwise. In the five years of BJP victims. The fifteen miners holed up under water in a 370 feet deep coal
rule there has been an increase in the number of unemployed in the country. mine in Meghalaya in late December,2018, the boiler explosion on November
A report by CMIE states that in the year 2018 the number of people 1,2017 at Unchahar power plant of NTPC in UP claiming the lives of 43 and
unemployed increased by 11 million.It stated that there were 407.9 million the various accidents in industrial areas,in construction sector, in sewers,
employed in 2017 but it came down to 397 million in 2018. It further said in mines demonstrate the utter neglect in implementing safety measures.
that 37 lakh salaried employees lost their jobs in the private sector. The
NSSO Survey done between July 2017 to June 2018 concluded that the Since the last May Day in 2018, many countries in the world witnessed
rate of unemployment in the country is at an all-time high at 6.1% highest a spate of workers’ struggles like the Yellow Vests movement in France
since 1972-73. The surgical strike in the form of demonetization in that is an expression against neo-liberal policies of the rulers. In our country
Novem ber,2016 by Modi had only led t o j ob los ses in the too, there have been mobilisations of workers against the policies of the
garment,textile,automobile and tannery sectors and in small units.Small powers that be. On the occasion of the 133rd May Day let us once again
traders were hit hard. Demonetization,GST have caused job losses and pledge to hold aloft the banner of struggle and reiterate our commitment to
not generation of any employment. Labour intensive sectors like Jute,beedi the cause of building a society that the martyrs of the Chicago struggle
have seen decline in jobs and work days. Self-employment, which dreamt of.
constitutes a significant chunk in overall employment, was also hit hard in {Issued by the National Committee of the Indian Federation of
this period.The data of the EPFO also punctures the claim of job creation.
Yet, Arun Jaitley raises a rather stupid question to support the claim of job Trade Unions (IFTU)}

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Politics of Formation of CPL (ML) despite the obstacles created by reactionaries of all sorts proves that we
have overcome the msin impediment to the formation of a revolutionary
— Response to Criticism party in India. The Co-ordination Committee has thus served as the first
indispensable link in the chain- the process of forming a Marxist Leninist
Amit Chakraborty Party in India". The Coordination Committee concluded that “the political
and organizational needs of the fast developing revolutionary struggles
[Fifty years ago, CPI (M-L) was formed on 22 April in 1969. CPI (M-L) can no longer be adequately met by the Co-ordination Committees. These
occupies a glorious place in the liberation struggle of the Indian people. struggles have to be led and coordinated in an effective manner." To
The CPI (M-L) was formed as a party of the revolutionary communists in consolidate and expand the existing 'areas of struggle', the entire
opposition to the left-wing parliamentary parties. After many major errors revolutionary forces must be fully roused and organized.’ ‘Without a
and mistakes, today CPI (M-L) continues to be a prominent political revolutionary party there can be no revolutionary discipline and without
movement in India.One may differ with CPI(ML) but cannot ignore its revolutionary discipline, the struggles cannot be raised to a higher level. .
presence. The presence of CPI (M-L) in the realm of politics, economy, But the Coordination Committee cannot fulfil the complex political &
culture and ideology is felt every moment. On the 50 years of the foundation organisational tasks arising out of the present stage of revolutionary
of CPI (M-L), let’s try to understand the criticism confronting CPI(M-L) struggle.“
formation.] 2
"All India Co-ordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries "At a time when Communist revolutionaries all over the country have
(AICCCR), which met in a plenary session from 19 to 22 April 1969, given priority to the task of building revolutionary bases in the rural areas,
announces the formation of a revolutionary party, Communist Party of India at a time when the slogan of revolutionary class struggle is rending the
(Marxist Leninist) based on the thought of Mao Tse Tung, on 22nd April sky, it is our immediate duty to form a revolutionary party without which
1969, the one hundredth birthday of Great Lenin- a task it had set itself the advance of revolution is sure to be impeded.’ While taking the decision
eighteenth months ago, in November 1967- and also announces its own to form a party, the Coordination Committee warned against idealist deviation
dissolution after setting up a central organizing committee to hold Congress on the question of formation of a party- “Refusing to accept the inner
at an appropriate time." This announcement of Party formation was made struggle of the party is an idealist deviation which hinders party building. A
on April 22, 1969. CPI (ML) formation has been facing many debates, party should be formed after eliminating all opportunistic antiproletarian
questions and criticisms since its birth. Fifty years after, the debates are tendencies and unwanted elements through class struggle, such an idea is
still going on. In the current article, attempt is made to understand the nothing but a subjective idealism . "To conceive a party without
formation of CPI (M-L) and the controversies surrounding its political contradictions, without the struggle between the opposites", in other words,
positions in the light of Marxism-Leninism. the idea of a pure and perfect party, is indulging in mere idealist fantasy.”
In this context, CPI (M-L) declared clearly in its political resolution that
'It is time to form the Party'
Indian society is semi-colonial semifeudal. Its political proposal stated that,
On 8th February 1969, the Co-ordination Committee of the All India ‘At this stage, the Indian revolution is a new type of democratic revolution
Communist Revolutionaries took this proposal ‘It is time to form the party’. –the peoples democratic revolution- whose main content is agriarian
This proposal stated that – "It is a heartening fact that within the last one revolution, the abolition of feudalism in the countryside.’ In our country the
year, revolutionaries from Assam to Maharashtra have united under the two main pillars of imperialism are feudalism and comprador bureaucratic
banner of All India Coordination Committee and all the centres of capitalism. It is said in clear words, “The Indian people will be liberated
revolutionary peasant struggles are linked with one another through this from the yoke of imperialism and comprador bureaucratic capital by liberating
committee...... The growing unity within the ranks of the revolutionaries themselves from the yoke of feudalism because the struggle against

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feudalism is also a struggle against other two enemies”. In addition to parliamentary path, today they have gone to the reactionary and counter-
describing the situation with full clarity, CPI (M-L) announced - ‘In such a revolutionary camp throughout the whole world. ... has been done to
situation when the revolutionary struggle is fast approaching and the ruling transform the level of the so-called parliamentary party, to be the epitome
classes are frantically trying to suppress those, revisionists have come of the reactionary ruling class". ‘Our party is the party of armed revolution.
forward to do the work for imperialism and local reactionaries. The so- No other way except armed revolution is open to the Indian people. It must
called ‘United Front’ government formed as a ‘weapon of struggle ‘ is be realized that the party cannot be formed separately from the armed
creating an illusion among the people in order to blunt the revolutionary struggle.‘ They announced, ‘The first and foremost task of our party is to
spirit of the people and to divert them from the path of revolutionary awaken the peasantry in the rural areas to start guerrilla warfare, to create
struggle’. In the context of ‘Task before the revolutionary Party’ CPI (M-L) an agrarian revolution, to build rural base areas, to surround the cities and
mentioned that ‘While this revolutionary party is formed in India, it should eventually to use the rural areas and to liberate the whole country. So the
be remembered that Indian party may commit both left and right deviation centre of our activities will be based in rural areas due to the current stage
because the party of India’s working class never gave serious consideration of the Indian revolution.’ ‘Therefore, firstly our party must be a rural based
to the role of peasantry in agricultural revolution.’ There is no doubt that party, not a city-based’. “In order to be able to carry out the protracted
the responsibility of the working class as the leader of the revolution is to armed struggle, the party must work with utmost secrecy and keep
unify the peasantry with the main power of revolution and move to capture underground its main cadres. To develop the revolutionary activities, we
the state power through armed struggle. It said - ‘The basic tactics of the have to learn to take advantage of all possible legal opportunities.' To answer
struggle of revolutionary peasantry led by the working class is guerrilla the question of admission of party members CPI(M-L) fought against all
warfare. We must bear in mind the Chairman’s teaching, “Guerrilla warfare forms of mass membership. It said - ‘A revolutionary party does not become
is the basic, but lose no chance for mobile warfare under favourable a mass party by a large number of workers. The revisionist and parliamentary
condition.” It is not enough for the working-class party to master this parties have set such standards. A revolutionary party became a mass
technique, but also to gather other revolutionary classes behind the main party, with its mass line, a close relationship with the vast masses and the
program of the agrarian revolution. On 22 April 1969, the organizational combination of people together. For a revolutionary party what is essential
resolution of the party was summarized. In summary; the history of the and of primary importance is not the number but the quality of its members.’
Communist Party of India is a continuous struggle between the bourgeois It is also stated that ‘this is the party of the proletariat and this party
positions and proletarian positions, between bourgeois lines and proletarian represents the aspirations and hopes of the revolutionary classes’. ‘Instead
lines and between reactionary leadership and proletarian revolutionary of running economic and cultural activities in cities, its main emphasis is
cadres. A chapter of CPI(ML) document named ‘Ideological and Political on preparing the working class as the leader of the revolution’. It is
unity’ rightly mentioned that “to build a revolutionary party means first and announced that the party will develop a mass line and will be the first on
foremost to develop ideological and political unity. The neo-revisionist party criticism and self-criticism. We will discuss the criticism against the CPI(M-
leadership was able to keep ideological and political issues behind and L) after its formation on 22 April 1969.
keep organizational activities in the forefront by making revolutionary Communist party of India (Marxist-Leninist) and Dakshin Desh
activists fools. Most revolutionary activists were fooled by misconceptions
about party unity and legality and thus played into the hands of the revisionist ‘A few comments on the political proposal of CPI (ML)’ was published
clique. We must take an appropriate lesson from this mistake and above in the Dakshin Desh magazine. (4 th Year, Issue 8) In that article,
everything else should give ideology and politics first place.“ A fundamental they identified their statement as a preliminary opinion. They were saying
question of revolution is the question of state power. On this question, CPI that this discussion is meant to strengthen ‘Unity based on the correct
(M-L) declared itself as a party of armed revolution in India - “Indian ideology and principle’.
revolutionaries today reached consensus on the absurdity of the In the article they stated - “There is no doubt that several strong and
parliamentary path. All the parties that were organized based on revolutionary conclusions have been announced in the political proposal

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which must have a far-reaching impact in the development of revolutionary declared ‘ the strong and revolutionary essence’ and if ‘these things will
struggle of the Indian people . ” help to strengthen the foundations of the unity among the communist
revolutionaries’, then why does the ‘procedural’ criticism become
They also added - ” Declaring Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tse-Tung Thought
determinant?
as a guide to their path, declaring India as a semi-colonial and semi-feudal
country and marking imperialism and social imperialism, comprador In AICCCR’s May 1968 declaration it was announced, “Let us apply his
bureaucratic capital and feudalism as the enemies of the revolution, (Mao-Author) Thoughts in India’s specific condition & organise the Naxalbari
announcement of Agrarian Revolution as the ‘main content’ of the type of struggles and create a true Communist Party of India through that
democratic revolution; above all denouncing the parliamentary path & on struggle, because without the revolutionary party the revolution cannot be
the basis of theory of Peoples War by Com Mao and the theory and the won’. At the time of formation they appealed, “We appeal to all to dissolve
path of great Chinese revolution, by proclaiming the aim of capturing state their groups and organize within the All India Co-ordination Committee of
power through armed revolution - all these declarations proclaim the strong communist revolutionaries. They should understand that the existence of
and revolutionary essence of the proposed political proposal. These things individual groups today is harmful to the interests of Indian revolution’.
will help to strengthen the foundation of the unity am ongst the
Supporters of ‘Dakshin Desh’ joined the AICCCR. Com. Sushil Roy
communist revolutionaries."
(who became the General Secretary of the MCC after the death of Com.
At the same time they have also given their views against ‘some Kanai Chatterjee) in his autobiography (My Memoirs, Utsha Publishers,
imperfections and lack of clarity’ and ‘many misconceptions’ on the political Dhaka, Bangladesh) said, “Dakshin Desh representative in AICCCR raised
proposal. In relation to the contradiction of Indian society, the principal their controversial question about the AICCCR. A new committee was formed
and non principal contradictions – the inter-relation between anti-imperialist dropping our representatives in the name of reconstitution of the committee.
anti-feudal struggle, about nationality problems, on subjective preparations, And in this way we were dissociated from the Co-Ordination Committee
and on the international importance of Indian revolution Dakshin Desh (My Memoirs, p.50).” But it is documented that when the AICCCR was
criticised and analyzed the political proposition of CPI(M-L) . appealing to dissolve all group existence to buildup a party, then ‘Dakshin
Desh’ maintained a separate entity. It will be much more clear if we go
But later on they said - ‘Later, the CPI (M-L) party was suddenly formed
through the minutes of the meeting of Dakshin Desh group during that
consisting of a section of the Coordination Committee. At the time of the
period, which was published by ‘Jalark’ (Bengali Journal), April-September,
party’s formation, the party’s political proposal was published in the
2015 issue.
Deshabrati. MCC criticized this wrong method of forming a Communist
Party, and in a separate article, the party’s political proposal was reviewed A declaration of AICCCR was published on May, 1968. On 23 June,
by dividing them into several points & was published in ‘Dakshin Desh’. 1968 Com. Abani Roy stated in a meeting organized by Dakshin Desh
(On ideological struggle - MCC (Second Edition, January, 2000). group that, “We need to fight against bureaucracy. Comrades from
Deshabrarti are arrogant, they will soon move towards building a party. It is
MCC branded the formation of CPI(M-L) as a ‘sudden’ event but this
unfortunate that Com. Charu Majumdar (CM) is supporting them.” This
word was not used in their article ‘A few words about the political proposal
information proves that the announcement of the establishment of the party
of CPI (M-L)’ which was published immediately after the formation of CPI(M-
on April 22,1969 and the decision on the dissolving of AICCCR on February
L). The proposal ‘This is time to form the party’ was accepted by the
8th,1969 was not a ‘sudden’ announcement as claimed by the MCC.
Coordination Committee on 8th February, 1969. So, on April 22, 1969,
almost two and a half months after the announcement of the decision to It is being said in the proceedings of the meeting of June 30, ‘68 of
form a party, by what logic one can call the event as ‘sudden’? Above all, Dakshin Desh group that, “Up to a level we have coordinated with the
the Co-ordination Committee was established with the aim of forming a coordination(Committee). It was needed. But now it seems, it is taking a
Communist Party to lead the Indian revolution. If their political programme bureaucratic role and is teaching wrong politics.”

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What is this wrong politics about the formation of party? Is it against to organize a secret revolutionary party, not a mass movement. This secret
Leninism? There are no comments on this. party will lead the class struggle.’ But it is not clear where did Com. Sengupta
find the decision not to organise a mass organization. According to the
Communist party of India (Marxist-Leninist) and Com. above mentioned quotation, Com. Charu Mazumdar was giving priority to
Pramod Sengupta creating a secret revolutionary party over building mass movement. Above
all, to criticize CPI (M-L), is it not logical firstly to discuss political proposals
Com. Pramod Sengupta was another critic of CPI (M-L). Com. Sengupta
and programme of CPI(ML)? At the same time it also essential to analyze
was the president of Naxalbari and Krishak Sangram Sahayak Committee.
the statements of its leaders and their activities. Com. Sengupta never
He politically criticized the formationof the CPI (M-L) in his book (Whither
explained logically why the CPI(M-L) is not a Marxist-Leninist party on the
Revolution? Marxism or Terrorism? Chapter - Ideological Struggle is
basis of its political resolution and working policy. On criticizing Com. Charu
Essential).
Majumder’s writings, Com. Sengupta stated, “He ignored the interrelationship
In that chapter he criticized the declaration "The time has come to form of establishment of party and the organization of the mass organization.
a Revolutionary Party’ in the Liberation journal, December 1967. “It is a Without a strong mass organization, a strong party is not formed, the
matter of great regret that Charu Babu and the Coordination Committee opposite is also true.” In defining the limitations or weaknesses of Com.
have completely failed to establish unity. ... they could not get rid of the Charu Majumder’s speech, is he not denying the revolutionary party’s
typical revisionist attitude of their old party and bureaucratic mentality.” leadership role in the mass organization? Com. Charu Majumdar described
The words were written on May 1, 1970, just one year after the historic the real situation of India and identified the existence of the revolutionary
public announcement of establishing the CPI (M-L) party on May 1, 1969. situation. The revolutionary situation means that the people do not want to
be ruled by the old rules, so struggle is inevitable. The real issue is to take
The declaration of party formation was marked as ‘clearly bureaucratic’ this struggle along the revolutionary path. In this situation is it not the
by Com. Pramod Sengupta. What has been said in the declaration? ‘We primary thing to build a party (not one and only task) in the absence of a
are appealing to all revolutionaries who firmly believe in Chairman Mao’s revolutionary party? Com. Charu Majumdar stated this simple fact. The
Thought and revolted against the revisionist, neo-revisionist leadership, CPI (M-L) wanted to do the same thing by announcing the formation of the
but are still maintaining their separate groups to disband their groups and party.
join the All India Co-ordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries.’
One may not agree to the appeal of a committee, but on that ground why In another discussion Com. Sengupta quoted Com. CM as saying: “We
will it be labelled as bureaucratic is not understood. know that when we were under the influence of revisionism we had formed
many organizations and used the party organization as a supplement to
In the next paragraph, it was said that the Committee was another group
trade union work, that’s why we failed to gather the working class behind
like all other groups and their group’s interests became the biggest obstacle
our politics.” Com. Sengupta, has criticized Com. CM, saying that Com.
to the unity of all the communists. He further said ‘They established the
CM has blamed the mass organization to covering his own faults. According
Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) by denying Marxist Leninist
to Com. Sengupta, the failure of the party leadership to spread the right
procedure of formation a Communist Party. Now we have to see whether it
Marxist Leninist politics in the mass organization is a fact &the failure of
is a real communist party or another petty-bourgeois group.’
party leadership is the real truth. But in the very first quotation of CM, it is
After that, he criticized Deshabrati’s writings and activities, along with being said that ‘when we were under the influence of revisionism’ means it
Charu Majumdar. He complained that Com. Charu Majumdar will not go to is due to failure of party’s leadership that party organization became
form mass organizations. But in the support of his opinion Com. Sengupta complementary to the trade union. In this article we are not going to evaluate
quoted - “If anyone thinks that there is a revolutionary situation in India Com. Charu Majumdar’s political idea about the mass organization and the
then they must also acknowledge that today’s first task ( Bold-Author) is mass movement. Here, we want to understand the criticism of Com.

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Sengupta in the context of the politics announced after the formation of the (M-L) leadership’s petty bourgeois class origin and said that the working
CPL (M-L). Unfortunately Com. Pramod Sengupta failed to prove the fallacy class becomes aware of its leadership role through the trade union
of the position of CPI (ML) formed in 22nd April,1969. movements on economic and partial demands.

Communist party of India (Marxist-Leninist) & Com. Asit Sen Com. SNS in his reply said that the first and the foremost task of forming
a proletarian party is its political and ideological character. It is not very
One of the eminent leaders of AICCCR, Com: Asit Sen criticized CPI much clear that on what basis, without any thorough analysis of the political
(M-L) on certain questions in his book, ‘An Approach to Naxalbari’ (Chapter organizational draft documents published after formation of CPI (M-L), Com.
- ‘The revolutionary war led by Party’). In the fifteenth year (third-fourth) of Sen marked it as a petty-bourgeois party. Petty bourgeois class origin of
the Jalark magazine, it was published under the title of the ‘Revolutionary leadership can be an organization’s weakness, but it is not understood
war led by the party’. While speaking about the formation of CPI (M-L), Asit how it plays a decisive role in evaluating its political ideological position.
Sen wrote: ‘Despite all these inconsistencies, this confusion and The difference between weakness and deviation is not mentioned by Com.
contradiction, things were taking a specific form and it was formed on April Asit Sen in his article.
22, 1969. The political and organizational draft that was adopted on this
Com. Asit Sen wrote an article ‘A dangerous line’, in which he highlighted
day and what has already been mentioned several times clearly shows
some important points regarding the formation of the Communist Party,
that Charu Majumdar succeeded in establishing his political organizational
but he has been a victim of idealist deviation on party building and interaction
line on leadership ‘. He also wrote, ‘The first two documents left behind all
of political work among the working class. The vast areas of India where
the elements of factionist and extremist trends, or in different languages,
Communist revolutionaries are working are rural and there is no industrial
such a wetland, where soon the party will be submerged. Most of the
proletariat. They are the vast majority in terms of population. In these
formulations of those two documents were contrary to Marxism-Leninism
regions poor peasants, landless agricultural labourers, unorganized
and Mao Zedong Thought.’ But sadly, Com. Sen failed to enlighten us
workers, are strong allies of industrial proletariat. If the revolutionary agrarian
about how ‘most of the formulations were against Marxism-Leninism and
struggles in rural areas is to be formed in that case the rural areas will be
Mao Zedong thought’. Com Asit Sen further said, ‘In fact, Satyanarayan
the centre of gravity for revolution and naturally poor landless peasants
Singh was the chief commentator of the drafts’. As per his opinion Com:
and rural workers will be involved in larger number than the industrial
Satyanarayan Singh made few new formulations in the name of Marxism-
workers. Com. Asit Sen is self-contradictory on this question.
Leninism, which are nothing but a mockery of his former ideology’. In
response to the writing of Com. Asit Sen, Com. Satyanarayan Singh At one place Com. Sen says: ‘That is why the main thing of Marxism is
published ‘Building up the Proletarian Party & Agrarian Revolution’ that struggle for socialism and labour movement are bound by inseparable
(Liberation, November 1969.) In his article Com. SNS argued against Com. thread, one cannot go far beyond another’. In Communist Manifesto, Marx
Asit Sen, “The real intention is to abandon the rural areas, abandon guerrilla speaks not only of workers movement but also of the working class to
struggles that are breaking feudal fetters in 7 states. ...in the name of stand in front of the nation. Struggle for socialism cannot progress by
building-up proletarian party these gentlemen want to drag us back to the separating workers’ movement from the National Liberation Movement in
revisionist road of class collaboration.” the era of Leninism. So the slogan has become ‘Workers of the world and
oppressed nationalities unite’. Thus, the struggle for socialism cannot be
In his article Com. SNS answered a few questions raised by Com. Asit
compartmentalised in this sectarian way.
Sen. Although Com: Sen supported the notion of armed struggle and building
of rural base areas but he criticized the policy of sending petty bourgeois Shortly after this, Com. Asit Sen writes- ‘The task of building a
cadre to the rural areas. He identified CPI (M-L) as a petty-bourgeois party revolutionary party is involved in two things in an integral way, One - planning
not a party of the working class. He demanded that the proletarian party armed struggle; Two - to unite all revolutionary classes to develop this
should be formed from the working class. Com: Asit Sen criticized the CPI armed struggle and to lead to a fixed goal (p.6). Then it is said that “so the

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main force of the Communist Party must be collected from the labour force”. In 1973, he said - “Due to the failure of correct and actual evaluation of
(p.6) On one hand he says; “The main form of all organizations under the the peasant uprising in Naxalbari by the All India Co-ordination Committee
leadership of the revolutionary party is the organization of the armed forces.” the peasant uprising in Naxalbari was reduced to only one image.” He
He also stated that, “Armed forces of the people can grow only through further said, “The all-India coordination committee’s metaphysical outlook
armed struggle.” And the Armed Forces of this people will be formed mainly on peasant uprisings of Naxalbari and political carelessness breached the
through armed struggle in the rural areas, so the main elements of the unity of the Communist revolutionaries. Utilizing this opportunity this self-
main organization will be collected mainly from the poor landless peasants seeking group hastily formed the CPI (M-L) based on the slogan of guerilla
from the countryside and from rural proletariat - none of them are industrial war is the only path and annihilation is the only strategy and tactics and
workers. Com. Sen repeatedly emphasized the significance of the physical succeeded in creating split permanently.”
presence of the working class. With all respect to the working class it
What do we understand from the above statement? It is clear he says
needs be stated that there is not a single victorious party of protracted
that the leadership of CPI (ML) (except for some exceptions like Kanu
people’s war depending solely on them till date. Whether it is China or
Sanyal) was a schemer and plotter. After that Kanu Sanyal wrote in detail
Vietnam, they won the revolutionary war by establishing proletarian political
about the Chaterhat and the shortcomings of Com. Charu Majumder. In
ideological leadership. This is the uniqueness of semi-feudal semi-colonial
his writings, Charu Majumdar was introduced in the Terai report as, “It is
society. When Com. SNS criticized Com. Asit Sen for being ‘traditional’
true that the revolutionary comrades of the Siliguri sub-division led by our
(Sanatani), he said that this position of Sen was his own interpretation of
respected leader, Comrade Charu Mazumdar were the first to rise in revolt
leading the armed struggle and unifying revolutionary classes – these two
against the revisionists.” But in ‘More about Naxalbari’ he stated that, “From
tasks of building a revolutionary party that are inseparable are being dragged
1967 there is a constant propaganda that eight documents written by Charu
to a self-contradiction and denying the duty to build a party of people’s
Majumder is the source of Naxalbari Peasant uprising. The history of the
war.
communist movement of Darjeeling district from 1965 to 1967 will answer
Com. Asit Sen wrote, ‘The main element of building a revolutionary whether this demand is acceptable or not.”
party is that the working class is still completely separated from this armed
struggle’. If this is assumed to be correct, then does it not deny the duty of Com: Kanu Sanyal published another contradictory position in the
party formation? According to the instructions prepared by the Third assessment of CPI (M-L). In the Parvatipuram conspiracy case, he told a
International regarding the formation of Marxist Leninist party, Com. Asit special magistrate court at Visakhapatnam that “We are members of CPI
(ML). From the long experience of India and the world communist movement,
Sen’s doctrine is wrong. We will discuss this later in details.
we have come to the conclusion that the problems of our country will not
Com. Kanu Sanyal & Com. Asim Chatterjee’s Polemics be solved without first doing the New Democratic Revolution and the second
against Communist party of India (Marxist-Leninist) phase of the Socialist Revolution ([The Voice of Indian Revolution. Pg-III).
He also said, ‘We have learned from CPI (M-L) members from Naxalbari
On May 1, 1969, the announcement of the formation of CPI (M-L) was that the stage of current revolution is Neo-democratic ... we have considered
made by Com. Kanu Sanyal. Com. Asit Sen presided over the meeting. Marxism Leninism & Mao Thought, which has taken science as the guiding
We already know the opinion of Com. Sen. Let’s discuss Com. Kanu Sanyal. ideology of all the social revolutions. There is no place in this universal
truth of any big conspiracy, individual terrorism or a secret event.’
There are two types of Kanu Sanyal in the history of CPI (M-L) and
Naxalbari. One of the Kanu Sanyals was the author of ‘Terai Report’ and On November 4, 1972, a document signed by six CPI (M-L) leaders,
the announcer of CPI (M-L) formation in front of Sahid minar and the other including Kanu Sanyal, appeared in the Frontier magazine. The document
one is the writer of ‘More About Naxalbari’ in 1973, a preacher of 'Chaterhat' consists of 11 proposals, the last proposal sated that, the general direction
and Com. Charu Majumdar’s embezzlement of the lessons from Naxalbari. of CPI(M-L) is right, but its strategy is wrong.

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In the famous meeting of the announcement of formation of the CPI (M- In this essay, he wrote in support of Sanyal’s writings on 30 November,
L) party in 1969, he said – “Our leader Com: Charu Majumdar directed the 1975, “Uphold the true lessons of Naxalbari” and said - “In this article,
development of Naxalbari, in other words, for the first time in our country, Com. Sanyal has shown the correct Marxist- Leninist attitude of searching
the right leadership of Mao Zedong thought in a specific area of India, in for truth.” The whole article can be called an explanatory expansion of
which the heroic peasants of Naxalbari by armed revolt against imperialism, Com. Sanyal’s documents. Com. Asim Chatterjee blindly followed Com.
feudalism, comprador capital, new and old revisionism, lit the torch of Indian Kanu Sanyal during the two-line struggle on Naxalbari, similar to what he
revolution in the Chinese way.” (May 1, '69, Com: Kanu Sanyal’s Speech, said to support CM’s authority in the party congress. Com. Chatterjee
Deshbrati May 8, '69. P.6) evaluated the political line advocated by Com. Charu Majumdar under the
The same Com. Kanu Sanyal in 2013 stated in ‘The History of the CPI guidance of true lessons of Naxalbari. Com. Asim Chatterjee reached the
(ML) from 1969-1972 – An evaluation’ that “Here it is to be made clear that conclusion - ‘The CPI-ML party led by Charu Babu did not have any land
the Unity Conference adopted the name CPI(M-L) for the unified party but policy, it was not accidental at all. This was the inevitable and natural
rejected in its enterity the politics and ideology of the CPI (M-L) formed in result of the Charu Babu’s line.’ In a word, the CPI (M-L) did not have land
1969 – a party that was communist in name but anarchist and terrorist in policy because it was formed on the basis of Charubabu’s anarchist terrorist
practice.” (The Voice of Indian Revolution, p.141) Kanu Sanyal said, “So it lines. Another important statement of Com. Asim Chatterjee is ‘some people
is clear that party was formed on the above basis which rejected politics of want to remain steadfast in judging some of the old documents of CPI (M-
mass approach towards mass struggle, mass organisation and mass armed L) to find out the word ‘Agrarian Revolution’. Is it a decisive factor? ...
struggle. To make it clear, here the guerrilla struggle meant formation of except for the effective part of the operative part, the valuable statements
secret and conspiratorial squads to attack landlords. This line of of the political report are meaningless. These are worthless words.’ We will
understanding advocated by Com. CM was his old line before Naxalbari try to analyze the opinions of Com. Kanu Sanyal and Com: Asim Chatterjee
struggle and the party formed in 1969 was on the basis of anarchism, one by one.
terrorism and it was devoid of working class and peasantry.” (The Voice of Topic (1) As per Com. Sanyal’s opinion, in fact the peasant uprising of
Indian Revolution, p.148) Com: Kanu Sanyal said with emphasis on the Naxalbari is a live protest1 of eight documents written by Com. Charu
writing that the terrorist line of killing a person in the name of class enemy Majumdar. To discuss the matter in detail we quote from a booklet published
annihilation was practiced in Somepata Taluk of Andhra Pradesh in 1968 by CPI (M-L) (New Democracy) on the occasion of Fifty Years of Naxalbari–
(reporting of this struggle mentioned in CPI (M-L) documents) proved that
Com. Charu Majumdar’s formulation was active before the formation of
"A lot of leaders and cadres contributed to the Naxalbari Struggle.
CPI(M-L). Let’s look at the opinion of Com. Kanu Sanyal.
Com: Charu Majumdar’s special role is that he recognized programmatic
In the same writing, he wrote a comment about the authority of Charu aspects of revolutionary politics that has been recognized as a working
Majumdar by Asim Chatterjee, where Com. Asim Chatterjee said, “If the policy of AICCCR and CPI (M-L). In a word the class character of Indian
entire COC goes against the authority of Com. CM – I would be on the side state and society (semi feudal and semi colonial), the direction of new
of Com. CM.” Such discussion in the party congress was supported by democratic and agrarian revolution, armed struggle and protracted peoples
Com. Shyam Sundar Bose [Looking Back, Jalark (2nd chapter)]. Com Sanyal war in opposition to parliamentary path, firmly upheld Marxism-Leninism-
mentioned that Com. Sushital Roychoudhury and Com. SNS stood against Mao Zedong thought as the guiding ideology as well as stood firm against
authority, which was also supported by Com. Shyamsundar Bose. But it the revisionist influence in peasant movement. Mainly because of his
must not be forgotten that in 1971 Com. Kanu Sanyal supported the authority strong political position, Naxalbari struggle moved ahead and was able to
of Com. CM and threatened those who were against it, sadly this part is draw a clear separation with revisionism. This is the historical role of
missing in Com. Sanyal's writings on authority. Com. Charu Majumdar in Naxalbari struggle. In this case his physical
Let us talk about a document written by Com. Asim Chatterjee in 1975. presence in the real movement is not important.

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It is true that the eight documents were based on the contemporary We can talk about not only ‘Terai Report’ which was published after
thoughts of Com. Charu Majumdar. On one side these documents Naxalbari uprising but the famous speech (May 1, 1969) on party foundation
programmatically and ideologically stood against revisionism and showed day by Com. Kanu Sanyal. The speech that was published in Deshabrati
revolutionary direction but on the other side these documents denied the was as follows, “Naxalbari has stirred up the whole of India and the whole
importance of mass organization and in the name of combat group world because that is the correct application of Mao Tsetung Thought in
advocated left sectarian line. Mass character of revolution, importance specific condition of India. Our leader, Com. Charu Majumdar directed
of mass movement- mass organization were rejected and individual the development of Naxalbari, in fact for the first time in our country, he
terrorist line in the name of guerilla action (annihilation) was promoted. In led us to conscious application of Mao Tsetung Thought in specific
the name of the new era, protracted people’s war, formation of the base conditions of India. Due to that the valiant peasants of Naxalbari started
area were rejected and a line of quick victory was propagated. These armed rebellion against imperialism, feudalism, comprador capital, new
documents considered only offence but no defense. These also failed to and old revisionism and are marching ahead with the torch of Indian
consider China’s cultural revolution as a class struggle under socialism, revolution in the Chinese way." (May 1, 1969, Speech Com: Kanu Sanyal,
and considered as a separate stage as part of the Indian cultural revolution. Deshbrati, May 8 , 1969) He also added, “In 1965 when our respected
In the name of cultural revolution was encouraged burning of statues, leader Com. Charu Majumdar revolted against Sundaraya, Ranadive,
schools, colleges, libraries etc, also presented China’s Chairman as our Nambudiripad, Pramod, Jyoti, the neo-revisionist leadership clique and
Chairman in the name of world revolution. Many other leaders had a role urged the revolutionaries of Marxist party to create an armed struggle of
to play in developing and practicing these wrong lines, but for these peasants, he also faced some ugly insults in those days. Pramod,
deviations, the role of Com. Charu Majumdar must be acknowledged. Harekesda said that he was mad, mentally ill, declared him publicly as a
Such ‘left’ deviations have led to immense losses in Indian revolution police agent, created a fascist climate within the party, so that no one
and revolutionary organization. can read the documents of Com. Charu Majumder or meet him. But the
agents could not stop the voice of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung
This is based on true and real events. But this does not mean that
Thought. All India answered to Com. Charu Majumder’s call and we the
Com. Charu Majumdar did not contribute to Naxalbari struggle. Some
revolutionaries of Darjeeling District were always inspired by the analysis
people argued that those eight documents were written (January 28, 1965-
of Com. Charu Majumdar.” (ibid, p.7) After this, comments are useless.
April, 1967) before the Naxalbari uprising and actually applied in Chaterhat
and Islampur region. Movements of those regions failed as they were A fake logic is being presented that the eight documents do not mention
following Com. CM’s line of organizing combat unit, rifle snatching, the current struggle of Naxalbari, which proved that Comrade Charu
annihilation of class enemy and, by using of those techniques, building Majumdar was not concerned about Naxalbari. It does prove the opposite,
up base area. Com. CM’s line was never practiced in Naxalbari. So as that Com. Charu Majumder was not limited by localism but concerned
per their opinion Naxalbari is a living protest against Com. Charu about India and the world. At that time Naxalbari was not developed to a
Majumdar’s line. After the martyrdom of Com. Charu Majumdar this opinion qualitatively new stage. Those who want to claim that they are the creators
was strongly promoted by Com. Kanu Sanyal, a prominent leader of the of Naxalbari movement; strangely one can’t find a theoretical writing by
Naxalbari movement, who presented his views in a document called ‘More them in those days. This proves that politically, they were not in a position
about Naxalbari’. We hope comrades will not mind if we present some to compose any theoretical or political writings beyond Com. Charu
objective criticism against Com. Sanyal after his death as he had Majumdar. And their proposal for negotiations with the United Front during
vehemently attacked Com. Charu Majumdar after his martyrdom. the Naxalbari movement! Imagine if Com: Charu Majumdar accepted that,
what would have happened to the Naxalbari struggle? It is clear that Com.
The first thing, to say something about any comrade before his death
Charu Majumdar never changed his revolutionary stand.
and to say something different after his death i.e. cannot be said in front
of him but behind him, this type of people always lose their credibility. Com. Charu Majumdar’s eight documents not only talked about combat

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groups but there multiple strategic issues were explained. Naxalbari no clear camps. The conflict of the old peasant workers with student-
struggle was not created by the tactical debate of combat group or mass intellectual workers was not seen in this way as the conflict between
movement. Local people’s movements, international struggle against Com. Charu Majumdar and another group. Com. Charu Majumdar was
revisionism, creating new democratic societies by using armed resistance respected by all. Charu Majumder also repeatedly declared that he was
against imperialism and feudalism, the politics of agrarian revolution and not the creator of Naxalbari struggle, but rather Comrades Kanu Sanyal,
massive popularity of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought, all of them Jungle Santal, Khokon Majumdar and others were. No one knew about
contributed to Naxalbari struggle. It is an undeniable fact that none other any type of contradiction between those leaders and Com. Charu Majumdar
than Com. Charu Majumdar was the leader of the above mentioned when he was alive. They did not have the ‘wisdom’ which appeared later
struggles. Forget about any revolt without the above mentioned politics among some leaders, but before that they all accepted Com. Charu
any mass movement would be clogged in economic demands or legalism. Majumdar as their leader. Therefore, in today’s 50 years of Naxalbari
movement, it is hoped that Com. Charu Majumdar will receive his deserved
Some people are insisting that Com. CM’s line was implemented in
respect - he will get recognition of his special role in Naxalbari struggle.
Islampur and Chaterhat region and that’s why there people’s movement
did not flourish. Some followers of a prominent political personality stated Com. Kanu Sanyal said, “…Using this opportunity the vicious group
that Naxalbari is not only a dividing line between the revolutionary path hurriedly formed the CPI (M-L) based on the slogan of guerilla war is the
and revisionist path but at the same time it also demarcated between the only way and annihilation is the only strategy and tactics, which led them
left adventurism and the true left (Chaterhat vs Naxalbari). In this way to proceed to the breakdown permanently.”
they try to recreate history. First of all, if Naxalabri never implemented
Let us look at the above mentioned statement by Com. Kanu Sanyal
Com. CM’s line then whose line was implemented over there? Is there
and supported by Com. Asim Chatterjee (when he was a comrade). Firstly,
any political thesis written by the so called prominent leader before
on April 22, 1969, there was no such understanding as the guerrilla warfare
Naxalbari? Secondly, the concept of two different practices for Naxalbari
is the only strategy and annihilation of class enemy is the only tactics in
and Chaterhat is debatable. Some mentioned that it was a debate between
the political resolution of CPI (M-L). In the political resolution of CPI (M-
new cadres from student front and old peasant cadres of that region. To
L), the work of ‘Revolutionary Party’ has been said - ‘The main strategy
resolve the contradiction among the cadres, two different regions were
of the revolutionary peasantry led by the working class is the Guerrilla
distributed among them, but none of them was against Com. Charu
war’. We must keep in mind the Chairman’s teachings, “Guerilla warfare
Majumdar or his theoretical conclusions. It was also debatable whether
is the basic, but in a favorable condition we will not leave any chance to
that decision was taken as per Com. CM’s advice or not? Today we can’t
fight a mobile warfare.” After a thorough search we have failed to find a
confirm that as all of these debates began after Com:CM’s martyrdom.
single word which can support Com. Sanyal and Com. Chatterjee’s opinion,
During the Naxalbari struggle left adventurist attitude was not fully even the word ‘Annihilation’ is also missing from the political resolution
developed, even Com. CM was not against mass organization and mass of CPI (M-L).
movements. Com. CM did promote some left adventurist concepts
(Footnotes)
regarding combat group but the positive side is that he always stressed
on developing armed volunteers (whatever the name) alongside the mass
1
‘Left Extremist Movement in West Bengal: An Experiment in Armed Agrarian
organization and in addition to open activities, he highlighted the need to Struggle’ written by police officer Amiya Kumar Samantha published some
create secret work and secret organizations from the beginning of the letters of Com: Majumdar.
movement. Although there was a very simple unrealistic view of the The letters that had been confiscated by the police explained that Com: Charu
capture of guns and the base areas, nevertheless, those who are talking Majumdar’s had living contacts with the movement and its organizers as a
about the clear division with the left deviation in Naxalbari struggle are leader.
unrealistic, and are not supported by actual history. Until then there were (To be concluded)

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