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# 1. Two satellites of equal mass, S1 and S2, orbit the Earth.

## S1 is orbiting at a distance r from the

v
Earth’s centre at speed v. S orbits at a distance 2r from the Earth’s centre at speed 2 . The
2
ratio of the centripetal force on S1 to the centripetal force on S2 is

1
A. 8.

1
B. 4.

C. 4.

D. 8.
(1)

s a te llite

E a rth

## (a) Draw on the diagram

(i) an arrow labelled F to show the direction of the gravitational force of the Earth on
the satellite.

(ii) an arrow labelled V to show the direction of the velocity of the satellite.
(2)

1
(b) Although the speed of the satellite is constant, it is accelerating. Explain why it is
accelerating.

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(2)

(c) Discuss whether or not the gravitational force does work on the satellite.

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(3)
(Total 7 marks)

3. This question is about forces on charged particles in electric and magnetic fields.

The diagram shows two parallel plates situated in a vacuum. One plate is at a positive potential
with respect to the other.

P a th o f p o s itiv e ly c h a rg e d p a rtic le

2
A positively charged particle passes into the region between the plates. Initially, the particle is
travelling parallel to the plates.

## (a) On the diagram,

(i) draw lines to represent the electric field between the plates.
(3)

(ii) show the path of the charged particle as it passes between, and beyond, the plates.
(2)

(b) An electron is accelerated from rest in a vacuum through a potential difference of 750 V.

## (i) Determine the change in electric potential energy of the electron.

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(2)

7 –1
(ii) Deduce that the final speed of the electron is 1.6 × 10 m s .

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(2)

The diagram below shows a cross-section through a current-carrying solenoid. The current is
moving into the plane of the paper at the upper edge of the solenoid and out of the plane of the
paper at the lower edge. There is a vacuum in the solenoid.

C u rre n t in to p la n e o f p a p e r
× × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × ×

C u rre n t o u t p la n e o f p a p e r

3
(c) (i) Sketch lines to represent the magnetic field inside and at each end of the solenoid.
(4)

(ii) A positively charged particle enters the solenoid along its axis. On the diagram,
show the path of the particle in the solenoid.
(1)

An electron is injected into a region of uniform magnetic field of flux density 4.0 mT. The
7 –1
velocity of the electron is 1.6 × 10 m s at an angle of 35° to the magnetic field, as shown
below.

1 .6 × 1 0 7 m s –1

35°
D ire c tio n o f m a g n e tic fie ld

(d) (i) Determine the component of the velocity of the electron normal to the direction of
the magnetic field.

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(2)

(ii) Describe, making calculations where appropriate, the motion of the electron due to
this component of the velocity.

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(4)

4
(iii) Determine the component of the velocity of the electron along the direction of the
magnetic field.

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(1)

(iv) State and explain the magnitude of the force on the electron due to this component
of the velocity.

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(2)

(e) With reference to your answers in (d), describe the shape of the path of the electron in the
magnetic field. You may draw a diagram if you wish.

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(2)
(Total 25 marks)

## (a) Define the work done by a force.

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(2)

5
A body of mass m is in a gravitational field of strength g. The body is moved through a distance
h at constant speed v in the opposite direction to the field.

## (i) m, g and h, for the work done on the body;

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(2)

## (ii) m, g and v, for the power required to move the body.

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(2)

(c) A mass falls near the Earth’s surface at constant speed in still air. Discuss the energy
changes, if any, that occur in the gravitational potential energy and in the kinetic energy
of the mass.

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(3)

6
A sample of an ideal gas is contained in a cylinder fitted with a piston, as shown below.

P is to n
Id e a l g a s

C y lin d e r

(d) (i) Explain, in terms of molecules, what is meant by the internal energy of the gas.

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(2)

(ii) The piston is suddenly moved inwards, decreasing the volume of the gas. By
considering the speeds of molecules, suggest why the temperature of the gas
changes.

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(5)

(iii) The gas now expands at constant pressure p so that the volume increases by an
amount ΔV. Derive an expression for the work done by the gas.

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(4)

7
An engine operates by using an isolated mass of an ideal gas. The gas is compressed
adiabatically and then it is heated at constant volume. The gas gains 310 J of energy during the
heating process. The gas then expands adiabatically. Finally, the gas is cooled so that it returns
to its original state. During the cooling process, 100 J of energy is extracted. The cycle is shown
below.

C
p re ssu re / P a
310 J

6
6 .1 × 1 0
B

D
100 J
5
1 .0 × 1 0
A 300 K

0 .3 2 × 1 0 – 4 6 .0 × 1 0 –4
3
v o lu m e / m

(e) (i) Mark, on the diagram, arrows to show the direction of operation of the stages of the
cycle.
(1)

(ii) Using data for point A, calculate the number of moles of gas.

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(2)

8
(iii) Determine the temperature of the gas at point B in the cycle.

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(2)

(iv) State what is represented by the area ABCD on the diagram and give the value of
this quantity.

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(2)

## (v) Calculate the efficiency of the engine.

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(3)
(Total 30 marks)

5. An object on the end of a light flexible string rotates in a circle as shown below.

o b je c t

9
The tension in the string is T when the string is at angle θ to the vertical. Which of the following
is true?

## State Resultant force

A. not in equilibrium T

## B. not in equilibrium T sinθ

C. in equilibrium T

D. in equilibrium T sinθ
(1)

6. A ball of mass m falls from rest on to a horizontal plate and bounces off it. The magnitudes of
its velocity just before and just after the bounce are v1 and v2 respectively. The variation with
time t of the velocity v of the ball is shown below.

v
v1

0
0 t1 t2 t3 t

– v2

10
The magnitude of the net force on the ball is given by which one of the following?

mv1
A. t1

mv2
B. (t 3 – t 2 )

m v1  v 2 
C.  t 2  t1 

m v1  v 2 
D.  t 2  t1 
(1)

3
7. A machine lifts an object of weight 1.5 × 10 N to a height of 10 m. The machine has an overall
efficiency of 20%. The work done by the machine in raising the object is

3
A. 3.0 × 10 J.

4
B. 1.2 × 10 J.

4
C. 1.8 × 10 J.

4
D. 7.5 × 10 J.
(1)

11
8. Joe is standing on the surface of a frozen pond and he throws a ball horizontally. Considering
Joe and the ball together, which one of the following correctly describes the change in the
magnitude of the momentum and the change in the kinetic energy of Joe and the ball
immediately after the ball is thrown?

Magnitude of momentum of Joe and ball Kinetic energy of Joe and ball
A. No change Increases

B. Increases Increases

C. No change No change

D. Increases No change
(1)

9. A particle P is moving in a circle with uniform speed. Which one of the following diagrams
correctly shows the direction of the acceleration a and velocity v of the particle at one instant of
time?

A . a B . a
v

P v P

C. D .

a P a P
v

(1)

12
10. This question is about charged particles in a magnetic field.

A beam of singly ionized atoms moving at speed v enters a region of magnetic field strength B
as shown below.

X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X
d ire c tio n o f m o tio n X X X X X X X u n ifo rm m a g n e tic fie ld
o f io n iz e d a to m s in to p la n e o f p a p e r
X X X X X X X

The magnetic field is directed into the plane of the paper. The ions follow a circular path,

## (a) Deduce that the radius r of the circular path is given by

mv
r = Bq

where m and q are the mass and charge respectively of the ions.

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(2)

In one particular experiment, the beam contains singly ionized neon atoms all moving at the
same speed. On entering the magnetic field, the beam divides in two. The path of the ions of
mass 20 u has radius 15.0 cm.

(b) Calculate in terms of u, the mass of the ions having a path of radius 16.5 cm.

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(2)

13
The atomic number (proton number) of neon is 10.

(c) State the number of protons and neutrons in each type of neon ion.

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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

11. The centripetal force that causes a car to go round a bend in the road is provided by

## D. the force exerted by the driver on the steering wheel.

(1)

12. A constant force is applied to a ball of mass m. The velocity of the ball changes from v1 to v2.
The impulse received by the ball is

A. m(v2 + v1).

B. m(v2 – v1).

2 2
C. m(v2 + v1 ).

2 2
D. m(v2 – v1 ).
(1)

14
13. A stone of mass m is attached to a string and moves round in a horizontal circle of radius R at
constant speed V. The work done by the pull of the string on the stone in one complete
revolution is

A. zero.
2
B. 2πmV .

2πmV 2
C. R .

2πmV
D. R .
(1)

14. This question is about the kinematics and dynamics of circular motion.

(a) A car goes round a curve in a road at constant speed. Explain why, although its speed is
constant, it is accelerating.

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(2)

15
In the diagram below, a marble (small glass sphere) rolls down a track, the bottom part of which
has been bent into a loop. The end A of the track, from which the marble is released, is at a
height of 0.80 m above the ground. Point B is the lowest point and point C the highest point of
the loop. The diameter of the loop is 0.35 m.

m a rb le

0 .8 0 m C

0 .3 5 m

g ro u n d B

The mass of the marble is 0.050 kg. Friction forces and any gain in kinetic energy due to the
–2
rotating of the marble can be ignored. The acceleration due to gravity, g = 10 ms .

## Consider the marble when it is at point C.

(b) (i) On the diagram opposite, draw an arrow to show the direction of the resultant force
acting on the marble.
(1)

(ii) State the names of the two forces acting on the marble.

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(2)

–1
(iii) Deduce that the speed of the marble is 3.0 ms .

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(3)

16
(iv) Determine the resultant force acting on the marble and hence determine the
reaction force of the track on the marble.

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(4)
(Total 12 marks)

15. The centripetal force F acting on a particle of mass m that is travelling with linear speed v along
the arc of a circle of radius r is given by

v2
.
A. F = mr

2
B. F = mv r.

2
C. F = mr v.

mv 2
.
D. F= r
(1)

16. A point mass is moving in a horizontal circle with a velocity of constant magnitude v. At one
particular time, the mass is at P. A short time later, the mass is at Q, as shown below.

P v

17
Which vector diagram correctly shows the change in velocity Δv of the mass during this time?

A . B .

v v
v v

v v

C . D .

v v v v

v v
(1)

17. This question is about atomic models. The diagram below (not to scale) shows a simple model
of the hydrogen atom in which the electron orbits the proton in a circular path of radius R.

e le c tro n p ro to n
c h a rg e – e c h a rg e + e

(1)

## (ii) the velocity of the electron (label this V).

(1)

18
(b) State an expression for the magnitude of the electrostatic force F acting on the electron.

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(1)

6 –1
(c) The orbital speed of the electron is 2.2 × 10 m s .
–11
Deduce that the radius R of the orbit is 5.2 × 10 m.

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(3)

(d) A more complex model of the atom suggests that the orbital radius can only take certain
discrete values. This leads to the idea of discrete energy levels within the atom. Outline
the evidence that supports the existence of discrete energy levels.

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(3)
(Total 9 marks)

19
18. This question is about the possibility of generating electrical power using a satellite orbiting the
Earth.

## (a) Define gravitational field strength.

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(2)

## (b) Use the definition of gravitational field strength to deduce that

2
GM = g0R

where M is the mass of the Earth, R its radius and g0 is the gravitational field strength at
the surface of the Earth. (You may assume that the Earth is a uniform sphere with its mass
concentrated at its centre.)

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(2)

20
A space shuttle orbits the Earth and a small satellite is launched from the shuttle. The satellite
carries a conducting cable connecting the satellite to the shuttle. When the satellite is a distance
L from the shuttle, the cable is held straight by motors on the satellite.

Diagram 1

E a r th ’s m a g n e tic f ie ld

s a te llite

c o n d u c tin g c a b le

L
s h u ttle
d ire c tio n o f o rb it
sp eed v

EARTH

As the shuttle orbits the Earth with speed v, the conducting cable is moving at right angles to the
Earth’s magnetic field. The magnetic field vector B makes an angle θ to a line perpendicular to
the conducting cable as shown in diagram 2. The velocity vector of the shuttle is directed out of
the plane of the paper.

Diagram 2

c o n d u c tin g c a b le

(c) On diagram 2, draw an arrow to show the direction of the magnetic force on an electron
in the conducting cable. Label the arrow F.
(1)

21
(d) State an expression for the force F on the electron in terms of B, v, e and θ, where B is the
magnitude of the magnetic field strength and e is the electron charge.

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(1)

(e) Hence deduce an expression for the emf E induced in the conducting wire.

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(3)

(f) The shuttle is in an orbit that is 300 km above the surface of the Earth. Using the
expression

2
GM = g0R

6 –1
and given that R = 6.4 × 10 m and g0 = 10 N kg , deduce that the orbital speed v of the
3 –1
satellite is 7.8 × 10 m s .

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(3)

22
–6
(g) The magnitude of the magnetic field strength is 6.3 × 10 T and the angle θ = 20°.
Estimate the length L of the cable required in order to generate an emf of 1 kV.

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(2)
(Total 14 marks)

## 19. This question is about circular motion.

A linear spring of negligible mass requires a force of 18.0 N to cause its length to increase by
1.0 cm.

A sphere of mass 75.0 g is attached to one end of the spring. The distance between the centre of
the sphere M and the other end P of the unstretched spring is 25.0 cm, as shown below.

P M

2 5 .0 c m

The sphere is rotated at constant speed in a horizontal circle with centre P. The distance PM
increases to 26.5 cm.

(a) Explain why the spring increases in length when the sphere is moving in a circle.

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(2)

23
(b) Determine the speed of the sphere.

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(4)
(Total 6 marks)

20. A satellite of mass m and speed v orbits the Earth at a distance r from the centre of the Earth.
The gravitational field strength due to the Earth at the satellite is equal to

v
A. r.

v2
B. r .

mv
C. r .

mv 2
D. r .
(1)

21. Kinematics

## (a) State the principle of conservation of energy.

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(1)

24
(b) An aircraft accelerates from rest along a horizontal straight runway and then takes-off.
Discuss how the principle of conservation of energy applies to the energy changes that
take place while the aircraft is accelerating along the runway.

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(3)

3
(c) The mass of the aircraft is 8.0 ´ 10 kg.

(i) The average resultant force on the aircraft while travelling along the runway is 70
–1
kN. The speed of the aircraft just as it lifts off is 75 m s . Estimate the distance
travelled along the runway.

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(3)

(ii) The aircraft climbs to a height of 1250 m. Calculate the potential energy gained
during the climb.

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(1)

25
When approaching its destination, the pilot puts the aircraft into a holding pattern. This means
–1
the aircraft flies at a constant speed of 90 m s in a horizontal circle of radius 500 m as shown
in the diagram below.

500 m

## (i) calculate the magnitude of the resultant force on the aircraft;

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(2)

## (ii) state the direction of the resultant force.

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(1)
(Total 11 marks)

26
22. Two points P and Q are at distances r and 2r respectively from the centre of a compact disc
(CD) as shown.

P
r

2r
Q

accelerati on at P
is
When the disc is rotating about its centre, the ratio of the accelerati on at Q

1
.
A. 2

B. 1.

C. 2.

D. 2.
(1)

27
23. This question is about circular motion.

A geo-stationary satellite is one that orbits the Earth in an equatorial plane in the same direction
of rotation as that of the Earth and with an orbital period of 24 hours. Since the period of
rotation of the Earth is 24 hours, this means that the satellite is stationary relative to a point on
the Equator.

(a) The diagram below shows a geostationary satellite in orbit about the Earth.

n o t to s c a le
s a te llite

E a rth

On the diagram above, draw an arrow to show the direction of acceleration of the
satellite.
(1)

(b) State the name of the force causing the satellite’s acceleration.

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(1)

7
(c) The distance of the satellite from the centre of the Earth is 4.2 ´ 10 m. Calculate the
acceleration of the satellite.

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(3)
(Total 5 marks)

28
24. Points P and Q are at distances R and 2R respectively from the centre X of a disc, as shown
below.

P 2R
R
X

The disc is rotating about an axis through X, normal to the plane of the disc. Point P has linear
speed v and centripetal acceleration a. Which one of the following is correct for point Q?

## Linear speed Centripetal acceleration

A. v a

B. v 2a

C. 2v 2a

D. 2v 4a
(1)

29
25. A brick is placed on the surface of a flat horizontal disc as shown in the diagram below. The disc
is rotating at constant speed about a vertical axis through its centre. The brick does not move
relative to the disc.

b ric k

d is c

a x is o f ro ta tio n

Which of the diagrams below correctly represents the horizontal force or forces acting on the
brick?

A . B.

C . D .

(1)

30
26. This question is about motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field.

A charged particle is projected from point X with speed v at right angles to a uniform magnetic
field. The magnetic field is directed out of the plane of the page. The particle moves along a
circle of radius R and centre C as shown in the diagram below.

re g io n o f m a g n e tic fie ld Y
o u t o f p la n e o f p a g e

R C X
c h a rg e d p a rtic le

(a) On the diagram above, draw arrows to represent the magnetic force on the particle at
position X and at position Y.
(1)

## (i) the charge is positive or negative;

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(1)

## (ii) work is done by the magnetic force.

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(2)

31
v
(c) A second identical charged particle is projected at position X with a speed 2 in a
direction opposite to that of the first particle. On the diagram above, draw the path
followed by this particle.
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

27. A particle is moving around the circumference of a horizontal circle of radius r with constant
speed v.

## Which of the following is the acceleration of the particle?

v2
A. r towards the centre of the circle

v2
B. r away from the centre of the circle

2
C. v r towards the centre of the circle
2
D. v r away from the centre of the circle
(1)

32
28. In a fairground ride, a car of mass M travels on rails around a vertical loop of effective radius R.
At the top of the loop, the speed of the car is v. The car stays in contact with the rails, as shown
below.

## The acceleration of free fall is g.

Which of the following is the correct expression for the force that the rails exert on the car?

Mv 2  Mg
A. R

Mv 2
B. R

C. Mg

Mv 2  Mg
D. R
(1)

## 29. This question is about linear motion.

A car moves along a straight road. At time t = 0 the car starts to move from rest and oil begins to
drip from the engine of the car. One drop of oil is produced every 0.80 s. Oil drops are left on
the road. The position of the oil drops are drawn to scale on the grid below such that 1.0 cm
represents 4.0 m. The grid starts at time t = 0.

## d ire c tio n o f m o tio n

1 .0 c m

33
(a) (i) State the feature of the diagram above which indicates that, initially, the car is
accelerating.

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(1)

(ii) On the grid above, draw further dots to show where oil would have dripped if the
drops had been produced from the time when the car had started to move.
(2)

(iii) Determine the distance moved by the car during the first 5.6 s of its motion.

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(1)

(b) Using information from the grid above, determine for the car,

## (i) the final constant speed.

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(2)

## (ii) the initial acceleration.

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(2)
(Total 8 marks)

34
30. This question is about linear and circular motion.

A car moves along a straight road. At time t = 0 the car starts to move from rest and oil begins to
drip from the engine of the car. One drop of oil is produced every 0.80 s. Oil drops are left on
the road. The position of the oil drops are drawn to scale on the grid below such that 1.0 cm
represents 4.0 m. The grid starts at time t = 0.

## d ire c tio n o f m o tio n

1 .0 c m

(a) (i) State the feature of the diagram above which indicates that, initially, the car is
accelerating.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) On the grid above, draw further dots to show where oil would have dripped if the
drops had been produced from the time when the car had started to move.
(2)

(iii) Determine the distance moved by the car during the first 5.6 s of its motion.

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(1)

35
(b) Using information from the grid above, determine for the car,

## (i) the final constant speed.

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(2)

## (ii) the initial acceleration.

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(2)

(c) The car then turns a corner at constant speed. Passengers in the car who were sitting
upright feel as if their upper bodies are being “thrown outwards”.

(i) Identify the force acting on the car, and its line of action, that enables the car to
turn the corner.

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(2)

(ii) Explain why the passengers feel as if they are being “thrown outwards”.

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...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 13 marks)

36
31. A brick is placed on the surface of a flat horizontal disc as shown in the diagram below. The disc
is rotating at constant speed about a vertical axis through its centre. The brick does not move
relative to the disc.

Which of the diagrams below correctly represents the horizontal force or forces acting on the
brick?

(1)

37