Anda di halaman 1dari 117

Detailed Feasibility Study

Technical Report – PNR South

North-South Railway Project


South Line
Prepared for:

PPP Center of the Philippines / Department of


Transportation and Communications

Prepared by:

CPCS

CPCS Ref: 13039


March, 2015
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Quality Assurance

North-South Railway Project – South Line CPCS Ref: 13039

Version Date Resp. Approval


1.1 Feb 7, 2014 G. Kaulbeck S. McDonnell
1.2 Apr 15, 2014 G. Kaulbeck S. McDonnell
2.1 Dec 3, 2014 C. Taylor S. McDonnell

Filename/location:

https://sp.cpcs.ca/Projects/13039 Philippines ILRP/Reports and Deliverables/08 NSRP DFS/NSRP


South Line DFS Technical Report - PNR South.docx
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Acknowledgements

CPCS would like to acknowledge the kind assistance


granted to them by the staff of the PPP Center of the
Philippines, the Department of Transport and
Communications and the Philippines National Railway.
In addition we wish to thank all stakeholders who gave
so generously of their time and shared with us their
insights into the future development of the railway. Any
errors of fact or interpretation are ours.

CPCS Transcom Limited


72 Chamberlain Ave
Ottawa, Canada K1S 1V9
613.237.2500
ottawa@cpcs.ca
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Table of Contents

Acronyms/Abbreviations .................................................................................................................. i
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ iii
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Purpose of this Report.................................................................................................................1
1.2 PNR South Description ................................................................................................................1
1.3 Inspections ..................................................................................................................................2
1.4 Report Structures ........................................................................................................................2
2 Hydrological Study........................................................................................................................ 4
2.1 Project Location...........................................................................................................................4
2.2 Climate.........................................................................................................................................5
2.3 Rainfall .........................................................................................................................................6
2.4 Tropical Cyclones and Typhoon Tracks .......................................................................................8
2.5 Bicol River Basin and Environs ....................................................................................................9
2.6 Flooding, Debris Flow & Local Drainage Problems ...................................................................11
2.7 Recommended Work ................................................................................................................18
3 Geotechnical Study ..................................................................................................................... 19
3.1 Project Location.........................................................................................................................19
3.2 Geological and Geotechnical Conditions ..................................................................................20
3.3 Seismicity and Geologic Hazards ...............................................................................................22
3.3.1 Seismic Hazards..................................................................................................................22
3.4 Liquefaction ...............................................................................................................................24
3.5 Settlement .................................................................................................................................27
3.6 Downslope Movement ..............................................................................................................28
3.7 Flooding .....................................................................................................................................28
3.8 Matrix of Geohazards ................................................................................................................35
3.9 Way Forward .............................................................................................................................36
4 Condition Assessments – Track ................................................................................................... 37
4.1 Standards...................................................................................................................................37
4.2 Condition Assessment ...............................................................................................................38
4.2.1 Rail ......................................................................................................................................39
4.2.2 Sleepers ..............................................................................................................................39
4.2.3 Ballast .................................................................................................................................40
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

4.2.4 Formation ...........................................................................................................................40


4.3 Road Crossings ..........................................................................................................................42
4.4 Mainline Turnouts .....................................................................................................................44
4.5 Recommendations for Track Works ..........................................................................................46
5 Condition Assessments- Bridges ................................................................................................. 49
5.1 Standards...................................................................................................................................49
5.2 Bridges – Overall Condition .......................................................................................................50
5.3 Naga Division .............................................................................................................................51
5.4 Hondagua Division.....................................................................................................................53
5.5 Lucena Division ..........................................................................................................................54
5.6 Manila Division ..........................................................................................................................56
6 Condition Assessments -Stations ................................................................................................ 59
7 Condition Assessment - Depots................................................................................................... 64
7.1 General ......................................................................................................................................64
7.2 Existing PNR Depots ..................................................................................................................65
7.2.1 Manila Depot......................................................................................................................65
7.2.2 Naga Depot ........................................................................................................................66
7.2.3 Calamba Line Sheds ...........................................................................................................67
7.3 Assessment And Recommendation ..........................................................................................67
7.3.1 Manila Depot......................................................................................................................68
7.3.2 Naga Depot ........................................................................................................................68
7.3.3 Calamba Line Sheds ...........................................................................................................69
8 Condition Assessment – Communications, Control & Signalling ................................................... 70
8.1 General ......................................................................................................................................70
8.2 Existing Infrastructure ...............................................................................................................71
8.2.1 Signalling ............................................................................................................................71
8.2.2 Communications ................................................................................................................72
8.3 Assessment and Recommendation ...........................................................................................72
9 Track Rehabilitation – Cost Estimates ......................................................................................... 74
9.1 Section Characteristics ..............................................................................................................74
9.2 Rehabilitation Requirements ....................................................................................................79
9.3 Rehabilitation Quantities ..........................................................................................................81
9.4 Unit Cost Derivation ..................................................................................................................82
9.4.1 Direct Costs ........................................................................................................................83
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

9.4.2 Equipment Cost ..................................................................................................................83


9.4.3 Material Cost ......................................................................................................................83
9.4.4 Labor Cost ..........................................................................................................................83
9.5 Unit Costs ..................................................................................................................................83
9.6 Estimates of Capital Costs .........................................................................................................85
9.7 Crossing Protection ...................................................................................................................87
10 Bridge Rehabilitation and Replacement - Cost Estimates ........................................................... 88
10.1 Quantities for Bridges ...............................................................................................................89
10.2 Unit Costs ..................................................................................................................................91
10.3 Estimates of Capital Costs .........................................................................................................93
11 Station Rehabilitation Cost Estimates ....................................................................................... 96
11.1 Rehabilitation Requirements ....................................................................................................96
11.2 Unit Costs ..................................................................................................................................97
11.3 Estimated Capital Costs .............................................................................................................98
12 Depots - Estimated Capital Costs of Rehabilitation .................................................................... 99
13 Calamba to Batangas Branch Line ........................................................................................... 101
14 Total Cost of South Line Rehabilitation ................................................................................... 105
14.1 Fixed Costs .............................................................................................................................. 105
14.2 Total Capital Costs .................................................................................................................. 106
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Acronyms/Abbreviations
AADT Annual Average Daily Traffic

AASHTO Association of American State Highway and Transportation Officials

ADB Asian Development Bank

AREMA American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association

BC Ratio Benefit-Cost Ratio

BOO Build-Own-Operate

BOT Build-Operate-Transfer

CAPEX Capital Expenditures

DENR Department of Environment and Natural Resources

DMF Design and Monitoring Framework

DMU Diesel Multiple Unit

DOTC Department of Transportation and Communications

DPWH Department of Public Works and Highways

ECC Environment Compliance Certificate

EIA Environmental Impact Assessment

EIRR Economic Internal Rate of Return

EIS Environmental Impact Study

EMB Environment Management Bureau

ENPV Economic Net Present Value

FIRR Financial Internal Rate of Return

FS Feasibility Study

GOP Government of the Philippines

IEE Initial Environmental Examination

ILRP Integrated Luzon Railway Project

|i
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

LGU Local Government Unit

LRT Light Rail Transit

LRTA Light Rail Transit Authority

MPSS Minimum Performance Standards &Specifications

MRT Metro Rail Transit

MRTC Metro Rail Transit Corporation

NEDA National Economic and Development Authority

NPV Net Present Value

NSCP National Structural Code of the Philippines

O-D Survey Origin-Destination Survey

O&M Operation and Maintenance

OPEX Operating Expenditures

PCR Project Completion Report

PNR Philippine National Railway

PPA Philippine Ports Authority

PPMS Project Performance Monitoring System

PPP Public-Private Partnership

ROI Return of Investment

ROM Railway Operations Model

ROW Right of Way

SCT Signalling, Control and Telecommunications

TA Transaction Advisor

TCR Technical Assistance Completion Report

TOR Terms of Reference

VFM Value for Money

WACC Weighted Average Cost of Capital

|ii
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Executive Summary
This report presents our observations and findings of our condition assessments of fixed
infrastructure on the existing PNR South line including track & roadbed, bridges, stations and
depots. The objective of the rehabilitation plan is the restoration of the track structure to safe
use at the design speeds of 75 kph and maximum permissible axle loads of 15 tons. Although
the inspection and condition assessment covers the entire mainline south from Tutuban,
Manila to Legazpi (south terminus of the line), this report and associated rehabilitation plan will
cover only the portion from Calamba to Legazpi. The portion from Calamba northward will be
dealt with in a separate volume.

The Batangas Branch, which has been abandoned for about 70 years, is also dealt with
separately since, with the exception of much of the embankment, this line will require
complete reconstruction with new materials.

Our key observations and recommendations are as, as follows:

 Track – Track is ballasted track system where parallel steel rails are laid upon cross ties
embedded in ballast (except on open-deck bridges)

o Rail weight is 32 and 37 kg/m rail of lengths varying in length between 10 and 60
meters. Overall, rail was found to be in good condition with newer 37 kg/m rail
in better shape than the older lighter rail (of 32 kg/m). We recommend
replacement of the remaining 32 kg/m rail from the track and replaced with 37
kg/m rail. The lighter rail should be saved for use in siding and depot tracks.

o Sleepers are mainly concrete but with wood sleepers on some curves and on
open-deck bridges. Concrete sleepers are in generally good condition though
many sleepers were observed to be missing. It appears they were largely
removed by PNR forces for use in areas of very poor tie condition, typically on
bridges. Wood ties on curves were observed to be in poor to fair condition.
Wood bridge ties were found to be in poor condition though there have been
recent programs to replace the sleepers. Unfortunately, it appears that some
poor quality sleepers have been used and they have not performed well. In
addition, we have seen many cases of concrete sleepers with wood sleepers on
bridges. We see that this was done in an act of desperation by track forces; but it
is an unsafe practice.

We recommend replacing all damaged and missing concrete sleepers with like
kind, and replacing all wood track sleepers with concrete sleepers using the
existing PNR sleeper patterns. We also recommend the removal of all concrete
sleepers, and deteriorated or damaged wood sleepers from open deck bridges,
and quality hardwood sleepers installed.

|iii
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

o Ballast and sub-ballast sections were found to be in poor condition. In some


sections, there was little or no ballast in place, and vegetation was often
between the rails. The poor ballast is caused by the quality of ballast used
(mixed volcanic sand and soil instead of crushed rock especially within Naga
Division), poor maintenance (little surface or maintenance of ditches) and
pilferage. We are recommending a minimum of a 75 mm ballast lift for the
entire line and undercutting at fixed structures (such a bridges).

o Formation was observed to have failed or as being unstable throughout, but


these conditions were most prevalent in the Naga and Hondagua Divisions. At
locations of failure, we recommend dismantling the track and re-construction of
the roadbed with full replacement of sub-ballast and ballast materials. This
would most often be at locations prone to flooding or subject to high levels of
trespassing. Where needed, we recommend removal of materials and properly
profiling ditches to permit proper drainage of the track structure, and movement
of surface water away of the rail line

o Authorized road crossings were frequently found to be lacking necessary safety


appliances such as signs and gates, and there were a significant number of
unauthorized crossings. We recommend that all authorized crossing be
equipped with gates and signs, and working with LGU’s, efforts be made to
reduce the number of unauthorized road crossings and designate as authorized
those that are required.

 Bridges were found to have high degrees of corrosion largely due to lack of
maintenance, old age and inadequate protection from natural environment. Bridges
were classified in one of three categories, as follows:
o Full Replacement - when the retrofit cost approaches 70 % of a new bridge – 34
bridges
o Major Rehabilitation - replacement of span, re-plating, etc. – 72 bridges
o Repair - sand blasting, replacing bolts & nuts – 323 bridges

It is important to note that our observations and assessments were limited to what
could be seen from the on top and below the bridge. It is possible that deteriorated or
damaged sections of superstructures exist but are not visible from these vantage points.
As well, the structural integrity of substructures has not been assessed.

 Stations and flag stops were observed to be insufficient for satisfactory and safe operation
along the whole line except for the stations within Manila division. Outside of the Manila
Division, most have been used residences (typically by illegal settlers), used as a storage area,
or a public area. There has been minimal maintenance by PNR. Requirements for stations and
flag stops will be further studied as part of our traffic and operational analysis. However, we
have included for rehabilitation and replacement of stations in the capital plan included in this
report.

|iv
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

 Three depots are maintained and used by PNR: Manila Depot, Naga Depot, and Calamba Line
Sheds. All three are operational but would require investment in structures, equipment and
access roads and tracks for maintenance of larger rolling stock fleets.

Our estimate of costs to rehabilitate the PNR South for the return of operations is PHP 28
billion. It is important to note that this does not include rolling stock which will be analyzed in
our operational analysis.
Figure 0-1 Capital Cost to Rehabilitate/Replace Fixed Infrastructure (million PhP)

Naga Hondagua Lucena Manila Total

Fixed Costs 586 583 499 240 1,908


Track 3,374 2,718 3,238 1,360 10,689
Crossings 61 18 66 26 171
Bridges 440 610 472 137 1,659
Stations 130 140 315 15 600
Depots 41 65 106
Communications Lump 2,098
Land Acquisition Lump 10,547
Totals 4,572 4,013 4,543 1,819 27,780

The total estimated capital cost to restore the Batangas Branch for safe operation at a design
speed of 75 kph and for maximum axle loads of 15 tons is estimated at 8 B PhP, as summarized
below.
Figure 0-2: Total Capital for Batangas Branch (Million PhP)

Description Total
Fixed Costs 772
Track 3,347
Crossings 29
Bridges 1,925
Stations 116
Communications 255
Land Acquisition 1,280
Totals 7,724

The total cost to rehabilitate the south line and restore the Batangas Branch is PHP 36 billion.

|v
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

11.1 Purpose of this Report


Introduction

This report provides a summary of our condition assessments from Manila to Legazpi, and
rehabilitation recommendations and cost estimates for the PNR South Line from Calamba to
Legazpi. Field investigations were undertaken by train and trolley car starting in May, 2013 and
concluding in November of the same year. At the same study geotechnical and hydrological
studies were being undertaken, and analysis was conducted to determine the most suitable
options for rehabilitation. Lastly, we prepared our recommendations for rehabilitation and
prepared costs estimates based on these recommendations. This is all addressed in this
document.

1.2 PNR South Description


PNR Mainline South consists of a single track which runs a total of 478 km from Manila to
Legazpi City, Albay. The track is cape gauge (1,067 mm) with rails weighing 32 or 37 kg/ 1m on
sleepers of both wood and concrete. Track is ballasted; wherein ballast forms the track bed and
sleepers are laid upon it. Embankment is either on fill or at grade.

There are about 430 existing bridge structures along the mainline south as reported in the
“PNR List and Details of Bridges along Mainline South”. The existing structures have been

1
It is our understanding that 32 kg/m profile was originally installed and has been partially replaced with 37 kg/m
during rehabilitation works done by PNR.

|1
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

located according to Telegraphic Post (TP) stationing provided by PNR. The structures vary in
age, type and span.

There are a total of 45 stations and 43 flag stops along the Mainline South. Most of the stations
and flag stops are not operational, except for stations between Tutuban and Binan.

The Mainline South is divided into the four divisions; Manila, Lucena, Hondagua and Naga
Divisions. In Appendix 1, we have included alignment drawings for the entire rail line from
Tutoban to Legazpi.
Figure 1-1 PNR South Divisions

Division Section Length (km)


Manila Division Tutuban - Pansol 60.5 km
Lucena Division Pansol – Gumaca 150 km
Hondagua Division Lupi – Gumaca 119.9 km
Naga Division Legazpi– Lupi 148.5km

Design speed (as well as maximum permissible speed) along the line is 75 kph and
permissible axle load is 15 tons.

1.3 Inspections
Inspections were undertaken by train and by trolley across the entire PNR South by many
members of the project team. Detailed inspections were undertaken jointly by bridge
engineers and track engineers by trolley on the following dates:
 Naga Division: Legazpi Station to Lupi Station

- August 19 – 21, 2013; September 11 – 14, 2013 and September 18 – 21, 2013.
 Hondugua Division: Lupi Station to Gumaca Station
- September 20 – 21, 2013 and October 07 – 11, 2013
 Lucena Division: Gumaca Station to Pansol Flag Stop
- October 22 - 24 and November 12 - 15 2013
 Manila Division: Pansol Flag Stop to Tutuban Station
- November 27 – 29, 2013.

1.4 Report Structures


The report is structured in the following manner:

 Introduction to PNR South and this report – chapter 1

|2
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

 Hydrological study – chapter 2


 Geotechnical study – chapter 3
 Condition Assessment are dealt with in chapters 4 through 8, as follows
- Track and roadbed – chapter 4
- Bridges – chapter 5
- Stations – chapter 6
- Depots – chapter 7
- Communications, Control & Signalling Systems – chapter 8
 Cost Estimates are dealt with in chapters 9 through 13, as follows:
- Track rehabilitation - chapter 9
- Bridge Rehabilitation and Replacement – chapter 10
- Station Rehabilitation and Construction – chapter 11
- Depot Rehabilitation – chapter 12
- Total Cost of South Line Rehabilitation - chapter 13

Appendices
 Alignment Drawings – Appendix 1
 Track Condition Assessment Reports – Appendix 2
 Bridge Condition Assessment Reports – Appendix 3
 Typical Drawings and Plans – Appendix 4

The appendices are organized in the following manner.


Appendices
1. Alignment Drawings 2. Track Condition 3. Bridge Condition
Division: Assessment Reports Assessment Reports

Naga 1.1 2.1 3.1

Hondagua 1.2 2.2 3.2

Lucena 1.3 2.3 3.3

Manila 1.4 2.4 3.4

|3
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

22.1 Project Location


Hydrological Study

This chapter deals with the hydrology study of the PNR mainline south from Manila to Legazpi.

Figure 2-1: Location Map

The mainline south railway (Figure 1) starts from Manila and passes the plains of Laguna and
goes south to Lucena City. It then follows the coastal towns of Pagbilao, Agdangan and Unisan
which fronts Tayabas Bay. The railway crosses the mountainous terrain and emerges at Plaridel,
and passes through the coastal towns of Gumaca and Lopez which fronts Lamon Bay. It then
leads to mountainous terrain down to the Bicol River Basin and finally ends at Legazpi City.

|4
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

2.2 Climate
The climate of the Philippines is tropical and maritime. It is characterized by relatively high
temperature, high humidity and abundant rainfall. The Philippine climate is classified into four
types depending on the rainfall distribution and pattern. Rainfall intensities range from very
light to heavy. Precipitation is influenced by prevailing air streams, monsoons, tropical
cyclones, the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), topography fronts, easterly waves and
local thunderstorms. The four climate types are described as follows:

 Type I - Two pronounced seasons. Dry from November to April, wet during the rest of year

 Type II - No dry season with a very pronounced rainfall from November to April and wet
during the rest of year

 Type III - Seasons are not very pronounced, relatively dry from November to April, wet
during the rest of year

 Type IV - Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year.

The south line railway is located along the south eastern part of Southern Tagalog region and
partly in the central of the Laguna-Quezon-Bicol region, henceforth it falls mostly under Type
IV, as indicated in figure 2-2.

Figure 2-2: Climate map

|5
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

2.3 Rainfall
Based on the rainfall data of the PAGASA Synoptic stations, the normal annual rainfall is
presented in Figure 2-3. The north railway experienced rainfall in the amount of 2500 mm in the
northern region and about 2000 mm near the Manila Area. On the other hand, the south
railway is exposed to higher annual rainfall of about 3000 mm.

Figure 2-3: Annual Rainfall (mm)

|6
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 2-4 exhibits the maximum 1-day rainfall for the 20 year return period. The south railway
maximum is about 300 mm.

Figure 2-4: Maximum Rainfall (mm)

|7
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

2.4 Tropical Cyclones and Typhoon Tracks


Tropical Cyclones typically bring considerable rainfall in the Philippines. There are three
classifications of tropical cyclones, namely:

 Tropical depressions which have wind speeds of 45 to 63 kph,


 Tropical storms which have wind speeds of 64 to 119 kph, and
 Typhoons which have maximum speed of 120 kph and more.
Typhoons usually occur from June to December with highest frequencies in July and August as
indicated in Figure 2-5. However, the most disastrous typhoons generally are experienced
during the months of October to November when typhoon would cut across the Philippines
especially in the Visayas Island and Northern Mindanao.
Figure 2-5: Monthly Typhoon Distributions

The mean annual number of tropical cyclones that pass through the Philippine Area of
Responsibility is about twenty (20). The north railway season has 11-20% typhoon occurrence
while the south railway has 21-30% typhoon occurrence, as per Figure 2-6.

|8
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 2-6: Typhoon Frequency

2.5 Bicol River Basin and Environs


The Bicol river basin plays a critical zone in terms of flooding conditions along the PNR southern
corridor. The central portion of the watershed stands on a flat alluvial which is conducive to the
formation water logged area or flood prone inundation areas especially with the available
amount of rainfall (1600 - 4300 mm/yr). A wide range of annual and perennial crops are grown
on the basin area, due to favorable soils and rainfall with no pronounced dry season. The river
system also supports the livelihood of the populace who lives along its banks and who are
mainly dependent on agriculture and fishing.

Likewise, the watersheds along the western slope of Mt. Mayon contribute also to the flooding
of the Bicol River Basin. For prolonged intense rainfall as result of monsoon rains or passage of

|9
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

typhoon within its vicinity, debris flow of the eruptive deposit of Mt. Mayon is remobilized or
migrated downstream.

Bicol River Basin


The railway traverses the central and flat alluvial land of the Bicol River Basin as per Figure 2-7.
It passes through the municipalities and cities of Lupi, Sipocot, Libmanan, Pamplona, Naga City,
Pili, Naga City, Pili, Baao, Iriga City, Bato, Polangui, Oas, Ligao, Guinobatan and Camalig.

Figure 2-7: Bicol River Basin

The Bicol River Basin drains an area of 3,771 square kilometers in Southern Luzon. It embraces
the central portion of Camarines Sur, the northern portion of Albay, and a portion of
CamarinesNorte. The basin is oriented in a northwest-southeast direction and bounded on the
east by a chain of volcanoes (i.e. Mt. Isarog, Mt. Malinao, Mt. Masagara, Mt. Iriga and Mt.
Mayon) and on the west by highlands and low hills. The flat alluvial land in the Bicol Plain
occupies the area between the Eastern Bicol Cordillera and the Ragay Hills. The runoff which is
estimated annually at 5,100 million cubic meters, starts from the Mayon Volcano with an
elevation of 4,421m, and meanders in a generally northwestward direction. After being
regulated through lakes Bato, Buhi, and Baao, the stream flow reaches the mainstream of the
BicolRiver which owing to its very gentle slope, is affected by tides as far as upstream of Naga
City.

|10
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

The principal tributary of the BicolRiver is the Sipocot River. The Sipocot River cuts through
mountainous terrain and has a steeper slope. The Bicol River after joining the Sipocot River
widens to more than 1,000 meters across at the estuary before discharging into San Miguel
Bay.

The average annual rainfall varies from 2,000mm in the southeastern area to 3,600mm in the
northwestern section of the basin. Flood-producing rains in the basin from May to February
are mainly due to tropical cyclone passages, northeast monsoon and orographic effect.

Flooding from the sea in the alluvial plain near the mouth of the river is caused by storm surges
associated with the passage of slow-moving typhoons near or over San Miguel Bay particularly
during high tides.

Watersheds along the Western Slopes of Mt. Mayon


The railway section from Legazpi City – Daraga – Camalig – Guinobatan is along the foot of the
western slope of Mt. Mayon. This zone is very dynamic in terms of sediment transport
particularly deposition just it is downstream of the alluvial fan. Sustained and intense rainfall
initiates the sediment transport process.

Rainfall of Typhoon Reming had triggered large volume debris flow (lahar flow) which had
resulted into the flooding and sediment deposition in most of communities along the foot of
Mt. Mayon. The Bicol Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council reported 75 dead persons for
Legazpi, 141 dead persons for Daraga and 197 dead persons for Guinobatan.

The affected rivers are Yawa river which discharges to Albay Bay through Legazpi City and
Tagaytay river which drains towards Guinobatan and then into the Bicol River Basin.

Yawa River has a channel width of 50 to 70 meters before Typhoon Reming but it widens to
about 300 to 500 meters. The Yawa Bridge at Legazpi City was washed out during Typhoon
Reming. It was also estimated that the 50 year and 100 year flood is about 1250 m3/s and 1500
m3/s, respectively.

2.6 Flooding, Debris Flow & Local Drainage Problems


Past Historical Floods in the Bicol Region
The notable historical floods which had brought considerable damage to the Bicol region were
those of November 2000 (Figure 2-8), November 2004 (Figure 2-9) and November 2006 (Figure
2-10).

|11
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 2-8: Flood Map – November, 2000

Figure 2-9: Flood Map, November 2010

|12
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 2-10: Flood Map (Typhoon Remig, Dec 2006)

Typhoon Reming of 2006 had brought significant damage to the municipalities of Guinobatan,
Daraga and Legazpi City. Typhoon Reming brought flood waters as well as debris flow from the
Mt. Mayon. The Yawa and Tagaytay Rivers which drains close to the Daraga–Guinobatan railway
alignment. In this case, there is high risk disaster risk as shown in the extent of lahar flow
damage as seen in Figure 2-11.

|13
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 2-11: Mudslide Damage - western side of Mt. Mayon

The most common problems related to bridge hydrology and hydraulics are bridge deck
overtopping or flood inundation, minimal vertical clearance and inadequate local surface
drainage facilities.

Overtopping of Bridges

The bridges affected by flooding, overflowing or debris flow are

 Bagtang (Bridge 430) between Daraga-Travesia,


 Travesia (Bridge 419) between Daraga-Travesia and
 San Ramon (Bridge 381) between Baao-Iriga.
Bagtang Bridge was overtopped during Typhoon Reming. As shown in Figure 2-12, the flood
marks along the steel beam’s lower chord suggest that the bridge is subjected to frequent
flooding even with small or ordinary rainfall. The frequent flooding may also attributed to the
constricted channel due to house encroachment.

|14
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 2-12: Bagtang Bridge after during Typhoon Reming.

Typical flood event under ordinary rainfall is shown in Figure 2-13 for the San Ramon Bridge.
Floating debris is evidently trapped or had piled up at piers. Water way is also covered with
vegetation.

Figure 2-13: San Ramon Bridge after Typhoon Remig

Bridges with Low Minimal Vertical Clearance


As the Bicol River Basin is largely an agricultural land and may be considered as wetland with the
presence of number of lake. Flooding is a common occurrence.
There are number of bridges which serve as equalizer for the surface runoff for the rice fields
and agricultural land along the alignment. Trapped debris at piers and waterway fully covered
with vegetation are common sight. This has rendered the bridges to have low vertical
clearances. In this case the bridges are clustered as surface runoff spills over from one tributary
to another neighboring tributary. The affected sections are as follows:

|15
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

 Km 460 to Km 456 (six bridges),


 Km 441 to Km 438 (ten bridges),
 Km 437 to Km 431 (seven bridges),
 Km 405 to Km 401 (three bridges), and
 Km 374 to 368 (14 bridges).

A total of forty (40) bridges are included in the bridge clustering. Typical pictures of affected
bridges are shown in Figure 2-14.
Figure 2-14: Bridges with Low Minimal Vertical Clearance

TAGAYTAY BRIDGE

KM 460.35 –KM
460.40

BRIDGE NO. 421


KM 459.05 –KM 459.10

SAPANGPALAYBRIDGE

KM 441.30 – KM 441.35

|16
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Railway Sections with Surface Drainage Inundation


With growing number of municipal and urban development, railway sections along its right of
way are being encroached or occupied. For easy access to its property, the railway sections are
converted into roadways or access road. This has impeded the surface runoff or blocked the
surface runoff flow. There are also sewer lines (i.e. open canals) built along railway alignment.
Hence, no definite urban drainage system is being implemented.
Figure 2-15: Examples of encroachment impeding track drainage

KM 475.70 – KM 475.860

KM 473.50 – KM 473.60

KM 471.90 – KM 472.00

|17
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

2.7 Recommended Work


For bridges which have experienced overtopping or are highly susceptible to flooding, it is
recommended to undertake hydraulic analysis and assessment of structural integrity. Past
historical events should be revisited and estimation of peak flood should be updated. Detailed
plan and cross section survey with sufficient upstream and downstream river reaches should be
conducted. Water surface profile should be determined with the applicable free board
satisfying acceptable standards. Scouring evaluation of the river reach with bridge should also
be conducted. River training works and other hydraulic structure to improve the flow pattern
and capacity will be incorporated in the study.

In case of clustered bridges with not enough vertical clearance, flood plain analysis should be
conducted. A detailed topographic survey is needed so as to define the physiographic
characteristic of the flood plain. A mathematical hydraulic modeling of the flood water over
spilling to nearby and neighboring tributaries will be represented. Likewise, a review and
updating of the river flood discharge should be undertaken. Any planned integrated area
development by local government unit or government agencies will be incorporated in the
modeling process.

It is also suggested to provide regular maintenance by clearing of the waterway that is fully
covered with vegetation. The carrying capacity of the waterway will increase as well as water
level on both sides of the railway will easily equalize.

In case of the simple local surface drainage inundation, if an outfall can be easily identified
providing an interceptor channel which will collect rainfall from high area will be an option to
reduce or eliminate surface drainage inundation. The rain water will then be conveyed to an
outfall. The interceptor may be part track improvement scheme considering the geotechnical
and structural stability of the railway.

For more complex surface runoff pattern, an urban drainage study should be conducted. The
scope of work includes defining the catchment area, estimation of flow, hydraulic sizing and
design of the interceptor channel or culvert. In addition, the outfall should be identified and
corresponding transmission conveyance should be designed.

|18
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

33.1 Project Location


Geotechnical Study
The mainline south railway refers to the 478 km mainline traversing Manila, Calamba, Naga and
Legazpi, the 5km branch line from San Pedro to Carmona and the 58km branch line from
Calamba to Batangas City. A possible extension from Legazpi to Sorsogon is also being
considered. Figure 1 shows the PNR’s North and South Mainline network

|19
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 3-1: PNR’s North and South Mainline Network

3.2 Geological and Geotechnical Conditions


Geologic materials and structures found in Region 4 are dominated by volcanic deposits and
processes of the Southern Tagalog volcanic field. The whole region consists of tuff and scoria
cones, craters, maars, calderas and composite volcanoes that were active during the past 14.8
million years based on K-Ar dates of extrusive and intrusive rocks in the area. The Southern
Tagalog volcanic field forms part of the Bataan volcanic arc that extends as far north as Mount
Pinatubo and parallels the Manila Trench subduction zone on the west of Luzon Island. The
entire area is underlain by volcanic deposits resulting from the numerous volcanic centers that
exist in the area.

Three (3) general varieties of volcanic materials are recognized in the region:

 unconsolidated young volcaniclastic sediments;


 loosely consolidated pyroclastic deposit sand
 basaltic and andesitic lava flows.
The unconsolidated deposits are mainly found in the low elevations of the CALABARZON region,
on the San Pablo-Tiaong valley and near the southern shores of Laguna de Bay. The loosely

|20
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

unconsolidated deposits are often layered volcanic deposits that resulted from the explosive to
gentle extrusion of fragmented materials from the numerous volcanoes found in and near the
study site. These deposits range in thickness from a few centimeters to tens of meters
depending on their proximity to the source. Most of these deposits are airfall tephra, i.e.
materials blown skyward by the explosive volcanic activities. The basaltic and andesitic lava
flows consist of both historic and pre-historic lava flow deposits and volcanic necks.

The historic lava flow deposits show less massive surfaces. The most extensive type of volcanic
deposits is the pyroclastic beds which are thinly bedded and horizontally stratified tephra
layers.

Bicol region, on the other hand, is characterized by Pre-Cretaceous metamorphics, which are
overlain by Quaternary volcanic and sedimentary rocks composed of interbedded greywacke,
cherts, tuffs, spilitic to andesitic lava flows, mudstones and cherty limestone’s of Cretaceous
age. Mt. Cadig, located near the northern stretch of the project site, is made up of serpentinize
dultramafics and is a thrusted body shoved against folded schists and Cretaceous (Geology and
Mineral Resources of the Philippines, Bureau of Mines and Geosciences, 1981).

Figure 3-2 presents the sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks which are associated in
each segment of the Mainline South Network. (Ref: Mines and Geosciences Bureau Geology
Map).
Figure 3-2: Geologic Map of Luzon - Regions 4 to 5

M
a
i
n
li
n
e
S
o
u
(Upper Miocene – Pliocene) Largely marine clastics overlain by extensice, locally transgressive
t pyroclastics (chiefly
tuff, tuffites) and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks. h

(Pliocene-Piestocene) Marine and terrestrial sediments.Associated with extensive reef limestone; with
pyroclastics in western and southern central basin and in Bicol lowland.

|21
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

(Pliocene-Quaternary) Volcanic plain or volcanic piedomont deposits.Chiefly pyroclastics and/or debris at foot of
volcanoes.

(Recent) Alluvium, fluviatile, lacustrine, paludal and beach deposits; raised coral reefs, atolls, and beachrock.

(Ologocene-Miocene) Thick, extensive, transgressive mixed shelf marine deposits, largely wackes, shales and reef
limestone. Underlain by conglomerate and/or associated with paralic coal measures in places.

(Neogene) Largely intra-Miocene quartz diorite.Mostly batholiths and stocks, some laccoliths; also sills, dikes and
other minor bodies.Includes granodiorite and diorite porphyry facies and late Miocene dacite.

3.3 Seismicity and Geologic Hazards


3.3.1 Seismic Hazards
The Philippines accounts for 3.2% of the world’s seismicity. It is situated in the Circum-Pacific
Belt a.k.a. “Ring of Fire”, where 80% of the world’s earthquakes occur. Philippine seismicity is
mainly related to plate subduction and in part to strike-slip motions along trans-current faults.

The country is a north-south strip of lithosphere built partly on abducted oceanic basement
rocks, and by portions of drifted continental crust from southern China. It is pictured as “a
wedge caught in between two opposite dipping trenches”. The north westward moving Pacific
Plate pushes the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the eastern side of the archipelago at the rate of
about 7 centimeters per year (PHIVOLCS, 1991). The oceanic parts of the slower moving
Eurasian Plate are being sub ducted along the western side of Luzon and Mindoro at the rate of
3 centimeters per year.

The archipelago is grouped into a mobile belt and a stable region. The former has high
seismicity while the latter is relatively free from frequent crustal movements. Luzon, the central
islands of Mindoro, Masbate, Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte, Samar and other smaller
islands comprised the mobile belt while Palawan and Sulu Sea belonged to the stable regions.
The mobile belt is dissected by the left lateral Philippine Fault zone from eastern Mindanao
through north western Luzon. Recent geological and geophysical investigations revealed that
the tectonic history of the Philippine archipelago involved geological processes related to
convergent plate margins, island arcs, aphiolites, sedimentary basins and micro continental arc
collision. Luzon in particular, has sub direction zones in both the western and eastern sides.
Other locations of shorter sub direction zones indicated as trenches on the sea floor are found
off the coasts of Sulu, Cotobato, Negros and south western Palawan.

The Bicol region is sandwiched between the Philippine Fault and the Philippine Trench and cut
transversely by the Legazpi Lineament (Aurelio, 1992; Bureau of Mines, 1964; Daligdig and
Besana, 2000). It is therefore tectonically, seismically, and volcanically active.

The distribution of Active Faults and Trenches in the Philippines is shown in Figure 3 and the
map showing estimates of regional ground motion hazards in the Philippines is presented as

|22
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 4. The expected peak ground acceleration with 10% probability of exceedance in 50
years for the project area (mainline north and south railways) is between 0.22g to 0.24g (USGS
and PHIVOLCS).
Figure 3-3: Distribution of Active Faults and Trenches in the Philippines

|23
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure3-4: Estimates of Regional Ground Motion Hazards (PGA in Rock)

3.4 Liquefaction
Soil liquefaction is a phenomenon that occurs mostly in medium to fine-grained sands wherein
a mass of soil loses a large percentage of its shear resistance when subjected to monotonic,
cyclic or shock loading, and flows in a manner resembling a liquid. Much of the damage on
substructures and foundation during earthquake is attributed to this phenomenon.

Considering shallow groundwater level, proximity of a seismic source capable of generating


high-magnitude earthquakes, and presence of loose to medium dense sands in some portions
of the alignment, susceptibility to liquefaction can be very high. Figures 5 to 7 shows the Active
Faults and Liquefaction Susceptibility Map of Region 4A, 4B and 5.

|24
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 3-5: Active Faults and Liquefaction Susceptibility Map of Region 4A

|25
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure3-6: Active Faults and Liquefaction Susceptibility Map of Region 4B

|26
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 3-7: Active Faults and Liquefaction Susceptibility Map of Region 5

3.5 Settlement
Considerable settlement may occur when constructing projects such as highway embankments,
bridge approaches, dikes, dams, large storage areas, tanks, or buildings on soft compressible
soil, due to the consolidation of soil under the superimposed load. Severe pavement damage
and structural failure can be a direct result of settlement and therefore it is critical that
potential settlements are estimated and appropriate mitigating measures are formulated.

|27
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

3.6 Downslope Movement


The combination of factors such as steep topography and the presence of loosely consolidated
materials and their interaction influence the occurrence of down slope movement hazards in
the project site. These hazards include landslide, slumping and increased erosion. All these
processes induce earth materials to move rapidly down slope and cause instability to overlying
structures. Down slope movement may be induced by heavy rainfall, ground shaking due to
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Several factors are known to increase the likelihood of occurrence of landslides during heavy
rainfall. These include slope/gradient, water content of the soil and geology and materials
underlying the soil. Increase in any of the first three factors translates to increased probability
of slope failure while a decrease in vegetation cover also translates to increase probability of
occurrence of erosion.

Factors that influence the occurrence of landslides during intense shaking include intensity of
shaking, duration of shaking, slope gradient, geology, degree of vegetation cover and amount
of rainfall, if the earthquake or volcanic activity coincides with a period of high rainfall.

Slope protection measures may include drainage improvement by providing ditches and chute
blocks, in order to mitigate saturation of the slope material. Slope benching (to modify the
slope’s geometry), planting of vegetative cover and construction of toe walls can also be
considered.

3.7 Flooding
Based on the completed maps for the entire province of Laguna, Quezon, Camarines Sur, and
Albay, the Mainline South railway along Calamba, Gumaca and Naga has low to moderate
susceptibility to landslide and flooding, while Legazpi City is generally not flood- prone. Figures
8 to 13 show the Landslide and Flood Susceptibility Map of provinces within the Southern
Tagalog and Bicol Region.

Susceptibility to tsunami inundation for earthquakes with magnitude of 8.2 generated by the
Manila trench is presented in Figure 3-8 and 3-9 for various provinces traversed by the mainline
south railway network.

|28
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 3-8: Landslide and Flood Susceptibility Map of Calamba Quadrangle, Batangas and Laguna Provinces

Figure 3-9: Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gumaca, Quezon

|29
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 3- 10: Flood Susceptibility Map of Gumaca, Quezon

Figure 3-11: Landslide Susceptibility Map of Naga City, Camarines Sur

|30
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 3-12: Flood Susceptibility Map of Naga City, Camarines Sur

Figure 3-13: Flood Susceptibility Map of Legazpi City, Albay

|31
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 3-14: Tsunami Hazard Map of Batangas

Figure 3-15: Tsunami Hazard Map of Cavite

|32
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 3-16: Tsunami Hazard Map of Quezon

|33
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 3-17: Tsunami Hazard Map of Albay

|34
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 3-18: Tsunami Hazard Map of Camarines Sur

3.8 Matrix of Geohazards


The following table presents a summary of the regional geology and geohazards for each of the
provinces traversed by the alignment based on the superimposed PNR route on the completed
maps of the Mines and Geosciences Bureau.
Figure 3-19: Matrix of Geohazards

Location Geologic Formation Ranking Hazard Type

Laguna (Pliocene-Quaternary) Volcanic Plain Moderate Landslide


or volcanic piedmont deposits;
Pyroclastics north and east of Laguna
de Bay.

Upper Miocene-Pliocene) Largely


marine clastics overlain by
extensive, locally transgressive
pyroclastics ( tuff, tuffites) and
tuffaceous sedimentary rocks;
Associated with siltylimestones in
some parts of Luzon.

Quezon (Pliocene-Pliestocene) Marine and Seismic Hazard because

|35
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Location Geologic Formation Ranking Hazard Type


 Lopez-Tagkawayan terrestrial sediments. of proximity to the
Philippine Fault Zone
High Liquefaction
Camarines Sur (Recent) Alluvium, lacustrine, High Railway Settlement due
 Del Gallego-Ragay fluviatile and beach deposits to underlying loose,
 Sipocot – Libmanan unconsolidated soil or
 Libmanan – (Pliocene-Pliestocene) Marine and sediments.
Pamplona
terrestrial sediments. Associated Seismic Hazard because
 Pamplona - Naga
with extensive reef limestone in Bicol of proximity to the
Region Philippine Fault Zone
High Liquefaction
Albay Pliocene-Quaternary) Volcanic Plain Seismic Hazard because
or volcanic piedmont deposits; of proximity to the
Non-active cones (generally Philippine Fault Zone
pyroxene andesite) also dacitic High Liquefaction
and/or andesitic plugs.

3.9 Way Forward


Efforts to build a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform thru the setting up of a
geodatabase for the geotechnical component of the project are on-going. This tool will allow
the integration, storing, editing, analyzing, sharing and displaying geographically–referenced
information such as railway infrastructure, topographic map, hydrologic map, seismic map,
geologic formation and geotechnical data. This information shall serve as layers of thematic
information in GIS. This technology can then use combinations of mapped variables to build
and analyze new variables. The most common output of GIS is a map as they are often the most
effective means of communicating the results of the GIS process. Some of the GIS maps that
will be produced for this project may include Digital Elevation Model, integrated railway
information based on field work findings overlain on geologic map and/or geohazard maps (e.g.
landslide and flood susceptibility, liquefaction susceptibility), proximity of the alignment to the
nearest seismic sources. These maps shall serve as basis for a more detailed matrix of
geohazards, as shown in Table 1, to provide information on the susceptibility of the existing and
proposed alignment to identified geohazards and the corresponding short term and long term
engineering intervention.

|36
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

44.1 Standards
Condition
Assessments – Track
The current track is composed of the following:

 32 and 37 kg/m rail of lengths varying in length between 10 and 60 meters,


 4-hole standard fishplates,
 Concrete track sleepers on tangents and curves spaced at 714mm on tangents and 625mm
on curves,
 Wood track sleepers on curves spaced at 450 mm,
 Wood track sleepers on open deck bridges spaced at 450 mm
 Elastic fasteners composed of pads, clips and insulators.
 Assumed thickness 150 mm of ballast below sleepers, full cribs, and ballast shoulders of 300
mm.
The objective of this rehabilitation plan will be the restoration of the track structure to safe use
at the design speeds of 75 kph and maximum permissible axle loads of 15 tons.
We are not aware of any current national track standards in the Philippines. As the gauge of the
south line is cape gauge, European or North American standards (such as AREMA ) would be not
be well suited. We have reviewed standards for cape and meter gauge railways throughout the
world and have deemed that the most suitable would be those of Japan, specifically the

|37
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Technical Regulatory Standards on Japanese Railways. As such for the sake of our analysis and
recommendations for moving forward, we propose that the following portions of the Japanese
Technical Regulatory Standards on Japanese Railways be used:

 Earthworks and roadbed - Chapters 3, section 4


 Track - Chapters 3 & 5
 Electrical - Chapter 6
 Signalling, communications and control systems - Chapter 7 & 10
 Stations - Chapter 4
 Rolling Stock Depots- Chapter 8 & 10
Chapters indicated are from the Technical Regulatory Standards on Japanese Railways.

4.2 Condition Assessment


The track is ballasted track system where parallel steel rails are laid upon cross ties embedded
in ballast. This common form of track construction combines resilience, some amount of
flexibility, and good drainage; all with proper maintenance. Both concrete and wood sleepers
were observed in track.
Figure 4-1: Typical track cross-section

In order to assess the current condition of the MLS track, a joint inspection of the whole track
line was undertaken together with PNR division personnel. The condition assessment covered
the following:

 Rail
 Sleepers
 Ballast& sub-ballast
 Formation

|38
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Detailed condition assessments are included in Appendix 2 - Assessment Report on Existing PNR
Railway, as follows:

 Naga Division (2.1)


 Hondagua Division (2.2)
 Lucena Division (2.3)
 Manila Division (2.4)
In general terms, the condition of track infrastructure was observed to be the worse in the
Naga Division and Hondugua Division. Conditions are better on the Lucena Division largely
because the older lighter weight rail (32 kg/m) has been replaced with 37kg/m rail; and ballast
conditions are much better (largely due to fewer underlying conditions that typically lead to its
deterioration). Conditions were observed to even better on the Manila Division where
improvements have been made for the commuter service.

4.2.1 Rail
Two (2) rail profiles are installed on the MLS; 37 kg/m and 32 kg/m. It is our understanding that
32 kg/m profile was originally installed and later replaced with 37 kg/m during rehabilitation
works done by PNR. However, the replacement of all 32 kg/m was not completed. Rail was
observed in 4 different lengths, as follows:

 60m (3 x 20m welded rails),


 40m (2 x 20m welded rails),
 20m, and
 10m.
Few bolted joints were found to have properly installed fishplates with sufficient number of
bolts and nuts. Lack of maintenance and pilferage are largely to blame for observed conditions.
Where the two different rail weights were joined together, compromise fishplates were not
observed to be used.

Overall, the condition of the rail itself is in good condition (largely on account of well-
constructed track; relatively light axle loads; and very little accumulated traffic). Most rail
defects and damage was due to improperly maintained joints. Overall condition of the lighter
32 kg/m rail was worse than the newer 37 kg/m rail.

4.2.2 Sleepers
Pre-cast sleepers are generally used on the main track while wooden sleepers are used on
bridges. Currently, PC sleepers are spaced at 714mm on tangent and 625mm on curve, while
wooden sleepers are spaced at 450 mm. In some sections uneven spacing of sleepers can be
seen and that the standard 1,400 pieces per linear meter of PC sleepers and 1,600 pieces of
wooden sleepers laid is not observed.

|39
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Uneven spacing of sleepers was observed throughout and this was largely on account of
sleepers being cannibalized from the track for use elsewhere (most often on bridges). In
addition, significant numbers of broken PC sleepers were seen in the following sections where a
train derailment had occurred:

a. Between Lupi Station and Banga Caves, around 250m length

b. Two locations between Banga Caves and Ragay Station, 200m and 10m in length
respectively.

c. Between TP 6148 – TP 6149 right after Bayaao Bridge abutment, around 60m in length

d. Between TP 6070 – TP 6073, around 80m in length, derailment happened twice

The clips used to fasten the PC sleepers were observed to be missing in some sections and were
often seen to be placed alternately. Pilferage largely accounts for the loss; apparently at a rate
of 30,000 clips per year between Manila to Calamba in the past two years.

Most wood sleepers and fasteners were not observed to be in good condition. They were
typically observed with large cracks along the length of the wooden sleepers and missing
fasteners. New wood sleepers recently purchased from China appear to be softwood with
multiple cracks. Some cracks are quite big gaps visible throughout the ties end to end. Some of
these new wood ties were already installed (mainly on bridges) and some were stocked at PNR
Stations.

Bridges were observed to have both wood and concrete sleepers. The concrete ties have to be
removed and replaced with wooden ties.

4.2.3 Ballast
Generally the track ballast along MLS was found to be in less than good condition; and in some
sections, there was little or no ballast in place. Moreover, the presence of vegetation and water
on top of the track is evidence of poor ballast condition. The poor ballast is caused by the
quality of ballast used (mixed volcanic sand and soil instead of crushed rock especially within
Naga Division), poor maintenance and pilferage. It was observed that within the Manila
Division, the lack of track ballast has often led to damages to PC sleepers.

Embankments are not in its good condition due to lack of maintenance, drainage problems
caused by illegal settlements in right-of-way and from flood damage in areas of frequent
flooding.

4.2.4 Formation
Observations of failed or unstable formation were observed throughout but seen as being most
significant in Naga and Hondagua Divisions, and to a lesser degree Lucena Division. Sections
where there is an occurrence of landslides are located in areas that are prone to liquefaction
and settlement as identified in the Active Faults and Liquefaction Susceptibility Maps shown
and further discuss in the Geotechnical Report appended in this report. Track most prone to
flooding is that which traverses the central and flat alluvial land of the Bicol River Basin. This is

|40
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

discussed in more detail in the Hydrology Report included in this report. The following figure
identifies the track sections with geotechnical and hydrological issues.
Figure 4-2: Track Sections with hydrological or geotechnical issues

No. TP No. Area Geotechnical / Length / depth


Hydrological Issue
1 TP 6779 – TP 6781 Sipocot – Lupi Settlement of 60m L / 0.50m d
embankment
2 TP 6777 – TP 6779 Sipocot – Lupi Settlement of 50m L / 1.50m d
embankment
3 TP 6766 – TP 6751 Sipocot - Lupi Settlement of 150m L / 2.5m d
embankment
4 TP 6885 – TP 6887 Settlement of 60m L / 0.50m d
embankment
5 TP 6842 – TP 6843 Settlement of 15m L / 0.15m d
embankment
6 TP 6598 – TP 6597 Lupi – Del Settlement of 50m L / 1.0m d
Rosario embankment
7 TP 6594 – TP 6596 Lupi – Del settlement of 10m L / 1.2m d
Rosario embankment
8 TP 6584 – TP 6588 Lupi – Del Settlement of 200m L / 1.0m d
Rosario embankment
9 TP 6578 – TP 6580 Lupi – Del Settlement of 100m L / 0.50m d
Rosario embankment
10 TP 6569 – TP 6571 Lupi – Del Settlement of 100m L / 0.50m d
Rsario embankment
11 TP 6566 – TP 6567 Lupi – Del Settlement of 100m L / 0.30m d
Rosario embankment
12 TP 6561 – TP 6563 Lupi – Del Settlement of 50m L / 0.25m d
Rosario embankment
13 TP 6554 – TP 6560 Lupi – Del Settlement of 300m L / 0.50m d
Rosario embankment
14 TP 6550 – TP 6552 Lupi – Del Settlement of 100m L / 0.30m d
Rosario embankment
15 TP 6548 – TP 6549 Lupi – Del Settlement of 50m L / 0.25m d
Rosario embankment
16 TP 6537 – TP 6538 Lupi – Del Settlement of 50m L / 0.20m d
Rosario embankment
17 TP 6529 – TP 6530 Lupi – Del Settlement of 50m L / 0.30m d
Rosario embankment
18 TP 6148 – TP 6149 Ragay – Port Erosion of SB of Bayaao
Junction bridge abutment
19 TP 5793 – TP 5794 GRS – Del (washed out)
Gallego
20 TP 5664 – TP 5665 Del Gallego – Flooding, erosion of
Tagkawayan bridge abutment
21 TP 5653 – TP 5651 Del Gallego – Flooding, erosion of
Tagkawayan bridge abutment
22 TP 5578 – TP 5579 Del Gallego – Flooding, erosion of

|41
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Tagkawayan bridge abutment


23 TP 5484 – TP 5485 Tagkawayan – Flooding, erosion
Aloneros
24 TP 5344 – TP 5343 Tagkawayan – Flooding, erosion
Aloneros
25 TP 5319 – TP 5320 Tagkawayan – (washed out)
Aloneros
26 TP 5192 – TP 5193 Tagkawayan – Erosion of embankment 20m L / 0.30m d
Aloneros
27 TP 5105 – TP 5111 Tagkawayan – erosion of embankment 300m
Aloneros
28 TP 5078 – TP 5080 Aloneros – settlement of 100m L / 0.20m d
Hondagua embankment
29 TP 5018 – TP 5019 Aloneros - erosion of embankment
Hondagua
30 TP 4992 – TP 4993 Aloneros – erosion of embankment
Hondagua
31 TP 4582 – TP 4591 Gumaca – Flooding, over topping of 1.5m d
Lopez Del Pilar 2 and Del Pilar 3
bridges

4.3 Road Crossings


The crossing inventory and condition assessments were based on the database of crossing
provided to us by PNR and was validated on site during field inspection. In the following
sections, we summarize the information included in the database.

Alabang to Legazpi
There are 397 crossing between Alabang and Legazpi. Of these 214 are authorized and 183 are
unauthorized. Only 31 of the authorized are manned (at least officially) and none of the
unauthorized are manned.

Figure 4-3: Road Crossing Categorization - Alabang to Legazpi

Manned Unmanned Total


Authorized 31 183 214
Unauthorized 0 183 183
Total 31 366 397

Unauthorized crossings are ones that have been established without the formal consent of
PNR. They are often in areas of high encroachment, and very few have required signage or
gates and all are unmanned (officially).

|42
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Visibility is defined as the distance a person can see an approaching train from a vehicle
approaching the crossing from various distances and orientations. Visibility has been assessed
as mainly fair or poor, as indicated in the following figure.
Figure 4-4: Visiability at Crossings - Alabang to Legazpi

Good Fair Poor Total


Authorized & Manned 14 14 3 31
Authorized & Unmanned 66 82 35 183
Unauthorized & Unmanned 52 84 47 183
Total 132 180 85 397

Sightlines are most typically blocked by structures (and not vegetation) and most often, it is
illegal structures on railway right-of-way. Removing railway encroachment will significantly
improve overall crossing visibility.

The following figures present the crossings with crossing signs, listen signs and crossing
protection bars. As can be seen, very few crossings are equipped with complete signs and even
fewer with proper crossing protection bars.

Figure 4-5: Presence of Crossing Signs - Alabang to Legazpi

Complete Incomplete None Total


Authorized & Manned 18 8 5 31
Unauthorized & Manned 0 0 0 0
Authorized & Unmanned 24 45 114 183
Unauthorized & Unmanned 1 10 172 183
Total 43 63 291 397

Figure 4-6: Presence of Listen signs - Alabang to Legazpi

Complete Incomplete None Total


Authorized & Manned 17 8 6 31
Unauthorized & Manned 0 0 0 0
Authorized & Unmanned 17 29 137 183
Unauthorized & Unmanned 1 3 179 183
Total 35 40 322 397

Figure 4-7: Presence of Barriers - Alabang to Legazpi

Complete Incomplete None Total


Authorized & Manned 1 1 29 31
Unauthorized & Manned 0 0 0 0
Authorized & Unmanned 1 1 181 183

|43
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Unauthorized & Unmanned 0 0 183 183


Total 2 2 393 397

Metro Manila – Tayuman to Alabang


Crossings are much better equipped within Metro Manila; largely on account of infrastructure
upgrades for the commuter service. There are 37 crossings of which 34 are manned; including
one that is unauthorized.
Figure 4-8: Crossings – Tayuman to Alabang

Manned Unmanned Total


Authorized 32 1 33

Unauthorized 2 2 4

Total 34 3 37

All 37 crossings have been evaluated as having good visibility, and but two have required
signage (though they may since been stolen or vandalized). Crossing barriers were found to be
fully installed and functioning at only 28% of crossings; whereas flashing lights and ringers were
fully installed at 75% (though at five crossing, there was no electricity at time of inspection).

4.4 Mainline Turnouts


There are approximately 44 stations with passing loops (or first tracks) on the PNR South.

 Naga Division – 10 stations with second tracks, as follows;


- Legazpi Station - second and reversing tracks
- Travesia Station – second track
- Ligao Station – second and third tracks
- Polangui Station – second track
- Iriga Station – second and third tracks
- Pili Station – second track
- Naga Station – second – forth tracks, and reversing track
- Pamplona Station – second track
- Libmanan Station – second track
- Sipocot Station – second, third and reversing

|44
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

 Hondagua Division – 9 stations with second tracks, as follows;


- Lupi Station – under repair
- Ragay Station – second track
- Godofredo Reyes Station (GPS) – second track
- Del Galego Station – second track
- Tagkawayan Station – second and third tracks
- Aloneros Station – second track and reversing track
- Caluag Station – second track
- Hondagua Station – second, third, fourth tracks and reversing track
- Lopez Station – second track
 Lucena Division – 14 stations with second tracks, as follows:
- Plaridel Station – (major station) with second and third tracks
- Panaon Station – (minor station) with second track
- Agdangan Station – (major station) with second track
- San Isidro Quezon Station – (minor station) with second track
- Padre Burgos Station – (minor station) with second track
- Malicboy Station – (major station) with second track
- Pagbilao Station – (minor station) with second track
- Lucena Station – (major station) with second, and third tracks
- Sarriaya Station – (minor station) with second track
- Lutucan Station – (minor station) with second track
- Candelaria Station – (major station) with second track
- Tiaong Station – (minor station) with second track
- San Pablo Station – second track
- UP Los Baños College Station – (minor station) with second track
 Manila Division (11 stations with second tracks)
- Pansol Flag Stop - single track with no loop track
- Calamba Station - single track with two loop track plus two tracks
- Biñan Station - single track with loop track

|45
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

- Sta. Rosa Station - single track with loop track


- Carmona Station - single track with loop track
- San Pedro Station - single track with loop tracks
- Alabang Station – single track with loop track
- Sucat Station – double track with single with loop track
- Bicutan Station – double track with loop track
- Pasay Road Station – double track with loop track
- Tutuban Station – main Station

In addition, within the Manila Division, there are 7 cross-over’s within the double track section
of the Manila Division.

With the exception of the Manila Division, mainline turnouts were observed to be generally in
poor to fair condition, largely on account of muddied surface condition and missing or defective
components. On the Manila Division, mainline turnouts were found to be relatively new and in
good condition; though there were many missing bolts and nuts indicating insufficient
maintenance.

4.5 Recommendations for Track Works


Rail
 Replace damaged and worn rail with rail of 37 kg/m

 Replace all 32 kg rails throughout the line with 37 kg/m rail


 Approximate rail replacement:
- Naga – 40%
- Hondagua – 30%
- Lucena – 10%
- Manila - 20%
 Weld rail and install rails at lengths of 120 meters, where possible.
 Install all missing fishplates, bolts and nuts. New fishplates should be 6-hole (instead of 4).

|46
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Sleepers
 Replace all damaged and missing concrete sleepers with like kind, and replace all wood track
sleepers with concrete sleepers using the existing sleeper pattern of sleepers on 714mm
spacing or (1400 pcs per kilometers) on tangents, and 625mm or (1,600 pcs per kilometers)
on curves.
 Install all pads, clips and insulators for 100% installation.
 Remove all concrete sleepers, and deteriorated or damaged wood sleepers from open deck
bridges, and install quality hardwood ties at spacing of 500mm on tangents and 450mm on
curves. Ensure no less than 4 spikes per sleeper with 2 on each rail for every sleeper.

Ballast and sub-ballast


 Completely clear right-of-way of unused track materials (rail, sleepers, ballast, etc) from the
line.
 Undertake a complete surface lift of the track by no less than 75 mm using clean ballast
material.
 Where, fixed infrastructure such, as bridges, station platforms, and road crossing, do not
permit raising the track level, it will be necessary to remove existing ballast and sub-ballast
materials and replace with clean materials. This can be done by either track dismantling or
by way of undercutting.

Formation
 At locations, where the formation is showing evidence of failure, dismantle track and re-
construct roadbed as needed, and replace sub-ballast and ballast materials. This would most
often be at locations prone to flooding or subject to high levels of trespassing.
 Where needed, remove materials and properly profile ditches to permit proper drainage of

|47
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

the track structure, and movement of surface water away of the rail line.

Concrete barrier wall


In areas prone to trespassing and theft of track materials and ballast, install 400mm high head
wall from the top of rail to retain the ballast intact inside the track line. Height of ballast from
the sub-grade formation should be 600mm minimum so that the water will stay only on outside
of the barrier walls. The barrier wall should be no less than 3 m from the center of the track
should so allow for maintenance and future capital programs.

Protection at Road Crossings


For all authorized crossings, ensure road signs and barriers are properly installed. Where
installed, ensure automatic crossing protection is properly equipped and functioning.

Unauthorized Road Crossings

Work with LGU’s (Local Government Units) to find ways to close (or combine) unauthorized
crossings, and where needed to change classification to Authorized Road Crossing.

Mainline Turnouts
Where needed for operational purposes (such as train meets, to access passenger platforms, or
to reach depots or turning tracks), mainline turnouts should either be

 Repaired by replacing worn or damaged components, installing proper drainage and surface,
and replacing worn or defecting sleepers, or
 Replaced with new 37 kg/m no. 12 turnouts on hardwood ties (if condition does not warrant
repair).

|48
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

55.1 Standards
Condition
Assessments- Bridges

Currently there are no standards specifically for the design of railway structures being applied
and implemented in the Philippines. As such, the design of railway structures must conform to
the minimum requirements of the National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume II
Bridges. Other codes to be utilized include but are not limited to the following:

 American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA), Manual for


Railway for Engineering
 American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHTO), 17th Ed or the latest
 American Railway Engineers Association (AREA)
 International Union of Railways
 AISC Manual of Steel Construction
 American Welding Society (AWS)
 DPWH Order 75 Series 192, DPWH Advisory for Seismic Design of Bridges

|49
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

5.2 Bridges – Overall Condition


There are about 430 existing bridge structures along the mainline south as reported in the
“PNR List and Details of Bridges along Mainline South”. The existing structures have been
located according to Telegraphic Post (TP) stationing provided by PNR.

Non-compliance with the latest code does not necessarily mean the existing substructure is
unsafe or susceptible to collapse. The structure could be structurally safe from earthquake
depending on type of structure and mass loading applied. The structural integrity of the
substructure must be verified during the detailed engineering work.

It is important to note the limits of our inspections and assessments. Observed damage and
deterioration were limited to that for which that could be seen from the top and below the
bridge. It is possible that deteriorated or damaged sections of superstructures exist but are not
visible from these vantage points. As well, the structural integrity of substructures has not been
assessed. The extent of damage to be repaired shall require confirmation to be made on site.

The follow table presents a presents a summary of bridge condition along MLS.
Figure 5.1: Summary of bridge condition along MLS:

Division No. of Full Replacement Major Repair (sand


Bridge (considered whenever the Rehabilitation blasting,
retrofit cost approaches 70 (replacement of replaced bolts
% of a new bridge) span, re-plating) & nuts)

Naga 107 9 14 84

Hondagua 90 5 22 63

Lucena 165 12 28 125

Manila 67 8 8 51

Generally most bridge members are found to be severely corroded due to lack of maintenance,
old age, inadequate protection from natural environment and consistent moisture that
attributed to unsafe hydraulic clearance from waterways. Likewise, most base plates and end
plates of girders are noted to be embedded with earth, covered with full grown shrubs and
have collected wet debris resulting to continuous deterioration and weakening of supports.

Slope protection generally appeared to be in good condition except on some bridge abutments
wherein scouring is evident. Some bridge location exhibit heavy siltation and constriction of
channel due to poor maintenance of waterways, on these locations the required clearance
from the soffit is unlikely met.

Detailed bridge inspection reports are included in Appendix 3, as follows:

 Naga Division (3.1)

|50
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

 Hondagua Division (3.2)


 Lucena Division (3.3)
 Manila Division (3.4)

5.3 Naga Division


The Naga Division has 107 bridges along the 149 km section from Legazpi up to Lupi. Generally
the structures were constructed before 1992 as such they are unlikely to be adequate during
large earthquakes. However, the current condition of substructure appears structurally sound.
No sign of twisting and settlement of piers and abutments observed. No concrete cracks and
exposure of reinforcement and no evidence of damage caused by earthquake are noted.

Nine (9) bridges for replacement are noted in Naga Division, as follows:

Figure 5.2: Bridges to be replaced on Naga Division

No. Bridge Name Location Observation Recommendation


1 PurokCadlum TP 8761 – TP 8762 The structure is a 2-span I-beam, each span has Replace the structure and
Bridge 2 a length of 8.0m. allow clearance from water
level.
The span at the north abutment side is severely
corroded and partially embedded with earth.
Bearing plates and bolts are corroded and
covered with earth. The corrosion is aggravated
by the splash of water, because the spans are
significantly low in elevation.
2 San Ramon TP 8107– The structure is a 5-span I-beam with a Replace and raise the
Bridge TP8109 total bridge length of 19.36m. structure and introduce
river training both sides.
There is a river below the structure and the In this preliminary study
structure is always under water during it is recommended that
typhoon and continuous rain. Apparently, the bridge should be
there was on incident that the rail track replaced with single span
and beams were misaligned. to be supported by pile
cap on bored piles. This
shall be confirmed
during detailed design
3 San TP8098 – The structure is a 2-span I-beam with a The structure is
Nicolas TP8099 total length of 9.3m. recommended for
Bridge replacement basically
The channels appear constricted and are adopting the same
noted with lined loose boulders. The channel opening that
current is very strong at the time of the would be confirm during
inspection. The type of soil appears to be detailed design

|51
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

No. Bridge Name Location Observation Recommendation


volcanic soil.
4 Buluang TP 8090 – TP The structure is originally a RCPC and was The structure is
Bridge 8091 eventually washed out by the strong recommended for
current of the river. This short bridge was replacement basically
built as a temporary structure only it is a adopting the same
5.3m single span beam. channel opening that
would be confirm during
The channels appear constricted and are detailed design
noted with lined loose boulders. The
current is very strong at the time of the
inspection. The type of soil appears to be
volcanic soil.
5 San Isidro TP 8034 – TP This short bridge was built as a temporary The structure is
Bridge 8035 structure only it is a 5.81m I-beam single recommended for
span beam. replacement basically
adopting the same
The channels appear constricted and are channel opening that
noted with lined loose boulders. The would be confirm during
current is very strong at the time of the detailed design
inspection. The type of soil appears to be
volcanic soil.
6 Santa TP 80221 – The structure is a single span I-beam with The structure is
TeresitaBR TP 8022 span length of 4.57m recommended for
idge replacement basically
The channels appear constricted and are adopting the same
noted with lined loose boulders. The channel opening that
current is very strong at the time of the would be confirm during
inspection. The type of soil appears to be detailed design
volcanic soil.
7 Tarusanan TP 7471 – TP From PNR database the structure is a 6- Total replacement of
Bridge 7472 span I-Beam with a total length of 31.09m. structure due to
settlement of piers is
The structure was recently rehabilitated on recommended however,
April 2013. The total span length now is 36 this should be subjected
m. to further geotechnical
and hydrologic study
during detailed design.
The rehabilitation was undertaken due to
significant settlement of substructure.
Apparently the 6-span were replaced with
3-span loose I-beams resting on steel beam
cap supported by driven H-pile. According
to PNR, the driven length of H-piles is
about 23m. It appears that the new spans
were built not in accordance to standard

|52
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

No. Bridge Name Location Observation Recommendation


engineering practice.
8 Kabayan TP 6690 – TP The structure is a 5-spam BU4 with lengths It is recommended to
Bridge (not 6691 5.56m, 5m, 5.10m, 5m and 5.8m. remove the temporary
in PNR structure and propose
database) Kabayan bridge is not in the PNR database new structure that
accordingly the original embankment would suit the actual site
settled and partially washed out creating a condition. The proposed
channel, as such temporary spans were is a 2-span steel plated
installed and supported by H-piles driven girder on pile bent
about 21 m depth. foundation, however this
is subject to engineering
study during detailed
The loose beams were temporarily
design.
installed without carrying out a detailed
engineering study.
9 Batingkilan TP 6638 – TP The structure is a 3 span I-beams with a Total replacement is
Bridge 1 6639 total length of 16.7m. recommended with
comprehensive
The original substructure has significantly geotechnical
settled and the embankment has investigation
collapsed. The temporary supports were
installed sometime in April 2013. The spans
are resting on wood caps and H-piles.
According to PNR the H-piles were driven
about 21m and allegedly no geotechnical
study on site was carried out.

5.4 Hondagua Division


Hondagua Division has a total of 90 bridges along 119 km section from Lupi up to Gumaca.
Most of the bridges were built in 1980. Generally, substructures appear to be in good condition
but still subject to confirmation during detailed design; except for Quilbay Bridge which
according to PNR personnel was bombed by grenade way back in the 80’s by a rebel group and
currently the steel bridge is supported by H-piles driven to both sides of the pier walls. The
extent of damage and actual condition of the original piers could not be determined until
thorough investigation is performed and it is highly recommended that this be done during the
detailed engineering phase.

Erosion of embankment on approaches is noted and in some bridges there are reports that
embankment have been washed out during heavy rains.

Five (5) bridges are recommended for total replacement, as per the following figure.

|53
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 5.3: Bridges to be replaced on Hondagua Division

No. Bridge Name Location Observation Recommendation


1 Bridge 294 TP 5578 – TP 5579 The structure is a 7-meter span It is recommended to demolish
(temporary girder using H-piles. the collapsed RCPC and the
bridge) present temporary structure
The H-piles are temporary laid out in and provide a 1-cell 1.5m x
the ground to cross the broken RC 1.5m RCBC, subject to
pipe. This temporary structure is not confirmation during detailed
safe to moving vehicle. design.
2 Tagkawayan TP 5572 – TP 5573 The structure is a 4-span I-beams It is recommended to construct
Bridge with a total length of 20.78 m. a single span bridge on pile
bent abutment.
Both span and substructure are
extremely in bad condition
3 Manato Bridge TP 5230 – TP5231 The structure is a 3-span I-bema It is recommended for total
with a total length of 15.83 m. replacement, replace the
structure with single DPG span
The span consists of loose beams with abutment on piles.
not technically detailed.
Substructure is temporary built
because it appears the original
concrete piles had collapsed.
4 Various TP 5384 – TP 5385 The existing waterways are Replace each temporary
waterway TP 5377 – TP 5378 temporarily spanned with old rail structure with 1-cell RCBC of
structures TP 5369 – TP 5370 beams clustered together to form a 1.2m x 1.2m minimum opening
TP 5342 – TP 5343 mat seal. The wooden sleepers are subject to hydraulic study
TP 5321 – TP 5322 hooked on the rail beams. Some during detailed design.
TP 5095 – TP 5096 locations are crossed with concrete
pipes that are in collapsed state.

5.5 Lucena Division


The Lucena Division has 165 bridges along 150 km section from Gumaca up to Pansol. Bridges
were built between 1980 and 1997. Generally bridges within Lucena Division appears to be in
good condition, except for bridges located between Gumaca and Morong Stations, which are
observed to be severely corroded, especially those that are located alongside the sea (Pipisik
Bridge, Penafrancia Bridge 1 & 2 and Rosario Bridge).

There are twelve (12) bridges recommended for total replacement, as per the following figure.
Figure 5.4: Bridges to be replaced on Lucena Division

No. Bridge Name Location Observation Recommendation


1 Inaclagan TP 4051 – TP 4052 Waterway the crosses the alignment is Replace the structure with,
Bridge 1 just an earth ditch. RCBC

|54
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

No. Bridge Name Location Observation Recommendation


2 Calumang TP 4044 – TP The existing beams are loose, Replace the structure
uin Bridge 4045 corroded and partially buried. with RCBC.
2
3 Lumingon TP2025 – TP Beams are severely corroded and Replace the bridge with
Bridge 1 (I- 2026 channel is relatively dry and with RCBC for lesser
beam thick vegetation. maintenance
bridge,
serve as an
equalizer)
4 Solidad TP 1832 – TP Beams are severely corroded and Replace the bridge with
Bridge (I- 1833 channel is relatively dry and with RCBC for lesser
beam thick vegetation. maintenance
bridge
serve as an
equalizer)
5 San Crispin TP 1660 – TP Beams are severely corroded and Replace the bridge with
Bridge (I- 1661 partially buried. RCBC for lesser
beam maintenance
bridge
serve as an
equalizer)
6 Carmen TP 1634 – TP Beams are severely corroded and Replace the bridge with
Bridge 2 (I- 1635 partially buried. RCBC for lesser
beam maintenance
bridge
serve as an
equalizer)
7 Carmen TP 1629 – TP Beams are severely corroded and Replace the bridge with
Bridge 1 (I- 1630 partially buried. RCBC for lesser
beam maintenance
bridge
serve as an
equalizer)
8 Eldridge TP 1284 – TP The span is partially buried and Replace the span to 3-
Bridge 1285 the channel is filled with garbage. cell RCBC
Bridge is a single span I-beam and
has a total length of 5.1m
9 Tadlak TP – 1270 – TP The structure is consists of 1 – Replace the structure
Bridge 2 1271 5.5m span rail cluster. The span is into a concrete
a temporary structure and waterway like RCBC
apparently not safe for train load
10 Temporary TP 1237 – The structure is built as Replace the structure
Bridge (not TP1238 temporary bridge, about 5m span into a concrete
in PNR of rail cluster, and apparently not waterway like RCBC

|55
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

No. Bridge Name Location Observation Recommendation


Database) safe for train load
11 Tadlak TP 1267 – The structure is a deck plate Total replacement and
Bridge 1 TP1268 girder, the span is being raisin of elevation is
overtopped during heavy rains. recommended.
The soffit of the span is nearly
one foot from normal water. The
span is generally dilapidated, the
abutment at the north side
exhibit structural damage.
12 Piring TP 2441 – TP The structure has a total of 6 Replaced the temporary
Bridge 2442 spans, composed of 3 spams I- 3-span steel bridge and
beam from the south abutment provide river training
and an additional 3 spans RCC using gabions on both
slab. Total length of the BU4 sides.
spans is 16.5m and 14.25m for
the total length of the RCC slab
spans.

Originally the bridge was a RRC


slab only. During flashflood about
a year ago the embankment in
the south side of the RCC slab
was washed out with the passing
train. Following the incident the
3-span steel structure was then
constructed. The 3-span consists
of loose beams supported by
driven H-piles.

5.6 Manila Division


The Manila Division has 67 bridges along 60km from Pansol up to Tutuban. Most bridges
appear to be built in the 1980’s. Bridges were generally observed to be corroded with bearings
covered with soil and with garbage in areas of illegal settlements.

Out of 67 bridges there are 8 bridges recommended for full replacement as per the following
figure.

|56
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 5.5: Bridges to be replaced on Manila Division

No. Bridge Name Location Observation Recommendation


1 Temporary TP 1120 – TP 1121 The structures are built parallel to each Replace the spans into
Bridges (not in other and located about 50m from Calamba covered concrete
PNR data base) station. One structure carries the south line structure like RCBC
track while the other caries the proposed
north line track, the structures are about
3.4m in length.

The temporary spans were supplied to


cross the main road drainage. The beams
are not inaccordance to standard
engineering practice.
2 Putal Bridge TP 861 – TP 862 The structure consists of 2-span I-beam and The bridge is
has a total length of 14.42m. recommended for total
replacement to suit actual
There is an on-going river training of the condition and on-going
channel believed to be a local government rehabilitation works in the
project. Apparently the channel is being main channel.
widened and lined with revetment. The
original abutment at north side is
apparently subject for demolition. The
original and the additional spans are now
temporary supported with driven H-piles.
3 Bridge No. 30 TP 722 – TP 723 The structure consists of single span I-beam Total replacement is
with a total length of 5.18m. The span recommended as there
consists of loose beam resting on rail seems a problem in the
beams that pose instability. Beams exhibits substructure. Further
major corrosions and appears having investigation is required in
section loss. The abutment at south side the abutment side.
splits into 2. It appears there is settlement
in the abutment.
4 Bridge No. 26 TP 675 – TP676 The structure is a 2-span I-beam with a The structure is
total length of 4.35m. The 1st span from the recommended for total
south abutment is composed of H-piles replacement due to
installed as the main beam. structural condition,
Retain the abutment to
The spans are newly painted and showed contain the abutment.
repair work at the south side. The beam
appears to be in bad condition and
susceptible to fall off the bearings in
longitudinal movement due to inadequate
seat width. The bearings are dilapidated.
5 Bridge No. 20 TP 557 – TP 558 The structure is a single span steel truss It is recommended for a

|57
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

No. Bridge Name Location Observation Recommendation


with length of 22.7 m. The span is heavily total replacement, adopt
corroded and temporarily supported with precast concrete girder.
H-piles. The dirt and garbage aggravate
the deterioration of the structure. With
the current structural condition of the
steel, the structural safety cannot be
guaranteed. The substructure is partly
relieved with the temporary driven H-
piles. The channel is stagnant and the
clearance from sewerage disposal is
relatively low.
6 Bridge No. 17 TP 514 – TP 515 The structure is a 2-span I-beam with Replace the bridge wit
total length of 17.2m. The span is heavily Type III AASHTO girders
corroded and temporarily supported with with estimated span of
H-piles. The dirt and garbage aggravate 20m to avoid the existing
the deterioration of the structure. With abutments. Removal of
the current structural condition of the existing pier also I
steel, the structural safety cannot be included.
guaranteed. The substructure is partly
relieved with the temporary driven H-
piles. The channel is stagnant and the
clearance from sewerage disposal is
relatively low.
7 Bukal Bridge 2 TP 1173 – TP 1174 The structure is a single span I-beam with a It is recommended to
(not in PNR total length of 3.65m. The span consists of replace the structure with
database) loose beams and exhibits severe corrosion. reinforced concrete box
Section loss on the beam is noticeable. The culvert
system is not in accordance with standard
engineering practice.

From observation, the ideal structure to


suit actual site condition is a RCBC.
8 Temporary TP 986 – TP 987 The temporary bridge is a single span I- Total replacement is
Bridge 2 (not in beam with a total length of 5.13m. recommended adopting
PNR database) Originally the width of the waterway was the opening of the
about 1.5m only. The embankment had channel subject to further
been washed out and the concrete support study during detailed
had collapsed from flash flood. The new design.
span now consists of loose beams resting
on temporary supports.

|58
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

6 Condition
Assessments -Stations
There are a total of 48 stations and 64 flag stops along the Mainline South. Most of the stations
and flag stops are not operational, except for stations between Tutuban and Binan. This line is
operational with daily trips from Tutuban – Muntinlupa starting from 5am up to 8pm, plus two
(2) trips daily from Tutuban – Binan; one in the morning and one in the afternoon.

Division Stations Flagstops


Manila 19 6
Lucena 13 23
Hondagua 8 27
Naga 8 8

Except for the stations within Manila division, most of the stations and flag stops were
observed to be insufficient for satisfactory and safe operation. Most of them are either turned
into a residential structure by illegal settlers, a storage area (where located within a public
market), and others which were never maintained since PNR operation ceased.

Requirements for stations and flag stops will be further studied as part of our traffic and
operational analysis. Station and Flag stop conditions are shown in the tables below.

|59
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Station Status Current Condition


A. Manila Division
1. Tutuban Operational Good condition
2. Blumentritt Operational Good condition
3. Laon-Laan Operational Good condition
4. Espana Operational Good condition
5. Sta. Mesa Operational Good condition
6. Pandacan Operational Good condition
7. Paco Operational Good condition
8. San Andres Operational Good condition
9. Vito Cruz Operational Good condition
10. Buendia Operational Good condition
11. Pasay Road Operational Good condition
12. EDSA Operational Good condition
13. Nichols Operational Good condition
14. FTI Operational Good condition
15. Bicutan Operational Good condition
16. Sucat Operational Good condition
17. Alabang Operational Fairly in good condition, with vendors within
the station
18. San Pedro Operational Good condition, newly constructed
19. Pacita Operational Good condition
B. Lucena Division
20. College Not Operational Fairly in good condition, structures are intact
but doors, windows and roof needs to be
replaced
21. San Pablo Not Operational Station building for rehabilitation, the roof
needs to be replaced, the columns be
checked for exposed RSB (reinforcing steel
bars)
22. Tiaon Not Operational No structure found in the area
23. Candelaria Not Operational No station building, the area is occupied by
illegal settlers
24. Lucena Not Operational Station building is in good condition
25. Pagbilao Not Operational Station is occupied by illegal settlers, need
to rehabilitate
26. Malicboy Not Operational Station building is not in good condition, the
roof and the walls needs replacement
27. Padre Burgos Not Operational Station building needs rehabilitation
including platforms.
28. San Isidro Not Operational .Station buildings were occupied by illegal
settlers and vendors, buildings are intact but
needs rehabilitation
29. Agdangan Not Operational Station needs rehabilitation including station
buildings and platform
30. Panaon Not Operational No station building seen, only platform exist

|60
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Station Status Current Condition


31. Plaridel Not Operational Station building needs rehabilitation as well
as the platform
32. Sariaya Not Operational No structure found in the area
C. Hondagua Division
33. Gumaca Not Operatonal Station building needs rehabilitation,
defective rail serves as temporary column
supporting the roof for shed at waiting area,
no platform found in the station, the area is
occupied by illegal settlers
34. Lopez Not Operational Station building needs rehabilitation, the
area is occupied by illegal settlers
35. Hondagua Not Operational Station building needs rehabilitation, no
platform seen in the station
36. Aloneros Not Operational Station buildings needs rehabilitation,
occupied by illegal settlers
37. Tagkawayan Not Operational Station building are in good condition,
structures are intact, no platform seen in the
area
38. Del Gallego Not operational Station building for rehabilitation, the roof
needs to be replaced, no platform seen in
the station
39. GRS Not Operational No structure found, the location was
identified by the PNR personnel
40. Ragay Not Operational Fairly in good condition, structures are intact
but needs to be rehabilitated
D. Naga Division
41. Lupi Operational Only walls of the building remains, no roof,
no doors, no windows.
42. Libmanan Operational Station building are in good condition but
need to rehabilitate
43. Naga Operational Station building are in good condition
44. Iriga Not Operational Station building still exists however; it is
being occupied and used by market vendors.
The area needs to be re-established as a
train station and not as public market.
45. Polangui Not Operational No structure found in the area
46. Traversia Not Operational Station building needs to be rebuild, only
walls of the building remains.
47. Daraga Not Operational Station building needs to be rebuild, only
walls of the building remains.
48. Legazpi Not Operational Fairly in good condition, roof for
replacement, columns for checking against
exposed RSB (reinforcing steel bars)

|61
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Flagstop Status Current Condition


A. Manila Division
1. Muntinlupa Operational Newly constructed
2. Sta. Rosa Operational Newly constructed
3. Calamba Operational Newly constructed
4. Mamatid Operational Newly constructed
5. Cabuyao Operational Newly constructed
6. Binan Not Operational On-going construction
B. Lucena Division
7. Pansol Not Operational No existing structure
8. Masili Not Operational No existing structure
9. Los Banos Not Operational No existing structure
10. Masaya Not Operational No existing structure
11. San Crispin Not Operational No existing structure
12. Lusacan Not Operational No existing structure
13. Tutucan Not Operational No existing structure
14. Morong Not operational No existing structure
15. Mayao Not operational No existing structure
16. Castillo Not operational NO existing structure
17. Guitong Not Operational No existing structure
18. Sipa Not Operational No existing structure
19. Hinguiwin Not operational No existing structure
20. Marao Not operational No existing structure
21. Walay Not operational No existing structure
22. Cabuyao Not Operational No existing structure
23. Kinagunan Not Operational No existing structure
24. Santol Not operational No existing structure
25. Binagbag Not operational No existing structure
26. Bulo Not operational No existing structure
27. Poctol Not operational No existing structure
28. Summit Not operational No existing structure
29. Duhat No existing structure
C. Hondagua Division
30. Bamban Not operational No existing structure
31. Camuhaguin Not operational No existing structure
32. Hagakhakin Not operational No existing structure
33. San Vicente Not operational No existing structure
34. Pansol Not operational No existing structure
35. Quinalin Not operational No existing structure
36. Calauag Not operational No existing structure
37. Sumulong Not operational No existing structure
38. Sto. Domingo Not operational No existing structure
39. Nursery Not Operational No existing structure
40. Danlagan Not operational No existing structure

|62
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

41. Cabuguang Not operational No existing structure


42. Manato Not operational No existing structure
43. Mangayao Not operational No existing structure
44. Katimo Not operational Building seems to be fine, but needs
rehabilitation work. No platform found.
Location however, is located in a remote
area and far from the national highway.
45. Buyabod Not operational No existing structure
46. Kinatakutan Not operational Building seems to be fine, but needs
rehabilitation work. No platform found.
Location however, is located in a remote
area and far from the national highway.
47. Laurel Not operational Building seems to be fine, but needs
rehabilitation work. No platform found.
Location however, is located in a remote
area and far from the national highway.
48. Morato Not operational No existing structure
49. Pasay Not operational No existing structure
50. Sinuknioan Not operational Station is located in a remote area and only
PNR personnel identify the area as a
previous flag stop, no existing structure is
found.
51. Port Junction Not operational No existing structure
52. F. Simeon Not operational No existing structure
53. Liboro Not operational No existing structure
54. Agrupacion Not operational No existing structure
55. Banga Cave Not operational Station building still exists but needs
rehabilitation works. The location is too far
from the main road, and it is occupied by
illegal settlers.
56. Del Rosario Not operational No existing structure
D. Naga Division
57. Sipocot Operational Station building are in good condition but
need to rehabilitate
58. Malansad Operational Station building is about an area of 6sq.m
only for ticketing office, flat forms are
improvised wooden stairs with hand rail.
59. Pamplona Operational Station building are in good condition but
need to rehabilitate, No flat form in the
area
60. Pili Operational Only flat forms found in the area
61. Agdangan Not operational Only station building was seen in the area,
but need to rebuild, no flat form found in
the area.
62. Bato Not operational No structure found in the area
63. Oas Not operational No structure found in the area
64. Ligao Not operational Station building is quite ok and need to
rehabilitate. Flat form roof need to replace.

|63
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

77.1 General
Condition Assessment
- Depots
Depots play a very important role in the operations of a railway system. The facilities,
equipment and basic/special tools within the Depot are vital instruments in the performance of
the required level of maintenance work not only for the maintenance of the rolling stock fleet
but also for the fixed facilities as well, such as the stations, tracks, bridges, buildings and other
areas necessary for effective the day to day railway operations.

Depots can include the following facilities:

 Stabling tracks
 Circulation tracks and shunting tracks
 Overhauling shed (heavy maintenance and repairs))
 Preventive maintenance shed (daily inspection, light maintenance and repairs)
 Equipment/component repair, test and rehabilitation shops
 Support shop for repairs or workshops
 Cleaning Facilities (train washing plant, interior cleaning area, undercar blow down facility)
 Waste water or sewage treatment facility
 Water supply and fire-fighting facilities

|64
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

 Fuel Depot/Reservoir including Oil/Fuel Pump Facility


 Material storage facility
 Personnel and crew facility
 Administration and Operation Offices
 Facilities for other maintenance(track works, buildings and motor pool)
 Outdoor stock yard area or lay down area for large and bulky materials for track works
 Road ways and parking lots for road vehicle

7.2 Existing PNR Depots


The Philippine National Railways has three operational depots at present, as follows:

 Manila Depot
 Naga Depot, and
 Calamba Line Sheds.

7.2.1 Manila Depot


Manila (Tayuman) Depot which is approximately 2 to 3 hectares in size provides the following
functions:

 Stabling and shunting areas for DMU’s, locomotives, passenger cars, baggage cars, EMU’s
(converted to locomotive hauled passenger cars)
 Stabling of track maintenance equipment
 Stabling of re-railment equipment (rail mounted cranes) and equipment cars
 Stabling of freight cars (flat wagons and box cars)
 Preventive maintenance of DMU’s (minor and major maintenance), but currently only
corrective maintenance/emergency repairs are being done due to insufficient maintenance
budget.
 Preventive maintenance of locomotives (minor maintenance), passenger cars and baggage
cars, but at the moment only corrective maintenance/emergency repairs are being done due
to insufficient maintenance budget.
 Maintenance Crew office
 Fuel Depot (overhead fuel tank and fuel tank cars)
The Manila (Tayuman) depot has two (2) shed for rolling stock maintenance. One shed is
purposely for the maintenance (minor and major) and repair of the six four- car train DMU’s ,
but currently only corrective maintenance/emergency repairs are being done due to

|65
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

insufficient maintenance budget. There are four maintenance tracks inside the shed and two
maintenance tracks outside and adjacent to the shed. To carry out the maintenance works, the
shed is equipped with 4 mobile lifting jacks, scissor lift table, fork lift and compressed air
system equipment.

The other maintenance shed have five maintenance tracks and used for the minor maintenance
and repair of the locomotives, but again for the moment only corrective maintenance and
emergency repairs are done on these maintenance tracks.
Figure 7-1: Manila Depot, Tutuban

7.2.2 Naga Depot


Naga Depot which is almost same in size as that of Manila Depot has building conditions similar
to Caloocan Depot. The Naga Depot serves to provide a re-fuelling facility (20,000 gallons
capacity), stabling and shunting area, and maintenance area (minor or running repairs only) for
the long distance service rolling stocks.

|66
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 7-2: Naga Depot

7.2.3 Calamba Line Sheds


Aside from the above there are also line sheds at Calamba which serves to function as an
emergency bay and equipped with the basic mechanical and electrical tools and air compressors
necessary to perform emergency repairs. These line sheds which are also of dilapidated
condition are located adjacent to the alignment in Calamba, Lucena Hondugan area.
Figure 7-3: Calamba Line Sheds

7.3 Assessment And Recommendation


Maintenance is a major concern at the present PNR operation, since the appropriate preventive
maintenance regime as recommended in the maintenance manuals for the railway system
cannot be implemented due to insufficient maintenance budget (meagre fare box revenue and
subsidy from government). Given this circumstance, PNR thus performed only corrective

|67
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

maintenance and emergency repair for the past years of operation and is still continuously
being undertaken up to now.
Though this is not a good engineering maintenance practice, PNR has no choice but to resort to
this action just to cope up with the day to day operational requirements. However, this practice
has a detrimental effect on the condition of the railway system and in fact this can be proven by
the continuing reduction on the number of operational rolling stocks over the past years due to
numerous breakdowns on the major equipment and components because of the non-
implementation of the timely preventive maintenance.
The Depot has not been spared of the same problem wherein the maintenance facilities and
equipment were not properly maintained due to budgetary constraints. With such a problem, it
cannot be expected from PNR to provide an efficient and safe railway system due to the fact
that the Depot which is supposed to provide the first line maintenance for the railway system
(especially the rolling stock) has so many inadequacies within.
For the return of reliable and efficient long-distance rail services, it will be necessary to
rehabilitate the existing depots. In this section, we highlight major areas requiring
rehabilitation, repair or replacement for each of the facilities.

7.3.1 Manila Depot

DMU Maintenance Shed


a) Maintenance Pit drainage system

Locomotive Maintenance Shed (including the maintenance crew room)


a) Roofs, roof frames, columns/frames, walls and floorings
b) Maintenance pit rails and drainage system
c) Lightings and power outlets
d) Ventilation system
e) Fire-fighting system
f) Water supply system
g) Air supply piping system

Others
a) Installation of Dried Sand Room Facility
b) Construction of Yard House (for Yard supervisor/Switchmen)

7.3.2 Naga Depot

Maintenance Shed and other Buildings


a. Roofs, roof framing, columns (steel), walls, floors
b. Lightings and power outlets
c. Ventilation system

|68
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

d. Fire-fighting system
e. Water supply system
f. Compressed air system

Yard
a. Replacement of tracks
b. Rehabilitation of track beds
c. Construction of Yard House (for Yard supervisor/Switchmen)

Other
a) Installation of waste water treatment facility

7.3.3 Calamba Line Sheds

Line Sheds
a) Roofs, roof framing, columns (steel), walls, floors
b) Lightings and power outlets
c) Fire-fighting system
d) Water supply system
e) Compressed air system

The above mentioned items needs immediate rehabilitation in order to provide a condition of
safe and reliable railway service for the existing and more so if additional or new rolling stocks
are procured and route extensions introduced to complement the existing PNR service. To be
coupled with this also is effective organization/personnel to handle all the daily operation and
maintenance requirements and activities.

|69
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

8 Condition Assessment
– Communications,
Control & Signalling
8.1 General
Railway operations often rely on signalling systems to, among other things, maintain a safe
separation distance between running trains. The minimum distance between trains must be
sufficient for a train to come to a complete stop, with a suitable safety margin with the train
ahead. The signalling system facilitates the movement of trains at maximum operating speed
allowed without compromising safety. It allows the train to operate the trains at scheduled
time table and assigned headway in an efficient and safe manner. The signalling system also
protect specific paths or routes at junctions or level crossings, crossovers, sharp curves and at
approaches to terminal or end stations using automation to reduce or remove the possibility of
human error which is usually responsible for a big percentage of rail transit incidents.

In the absence of a signalling system, railways rely on communications to control railway


movements on the mainline and key non-mainline tracks (such as depots, passing loops and
marshalling yards). Permission for a train to access and then move on a mainline track is
granted by either a central dispatcher or local station masters or operators. Central dispatchers
are responsible for train control across long stretches of track (their territory). Using computer
systems to track the location of trains, they are responsible for granting trains (and
maintenance foremen) the use of a stretch track that they know to be clear. This type of system

|70
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

requires reliable communications between the trains (and maintenance foreman) and the
dispatcher. It also requires the dispatcher to have a basic computer system to track the
locations of trains and foremen (based on the information on their locations they provide).
Lastly, it requires a formalized protocol for granting track access. Typically this involves verbal
instructions by the dispatcher with an exact repeat by the train conductor or maintenance
foreman. Conditions can be attached to the authorization. This type of system is used
throughout the world on lightly used lines and is called many names such as track warrant
system or occupancy control system. To work most effectively, a communication system needs
to be in place so that the dispatcher can communicate with trains and maintenance foreman
(and between trains and foreman) across the entire territory.

A more rudimentary system that does not require a reliable communication system is one
where local station masters or operators grant permission for trains to depart their station and
move to the next one. The operator can only grant authority to depart it station and can only
do this after verifying with the station operator that no trains have been or will be granted
access to the track. Track maintenance can be undertaken only when station masters at both
ends of the section of track have granted permission and have blocked entrance of trains into
the section. How authority is granted by stations masters to trains differs across the world. In
some cases, where there are communications, the train can be granted permission verbally and
will not need to stop at the station. Some railways require a written permission from the
station master or a physical token which requires them at the station. The system goes by a
variety of names including direct train control, token or tokenless systems and other names.
This is the system that is used on the PNR South.

On the PNR South, trains depart the stations after the station master/personnel has given or
handed the line clear certificate or departure or pass slip to the driver. Blocking or separation
of running trains is carried out between stations and regulated or controlled by the station
master/personnel on each station by communicating with each other either thru the telephone
system or the VHF radio communication system to coordinate the arrival and departures of
train on their respective station .In the depot and line sheds, train movements (arrival,
departure, shunting, and stabling) is controlled and managed by the Yard Master giving orders
to switchmen to manually operate or set the relevant switches or points during train
movements.

8.2 Existing Infrastructure

8.2.1 Signalling
The PNR does not have a signalling system or any infrastructure that would be of any use to any
system that could be installed in the future. Stations with sidings have no interlocking devices
either and the points or track switches movements are manually operated with the use of a
switch handle or lever.

|71
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

8.2.2 Communications
The backbones of communications at PNR are VHF radios and land and mobile telephones.
Communications with the VHF system is localized as there are no repeater stations. The system
is augmented with use of land and mobile phones.

8.3 Assessment and Recommendation


As railway traffic levels increase, more reliable and robust communications, control and
signalling systems become necessary to ensure network capacity, service levels and safe
operations. Railways typically migrate from rudimentary direct station controls to centralized
block authorized control to centralized signal control and eventually to automatic train control
and cab signals. The advent of digital technologies requiring little (if any) wayside infrastructure
has modified the progression of the past. Technologies such as GSM and GIS are being adopted
at an earlier by new railways or existing railways with little in the way of legacy systems which
is the case at PNR.

In the immediate term, it would be prudent to continue with the existing system whereby
station masters grant access to adjacent stations. It would be wise to equip locomotives,
station masters and crossing guards with reliable VHF radios especially for locations that mobile
service is not strong. Where mobile service is reliable and strong, this may pose the best
communication mode for the immediate future. A review of current train control and
communication practices should be undertaken and more formalized practices and procedures
introduced.

In due course as traffic grows, a modern system of train control will be required. A GPS/GSM-
based signaling and train control system would be very suitable to the PNR South, as it has
minimal wayside infrastructure and can be implemented incrementally as traffic grows. Such
systems do not have physical signals at station layouts and use radio, backbone transmission
facilities, the GSM mobile phone network to replicate a physical signaling system working on
the same principles as centralized Train Control. Train signals are communicated to units
located within locomotives. The system can be modified to assist in the control of fuel thefts,
continuously monitor train positions and plan efficient meets.

An approximate of such a system is approximately

 $50,000 per km, and


 $60,000 per locomotive
We would recommend that as a first phase, implement the GSM communications facet of the
system so as to introduce centralized traffic control. At the same time, either interlockings or
remotely controlled power switches should be installed at mainline turnouts. Eventually as
traffic increases, a cab signalling system will be introduced.

It is important to recognize that with a reliable end-to-end communications network, an


investment in an advanced signalling system can be deferred for many years. As traffic levels

|72
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

increase, capacity can be added by increasing the number of passing loops and equipping
turnouts for remote control by central dispatchers. Another option for increasing capacity
would be lengthening passing loops so longer trains can be run.

In our operations study, we will undertake operations analysis and assess projected traffic
levels against capacity under various investment and operating scenarios. It is at this time, we
will advise on the appropriate investment in communications, control & signalling system as
well as the number and lengths of passing loops.

|73
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

9 Track Rehabilitation –
Cost Estimates
This chapter describes the methodology used to generate quantities and unit costs used to
estimate rehabilitation cost for track work. The basis for the quantity estimates are:

 condition assessments undertaken as part of this study,


 Rehabilitation recommendation as presented in section 4.5.
Section 9.1 provides characteristics of the 40 track sections on the south line and section 9.2
provide percentages of track that needs to be rehabilitated based on our condition
assessments and rehabilitation plans. We have provided ranges of percentages for sections
across each division as opposed to providing for every section (for the sake of brevity).
Quantities for each rehabilitation activity are presented by division in section 9.3

Unit cost development is discussed in section 9.4 and cost estimates are included in section 9.5

The cost information herein is a planning level order of magnitude cost estimate developed to
provide a budgetary cost for evaluating the viability of the rehabilitation of the PNR South line.

9.1 Section Characteristics

In the following 5 figures, we provide the characteristics of track sections. They will be used to
estimate quantities for rehabilitation.

|74
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Section Characteristics – Naga Division

Legazpi - Travesia - Ligao - Polangui - Iriga– Pili Pili - Naga Naga - Pamplona Libmanan - Sipocot -
Travesia Ligao Polangui Iriga Pamplona - Libmanan Sipocot Lupi

Starting point (km) 479.00 455.70 445.40 437.05 411.95 389.90 377.60 365.15 353.30 340.45

End point (km) 455.70 445.40 437.05 411.95 389.90 377.60 365.15 353.30 340.45 330.50

Total distance (m) 23,300 10,300 8,350 25,100 22,050 12,300 12,450 11,850 12,850 9,950

Total curve distance (m) 7,390 4,450 700 3,700 1,250 1,550 1,550 1,950 2,800 6,700

Total tangent distance (m) 15,910 5,850 7,650 21,400 20,800 10,750 10,900 9,900 10,050 3,250

Total bridge distance (m) 401 149 160 170 191 176 555 526 113 463

Reversing track 1400 0 0 0 0 1400 0 0 1400 0

Loop track ( Second ) 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400

Loop track ( Third ) 0 0 400 0 0 400 0 0 400 0

Section Characteristics – Hondagua Division

Lupi to Ragay - GRS GRS - Delgallego - Tagkawayan - AlonerosCalua Caluag- Hondagua- Lopez-
Ragay Delgallego Tagkawayan Aloneros g Hondagua Lopez Gumaca

Starting point (km) 330.50 312.40 297.70 286.90 278.40 255.05 243.50 237.25 229.80

End point (km) 312.40 297.70 286.90 278.40 255.05 243.50 237.25 229.80 210.60

Total distance (m) 18,100 14,700 10,800 8,500 23,350 11,550 6,250 7,450 19,200

Total curve distance (m) 5,302 2,849 3,119 4,454 9,461 3,910 1,828 1,848 4,964

|75
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Total tangent distance (m) 12,798 11,851 7,681 4,046 13,889 7,640 4,423 5,602 14,236

Total bridge distance (m) 471 299 235 136 605 163 100 101 171

Reversing track 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Loop track ( Second ) 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400

Loop track ( Third ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Section Characteristics– Lucena Division (South ½)

Gumaca to Plaridel to Panaon to Agdangan SI to Padre PB to Malicboy to


Plaridel Panaon Agdangan to San Isidro Burgos (PB) Malicboy Pagbilao
Starting point (km) 210.00 199.74 187.65 179.65 171.95 165.65 156.05

End point (km) 199.74 187.65 179.65 171.95 165.65 156.05 143.60

Total distance (m) 10,262 12,088 7,996 7,704 6,300 9,600 12,450

Total curve distance (m) 4,637 5,372 2,604 2,133 1,848 3,307 3,096

Total tangent distance (m) 5,625 6,716 5,392 5,571 4,452 6,293 9,355

Total bridge distance (m) 105 242 47 158 15 141 212

Length of rail (m) 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Reversing track 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Loop track ( Second ) 400 400 400 400 400 400 400

Loop track ( Third ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

|76
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Section Characteristics – Lucena Division (North ½)

Pagbilao to Lucena to Sariaya to Lutacan to Candelaria Tiagong to San Pable UP - Pansol


Lucena Sariaya Lutacan Candelaria to Tiagong San Pablo to UP Flag
Station
Starting point (km) 143.60 133.10 124.70 119.63 111.95 98.56 88.73 64.91

End point (km) 133.10 124.70 119.63 111.95 98.56 88.73 64.91 60.00

Total distance (m) 10,500 8,400 5,070 7,680 13,387 9,833 23,824 4,906

Total curve distance (m) 3,590 1,130 108 0 770 0 6,384 1,632

Total tangent distance (m) 6,910 7,270 4,963 7,680 12,618 9,833 17,441 3,274

Total bridge distance (m) 106 226 240 164 173 172 430 54

Length of rail (m) 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Reversing track 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Loop track ( Second ) 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400

Loop track ( Third ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

|77
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Section Characteristics – Manila Division

Pansol to San Calamba to Grand Pavilion Pacita to Alabang to Sucat to


Cristobal Biñan GPRC to Pacita Alabang Sucat Tutuban
Starting point (km) 60.50 54.45 40.80 37.10 28.85 25.25

End point (km) 54.40 40.80 37.10 28.85 25.25 0.00

Total distance (m) 6,100 13,650 3,700 8,250 3,600 25,250

Total curve distance (m) 72 0 0 1,560 138 2,824

Total tangent distance (m) 6,028 13,650 3,700 6,690 3,462 22,426

Total bridge distance (m) 233 149 48 105 55 279

Length of rail (m) 20 20 20 20 20 20

Reversing track 300 300 300 300 300 300

Loop track ( Second ) 300 300 300 300 300 300

Loop track ( Third ) 300 300 300 300 300 300

|78
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

9.2 Rehabilitation Requirements


Based on the recommendations set out in section 4.5, we estimated for each section the
percentages of track requiring rehabilitation for each activity. In the figure to follow, we
present the range of percentages across sections) for each division. (We have not included
figures for each section for the sake of brevity).
Figure9.2: Range of Percentages for Each Activity across Divisions

Naga Hondagua Lucena Manila


Division Division Division Division

Mainline

1. Rail Replacement/Additional 30 30 10 5-20

2. Conc. ties replacement for wooden ties (Tan) 12 27 20 6-12

3. Conc. ties replacement for wooden ties ( Cur) 12 27 0-20 0-12

4. Wooden Ties on bridges 10 10 10 10

5. Rail Clip (Tangent) 30 30 20 20-30

6. Rail Clip (Curve) 30 30 20 20-30

7. Rail Rubber Pads (Tangent) 10 10 10 5-10

8. Rail Rubber Pads (Curves) 10 10 10 5-10

9. Side Post Insulator (Tangent) 10 10 10 5-10

10. Side Post Insulator (Curve ) 10 10 10 5-10

11. Cut Spikes on Wooden Ties 10 20 20 20

12. Nuts and Bolts on Rail Joints 120 m. rail 100 100 100 60-100

13. Fishplates (120 m. rail length ) 100 100 100 100

14. Ballast Replacement/Additional

a. Ballast embankment 60-80 40-65 0-80 0-100

b. Ballast cutting 10-15 20-25 0-55 0

c. Ballast with barrier wall containment 15-30 15-30 5-100 0-100

15. Sub-Ballast Replacement/Add

a. Ballast embankment 60-80 40-65 0-80 0-100

|79
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Naga Hondagua Lucena Manila


Division Division Division Division

b. Ballast cutting 5-15 20-30 0-55 0

c. Ballast with barrier wall containment 15-30 15-30 5-100 0-100

16. Conc. wall barrier 15-30 15-30 5-100 0-80

17. Clearing and Bank Stabilization 100 100 100 50-100

18. Additional Filling Materials 10 10 10 0-10

Station Tracks

1. Turnout Replacement 100 100 100 100

2. Switch Point Replacement 100 100 100 100

3. Rail Replacement/Additional 80 80 80 80

4. Conc. ties replacement from wooden ties 80 80 80 80

5. Rail Clip Replacement/Additional 100 100 100 100

6. Rail Rubber Pad Replacement 100 100 100 100

7. Side Post Insulator Replacement 100 100 100 100

8. Nuts and Bolts on Rail Joints 120 m. rail length 100 100 100 100

9. Fishplates (120 m. rail length ) 100 100 100 100

10. Ballast Replacement/Additional 100 100 100 100

11. Sub-Ballast Replacement/Additional 100 100 100 100

12. Clearing and Bank Stabilization 100 100 100 50-100

13. Additional Filling Materials 50 50 50 0-50

|80
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

9.3 Rehabilitation Quantities

Figure 9-3 Rehabiliation Quantities for Mainline and Station Tracks

ITEM DESCRIPTION Unit Naga Hondagua Lucena Manila


Mainline Tracks
1. Replace defective and missing rail with
new 37kg rail (20meters) pcs 4,459 3,601 1,505 905

2. Replacement of Concrete Ties (including


wooden sleepers and defective conc. pcs 26,974 46,520 42,795 8,516
Ties)
3. Replace defective wooden ties and
provide additional wooden ties over pcs 651 512 562 196
bridges
4. Replace defective and missing rail clip pcs 252,380 206,728 162,202 113,494
5. Replace defective and missing rubber
pcs 42,065 34,460 42,795 16,391
pad
6. Replace defective side post insulator and
rail insulator pcs 84,130 68,920 85,590 32,782

7. Replace defective and missing cut spikes


in wooden ties pcs 2,592 4,062 4,432 1,550

8. Replace defective and missing nuts and


bolts on the fish plates pcs 4,986 4,026 5,052 2,148

9. Provide new fish plates pcs 9,908 8,002 10,010 5,724


10. Provide new ballast materials cu.m 182,010 147,039 184,413 72,563
11. Provide new sub-ballast materials cu.m 113,583 91,756 115,083 66,250
12. Clearing of track embankment
ha 70 49 68 34
slopes
13. Provide reinforced concrete
parapet wall along tracks, 1.0m high, cu.m 25,476 15,923 28,990 5,713
200mm thick
14. Filling Materials sq.m 53,294 43,052 53,997 11,408

Station Tracks
15. Replace defective turnouts and
turnouts accessories sets 20 18 30 14

16. Replace defective and missing rail


with new 37kg rail (20meters) pcs 784 288 480 168

17. Replace wooden ties with concrete


pcs 10,987 4,041 6,735 2,355
ties
18. Replace defective and missing rail
pcs 54,912 20,178 33,630 11,768
clip
19. Replace defective and missing
pcs 27,456 10,089 16,815 5,884
rubber pad
20. Replace defective side post
insulator and rail insulator pcs 54,912 20,178 33,630 11,768

|81
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

ITEM DESCRIPTION Unit Naga Hondagua Lucena Manila


21. Replace defective and missing nuts
and bolts on the fish plates pcs 366 162 270 78

22. Provide new fish plates pcs 109 40 67 23


23. Provide new ballast materials cu.m 12,250 4,500 7,500 2,625
24. Provide new sub-ballast materials cu.m 7,644 2,808 4,680 1,638
25. Clearing of track embankment
ha 6.0 3.0 4.0 1.0
slopes
26. Filling Materials cu.m 17,934 6,588 10,980 1,922

9.4 Unit Cost Derivation

Cost estimates are expressed in Philippine Pesos (Php) with the following provisions;

 Costs are based on 4Q 2013 market conditions


 No provision was made for escalation beyond this date
 No provision was made for variations in the currency exchange rates
 No provision was made for any taxes or fees applicable to currency exchanges
The project cost estimate, including contingency was prepared to a level of definition
appropriated for an intended level of accuracy of +/- 30%.

The following assumptions were used as basis for unit cost derivation.

 Regular working hours is eight (8) hours per day of six (6) working days per week
 Project implementation plan shall be followed. Any failure to follow the plan may have a
material impact on project costs.
 All taxes such as VAT and additional local taxes were included in the cost estimate
 Local construction labor rates includes applicable premium contributions and taxes
The following items were excluded from the cost estimates;

 Escalation beyond the estimate base date, including escalation due to local market
conditions
 All impacts of foreign currency exchange rate variation. Forex used 1USD = Php43.74
 Allowances for any changes to the scope of the project

|82
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

 Any cost incurred to accelerate the work or to get the work back on schedule if it falls behind
schedule
 Project application and approval costs

9.4.1 Direct Costs


Direct costs are the cost of all equipment and materials, together with construction and
installation costs for all permanent facilities.

9.4.2 Equipment Cost


Rates of construction equipment were based on prevailing operated rental rates published and
adopted by the Association of Carriers and Equipment Lessors (ACEL) Inc., Edition 23.

9.4.3 Material Cost


Cost of materials includes the following:

 Cost at source; including processing, crushing, stockpiling and loading


 Hauling, handling and storage expenses
 Allowance for wastage and/or losses

9.4.4 Labor Cost


Labor cost includes wages authorized by the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). It
includes all fringe benefits such as incentive, leaves, 13 th month pay and bonuses, SSS &
Medicare premiums, insurance & etc.

9.5 Unit Costs


In the figure, we present the unit costs for each activity across the 4 divisions. Differences across
divisions are accounted for by differences in rehabilitation quantities, labour rates and
productivities, and proximity to material and equipment sources.

Figure 9-4 Unit Costs (PhP/unit) - Track work on Mainline and Station Tracks

ITEM DESCRIPTION Unit Naga Hondagua Lucena Manila


Mainline Tracks
1. Replace defective and missing rail with
new 37kg rail (20meters) pcs 69,918 70,130 70,130 70,340

2. Replacement of Concrete Ties


(including wooden sleepers and pcs 6,393 6,254 6,424 6,454
defective conc. Ties)
3. Replace defective wooden ties and
provide additional wooden ties over pcs 7,669 7,704 7,704 7,739
bridges
4. Replace defective and missing rail clip pcs 203 222 222 241

|83
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

ITEM DESCRIPTION Unit Naga Hondagua Lucena Manila


5. Replace defective and missing rubber
pcs 128 144 144 161
pad
6. Replace defective side post insulator
and rail insulator pcs 132 152 152 170

7. Replace defective and missing cut


spikes in wooden ties pcs 204 224 224 242

8. Replace defective and missing nuts


and bolts on the fish plates pcs 136 142 142 148

9. Provide new fish plates pcs 1,196 1,292 1,292 1,387


10. Provide new ballast materials cu.m 7,586 7,638 7,638 7,716
11. Provide new sub-ballast materials cu.m 6,990 7,062 7,042 7,093
12. Clearing of track embankment slopes ha 24,888 25,177 25,177 25,649
13. Provide reinforced concrete parapet
wall along tracks, 1.0m high, 200mm cu.m 9,492 9,500 9,500 9,509
thick
14. Filling Materials sq.m 429 201 202 229

Station Tracks
15. Replace defective turnouts and
turnouts acecesories sets 3,055,731 3,058,418 3,058,418 3,061,081

16. Replace defective and missing rail with


new 37kg rail (20meters) pcs 69,918 70,130 70,130 70,340

17. Replace wooden ties with concrete


pcs 6,393 6,254 6,424 6,454
ties
18. Replace defective and missing rail clip pcs 203 222 222 241
19. Replace defective and missing rubber
pcs 128 144 144 161
pad
20. Replace defective side post insulator
and rail insulator pcs 132 152 152 170

21. Replace defective and missing nuts


and bolts on the fish plates pcs 136 142 142 148

22. Provide new fish plates pcs 1,196 1,292 1,292 1,387
23. Provide new ballast materials cu.m 7,586 7,638 7,638 7,716
24. Provide new sub-ballast materials cu.m 6,990 7,062 7,042 7,093
25. Clearing of track embankment slopes ha 24,888.0 25,177.0 25,177.0 25,649
26. Filling Materials cu.m 429 201 202 229

|84
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

9.6 Estimates of Capital Costs


The total estimated cost to undertake track rehabilitation work is PhP 10.69B, as detailed in the
following figure. It is important to recognize that this includes fixed such as mobilization,
engineering design, works supervision, and site facilities. These are dealt with in chapter 13.

Figure 9-5 Estimated Cost for Rehabilitation Acitivities

ITEM DESCRIPTION Naga Hondagua Lucena Manila Total


Mainline Tracks
1. Replace defective
and missing rail
with new 37kg rail 311,764,362 252,538,130 105,545,650 63,657,700 733,505,842
(20meters)
2. Replacement of
Concrete Ties
(including wooden
sleepers and 172,444,782 290,936,080 274,915,080 54,962,264 793,258,206
defective conc.
Ties)
3. Replace defective
wooden ties and
provide additional
4,992,519 3,944,448 4,329,648 1,516,844 14,783,459
wooden ties over
bridges
4. Replace defective
and missing rail
51,233,140 45,893,616 36,008,844 27,352,054 160,487,654
clip
5. Replace defective
and missing
5,384,320 4,962,240 6,162,480 2,638,951 19,147,991
rubber pad
6. Replace defective
side post insulator
11,105,160 10,475,840 13,009,680 5,572,940 40,163,620
and rail insulator
7. Replace defective
and missing cut
spikes in wooden 528,768 909,888 992,768 375,100 2,806,524
ties
8. Replace defective
and missing nuts
and bolts on the 678,096 571,692 717,384 317,904 2,285,076
fish plates
9. Provide new fish
plates 11,849,968 10,338,584 12,932,920 7,939,188 43,060,660
10. Provide new
ballast materials 1,380,727,860 1,123,083,88 1,408,546,49 559,896,10 4,472,254,34

|85
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

ITEM DESCRIPTION Naga Hondagua Lucena Manila Total


2 4 8 4
11. Provide new sub-
ballast materials 469,911,25 2,722,251,77
793,945,170 647,980,872 810,414,486
0 8
12. Clearing of track
embankment
1,742,160 1,233,673 1,712,036 872,066 5,559,935
slopes
13. Provide reinforced
concrete parapet
wall along tracks,
241,818,192 151,268,500 275,405,000 54,324,917 722,816,609
1.0m high, 200mm
thick
14. Filling Materials
22,863,126 8,653,452 10,907,394 2,612,432 45,036,404

- - - - -
Station Tracks
- - - - -
15. Replace defective
turnouts and
turnouts 61,114,620 55,051,524 91,752,540 42,855,134 250,773,818
accessories
16. Replace defective
and missing rail
with new 37kg rail 54,815,712 20,197,440 33,662,400 11,817,120 120,492,672
(20meters)
17. Replace wooden
ties with concrete
70,239,891 25,272,414 43,265,640 15,199,170 153,977,115
ties
18. Replace defective
and missing rail
11,147,136 4,479,516 7,465,860 2,836,088 25,928,600
clip
19. Replace defective
and missing
3,514,368 1,452,816 2,421,360 947,324 8,335,868
rubber pad
20. Replace defective
side post insulator
7,248,384 3,067,056 5,111,760 2,000,560 17,427,760
and rail insulator
21. Replace defective
and missing nuts
and bolts on the 49,776 23,004 38,340 11,544 122,664
fish plates
22. Provide new fish
plates 130,231 51,680 86,133 32,363 300,408
23. Provide new
ballast materials 92,928,500 34,371,000 57,285,000 20,254,500 204,839,000

|86
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

ITEM DESCRIPTION Naga Hondagua Lucena Manila Total


24. Provide new sub-
ballast materials 53,431,560 19,830,096 32,956,560 11,618,334 117,836,550
25. Clearing of track
embankment
149,328.0 75,531.0 100,708.0 25,649 351,216
slopes
26. Filling Materials
7,693,686 1,324,188 2,217,960 440,138 11,675,972
Total (Billion PhP) 3.37 2.72 3.24 1.36 10.69

9.7 Crossing Protection


Inventory and assessment of the road crossings is discussed in Section 4.3. This was based on
data obtained from PNR and validated during site inspection. Clearly, majority of the
existingroad crossings need rehabilitation works to comply with minimum safety standards as
very few of them, mostly located from Tayuman to Alabang, have complete crossing signs,
listen signs and barriers. In the figure below, we present the number of road crossings to be
rehabilitated by division and the estimated capital costs. A lump sum cost of rehabilitation per
road crossing is developed by estimating the typical works needed to bring the existing crossing
up to standard, which include the construction of signs, ringer, crossing barrier and
guardhouse.
Figure 9-6 Rehabiliation of Road Crossing Protection

Division No. of Unit Cost Amount


Crossings

Naga 120 51,072 6,128,640

Hondagua 36 51,072 1,838,592

Lucena 129 51,072 6,588,288

Manila 50 51,072 2,553,600

Total 335 17,109,120

|87
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

10 Bridge
Rehabilitation and
Replacement - Cost
Estimates
This chapter describes the methodology used to generate quantities and unit costs used to
estimate rehabilitation and replacement costs for bridges across all divisions. The basis for the
quantity estimates are:

 condition assessments undertaken as part of this study, and


 Recommendations as presented in Chapter 5.
Quantities for the rehabilitation of bridges and the construction of new ones are presented by
division in Section 10.1 based on the discussions in Chapter 5 of this Report. In Section 10.2, we
provide the unit costs involved in the bridge rehabilitation and bridge replacement works.

Development of unit cost followed the methodology discussed in Section 10.4.

The cost information herein is a planning level order of magnitude cost estimate developed to
provide a budgetary cost for evaluating the viability of the rehabilitation of the PNR South line.

|88
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

10.1 Quantities for Bridges


The bridges have been assessed based on the physical condition of the existing bridges and the
repair works needed to safely operate the train over these structures. As shown in Section 5.2,
some bridges need minor to major repair while others should be replaced given the significance
of the repairs required.

Minor rehabilitation works are applied to bridges in good to fair condition and consist of
localized repair works such as sand blasting and repainting of steel members, replacement of
bolts and nuts, welding works, etc. Repair works such as replacement of span, replacement of
substructure, re-plating, etc. are considered as major rehabilitation. Quantities for the
rehabilitation of bridges are summarized by division and presented in Figure 10.1 below.
Figure 10-1: Quantities of Bridge Reabilitation (both minor & major)

ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT DIVISION


NAGA HONDAGUA LUCENA MANILA
Superstructure
Construction of temporary support - lot 76 63 123 38
shoring
Structural Steel (min. Fy = 250 Mpa) kg 657,720 744,600 641,395 148,320
High strength friction grip (HSFG) ea 3,538 2,264 2,360 952
galvanize HD Bolts Grade 4.6
Elastomeric Bearing Pad (300x350x40) ea 260 44 104 24
Painting of Steel Members sq.m 48,708 36,412 48,283 13,637
(Abrasive/Sandblasting, Anti-Corrosion)
Removal of Existing Structure lot 1
(Beams/Span)
Substructure
Structural Concrete (f'c = 28 Mpa) cu.m 105 182 147 3
Reinforcing Steel (Fy = 414 Mpa) kg 17,250 27,308 24,929 425
Precast RC Pile 400x400mmx22m (f'c = 28 lm
MPa) 580 66 88 -
Steel Sheet Piles, ea -
210mmx500mmx103kg/m (Fy = 270 Mpa) 360 72 -
Removal of existing concrete structure ea 6 20 6 2
(Pier)
Bored Pile - 800mmØ diameter depth (f'c - lm - 132 44 -
35Mpa)
Bored Pile - 1200mmØ diameter (f'c - lm - 360 60 -
35Mpa)
Bored Pile - 1500mmØ diameter (f'c - lm - 144 -
35Mpa)
Waterway
Clearing of Waterways sq.m 978 641 310 30
Dredging of waterways cu.m 5,399 723 1,091 612
Gabions cu.m 3,150 - -

|89
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT DIVISION


NAGA HONDAGUA LUCENA MANILA
Grouted Riprap (300mm thk) cu.m 347 - 14

Rehabilitation of Cross Drain (RCBC)


Structural Excavation (incl. removal of cu.m 323
structure) - 386 -
Structural Concrete (f'c = 28 Mpa) cu.m - 113 185 -
Reinforcing Steel (Fy = 414 Mpa) kg - 16,934 27,709 -

Where the retrofit cost of a bridge approaches 60 to 70 percent of a new bridge, we have
recommended bridge replacement. The quantities of the work items for the construction of the
replacement bridges are summarized in Figure 10.2 below.
Figure 10-2: Quantities for Bridge Replacement

ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT DIVISION


NAGA HONDAGUA LUCENA MANILA
Superstructure
Removal of Existing Structure (Beams/Span) lot 23 34 35 16
Structural Steel (min Fy=250 Mpa) kg 288,931 727,598 499,490 106,278

Painting of steel members (Anti-corrosion) sq.m 3,381 11,657 6,163 1,708

Type III - AASTHO Girders, L=20m (f'c-5000 psi) lm 40


Type IV - AASTHO Girders, L=25m (f'c-5000 psi) lm 50
Substructure
Structural Concrete (f'c = 28 Mpa) cu.m 227 118 87 234
Reinforcing Steel (Fy = 414 Mpa) kg 34,704 17,384 13,073 35,106
Bored Pile - 800mm diameter (f'c - 35Mpa) lm -
96 - 88
Removal of existing concrete structure (Piers) ea
10 11 8 8
Precast RC Pile 400x400mm (f'c = 28 MPa) lm 1,498 958 498 812
Structural Excavation (incl. removal of structure) cu.m 179

Waterway
Clearing of Waterways sq.m 4,696 2,461 3,297 101
Dredging of waterways cu.m 16,924 2,140 3,915 6,543
Gabions cu.m 406 211 2,272 636
Grouted Riprap (300mm thk) cu.m 245 137 63 24

|90
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

10.2 Unit Costs


In the following figures, we present the unit costs for each activity across the 4 divisions.
Differences across divisions are accounted for by differences in quantities, labour rates and
productivities, and proximity to material and equipment sources.

Figure 10-3: Unit Costs for Bridge Rehabilitation (PhP)

ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT DIVISION


NAGA HONDAGUA LUCENA MANILA
REHABILITATION OF BRIDGES
Superstructure
Construction of temporary support - shoring ls 110,168 111,965 111,965 113,747
Structural Steel (min. Fy = 250 Mpa) kg 331 343 343 354
High strength friction grip (HSFG) galvanize ea 2,148 2,150 2,150 2,153
HD Bolts Grade 4.6
Elastomeric Bearing Pad (300x350x40) ea 12,256 12,856 12,856
Painting of Steel Members sq.m 218 227 227 235
(Abrasive/Sandblasting, Anti-Corrosion)
Removal of Existing Structure (Beams/Span) lot - 209,384
Substructure
Structural Concrete (f'c = 28 Mpa) cu.m 13,270 13,494 13,494 13,718
Reinforcing Steel (Fy = 414 Mpa) kg 86 87 87 88
Precast RC Pile 400x400mmx22m (f'c = 28 lm 6,882 6,827 7,883
MPa)
Steel Sheet Piles, 210mmx500mmx103kg/m ea 52,963 53,042
(Fy = 270 Mpa)
Removal of existing concrete structure (Pier) ea 258,382 264,053 264,053 269,643

Bored Pile - 800mmØ diameter depth (f'c - lm - 63,716 63,777


35Mpa)
Bored Pile - 1200mmØ diameter (f'c - 35Mpa) lm - 77,201 77,340
Bored Pile - 1500mmØ diameter (f'c - 35Mpa) lm - 91,000
Waterway
Clearing of Waterways sq.m 63 64 64 66
Dredging of waterways cu.m 1,093 1,104 1,104 1,116
Gabions cu.m 4,083 2,017 2,017 2,017
Grouted Riprap (300mm thk) cu.m 3,030 3,212 3,212 3,390

|91
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT DIVISION


NAGA HONDAGUA LUCENA MANILA
Rehabilitation of Cross Drain (RCBC)
Structural Excavation (incl. removal of cu.m 1,788
structure) 1,789
Structural Concrete (f'c = 28 Mpa) cu.m 13,494 13,494
Reinforcing Steel (Fy = 414 Mpa) kg 87 87

Figure 10-4: Unit Costs for Bridge Replacements (PhP)

ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT DIVISION


NAGA HONDAGUA LUCENA MANILA
REPLACEMENT OF BRIDGES
Superstructure
Removal of Existing Structure (Beams/Span) lot 171,146 68,511 175,049 209,384

Structural Steel (min Fy=250 Mpa) kg 331 343 343 354


Painting of steel members (Anti-corrosion) sq.m 166 169 169 172

Type III - AASTHO Girders, L=20m (f'c-5000 lm 24,230


psi)
Type IV - AASTHO Girders, L=25m (f'c-5000 lm 33,147
psi)

Substructure
Structural Concrete (f'c = 28 Mpa) cu.m 13,270 13,494 13,494 13,718
Reinforcing Steel (Fy = 414 Mpa) kg 86 87 87 88
Bored Pile - 800mm diameter (f'c - 35Mpa) lm 47,566 64,332

Removal of existing concrete structure (Piers) ea 258,382 264,053 264,053 269,643


Precast RC Pile 400x400mm (f'c = 28 MPa) lm 6,882 6,827 7,883 7,415

Structural Excavation (incl. removal of cu.m 1,792


structure)

Waterway
Clearing of Waterways sq.m 63 64 64 66
Dredging of waterways cu.m 1,093 1,104 1,104 1,116
Gabions cu.m 4,083 2,017 2,017 2,017
Grouted Riprap (300mm thk) cu.m 3,030 3,212 3,212 3,390

|92
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

10.3 Estimates of Capital Costs


The total estimated cost to undertake the rehabilitation of bridges is PhP 974.90M and total
estimated cost for bridge replacement works is PhP 683.77M. Overall estimated cost for the
bridge component for the Main South Line is PhP 1.66B it is important to recognize that this
excludes fixed costs such as mobilization, engineering design, works supervision, and site
facilities, which are dealt with in chapter 13.

Figure 10-5: Costs for Bridge Rehabilitation (PhP)

ITEM DESCRIPTION DIVISION TOTAL


NAGA HONDAGUA LUCENA MANILA
REHABILITATION OF BRIDGES
Superstructure
Construction of temporary support - 8,372,768 7,053,795 13,771,695 4,322,386 33,520,644
shoring
Structural Steel (min. Fy = 250 Mpa) 217,705,320 255,397,800 219,998,485 52,505,280 745,606,885
High strength friction grip (HSFG) 7,599,624 4,867,600 5,074,000 2,049,656 19,590,880
galvanize HD Bolts Grade 4.6
Elastomeric Bearing Pad (300x350x40) 3,186,560 565,664 1,337,024 322,776 5,412,024
Painting of Steel Members 10,618,344 8,265,524 10,960,241 3,204,695 33,048,804
(Abrasive/Sandblasting, Anti-Corrosion)
Removal of Existing Structure 209,384 209,384
(Beams/Span)
Substructure -
Structural Concrete (f'c = 28 Mpa) 1,389,236 2,455,908 1,985,372 39,096 5,869,613
Reinforcing Steel (Fy = 414 Mpa) 1,483,517 2,375,753 2,168,823 37,400 6,065,493
Precast RC Pile 400x400mmx22m (f'c = 3,991,560 450,582 693,704 539,286 5,675,132
28 MPa)
Steel Sheet Piles, 19,066,680 3,819,024 22,885,704
210mmx500mmx103kg/m (Fy = 270
Mpa)
Removal of existing concrete structure 1,550,292 5,281,060 1,584,318 8,415,670
(Pier)
Bored Pile - 800mmØ diameter depth - 8,410,512 2,806,188 11,216,700
(f'c - 35Mpa)
Bored Pile - 1200mmØ diameter (f'c - - 27,792,360 4,640,400 32,432,760
35Mpa)
Bored Pile - 1500mmØ diameter (f'c - - 13,104,000 13,104,000
35Mpa)
Waterway
Clearing of Waterways 61,614 41,050 19,808 1,980 124,452
Dredging of waterways 5,901,216 798,606 1,204,740 682,992 8,587,554
Gabions 12,861,450 12,861,450

|93
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

ITEM DESCRIPTION DIVISION TOTAL


NAGA HONDAGUA LUCENA MANILA
Grouted Riprap (300mm thk) 1,051,410 48,816 1,100,226
Rehabilitation of Cross Drain (RCBC)
Structural Excavation (incl. removal of 1,268,194
structure) 577,847 690,347
Structural Concrete (f'c = 28 Mpa) 1,524,822 2,495,041 4,019,863
Reinforcing Steel (Fy = 414 Mpa) 1,473,258 2,410,683 3,883,941
SUB-TOTAL 294,839,592 340,436,140 275,659,893 63,963,747 974,899,372

Figure 10-6: Costs for Bridge Replacements (PhP)

ITEM DESCRIPTION DIVISION TOTAL


NAGA HONDAGUA LUCENA MANILA
REPLACEMENT OF BRIDGES
Superstructure
Removal of Existing Structure 3,936,358 2,329,374 6,126,715 3,350,144 15,742,591
(Beams/Span)
Structural Steel (min Fy=250 95,636,161 249,566,114 171,325,070 37,622,412 554,149,757
Mpa)
Painting of steel members (Anti- 561,246 1,970,033 1,041,547 293,776 3,866,602
corrosion)
Type III - AASTHO Girders, 969,200 969,200
L=20m (f'c-5000 psi)
Type IV - AASTHO Girders, 1,657,350 1,657,350
L=25m (f'c-5000 psi)

Substructure
Structural Concrete (f'c = 28 3,014,281 1,590,943 1,175,327 3,207,268 8,987,819
Mpa)
Reinforcing Steel (Fy = 414 Mpa) 2,984,544 1,512,408 1,137,351 3,089,328 8,723,631
Bored Pile - 800mm diameter 4,566,336 5,661,216 10,227,552
(f'c - 35Mpa)
Removal of existing concrete 2,583,820 2,904,583 2,112,424 2,157,144 9,757,971
structure (Piers)
Precast RC Pile 400x400mm (f'c 10,309,236 6,540,266 3,925,734 6,020,980 26,796,216
= 28 MPa)
Structural Excavation (incl. 320,410 320,410
removal of structure)

Waterway
Clearing of Waterways 295,848 157,478 210,982 6,692 671,001
Dredging of waterways 18,497,440 2,362,284 4,322,160 7,301,486 32,483,370
Gabions 1,657,698 424,780 4,582,624 1,282,812 7,947,914

|94
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

ITEM DESCRIPTION DIVISION TOTAL


NAGA HONDAGUA LUCENA MANILA
Grouted Riprap (300mm thk) 741,744 439,402 202,356 81,360 1,464,862
SUB-TOTAL 144,784,712 269,797,665 196,162,291 73,021,578 683,766,245
TOTAL (Rehabilitation &
439.6 610.2 471.8 137.0 1,658.7
Replacement) – Million PhP

|95
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

11 Station
Rehabilitation Cost
Estimates
11.1 Rehabilitation Requirements
Inventory and assessment of the stations and flagstops are discussed in Chapter 6. Stations and
flagstops within Manila Division from Tutuban to Lucena are in good condition, with some
recently rehabilitated by PNR. They do not require further works. Elsewhere, stations and
flagstops which are in fair condition (with buildings still intact) will be rehabilitated. While
stations and flagstops in deteriorated state, lack essential features or are non-existent will be
reconstructed. Conditions of stations and flagstops in the four divisions are categorized in the
following figures.
Figure 11-1: Station Condition

Division Good For For TOTAL


Condition Rehabilitation Reconstruction
NAGA 0 4 4 8
HONDAGUA 0 7 1 8
LUCENA 0 3 10 13
MANILA 18 0 1 19
TOTAL 18 14 16 48

|96
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 11-2: Flagstop Condition

Division Good For For Total


Condition Rehabilitation reconstruction
NAGA 0 2 6 8
HONDAGUA 0 4 23 27
LUCENA 0 0 23 23
MANILA 6 0 0 6
TOTAL 6 6 52 64

11.2 Unit Costs


Lump sum costs for the rehabilitation of the stations and flagstop are developed taking into
consideration the average condition of the existing station or flagstop and the repair works
needed to meet the minimum standard adopted by PNR for both structures. Rehabilitation of
stations includes repair works for the damaged components of the structure i.e. platforms,
roofing, doors, windows and other building furniture’s; provision of access for Persons with
Disability (PWD);any upgrading works needed to comply with the minimum design layout and
painting. Rehabilitation of the flagstop covers the repair of the platform, roofing and other
damaged components of the structure, provision of access for PWD and painting. The unit cost
derived for the rehabilitation work safe as follow:

 Rehabilitation of station = Php7,257,600.00 per lot


 Rehabilitation of flagstop = Php2,116,800.00 per lot
Stations and flagstops in deteriorated condition at the time of inspection will be reconstructed
assuming that none of the existing components will be unusable. Reconstruction costs for
stations are based on the following the construction of a new station based on the standard
layout and design being adopted by PNR with an area of 840sq.m, inclusive of 5m x 120m
platform and building with an area of 6m x 40m, access for PWD. Reconstruction works for the
flagstop involve the new construction of the flagstop based on the standard design used by PNR
in its operation with a platform of 315sq.m, inclusive of 5m x 60m platform and 3m x 4m ticket
room, a roof cover and access for PWD. The unit costs for the reconstruction of station and
flagstop are listed below which also apply to the construction of new stations and fagstops at
locations where no structures were observe during inspection.

 Reconstruction of station = Php14,515,200.00 per lot


 Reconstruction of flagstop = Php6,451,200.00 per lot
The unit costs for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of stations and flagstops are the same
for the four divisions. Any variations on the input costs for labor for the different region are
considered very minimal to have an impact on the estimated lump sum costs.

|97
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

11.3 Estimated Capital Costs


The total estimated costs to undertake the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the stations and
flagstops in the four divisions are presented in the figures below. The total cost is estimated at
600 million PhP. It is important to recognize that this excludes fixed costs such as mobilization,
engineering design, works supervision, and site facilities. These are dealt with in chapter 13.
Figure 11-3: Estimated Capital Costs for Stations

DIVISION

NAGA LUCENA HONDAGUA MANILA TOTAL

Rehabilitation 29,030,400 50,803,200 21,772,800 0 101,606,400

Reconstruction 58,060,800 14,515,200 145,152,000 14,515,200 232,243,200

TOTAL 87,091,200 65,318,400 166,924,800 14,515,200 333,849,600

Figure 11-4: Estimated Capital Costs for Flagstops

DIVISION

NAGA LUCENA HONDAGUA MANILA TOTAL

Rehabilitation 4,233,600 48,686,400 0 0 52,920,000

Reconstruction 38,707,200 25,804,800 148,377,600 0 212,889,600

TOTAL 42,940,800 74,491,200 148,377,600 0 265,809,600

|98
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

12 Depots -
Estimated Capital
Costs of Rehabilitation
Lump sum costs are derived to cover the amount needed to rehabilitate the facilities of the
depot to make it functional. The rehabilitation works as summarized in the following
presentation. The costs do not include fixed costs such as mobilization, engineering design,
works supervision, and site facilities. These are dealt with in chapter 10.

Figure 12.1: Estimated Capital Cost of Depot Rehabiliation

Item of Works Manila Depot Naga Depot Calamba Shed

Site Dev't. (incl: fencing, lighting, 10,000,000 10,000,000 10,000,000


drainage, water and bankhouse)

DMU Maintenance Shed 12,000,000 - -

Roofs, roof frames, columns/frames, 5,000,000 5,000,000 5,000,000


walls and floorings

Maintenance pit rails and drainage 2,000,000 - -


system

Lightings and power outlets 5,000,000 5,000,000 2,000,000

|99
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Item of Works Manila Depot Naga Depot Calamba Shed

Ventilation system 2,000,000 2,000,000 -

Firefighting system 2,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000

Water supply system 1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000

Air supply piping system 1,000,000 - -

Installation of Dried Sand Room Facility 5,000,000 - -

Compressed air system - 1,000,000 1,000,000

Yard (replacement of track, rehab of - 10,000,000 -


trackbed)

Installation of waste water treatment - 5,000,000 -


facility

Total 45,000,000 41,000,000 20,000,000

TOTAL COST 106,000,000

|100
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

13 Calamba to
Batangas Branch Line
This is a single-track line which leaves the south main line at Km 60.5 and extends 56.4 km to
Batangas City (seaport located on Batangas Bay), passing through the following main population
centers:

• Makiling - Km 7.4
• Tanauan - Km 15.3
• Malvar - Km 19.8
• Lipa Km - Km 31.1
• San Jose - Km 41.3
• Batangas - Km 56.3

The line was severely damaged during the Second World War and has been abandoned for about
70 years. Little remains of the line. The track has been removed at most locations. Bridges have
been destroyed or converted to road use. No station buildings remain. There is significant
encroachment along the entire length of the line, especially in the main population centers, where
there are many instances of permanent buildings constructed across the former right-of-way.
There are five areas identified that the PNR alignment is encroached with communities with high
volumes of population. Houses and permanent structures were built over the PNR right of way.
The areas identified are as follows:

From Sta. To Sta.


12+331 - 13+497
14+988 - 15+904
31+427 - 31+848

|101
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

39+354 - 40+380
47+875 - 49+381

There are no major river crossing found on the alignment, however it crosses on two major
highways, two crossings on SLEX at station 2+820 and station 10+446; and at Star Tollways at
station 33+191. The line crosses low volcanic mountains and reached an elevation of 337 m
between Malvar and Lipa.

There is an 18 km long branch line from Malvar to San Pablo City (also abandoned). There is also a
5.8 km abandoned line from Batangas to Bauan, another port location on Batangas Bay.

To re-establish the Batangas Branch it will be necessary to carry out significant land acquisition. At
some of the larger population centers it may be better to bypass these locations rather than incur
the delays and cost of trying to re-establish the original alignment. This will be addressed in the
detailed design phase and should have little impact on overall costs. The former alignment is still
very much in evidence, and at most locations can be restored for railway use. The existing
embankments can be restored and new track installed. All bridge superstructures will require
replacement, however it is expected that most abutments and foundations can be restored. It will
be necessary to construct new passenger stations. Train control will be accomplished through
radio communication. A new radio system will be installed, likely using cellular technology and
repeater units.

|102
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 13.1: Cost to Rebuild Calamba to Batangas Branch Line

VARIABLE COST
DESCRIPTION UNIT QTY UNIT COST AMOUNT
Track (Mainline) Km 56 57,589,230 3,224,996,902
Side Track/Pocket Track l.m 2,000 60,880 121,760,426
Kilometer Post ea 56 3,613 202,328
Construction of Guard Post at level Crossings
lot 160 184,128 29,460,480
Construction of Stations lot 8 14,515,200 116,121,600
Construction of Bridges l.m 3,600 534,800 1,925,280,000
Signals, Electrification & Communication lot 1 254,648,334 254,648,334
Land Acquisition & Resettlement lot 1 1,279,784,667 1,279,784,667
Total 6,952,254,738

OTHER FIXED COST


Facilities for the Engineer lot 1 135,445,544 135,445,544
Other General Requirements (Permits,
bonds and insurances, workshops,
etc.) lot 1 121,900,990 121,900,990
Implementation of Construction
Safety and Health Program (incl.
Environmental Performance) lot 1 27,089,109 27,089,109
Detailed design and drawings lot 1 487,603,957 487,603,957
Total 7,724,294,338

TOTAL COST
COST
Variable Cost 6.95
Fixed Cost 0.77
Total Cost 7.72

|103
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

Figure 13.2: BOQ to Rebuild Calamba to Batangas Branch Line

INTEGRATED LUZON RAILWAY PROJECT (ILRP)


CONSTRUCTION OF CALAMBA TO BATANGAS RAILWAY (53KM)
EXTENSION LINE

BILL OF QUANTITIES
NARROW GUAGE (75 kph)
Item No. ITEM DESCRIPTION Qty Unit Unit Cost Amount

A Facilities for the Engineer 1 lot 135,445,544 135,445,544


Other General Requirements (Permits, bonds and insurances,
B 1 lot 121,900,990 121,900,990
workshops, etc.)
Implementation of Construction Safety and Health Program (incl.
C 1 lot 27,089,109 27,089,109
Environmental Performance)

D CONSTRUCTION OF RAILWAY
D.1 Mainline
D.1.1 Sub-Ballast 44,515 cu.m 7,064 314,450,428
D.1.2 Ballast 105,990 cu.m 7,661 811,991,688
D.1.3 Installation of Concrete ties and pandrol 86,441 sets 5,843 505,074,763
D.1.4 Installation of Fishplates complete with nuts and bolts 1,941 sets 1,423 2,762,043
D.1.5 37 kg Rail (20m) 5,849 pcs 71,764 419,747,636
D.1.6 Clearing and Slope Stabilization 171 ha. 33,604 5,746,284
D.1.7 Embankment from Common Borrow 853,644 cu.m 1,365 1,165,224,060

D.2 Side Track/Pocket Track


D.2.1 Installation of Turnouts 16 sets 3,143,649 50,298,384
D.2.2 37 kg Rail (20m) 200 pcs 71,764 14,352,800
D.2.3 Installation of Concrete ties and pandrol 2,960 sets 5,843 17,295,280
D.2.4 Installation of Fishplates complete with nuts and bolts 104 sets 1,423 147,992
D.2.5 Sub-Ballast (150mm) 1,568 cu.m 7,064 11,072,820
D.2.6 Ballast (200mm) 3,732 cu.m 7,661 28,593,150

D.3 Kilometer Post 56 ea 3,613 202,328


D.4 Construction of Guard Post at level Crossings 160 lot 184,128 29,460,480
D.5 Construction of Stations 8 lot 14,515,200 116,121,600

Sub Total of Part D 3,492,541,737

E CONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES
E.1 Construction of Bridges
E.1.1 Type 1 - Flat Slab 75 l.m 403,200 30,240,000
E.1.2 Type 2 - Reinforced Concrete Deck Girder 1,525 l.m 537,600 819,840,000
E.1.3 Type 3 - Prestressed Concrete Girder 2,000 l.m 537,600 1,075,200,000

Sub Total of Part E 1,925,280,000

F DETAILED ENGINEERING DESIGN


F.1 Detailed design and drawings 1 lot 487,603,957 487,603,957
Sub Total of Part F 487,603,957

G OTHER
G.1 Signals, Electrification & Communication 1 lot 254,648,334 254,648,334
G.2 Land Acquisition & Resettlement 1 lot 1,279,784,667 1,279,784,667
Sub Total of Part G 1,534,433,002

GRAND TOTAL 7,724,294,338


SAY Php 7.72 Billion
USD 171.65 Million

Per Km rate Php 133,200,000


USD 2,960,000

|104
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

14 Total Cost of
South Line
Rehabilitation
14.1 Fixed Costs
In the figure that follows, we present the fixed cost to undertake all work (track, bridges,
stations, crossings) on each of the divisions.
Figure 4-1: Fixed Costs for each Division (PhP)

Description Naga Lucena Hondagua Manila Total


Facilities for the Engineer 109,435,754 107,308,221 90,351,148 43,492,208 350,587,332
Other General Requirements 91,196,462 91,110,754 78,188,493 37,637,488 298,133,198
(Permits, bonds and insurances,
workshops, etc.)

Implementation of Construction 20,265,881 20,246,835 17,375,221 8,363,887 66,251,824


Safety and Health Program (incl.
Environmental Performance)

Engineering Design 364,785,847 364,443,014 312,753,974 150,549,951 1,192,532,786


Total 585,683,944 583,108,825 498,668,836 240,043,535 1,907,505,140

|105
TECHNICAL REPORT – PNR SOUTH | NSRP South Line Project (DFS) CPCS Ref: 13039

14.2 Total Capital Costs


The total estimated capital cost to rehabilitate the southern line (excluding the Batangas
Branch) for safe operation at a design speed of 75 kph and for maximum axle loads of 15 tons is
28 B PhP, as summarized in the following figure.
Figure 4-2: Total Capital for South Line (Million PhP)

Naga Hondagua Lucena Manila Total

Fixed Costs 586 583 499 240 1,908


Track 3,374 2,718 3,238 1,360 10,689
Crossings 61 18 66 26 171
Bridges 440 610 472 137 1,659
Stations 130 140 315 15 600
Depots 41 65 106
Communications Lump 2,098
Land Acquisition Lump 10,547
Totals 4,572 4,013 4,543 1,819 27,780

It is important to note that this excludes rolling stock which will be addressed in the operations
report. In this analysis, we will look at downstream expansion of depot facilities as the rolling
stock fleet increases to meet traffic demands, as well management systems and will be
required that will be required for sustained operations. The total estimated capital cost to
restore the Batangas Branch for safe operation at a design speed of 75 kph and for maximum
axle loads of 15 tons is 8 B PhP, as summarized below.
Figure 14-3: Total Capital for Batangas Branch (Million PhP)

Description Total
Fixed Costs 772
Track 3,347
Crossings 29
Bridges 1,925
Stations 116
Communications 255
Land Acquisition 1,280
Totals 7,724

The total cost to rehabilitate the south line and restore the Batangas Branch is 36 B PhP. Please
see Appendix 4 for typical drawings, as follows:
 Bridges (4.1)
 Track (4.2)
 Stations (4.3)

|106