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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ECO-

MAGNESIUM® ALLOY PRODUCED BY


GREEN METALLURGY EU PROJECT
PROCESS ROUTE
Fabrizio D’Errico1, Gerardo Garces Plaza2, Franz Giger3, Shae K.
Kim4
1Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Mech.Eng., Milan (ITA);

2CENIM, Dept. Phys. Metallurgy, Madrid (SPA)

3Buhler AG, Uzwil (SWI)

4KITECH, Incheon (KR)

A project co-financed by EU Commission:


The background and the content
• A 3-year European Project “Green Metallurgy” (a 2 ML€
project co-financed by the European Community) launched in
2009 to address feasibility of manufacturing of HP-Mg for
the automotive industry finally concluded in August 2013

• Final task of this project aimed to assess if any reduction of


overall carbon-footprint of the process developed finally
was targeted

• Here we discuss the lesson learned by use a critic


approach we adopted in assessing our results
The European Automobile Manufacturers'
Association (ACEA) basic scenarios

• Basic assumption: the ICE


is expected to continue to be
the dominant technology

• Today the main scope of


automakers is to make ICE
retain similar performance
while cutting CO2 emissions
by coupling lightweight
designs
The LCA assessment scheme in
automotive sector fossil-fuel fueled

Manufacturing components

Reducing fossil-fuel consumption by


weight-saving + benefits of recycle of
materials
The LCA assessment for fossil-fuel
vehicles: scheme for calculation
Define Base Scenario
Heavy construction materials are used (e.g. hardened steel) for components

Define Alternative Scenario


Lightweight materials are employed to substitute the heavy ones

Estimating the differential carbon Calculating the differential GWP


footprint of Alternative Scenario between the Base Scenario (heavier
versus the Base Scenario (e.g. vehicle) and the Alternative
steel or cast iron part) expressed Scenario (lighter vehicle) in usage
by the net Global Warming
Potential (kgCO2eq emitted) in
manufacturing process
Overview of carbon footprint of various
phases of materials onboard the ICE
vehicle lifecycle: a literature snapshot…
Basic substitution criteria in
automotive applications: the
innovator dilemma

“To make radical changes in


materials happen,
I have to be reassured that parts I
make today,
I can safely make lighter tomorrow”
Basic weight-saving scenario by
light-materials
How much Mg is required for saving up to 100kg(1)
onboard?

Scenario A – Cast alloys to substitute cast-iron


Features Mg-Al-Zn cast alloy Al-Si casting alloy Cast iron ASTM A50
Density (kg/dm3) 1,81 2,74 7,87
Fatigue limit (MPa) 83 95 148
Substitution ratio 1,78 1,56 1,00
Volume (dm3) 38,7 33,8 21,7
Total weight onboard (kg) 70,0 92,6 170,8
101 78 0
Weigth saved (kg)
59,0% 45,8% 0,0%
(1) The MODEL we used: 10.83 kg CO2 per 1000 km is the calculated amount of reduced
emissions for every 100 kg mass saved on passenger vehicles [Ridge, 1998]

Technical requirements : it’s mandatory re-designed part made of


alternative material must charge same load and must exhibit safe behavior
Just as an aside…
…is the MODEL used robust enough?
Simplified model: tensile state of stress by axial load
Features Mg-Al-Zn cast alloy Al-Si casting alloy Cast iron ASTM A50
Density (kg/dm3) 1,81 2,74 7,87
Fatigue limit (MPa) 83 95 148
Substitution ratio 1,78 1,56 1,00
Volume (dm3) 38,7 33,8 21,7
Total weight onboard (kg) 70,0 92,6 170,8
101 78 0
Weigth saved (kg)
59,0% 45,8% 0,0%

Real model: bending state of stress by bending moment


Features Mg-Al-Zn cast alloy Al-Si casting alloy Cast iron ASTM A50
Density (kg/dm3) 1,81 2,74 7,87
Fatigue limit (MPa) 83 95 148
a (lenght, dm) 3,2 3,1 2,7
b (width, dm) 9,7 9,3 8,0
b/a 3 b
r(1) 1,21 1,16 1
3
Volume (dm ) 31,7 29,0 21,5
Total weight onboard (kg) 69,5 92,0 169,6
100 78 0
Weigth saved (kg)
59,0% 45,8% 0,0% a
Note (1): r = (a/a ref)^1/3 = (a/as teel )^1/3
Scenario A
GWP «Cradle-to-Exit Gate» of Mg-product: 40kgCO2eq/kg

2.801 kgCO2eq
Basic weight-saving scenario by
light-materials Consistent with data
from William Joost
presentation
How much Mg is required for saving up to 100kg(1)
onboard? for saving up to 100kg(1) onboard?

Scenario B – Wrought alloys for structural parts


Features ZW30 AA7075T4 AISI1040
Density (kg/dm3) 1,81 2,74 7,87
Fatigue limit (MPa) 125 160 310
Substitution ratio 2,48 1,94 1,00
Volume (dm3) 73,7 57,5 29,7
Total weight onboard (kg) 133,3 157,7 233,7
100 76 0
Weigth saved (kg)
43,0% 32,5% 0,0%
(1) 10.83 kg CO2 per 1000 km is the calculated amount of reduced emissions for every 100 kg mass saved on
passenger vehicles [Ridge, 1998]
Scenario B
GWP «Cradle-to-Exit Gate» of Mg-product: 40kgCO2eq/kg

5.333 kgCO2eq
The LCA assessment scheme in
automotive sector fossil-fuel fueled

GWP Mg primary production (e.g.


avoid SF6 cover gas)
Energy consumed (e.g. reduce
number of process steps)
Avoid cover GHGs for secondary Recyclability of Mg scraps
melt process es

Mechanical properties of Mg,


to reduce substitution ratio
Generalization by a
simplified model
Basic case
GWP (kgCO2eq)

Weight-saving of 100kg
made of Mg

ICE Vehicle 100kg lighter

GWP-back Travel distance


distance
What did we
investigate in EU
Commission co-
funded collaborative
project?
Route#1: Mg-Y-Zn nanostructured SSB
materials

Average grain
Average grain
size (nm) for
size (nm) for
Material square (20x4)
round SSB
SSB
BAS 1 437 ± 24 525 ± 38
BAS 2 377 ± 39 502 ± 25
Raw Material PMT
Kq [Mpa
Material Test condition YS (MPa) UTS (MPa) E% m0.5]

BAS1 Room temperature; as-extruded @250°C 376 394 12 16.2

Room temperature: as-extruded 13.7


BAS2 412 432 14
@250°C

BAS1: Mg94-Zn5-Y1 BAS2: Mg91-Zn6.7-Y1.3 [ a matrix / I-phase ]


Route#2: Eco-Mg
system
•Korean Institute of Technology (KITECH),
recently developed an environmentally friend
magnesium alloy system called Eco-
Magnesium®
•Based on commercial chemical
compositions (i.e. AZ91D, AZ31, AM60, etc.)
but with the addition of CaO
•CaO causes achieve a dramatic increase
in oxidation resistance in the melt phase
and avoid protective greenhouse gases, as
SF6 usually used in casting operations
Route#2: Eco-Mg chips
Raw Material
PMT SSB

AZ31 alloy with Example of microstructure


0.5, 1 and 1.5 % obtained: AZ31+1.5 % CaO,
CaO Text=350 ºC, 2mm/s
The machinery design, construction
and set-up in Germany site
Green Compact UNIT Mg billets Mg chips
(BAS system) Eco-Mg

Mg-RSP
EIGA
Electrode Induction
Melting Gas
Atomisation

PMT
Extrusion Unit Green compaction
UNIT

SSB
Direct extrusion
UNIT

Near-shape hot forming


Net-shape forming tests
How much is Mg billets
(BAS system)
Cast-billets of
Eco-Mg

the “Green- Mg-RSP

Metallurgy”
Mg chips
EIGA
Eco-Mg

process route PMT

really clean? Green compaction UNIT

SSB
Direct extrusion UNIT

Near-shape hot forming


Carbon footprint and life cycle energy demand
for Green Metallurgy pathway:
results on BAS Systems*
• The carbon footprint is estimated 140.5 kg
CO2eq/kg SSB(1)

• Main ‘‘hotspot’’ is the use of sulfur


hexafluoride (SF6) as cover gas(contributing
58.3% to 59% to the total) and electricity
consumption (15.1% to 15.3% of the total).

• Replacing the current cover gas (SF6) with


SO2 or R-134a would reduce the GWP of
BAS by 57.4%(2) respectively, to
approximately 80 kgCO2eq. /kg of SSB
products

Note 1: Average value for BAS1 and BAS2 type with the main
differences due to the Mg-Y-Zn alloy composition
Note 2: Average value for SO2 and R-134a

(*) Ref: F.D’Errico, G.Garces Plaza, F. Giger and Shae K. Kim, “Final
Assessment of Preindustrial Solid-State Route for High-Performance
Mg-System Alloys Production: Concluding the EU Green Metallurgy
Project”, JOM, October 2013, Volume 65, Issue 10, 1293-1302
The LCA results for Green Metallurgy “cradle-to exit gate”
stage: the Eco-Magnesium alloys route
• The Eco-Mg AM30
accounts for 100.5
kgCO2eq/ kg

• The result considers


the use of SF6 for
lump magnesium
production

• The use of low-


impact cover gas
(e.g. SO2, R-134a)
positively reduces
the GWP to 57,7
kgCO2eq. per kg of
SSB Eco-AZ31
produced.

(courtesy of KITECH).
The downstream path: LCA results for the
“entry gate-to-exit gate” Eco-Mg route*
• The downstream process route spans :
– from cold compaction of input material
Mg billets Cast-billets of
feedstock, Eco-Mg type alloy in the Eco-Mg
(BAS system)
form of chips,
– to the hot-extrusion stage to produce
semi-finished bars (SSB) Mg-RSP
Mg chips
EIGA
• The total GWP of the downstream Eco-Mg
process accounts for total 6.2
kgCO2eq/kgSSB
PMT
3.4 kgCO2eq/kgSSB Green compaction UNIT

+
SSB
2.8 kgCO2eq/kgSSB Direct extrusion UNIT

(*) Ref: F.D’Errico, et all. , JOM, October 2013, Volume 65, Issue 10, 1293-1302

Near-shape hot forming


LCA results for the “entry gate-to-exit gate” route
Two scenarios have been considered:
Scenario A
Feedstock materials is composed of fresh Cast-billets of
Eco-Mg type alloy produced in Korea Eco-Mg

Assumption 70.34 kgCO2eq./kg


(40.39 kgCO2eq/kg)2
Per kg of semi-finished bars produced, GWP of
feedstock material is counted as: Mg chips
 70% of “fresh” Eco-Mg type alloy in form of Eco-Mg
chips accounts for around 70.34 kgCO2eq =
0.7 kg x 100.49 kgCO2eq./kg(1); 70%
 30% of in-situ recycled material, accounts for
PMT 30%
0 kgCO2eq,
Green compaction UNIT
Results for the “cradle-to-entry gate” GWP
Scrap
 76.54 kgCO2/kg(1) of mix-feedstock materials, 3.4 kgCO2eq./kg
recycling
considering the cold compaction and hot
extrusion stage SSB
Direct extrusion UNIT 0 kgCO2eq./kg
 Decreased to 46.5 kgCO2/ kg of mix-feedstock
materials if SF6 is replaced in lump Mg 2.8 kgCO2eq./kg
production stage

Note 1: The highest value has been considered, with SF6 use Usage
Note 2: The lowest value when low-impacting cover gases are used

76.54 kgCO2eq/kg
(46.5 kgCO2eq/kg)
LCA results for the “entry gate-to-exit gate” route
Cast-billets of
Scenario B Eco-Mg
30% in-situ recycled chips mixed with 100%
of recycled material
Mg chips 70%
Assumption
Eco-Mg
 GWP of feedstock material is counted as 0
kgCO2eq. per kg of feedstock materials.
 It represents the zero-emission “cradle-to-entry
PMT 30%
gate” carbon footprint in terms of GWP. Green compaction UNIT

Results for the “cradle-to-entry gate” GWP


3.4 kgCO2eq./kg Scrap
recycling

 The total GWP accounts for 6.2 kgCO2eq/kg of SSB


SSB produced Direct extrusion UNIT 0 kgCO2eq./kg
 It results from downstream process paths
2.8 kgCO2eq./kg

Usage

Recycling market 0 kgCO2eq./kg

6.2 kgCO2eq/kgSSB
Basic weigth-saving scenario by
light-materials
How much Mg is required for saving up to 100kg(1)
onboard?

Scenario C –Eco-Mg alloys for structural parts produced by recycled


chips
Features HP Eco-Mg AA7075T4 AISI1040
Density (kg/dm3) 1,81 2,74 7,87
Fatigue limit (MPa) 125 160 310
Substitution ratio 2,48 1,94 1,00
Volume (dm3) 73,2 57,2 29,5
Total weight onboard (kg) 132,4 156,6 232,2
100 76 0
Weigth saved (kg)
43,0% 32,5% 0,0%
(1) 10.83 kg CO2 per 1000 km is the calculated amount of reduced emissions for every 100 kg mass
saved on passenger vehicles [Ridge, 1998]
Scenario C - Ideal fully-recycle scenario with Eco-
Mg chips
GWP «Cradle-to-Exit Gate» of Mg-product: 6.2kgCO2eq/kg

886 kgCO2eq
Net GWP for 100kg saved onboard on ICE vehicle
Influence of substitution ratio and Cradle-to-Exit gate GWP
Lesson we learned…
Recycling and reducing substitution ratio (i.e. developing high-
performance Mg alloys) appear unique consistent strategies to positively
impact on net GWP

On the other hand, EU automakers are not generally interested in net


GWP, since they are attracted by reduced fuel consumption (marketing
strategy) and reduced emissions per km (EU Commission rules-
pushed strategy: they are worrying about possible penalties based on
excess emission payments)

Recycle chips route we experienced could lead to mitigate cost of RE or Y


added alloys, but difficulties in large part series components production
have to be carefully addressed

Overall drawback, recycle industry does not exist in reality, since the
Project has employed only fresh (clean) machined chips
The e-ligthweigth solution
“Light-weighting plugged-in  Now CFRP is entering
in mass-production
fully electric will surely be a vehicle
key-factor to extend travel  CFRP is (still) hard to
distance, reduce technology be fully recycled
cost per kWh and reduce the  BMW claims it is
operation costs, i.e. kWh per produced by non-batch
mile” (JOM, November 2008) process
 Temperatures in an e-
vehicle do not surpass
70°C
 What can Mg-fan figure
out?
Thank you so much for
your kind attention!
My contacts:
Fabrizio D’Errico
Politecnico di Milano
Dept. of Mech. Engineering
Via La Masa 34,
20156 Milan (Italy)
E-mail: fabrizio.derrico@polimi.it
Tel: +39 02 2399 8215