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Effect of Process Parameters on Machining Time in Abrasive-Waterjet

Cutting of Marble
Adithya Lokesh Hegde,
Manufacturing Science and Engineering, PG Studies,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
B. M. S. College of Engineering,
P. O. Box No 1908, Bull Temple Road, Bangalore – 560 019 Karnataka

processing a various range of materials [2]. In

Abstract – Abrasive Waterjet is an effective this method, water serves primarily as an
technology in manufacturing industry for accelerating medium while the abrasive
processing of various materials. Marble has a particles take over the role of material removal.
wide range of applications in domestic, A stream of small abrasive particles is
commercial and industrial construction, thus introduced in the water-jet in such a manner
there is a need to investigate the cutting of marble that water-jet's momentum is partly transferred
using Abrasive Waterjet. This paper has to the abrasive particles. Water accelerates
investigated the effect of process parameters on large quantities of abrasive particles to a high
machining time in Abrasive Waterjet cutting of velocity and to produces a high coherent jet.
Marble. Two different process parameters are This jet is then directed towards workpiece to
undertaken for this study; Water Pressure and perform cutting [3]. It is also a cost effective
Abrasive Mass Flow rate. Experiments are and environment friendly technique which can
conducted by varying the individual process be used to cut particularly hard to cut materials
parameters at different levels while keeping all like ceramics and composite materials [4],[5].
other remaining parameters constant. Graphs are However it has also some disadvantages like
plotted to show the effect of individual loud compressor and water-jet noises and
parameters on machining time. splashes of abrasive-water making a mess
around the workplace. At high transverse
Keywords— Abrasive mass flow rate, Abrasive speeds it produces tapered edges on the kerf
Water-jet, machining time, marble, water [6],[7].
Every process has its own performance
I. INTRODUCTION characteristics. Here too the AWJM is effected
by its process parameters [8],[9]. There are
Abrasive water-jet cutting [AWJC] has
many associated parameters in this technique.
emerged as a wonderful technology with many
They are water pressure, water-jet diameter,
advantages over some other non-traditional
nozzle traverse speed, number of passes,
machining technologies, such as no thermal
standoff distance, impact angle, nozzle
distortion, high machining versatility, minimum
diameter, nozzle length, abrasive mass flow
stresses on the work piece, high flexibility and
rate, abrasive particle diameter, abrasive
small cut-ting forces. [1]. It is found to be
particle shape and abrasive particle hardness.
superior to many other cutting techniques and
Among these parameters water pressure,
has extensive applications in industry in
abrasive flow rate, jet traverse speed, standoff
distance and diameter of focusing nozzle are of system produces no dust fumes etc. thereby
great importance but precisely controllable significantly improving working conditions and
[10], [11]. The main process quality measures environment.
include attainable depth of cut, top kerf width,
bottom kerf width, kerf taper, surface III. EXPERIMENTAL
roughness, surface waviness and material METHODOLOGY
removal rate and machining time. There are
many techniques for improving kerf quality and
A. Material and dimensions
surface finish [10], [11], [12], [13].

In this paper machining time is taken as a The material used for present study is
performance characteristic as it’s of great Makrana white Marble. The marble is a brittle
importance in industrial areas where marbles material and has the various applications as a
are processed. No particular research is done in building/construction material. The dimensions
finding out the machining time of the marble by of these Makrana white marble were 680mm ×
varying the process parameters like Water 50mm × 15mm. The Chemical composition,
pressure and Abrasive mass flow rate. More Mechanical and physical properties of Makrana
work is required in finding out the machining white Marble are shown in Table I & II.
time of marble by varying these above
mentioned parameters. This paper assesses the Table I Chemical Composition Makrana White
effect of these parameters on machining time of Marble
Marble. Lowest machining time for marble is
found out by experimentation in this research. Elements Weight %
Lime (Cao) 38-42%
II. OBJECTIVE Silica (Sio2) 20-25%
Alumina (Al2O3) 2-4%
Because of the present problems
encountered in conventional cutting of marble, Other oxides like Na and 1.5-2.5%
attempts can be made for cutting of marble
Loss on Ignition (LOI) 30-32%
using non-traditional machine process such as
EDM, WEDM, ultrasonic, Water-jet, Abrasive
Water Jet, laser beam machining etc. Problem
with EDM, WEDM, is that work piece need to
be conductive, while marble is an insulator, so Table II Mechanical and Physical Properties of
these cannot be applied. Ultrasonic machining Makrana White Marble
is a slow and time consuming process. Thus
Abrasive Water-jet is employed in this current Hardness 3-4 on Moh’s Scale
study and the minimum machining time is Density 2.5-2.65 Kg/m3
found out. Precise shape cutting can be Compressive strength 1800-2100 Kg/cm2
achieved with a good surface finish. AWJ cut Water Absorption Less than 1%
kerf width is much smaller than that produced Porosity Quite low
by traditional sawing technologies. AWJ Weather Impact Resistant
cutting systems can be easily integrated with
existing CAD/CAM systems, thereby greatly
optimizing the cutting of intricate profile. The
B. Equipment

Model of Abrasive water-jet used in research is

MAXIEM 1515 by OMAX Corporation. It is
useful in job shops and metal service centers. The
robust 1515 machine can productively cut stock
up to 1.5 meters by 1.5 meters from a broad range
of materials and thicknesses. It comes loaded
with Windows 8 and latest Intelli-Max Software
Suite. This employs a 3,450 bar direct drive pump
that regulates the electricity input to the motor to
reduce energy costs. This increased efficiency
enables the pump to deliver more power at the
cutting nozzle, no matter the pressure, than
intensifier designs at any pump power rating. It is
a 5-axis machine with maximum of 520 taper
option. It has a Footprint of 2819mm*3302mm.
Fig 2. Side view of MAXIEM 1515 abrasive
Height of 3200mm and with an empty tank, a
water-jet machine.
weight of 1361kg. Work envelope – X-Y Cutting
Envelope of 1575mm*1575mm and a Z-axis
C. Experimental Design
travel of 305mm. Table size is
There are many process parameters effecting
2235mm*1727mm. Speed of 12700mm/min,
the machine time of abrasive water-jet cutting of
Linear Positional Accuracy of +/-0.0762mm and
marble. But two important parameters, Water
a Repeatability of +/-0.0254mm and Ballbar
pressure and Abrasive mass flow rate have been
Circularity of +/-0.1270mm.
taken as control parameters and are shown in
below table.

Table III. Levels of parameters used in AWJ

cutting of Marble

AWJ Units Symbol Levels

Cutting 1 2 3 4

Water psi A 15000 20000 25000 30000


Abrasive g/min B 200 301.7 405.4 599.4

flow rate

The parameters and their levels are selected based

on the pilot study and the literature review. Rest
of the parameter kept as constant which are
Fig 1. Front view of MAXIEM 1515 shown in table IV. The parameters and levels
abrasive water-jet machine.
were selected primarily based on the literature for machining is noted as 1.211min. Four graphs
review of some studies that had been documented are plotted with four levels of abrasive flow rates
on AWJ machining on graphite/epoxy laminates kept constant and varying pressures from 15000
[14], Kevlar composite [15], ceramic materials psi to 30000psi.
[16], structural metal alloys [17], metallic coated
sheet steels [18], fibre-reinforced plastics [19] Graph 1. Machining time versus water pressure
and Cast iron [20]. The preliminary experiments at 200g/min abrasive mass flow rate.
were carried out to find out the minimum value of
at 200g/min abrasive flow rate
water pressure as well as abrasive flow rate at 5.398
which through cutting can take place. In the

Machining time (min)

present study these come out to be 15000 psi & 4
200 g/ min respectively. 2

Table IV. Constant Parameters and Their Values 15000 20000 25000 30000
Sl No Constant Parameters Values Water pressure (psi)
1 Orifice diameter 0,3556mm
2 Nozzle diameter 0.7620mm Graph 2. Machining time versus water pressure
at 301.7g/min abrasive mass flow rate.
3 Nozzle length 101.625mm
at 301.7g/min abrasive flow rate
4 Abrasive type Garnet 4.584
Machining time (min)

5 Abrasive size (grit no) 80 mesh size 4 2.838

3 1.973
6 Carrier medium Water 2

7 Standoff distance 1.5mm
15000 20000 25000 30000
Water pressure (psi)
Since there are two parameters and four levels, all
possible combinations of Pressure and Abrasive
flow rates have been employed. Total 16 square
Graph 3. Machining time versus water pressure
blocks of equal dimension of
at 405.4g/min abrasive mass flow rate.
20mm*20mm*15mm have been cut out.
Individual machining time is noted in all the at 405.4g/min abrasive flow rate
experiments. 5 4.071
Machining time (min)

IV. Results and Analysis 2
After the conduction of experiments, all the 15000 20000 25000 30000
machining times are duly structured into a line Water pressure (psi)
graph and are displayed. Without the need of any
models or analysis one can easily note the
minimum machining time for the combination of
mentioned parameters. Maximum time for
machining is noted as 5.398min. Minimum time
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