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In philosophical, theological, or moral discussions, corruption is spiritual or moral impurity

or deviation from an ideal. Corruption may include many activities including bribery and

embezzlement. Government, or 'political', corruption occurs when an office-holder or other

governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain. The word corrupt when used

as an adjective literally means "utterly broken". The word was first used by Aristotle and later by

Cicero who added the terms bribe and abandonment of good habits. Morris, a professor of politics,

corruption is the illegitimate use of public power to benefit a private interest. Economist I. Senior

defines corruption as an action to (a) secretly provide (b) a good or a service to a third party (c) so

that he or she can influence certain actions which (d) benefit the corrupt, a third party, or both (e)

in which the corrupt agent has authority.

Corruption is sometimes associated with authority. When people had authority, they take

this opportunity to deceived the ones lower than them. As they say, it is already rooted in the

society. From the studies, here in the Philippines, a lot of politicians are involved in this kind of

activities. Not only in the government sectors, had almost all institutions involved corruption. I

have touched this issue since it is viral and the current issue in our country.

The mass or the lower rank people are the victims of this kind of immoral act of those who

are in authority. Transparencies among the documents are imperceptible and the real purposes of

it were not realized. Corruption is the number one of the social problems in the Philippines and

most ASIAN countries that causes poverty and other social problems like pollution,

unemployment, recession and inflation.



From further readings in the internet, corruption can occur on different scales. There is

corruption that occurs as small favors between a small number of people (petty corruption),

corruption that affects the government on a large scale (grand corruption), and corruption that is

so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the

symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption). Petty corruption occurs at a smaller scale and

within established social frameworks and governing norms. Examples include the exchange of

small improper gifts or use of personal connections to obtain favors. This form of corruption is

particularly common in developing countries and where public servants are significantly

underpaid. Grand corruption is defined as corruption occurring at the highest levels of government

in a way that requires significant subversion of the political, legal and economic systems. Such

corruption is commonly found in countries with authoritarian or dictatorial governments but also

in those without adequate policing of corruption. The government system in many countries is

divided into the legislative, executive and judiciary branches in an attempt to provide independent

services that are less prone to corruption due to their independence. Systemic corruption (or

endemic corruption)[5] is corruption which is primarily due to the weaknesses of an organization

or process. It can be contrasted with individual officials or agents who act corruptly within the

system. Factors which encourage systemic corruption include conflicting incentives, discretionary

powers; monopolistic powers; lack of transparency; low pay; and a culture of impunity. Specific

acts of corruption include "bribery, extortion, and embezzlement" in a system where "corruption

becomes the rule rather than the exception." Scholars distinguish between centralized and

decentralized systemic corruption, depending on which level of state or government corruption

takes place; in countries such as the Post-Soviet states both types occur.

Corruption can occur in different sectors, whether they be public or private industry or even

NGOs. Public sector corruption is a corruption of the political process and of government agencies

such as the police. Recent research by the World Bank suggests that who makes policy decisions

(elected officials or bureaucrats) can be critical in determining the level of corruption because of

the incentives different policy-makers face . Political corruption is the abuse of public power,

office, or resources by elected government officials for personal gain, e.g. by extortion, soliciting

or offering bribes. It can also take the form of office holders maintaining themselves in office by

purchasing votes by enacting laws which use taxpayers' money. Evidence suggests that corruption

can have political consequences- with citizens being asked for bribes becoming less likely to

identify with their country or region. However, police corruption is a specific form of police

misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, other personal gain, and/or career advancement

for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an

investigation or arrest. One common form of police corruption is soliciting and/or accepting bribes

in exchange for not reporting organized drug or prostitution rings or other illegal activities.

Another example is police officers flouting the police code of conduct in order to secure

convictions of suspects — for example, through the use of falsified evidence. More rarely, police

officers may deliberately and systematically participate in organized crime themselves. In most

major cities, there are internal affairs sections to investigate suspected police corruption or

misconduct. Similar entities include the British Independent Police Complaints Commission.

There is also judicial corruption which refers to corruption related misconduct of judges, through

receiving or giving bribes, improper sentencing of convicted criminals, bias in the hearing and

judgement of arguments and other such misconduct. Governmental corruption of judiciary is

broadly known in many transitional and developing countries because the budget is almost

completely controlled by the executive. The latter undermines the separation of powers, as it

creates a critical financial dependence of the judiciary. The proper national wealth distribution

including the government spending on the judiciary is subject of the constitutional economics.

In systemic corruption and grand corruption, multiple methods of corruption are used

concurrently with similar aims. Bribery is the improper use of gifts and favors in exchange for

personal gain. This is also known as kickbacks or, in the Middle East, baksheesh. It is the most

common form of corruption. The types of favors given are diverse and include money, gifts, sexual

favors, company shares, entertainment, employment and political benefits. The personal gain that

is given can be anything from actively giving preferential treatment to having an indiscretion or

crime overlooked. Bribery can sometimes be part of a the systemic use of corruption for other

ends, for example to perpetrate further corruption. Bribery can make officials more susceptible to

blackmail or extortion. Another methods are embezzlement and theft involve someone with access

to funds or assets illegally taking control of them. Fraud involves using deception to convince the

owner of funds or assets to give them up to an unauthorized party. Examples include the

misdirection of company funds into "shadow companies" (and then into the pockets of corrupt

employees), the skimming of foreign aid money, scams and other corrupt activity. While bribery

is the use of positive inducements for corrupt aims, extortion and blackmail centre around the use

of threats. This can be the threat of violence or false imprisonment as well as exposure of an

individual's secrets or prior crimes. This includes such behavior as an influential person threatening

to go to the media if they do not receive speedy medical treatment (at the expense of other patients),

threatening a public official with exposure of their secrets if they do not vote in a particular manner,

or demanding money in exchange for continued secrecy.

Corruptions in the society are inevitable. It is almost all around the institutions and the

cause of it is the love of money. R. Klitgaard postulates that corruption will occur if the corrupt

gain is greater than the penalty multiplied by the likelihood of being caught and prosecuted: The

degree of corruption will then be a function of the degree of monopoly and discretion in deciding

who should get how much on the one hand and the degree to which this activity is accountable and

transparent on the other hand. Still, these equations (which should be understood in a qualitative

rather than a quantitative manner) seem to be lacking one aspect: a high degree of monopoly and

discretion accompanied by a low degree of transparency does not automatically lead to corruption

without any moral weakness or insufficient integrity. Also, low penalties in combination with a

low probability of being caught will only lead to corruption if people tend to neglect ethics and

moral commitment. The degree of corruption is equated to monopoly and discretion without

transparency and morality. According to Stephan, the moral dimension has an intrinsic and an

extrinsic component. The intrinsic component refers to a mentality problem, the extrinsic

component to external circumstances like poverty, inadequate remuneration, inappropriate work

conditions and inoperable or overcomplicated procedures which demoralize people and let them

search for “alternative” solutions. According to the amended Klitgaard equation, limitation of

monopoly and regulator discretion of individuals and a high degree of transparency through

independent oversight by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the media plus public

access to reliable information could reduce the problem. Any extrinsic aspects that might reduce

morality should be eliminated. Additionally, a country should establish a culture of ethical conduct

in society with the government setting the good example in order to enhance the intrinsic morality.

One of the hottest issues in the Philippines is the Napoles Pork-Barrel Scam. A 10-Billion

Pork -Barrel Scam which results to the investigation of the different politicians who were allegedly

involved in the seven bogus non-government organizations (NGO) allegedly controlled by Mrs.

Napoles. The government scrutinized the documents of these fake NGO’s manned by Napoles, the

alleged mastermind corrupt of the money of the government. If you are going to connect this to

ethical point of view, we may say that the kind of person Mrs. Napoles is like an egoistic person

who only think of her own welfare robbing the government money. A lot of government employees

shows their anguish feeling that the taxes they are paying is not of worth since they went to wrong

people’s pockets. It is unjustifiable and inhuman to claim something that does not belongs to you.

In the utilitarian point of view in ethics, to a utilitarian, the choice that yields the greatest benefit

to the most people is the choice that is ethically correct. One benefit of this ethical theory is that

the utilitarian can compare similar predicted solutions and use a point system to determine which

choice is more beneficial for more people . On the part of Mrs. Napoles, she only thinks of her

welfare instead of her obligation to put the money to its rightful purpose like implementation of

government projects. Instead of doing so, fake documents and ghost projects were the results of

the egoistic behavior of the corrupt NGO head.


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations


Corruption is both a major cause and a result of poverty around the world. It occurs at all

levels of society, from local and national government, to the judiciary, to civil society, to large and

small businesses, to the military, etc. Corruption tends to affect the poorest sectors of society the

most, regardless of whether it takes place in rich or poor nations.

Civil society plays an important role in controlling and preventing corruption. There are

many challenges facing anti-corruption movements because corruption was built systematically

by parties who seek profit only for themselves. Corruption can be defined as a strategy to control

public resources and the ability of the oligarchy (defined as a social alliance among the

bureaucracy, the military, and cronies) to gain state concessions. If the people especially those who

are affected of corruption will work hand and hand to eradicate it, will lessen the effect of it. The

Napoles Pork-Barrel Scam is one of those examples of corruption here in the Philippines that gives

an eye opener to the people to fight for their right, to claim what they should have and to stand for

the truth. Trust in the government is jeopardizing due to this kind of immoral act. It is a chaotic

scenario when the followers do not believe in the leadership of their government. The need to

prevent this involved the concerned people to act and do some movements. As they say, make your

first step in order to pursue a great and novel goal.

There are a lot of methods in corruption. As such are bribery, theft, extortion and the use

of authority. People tend to belittle others due to lower rank in the society. Some use the innocence

or ignorance of other people to deceive them.

Conclusions :

It difficult to control corruption where there is limited access to mass media. If the local

government is distant from the central government, and is therefore not under the central

government's direct control, it has greater freedom to carry out corrupt practices. Corruption tends

to fall by the wayside as an issue to be addressed as the central government views the restoration

of security as a higher priority. Elections tend to be rife with corruption because they open the door

to bribery, and they can also allow a corrupt politician to gain a government position and thereby

entrench corruption even further. Political corruption can be seen as a marriage between politics

and business. Corrupt political practices can develop when politicians and businessmen are in a

symbiotic relationship. Those who engage in corruption often work hard to block anti-corruption

measures. It is extremely condemnable to have abused the authority given to you. It is not ethical

to get what is not yours. Money is not the root of all evil but the love of it is the real root of all

evil. If we tend to think much of our own self rather than of the welfare of the many, we are putting

ourselves in a manner that might lead us to deceiving others. This situation leads the politician or

those who are in authority to corruption.


Corruption is deeply rooted in politics and cannot be eradicated only through good governance

prescriptions or technical solutions. Institutional reform is important, but it is not enough to

eradicate corruption. The fight against corruption is part of a much larger battle against entrenched,

predatory actors. A genuine victory over corruption can only take place, therefore, as part of a

larger and more fundamental process of confronting predatory elites at both the national and local

levels with sustained and effective social action. Limited access by civil society organizations

(CSOs) to information about the use of public funds, such as taxes and the budget, presents a

substantial challenge to civil society action. CSOs have limited power to influence anti-corruption

policy making. Anti-corruption is a universal value. Since society often condemns corrupt

practices, it is easier for civil society organizations to develop an anti-corruption movement. Free

media can support efforts to eliminate corrupt practices. Unrestricted and readily available news

about corrupt practices can push society to be more actively engaged in issues surrounding public

officials’ use of public finance budgets. The ethical principle of justice should prevail in our

country now. The justice ethical principle states that ethical theories should prescribe actions that

are fair to those involved. This means that ethical decisions should be consistent with the ethical

theory unless extenuating circumstances that can be justified exist in the case. This also means that

cases with extenuating circumstances must contain a significant and vital difference from similar

cases that justify the inconsistent decision. An ethical decision that contains justice within it has a

consistent logical basis that supports the decision. Mrs. Napoles should be given a punishment due

to her and those who are involved whoever they may be. A fair judgment will give justice to the

taxpayers, the masses. If honesty prevails in all of the leaders of our government and in institutions,

there will no way for corruption to happen. Thus, our president, President Benigno Aquino Jr., is

pushing honesty to all as one of the policies that will prevent government employees and officials

to corruption. The policies of departments and agencies of the government can be understood as

statements of commitment on the part of those governmental organizations, and hence of

individuals in them, to conduct their affairs according to the rules and procedures that constitute

those policies. In this sense, policies create ethical obligations. When a department or agency

adopts a particular policy, it in effect promises to make reasonable efforts to abide by it. At least

where participation in the organization is voluntary, and where the organization's defining purpose

is morally legitimate to assume a role in the organization is to assume the obligations that attach

to that role. Depending upon their roles in the organization, particular individuals may have a

greater or lesser responsibility for helping to ensure that the policy commitments of the

organization are honored. As the saying, honesty is the best policy. Are we honest enough to be

able to control our life? A simple act of honesty will eradicate the so called CORRUPTION.



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