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Politics and the State–151

peting special interests that serve ethnic- cal life in the 1930s, in response to the Great
specific organizations, a key mechanism for Depression, and flourished into the 1970s un-
growth and development involves coalition til the breakdown of the international mone-
building among various CBOs within and be- tary regime, economic crises in the mass pro-
yond their own racial and ethnic communi- duction industries, and fiscal contradictions
ties. In doing so, individual ethnic-specific in the welfare state jump started the neolib-
organizations can help pool resources among eral political project.
many different communities to sustain com- Neoliberalism is rooted in classical eco-
munity programs and mobilize immigrants’ nomic liberalism but differs from its philo-
rights. More importantly, Tseng shows how sophical parent in two important respects.
coalition building among different ethnic The classical doctrine pertains to the econo-
groups can collectively empower communi- my alone, while neoliberalism extends the
ties across different groups. market model to the political sphere and to
The book is a useful reference for re- social relations in general. The nineteenth
searchers who would like to have a broad- century version depicts the market as natural
based understanding of non-profit community- and self-regulating, while neoliberalism at-
based immigrant and/or refugee organiza- tempts to bring the utopia to life via law and
tions. It might also be a good book to use in public policy.
undergraduate courses on immigration, com- Pure in principle, neoliberalism is always
munity studies, and race and minority rela- diluted in practice. As the doctrine spreads
tions, especially those that have a specific among geographical areas and sectors of so-
focus on CBOs. cial life, it weighs into the balance of local
political forces, faces competing institutional
legacies, and combines with other gover-
nance practices. Consequently, the neoliber-
POLITICS AND THE al city is always in the act of becoming.
STATE Jason Hackworth, a geography and plan-
ning professor at the University of Toronto,
organizes The Neoliberal City around a series
The Neoliberal City: Governance, Ideology, of contrasts between the Keynesian manage-
and Development in American Urbanism, by rial city and the neoliberal city—in social
Jason Hackworth. Ithaca, NY: Cornell thought, in methods of local governance, in
urban form, in patterns of uneven develop-
University Press, 2006. 225pp. $22.95 paper.
ment, and in public activism. He analyzes the
ISBN: 9780801473036.
mechanisms of “neoliberalization” driving
RICHARD CHILD HILL each transition and provides empirical stud-
Michigan State University ies of individual cities to flesh out the con-
hillrr@msu.edu trasts. Emphasis is mainly on the inner city,
where the vestiges of the Keynesian welfare
A neoliberal city is a city whose mode of state are still most visible.
governance, social structure, and spatial de- Keynesian urban governance is character-
velopment express the neoliberal vision of a ized by managerialism, that is, by an empha-
free market utopia. Economic progress in the sis on national regulation, local participation
neoliberal city springs from individual initia- in federal programs, strong city administra-
tive and unfettered markets in land, labor, tion, and commitment to decent standards of
and money. Government is modeled on the collective consumption. The neoliberal coun-
enterprise, the citizen on the consumer, and terpart, urban entrepreneurialism, devolves
governance on business management. regulatory power from national to local au-
Neoliberalism’s bete noire is Keynesian thorities, diffuses local government authority
liberalism, sometimes called “embedded” or to public/private partnerships, and empha-
“egalitarian” liberalism because Keynes pre- sizes public choice and unregulated growth.
scribed government regulation, demand Urban form in the Keynesian era is char-
management, and progressive taxation to acterized by suburban growth, inner city de-
ameliorate the excesses of free market capi- cline, regulated development, and public in-
talism. The Keynesian project entered politi- vestment in infrastructure. The neoliberal
Contemporary Sociology 37, 2
152–Politics and the State

city, by contrast, evinces investment in the in- supposed to address, as in his profiles of
ner city and in the exurbs, declining inner Phoenix mega-projects. But never mind.
ring suburbs, slack land use controls, and re- Hackworth adeptly applies the neoliberal
duced public investment. The Keynesian fo- problematic to the urban scene, he offers a
cus on public housing in the inner city shifts fine survey and synthesis of relevant litera-
to the neoliberal emphasis on gentrification ture, and his empirical studies provide sign
and commercial mega-projects. The gentri- posts for future researchers to follow.
fiers themselves also change as profit-seeking The Neoliberal City’s critical edge may at-
land development firms replace individual tract students since a national reaction
owner-occupiers. against neoliberalism appears to be at hand.
Attempts to alter the course of neoliberal And none too soon.
urbanization are seldom successful. Move-
ments to preserve past Keynesian gains in
public housing, welfare, and other services Selecting by Origin: Ethnic Migration in the
tend to be fragmented and co-opted by ne- Liberal State, by Christian Joppke.
oliberal social policy. Anti-globalization Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,
movements are diffuse and focus on corpo- 2005. 344pp. $54.50 cloth. ISBN: 0674015592.
rations, not cities. Movements challenging
gentrification and downtown mega-projects THOMAS JANOSKI
are usually site specific. Economic justice and University of Kentucky
collective ownership movements are small in tjanos@uky.edu
scale. Activists opposing neoliberal urbaniza-
tion are tactically and ideologically divided, In 1999, Christian Joppke wrote Immigration
and they are grappling with a discourse that, and the Nation-State: the United States, Ger-
for many Americans, has become a taken for many and Great Britain, in which he
granted understanding of city life. showed that nation-states were resilient in
The mechanisms for neoliberalization are their immigration policies and that sovereign-
several, and Hackworth never puts them all ty was still important. Although each country
together in one place, but the basic argument dealt with similar issues, the nation-state
goes something like this. National cutbacks largely controlled its destiny and constructed
in urban expenditures require cities to find citizenship in different ways. In 2005, Joppke
new sources of revenue. Deregulation of fi- takes each of the case studies from the pre-
nance simultaneously expands the range and vious books and pairs them with another
availability of private capital. Federal re- country: the US with Australia, the UK with
trenchment and the devolution of revenue France, and Germany with Israel. He also
raising responsibility to localities forces cities adds another pair—Spain and Portugal. He
to compete for resources in the private capi- views each country as representative of a
tal market. The upshot is that profit-driven fi- geographic-historical constellation—settler,
nancial institutions (commercial banks, post-colonial, and diaspora states—and fur-
thrifts, institutional investors), and their inter- ther divides the post-colonial constellation
mediaries, like bond rating agencies, replace into Northwest (NW) and Southwest (SW)
federal regulatory agencies as overseers of empires. Each of these constellations differ:
urban development and they wield enor- 1) the settler constellation is open to immi-
mous “disciplinary authority” over cities gration from Europe but has had to deal with
through their ability to turn the capital spigot their past exclusionary policies toward
on and off. Asians; 2) the post-Colonial regimes are
The empirical documentation in The Ne- somewhat bifurcated with the NW regime
oliberal City is sometimes persuasive, as in closing from its previously open position of
Hackworth’s case studies of bond rating the British and French empires, and the SW
agencies, public housing, and gentrification. constellation using unilateral treaties with
But the evidence can also be thin, as in his South America to “filter in” culturally similar
study of public/private partnerships in New immigrants; and 3) the diasporic constella-
Brunswick, and inconclusive, as in his census tions of Germany and Israel are the most eth-
based projections of changes in urban form; nic since they privilege an ethnic or religious
and not in touch with the issues the data are diaspora. As a result, he classifies Israel and
Contemporary Sociology 37, 2