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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

CHAPTER 1 BASIC TRIGONOMETRY

Angle
Angle is formed when two rays are drawn with a common vertex. It shows the direction and
amount of rotation from the initial side to the terminal side.

e
s id
n al
i
erm
T

Vertex Initial side

An angle  is said to be in standard position if its vertex is at the origin of a rectangular


coordinate system and its initial side coincides with the positive x-axis.

ide
als
in
erm
T
Vertex 
x
Initial side

Angles are measured by determining the amount of rotation needed for the initial side to
become coincident with the terminal side. The two commonly used measures for angles are:
i. degrees
ii. radians

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

Note:

e
sid
al For a circle of radius r, 1, the rays of a
min

central angle  , with measure 1 radian


Ter

r would subtend an arc of length 1.



Vertex
r Initial side

Relationship between degrees and radians:


360  2 or 180° = p radians

p 180
Therefore: 1° = radians and 1 radians = degrees
180 p

Example:
Convert each angle in degrees to radians.
(a) 60 (b) 150 (c)  45 (d) 107

Example:
Convert each angle in radians to degrees.
 3 3p 23p
(a) rad (b) rad (c) - rad (d)
6 2 4 12

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

The Unit Circle


The unit circle is an approach of introducing the trigonometric functions.

The unit circle is a circle whose radius, r is 1 and whose center is at the origin of a
rectangular coordinate system and has a circumference of length 2 s  r  .

1
P (x,y)


x
-1 1

-1

Let  (radians) be the angle in standard position whose terminal side is the ray from the
origin through P as shown above. The point, P  x, y  on the unit circle (r = 1) is
corresponding to the angle  (radians).

Thus, the six trigonometric functions of  can be defined as following:


1. The sine function associates with  the y-coordinate of P and is denoted by
sin   y

2. The cosine function associates with  the x-coordinate of P and is denoted by


cos   x

3. If x  0 , the tangent function is defined as


y
tan  
x

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

4. If y  0 , the cosecant function is defined as


1
csc  
y

5. If x  0 , the secant function is defined as


1
sec  
x

6. If y  0 , the cotangent function is defined as


x
cot  
y

Example:
 1 3
Let P    ,  be the point on the unit circle that corresponds to  . Find the values

 2 2 
of all six trigonometric functions.

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

 
Trigonometric Functions of  30 and  60
6 3

30

c=1 Consider a right triangle in which one of the angles is


b
 
 60 and the third angle is  30 with
3 6
60 hypotenuse of length 1.
a

30
The triangle is therefore equilateral, so
c=1 1 each side is of length 1.
b
 2a  1
1
60 60 a
a a 2

Thus, by the Pythagorean Theorem, c 2  a 2  b 2 ,

3
b
2

Example:
  
Find the exact values of the six trigonometric functions of  60 ,  30 and  45
3 6 4
.

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

Using a Circle of Radius r to Evaluate Trigonometric Functions

For an angle  in standard position, let P  x, y  be the point on the terminal side of  that

is also on the circle x 2 + y2 = r 2 .


Then,

y x y
sin   cos   tan   , x0
r r x
r r x
csc   , y0 sec   , x0 cot   , y
y x y

The signs of the Trigonometric Functions


The following are the signs of the six trigonometric functions for each quadrant:

Quadrant sin  , csc  cos  , sec  tanq , cot q

I Positive Positive Positive

II Positive Negative Negative

III Negative Negative Positive

IV Negative Positive Negative

Example:
Find the exact values of each of the six trigonometric functions of an angle  if 4,  3 is
a point on its terminal side.

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

The definition of the ratios can be extended to include angles larger than 90

II I
sin All
x
III IV
tan cos

Figure: The x and y axes divide the plane into four quadrants.

Let  1 be an angle in quadrant I ( 0° £ q1 < 90°) and the basic trigonometric ratios are as

y x y
follows: sin  1  cos  1  tan  1 
r r x

1. For quadrant II ( 90   2  180 )


y
sin  2  sin( 180   1 )   sin  1
r
x
cos  2  cos(180   1 )    cos  1
r
y
tan  2  tan(180   1 )    tan  1
x

2. For quadrant III ( 180   3  270 )

y
sin  3  sin( 180   1 )    sin  1
r
x
cos  3  cos(180   1 )    cos  1
r
y
tan  3  tan(180   1 )   tan  1
x

3. For quadrant IV ( 270° £ q 4 < 360° )

y
sin  4  sin( 360   1 )    sin  1
r
x
cos  4  cos(360   1 )   cos  1
r
y
tan  4  tan( 360   1 )    tan  1
x

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

Domain and range of trigonometric functions

Function Symbol Domain Range


Sine f    sin  All real numbers All real numbers from -1 to 1, inclusive

Cosine f    cos  All real numbers All real numbers from -1 to 1, inclusive

Tangent f    tan  All real numbers, except odd All real numbers

multiples of 90
2

Cosecant f    csc  All real numbers, except integral All real numbers greater than or equal to

multiples of  180 1 or less than or equal to -1

Secant f    sec  All real numbers, except odd All real numbers greater than or equal to
 1 or less than or equal to -1
multiples of 90
2

Cotangent f    cot  All real numbers, except integral All real numbers

multiples of  180

Even-Odd Properties

𝑠𝑖𝑛 (– 𝜃) = −𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (– 𝜃) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 𝑡𝑎𝑛 (– 𝜃) = −𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃


csc(−𝜃) = − csc 𝜃 𝑠𝑒𝑐 (– 𝜃) = 𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝜃 𝑐𝑜𝑡 (– 𝜃) = −𝑐𝑜𝑡 𝜃

Example:
Find the exact value of:
 3 
(a) sin  45 (b) cos   (c) cos  
 2 

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

Graphs of the Trigonometric Functions

Graph of y  sin x ,  2  x  2

Properties of the Sine Function


1. The domain is the set of all real numbers.
2. The range consists of all real numbers from  1 to 1, inclusive.
3. The sine function is an odd function, as the symmetry of the graph with respect to the
origin indicates.
4. The sine function is periodic, with period 2 .
5. The x-intercepts are  ,  2 ,   , 0,  ,  2 ,  ; y-intercept is 0.
3  5 9
6. The maximum value is 1 and occurs at x   ,  , , , , ;
2 2 2 2
 3 7 11
The minimum value is  1 and occurs at x   ,  , , , ,
2 2 2 2

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

Graph of y  cos x,  2  x  2

Properties of the Cosine Function


1. The domain is the set of all real numbers.
2. The range consists of all real numbers from  1 to 1, inclusive.
3. The cosine function is an even function, as the symmetry of the graph with respect to the
y-axis indicates.
4. The cosine function is periodic, with period 2 .
3   5 3 5
5. The x-intercepts are x   ,  ,  , , , , ,  ; y-intercept is 1.
2 2 2 2 2 2
6. The maximum value is 1 and occurs at x   ,  2 , 0, 2 , 4 ,  ;
The minimum value is  1 and occurs at x   ,   ,  , 3 , 5 , 

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

Graph of y  tan x,  2  x  2

Properties of the Tangent Function



1. The domain is the set of all real numbers, except odd multiples of .
2
2. The range is the set of all real numbers.
3. The tangent function is an odd function, as the symmetry of the graph with respect to the
origin indicates.
4. The tangent function is periodic, with period  .
5. The x-intercepts are x   ,  2 ,   , 0,  , 2 , 3 ,  ; y-intercept is 0.
3   3
6. Vertical asymptotes occur at x   ,  ,  , , ,
2 2 2 2

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

Period of the Trigonometric Functions

Periodic Function
A function f is called periodic if there is a positive number p such that, whenever  is in the
domain of f, so is   p , and

f   p  f  

Note;
If there is a smallest such number p, this smallest value is called the ( fundamental ) period
of f.

The values of the trigonometric functions of   2 are equal to the values of the
corresponding trigonometric functions of  .

sin   2k   sin 


cos  2k   cos 

Thus,
 the sine, cosine, cosecant, and secant functions are periodic with period 2 .
sin   2   sin   cos  2   cos 
csc  2   csc  sec  2   sec 

 the tangent and cotangent functions are periodic with period  .


tan      tan   cot     cot 

Example:
Find the exact value of:
17 5
(a) sin (b) cos5  (c) tan
4 4

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

Trigonometric Identities and Equations

1. Identities are statements that are always true. Example: 2x + 4x = 6x is an identity


which is always true.
2. Equations are statements that are only true under certain conditions. Example: 2x = 10
is an equation which is only true if x = 5.

Trigonometric Identities

 Trigonometric identities are identities that contain trigonometric functions such as sin,
cos or tan.
 Each identity describes some property of some trigonometric function.
 These identities can be used to:
 Simplify trigonometric expressions.
 Prove that two trigonometric expressions are equivalent.
 Solve trigonometric equations that arise in various applications.

For example:
Identities

x  12  x 2  2 x  1 sin 2 x  cos 2 x  1 csc x 


1
sin x
Any values of x are true for the both sides.

Conditional equations
5
2x  5  0 True only if x  
2
sin x  0 True only if x  k , k an integer.

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

Basics Trigonometric Identities:

1. Quotient Identities
sin x cos x
tan x  cot x 
cos x sin x

2. Reciprocal Identities
1 1 1
csc x  sec x  cot x 
sin x cos x tan x

3. Pythagorean Identities
sin 2 x  cos 2 x  1 tan 2 x  1  sec 2 x cot 2 x  1  csc 2 x

4. Even-Odd Identities
sin  x    sin x cos x   cos x tan  x    tan x
csc x    csc x sec x   sec x cot  x    cot x

Guidelines for Establishing Identities


1. It is almost always preferable to start with the side containing the more complicated
expression.
2. Rewrite sums or differences of quotients as a single quotient.
3. Sometimes rewriting one side in terms of sines and cosines only will help.
4. Always keep your goal in mind. As you manipulate one side of the expression, you
must keep in mind the form of the expression on the other side.

Establishing Identities

Example: Establish the following identities:

a) cosec θ. tan θ = sec θ

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

b) sin2 (−θ) + cos2 (−θ) = 1

1+ tan θ
c) = tan θ
1+ cot θ

sin θ 1 + cos θ
d) + = 2 cosec θ
1+ cos θ sin θ

Solving simple trigonometric equations

Example: Solve the following trigonometric equations for 0° ≤ 𝜃 ≤ 360°:

1
a) cos 𝜃 = 2

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Calculus Mathematics (FEST 016) Basic Trigonometry

b) 2 sin 𝜃 + √3 = 0

1
c) sin 2𝜃 = 2

𝜋
d) tan (𝜃 − 2 ) = 1

e) 2 sin2 𝜃 − 3 sin 𝜃 + 1 = 0

f) 3 cos 𝜃 + 3 = 2 sin2 𝜃

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