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Examine the role of ideology as a cause of the SCW

Evaluate the significance of foreign intervention in the SCW

1. Intro
A. The SCW was a civil war that took place from 1936 to 1939. The republicans, who were
loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, fought against the nationalists lead by
General Franco. Prior to the war, there has been a polarization of the political ideologies
which sparked key ideologies such as Fascism and Nazism in the right, and socialism in
the Left. This essay will be analyzing the significance of foreign intervention in the
2. Outline the support
A. Foreign support of the nationalist
i. Italy
1. 70,000 personnel
2. 600 aircrafts
3. 1000 artillery
4. Took part in naval bombardment of Republican held Valencia and Barcelona.
ii. Germany
1. 20,000 personnel
2. 600 aircrafts
3. 1000 artillery
4. 200 million USD in support (adjusted for inflation)
5. German involvement in Operation Ursula, U-boat undertakings, etc.
6. Aided mostly in aerial combat.
iii. Portugal
1. Supplied Franco’s force with ammunition and logistical help
2. 20,000 volunteered forces

B. Foreign support to the republicans

i. International brigades
1. Supporters of communist or social joined the international Brigades, believing
that the SCW was a fight against fascism.
2. 40,000 brigades
3. Claimed to represent 53 nations.
ii. USSR
1. 3000 personnel
2. 1000 aircrafts
3. 1500 artillery
4. Republicans had to purchase Soviet aid using Spain’s gold reserves.
iii. France
1. Promised to support the Republicans, but did not fulfill the promise as they
signed an official policy of non0intervention with the US and UK.
iv. Geographic disadvantage in supplying the Republicans in comparison to Hitler and
3. Significance
A. The SCW was like a canvas where Germany, Italy, and Soviets attempted to demonstrate
their might and also test their militaristic power and strategies.
i. However, the Soviets showed their lack of militaristic successes. Artillery and
aircrafts broke frequently (esp. The tanks)
ii. Proving ground for German aerial and combat tactics
B. It could also be said that the SCW gave more confidence to Hitler
C. The consequences of the great success of Germans in the SCW could be a cause of the
trigger for the second WW.

France → republicans (before the non-intervention pact)

4. P3
5. P
A. Significant in that the SCW were that it demonstrated the extent of the success Germans
had achieved. This event also showed the lack of development in the Soviet Union
i. Soviet tanks/artillery broke down frequently
ii. German planes
6. P5

Examine the reasons for the Republican defeat in the SCW*

1. P!
2. Weak coalition within the group
A. No common goal
i. Too many different political stances
ii. Communists and socialists believed a revolution should happen when the war Is
won. The anarchists believed the war should only be won through revolutionary
1. Causation: fight between the anarchists and the communists and the socialists
2. Consequence: weak coalition within the government. Internal bleeding due to
fights between these two groups
B. Lacked leadership
i. In 1936, Cabarello was elected to be the leader of the republican party. However,
because of the divisions within the republican army, his power was reduced.
ii. Communists and anarchists won’t work together
3. More support for the nationalists
A. Church, landowners, and other elites of the society sided with the rebels  more
monetary advantage
B. Foreign support
i. Quality and quantity of the weapons and personnels provided by the Italian,
German, and the Portugese did not match with the support given by the USSR and
the International brigades
4. Economic weakness
A. Inflation reached 300% during the war according to post-revisionists historians
B. Railw ays were taken over by the Nationalists
i. ConsequenceCut supply lines between Madrid and Valencia