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Aristotle's Model of Communication

Aristotle(384-322 B.C) was a Greek philosopher and writer born in Stagira, Northern Greece. He was also the teacher of Alexander the
Great. He studied physics, logic, mathematics, etc. While exploring the human nature scientifically, Aristotle developed a linear model
of communication for oral communication known as Aristotle's Model of Communication. This is considered as the first model of
communication and was proposed before 300 B.C. It is also the is most widely accepted among all communication models.

Aristotle Model is mainly focused on speaker and speech. It can be broadly divided into 5 primary elements: Speaker, Speech,
Occasion, Audience and Effect.
The Aristotle's communication model is a speaker centered model as the speaker has the most important role in it and is the only
one active. It is the speaker's role to deliver a speech to the audience. The role of the audience is passive, influenced by the speech.
This makes the communication process one way, from speaker to receiver.
The speaker must organize the speech beforehand, according to the target audience and situation (occasion). The speech must be
prepared so that the audience be persuaded or influenced from the speech. He believed "Rhetoric" is the study of communication
and persuasion and different message or speech should be made for different audiences at different situations to get desired effects
or to establish a propaganda. This model was highly used to develop public speaking skills and create a propaganda at that time so,
it is less focused on intrapersonal or interpersonal communication. Even if the model is speaker oriented and focuses on audience
interaction in communication, there is no concept of feedbacks.
For instance, a politician (speaker) gives a speech to get votes from the civilians (audience) at the time of election (occasion). The
civilians only vote if they are influenced by the things the politician says in his speech so the content must be very impressive to
influence the mass and the speaker must design the message very carefully. The speech must be clear as well as the speaker must
have a very good non-verbal communication with the audience like eye contact.
This example is a classic case of Aristotle Model of Communication depicting all the elements in the model.

Critical Elements of a Good Communicator


Aristotle has given 3 elements that must be present in a good communicator or public speaker. These elements are related to each
other and they reinforce the other elements.

Ethos
Ethos is the characteristic which makes you credible in front of the audience. If there is no credibility, the audience will not believe in
you and will not be persuaded by you. Expertise and positions also give credibility to a person. For instance, the mass will not listen to
the promises of a corrupt politician, but if a politician is known for his good deeds, there's a high change his speech will be heard.
Pathos
If what you say matters to them and they can connect with it, then they will be more interested and they will think you are more
credible. Emotional bonds will make the audience captivated and they feel the speaker is one of their own people. For instance, if
people of a village needs water and the politician tells them that he will help in building roads, the people will not get influenced but
might be more influenced if he says he'll build a dam for drinking water and irrigation.
Logos
Logos is logic. People believe in you only if they understand what you are trying to say. People find logic in everything. If there is no
logic behind the speaker's work or time, they do not want to get involved. Everybody has a sense of reason. You must present facts to
the audience for them to believe in you. For example, a presenter using factual data in an awareness program will attract the
audience's attention and will make them believe in the need of awareness in the particular matter.

Criticisms of Aristotle's Model of Communication


 There are few criticisms around this model. Some of them are
 There is no concept of feedback, it is one way from speaker to audience.
 There is no concept of communication failure like noise and barriers.
 This model can only be used in public speaking
Berlo's SMCR Model of Communication
In 1960, David Berlo postulated Berlo's Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver (SMCR) Model of Communication
from Shannon Weaver's Model of Communication (1949). He described factors affecting the individual components in the
communication making the communication more efficient. This model also focuses on encoding and decoding which
happens before sender sends the message and before receiver receives the message respectively.

Components of Berlo's Model of Communication


Berlo's Model has mainly, four components to describe the communication process. They
aresender, message, channel and receiver. Each of the component is affected by many factors.

S -Sender
Sender is the source of the message or the person who originates the message. The person or source sends the message
to the receiver. The following are the factor related to sender and is also the same in the case of receiver:
 Communication Skills:
Communication skills of a person is a factor that affects the communication process. If the sender has good
communication skills, the message will be communicated better than if the sender's communication skills are not
good. Similarly, if the receiver can not grasp the message, then the communication will not be effective.
Communication skills include the skills to speak, present, read, write, listening, etc.
 Attitude:
The attitude of the sender and the receiver creates the effect of the message. The person's attitude towards self,
the receiver and the environment changes the meaning and effect of the message.
 Knowledge:
Familiarity with the subject of the message makes the communicated message have its effect more. Knowledge
on the subject matter makes the communicator send the message effectively.
 Social Systems:
Values, beliefs, laws, rules, religion and many other social factors affect the sender's way of communicating the
message. It creates difference in the generation of message. Place and situation also fall under social systems.
 Culture:
Cultural differences make messages different. A person from one culture might find something offensive which is
very much accepted in another culture.
M-Message
A message is the substance that is being sent by the sender to the receiver. It might be in the form of voice, audio, text,
video or other media. The key factors affecting the message are
 Content:
Content is the thing that is in the message. The whole message from beginning to end is the content.
 Elements:
Elements are the non verbal things that tag along with the content like gestures, signs, language, etc.
 Treatment:
Treatment is the way in which the message is conveyed to the receiver. Treatment also effects the feedback of
the receiver.
 Structure:
The structure of the message or the way it has been structured or arranged, affects the effectiveness of the
message.
 Code:
Code is the form in which the message is sent. It might be in the form of language, text, video, etc.
C-Channel
Channel is the medium used to send the message. In mass communication and other forms of communication, technical
machines might be used as a channel like telephone, internet, etc. But in general communication, the five senses of a
human being is the channel for the communication flow and it affects the effectiveness of the channel.
 Hearing- We receive the message through hearing.
 Seeing- We perceive through seeing. We also get non-verbal messages by seeing.
 Touching- Many of the non-verbal communication happens from touching like holding hands.
 Smelling- We collect information from smelling.
 Tasting- Taste also provides the information to be sent as a message.
R- Receiver
Receiver is the person who gets the message sent in the process. This model believes that the thinking pattern and all
other factors mentioned above must be in sync to that of the sender for the communication to be effective. The message
might not have the same effect as intended if the receiver and sender are not similar. The receiver must also have a very
good listening skill. Other factors are similar to that of the sender.
 Communication skills
 Attitudes
 Knowledge
 Social Systems
 Culture

Criticisms of Berlo's SMCR Model:


There is no concept of feedback, so the effect is not considered.
There is no concept of noise or any kind of barriers in communication process.
It is a linear model of communication, there is no two way communication.
Both of the people must be similar according to all the factors mentioned above.

Schramm's Model of Communication


Schramm's Model of Communication was postulated by Wilbur Schramm in 1954, where he suggested that
communication is a two way process where both sender and receiver take turns to send and receive a message. The
message is only sent after encoding so the sender is also called Encoder and the encoded message is decoded under
receipt by the receiver, making him the Decoder. This model was adapted from the theories of another theorist Osgood,
so is also known as Osgood and Schramm Model of Communication orEncode-Decode Model of Communication.
Osgood replaced the linear model of communicationwith the circular process of communication and Schramm added the
concept of field of experience to it. This model is described in Schramm's book "The Process and Effects of
Communication".

Different
Components of Schramm's Model
Schramm's Model has different components for communications where:
 Sender (transmitter) is the person who sends the message.
 Encoder is the person who converts the message to be sent into codes.
 Decoder is the person who gets the encoded message which has been sent by the encoder and converts it into
the language understandable by the person.
 Interpreter is the person who tries to understand and analyze the message. Message is received after
interpretation. Interpreter and receiver is the same person.
 Receiver is the person who gets the message. He/she decodes and interprets the actual message.
 Message is the data sent by the sender and information that the receiver gets.
 Feedback is the process of responding to the received message by the receiver.
 Medium or media is the channel used to send the message.
 Noise is the interference and interruptions caused during the process. It is also created when the intended
meaning of the message sent by the sender and the meaning interpreted by the receiver is different which
is known as Semantic Noise.

Helical Model of Communication


"If you're born today, you've limited expressions"- Frank Dance

Frank Dance proposed a communication modelinspired by a helix in


1967, known as Helical Model of Communication. A helix is a
three dimensional spring like curve in the shape of a cylinder or a
cone. Helix is compared with evolution of communication of a human since birth to existence or
existing moment. Helical model gives geometrical testimony of communication. The model is linear as
well as circular combined and disagrees the concept of linearity and circularity individually.

Concept of Helical Model of Communication


Helical model of communication introduces the concept of time where continuousness of the
communication process and relational interactions are very important. Communication is taken as a
dynamic process in helical model of communication and it progresses with age as our experience and
vocabulary increases. At first, helical spring is small at the bottom and grows bigger as the
communication progresses. The same effect can be seen with communication of humans, where you
know nothing about a person at first and the knowledge grows steadily as you know the person better.
It considers all the activities of the person, from the past and present.

Communication is affected by the curve from which it emerges which denotes past behavior and
experiences. Slowly, the helix leaves its lower levels of behavior and grows upward in a new way. It
always depends on the lowest level to form the message. Thus, the communicative relationship
reaches to the next level in which people share more information.

Communication is supposed to be continuous and non-repetitive. It is always growing and


accumulative.
Example of Helical Model of Communication
A child crying at birth signifies the communication of the child to its parents that he/she is alive.
After some years, the child cries whenever the child needs anything like food or attention.
He/she learns words and starts communicating with words. The child learns specific
languages and communicates with the people who know the language that he/she knows.
Communication becomes more complex as the child grows into adult and to the existing
moment. The adult uses the same pronunciations and use of words or facial expressions that
he/she learned when he/she was a child. Communication is directly dependent on his/her past
behavior as a child but can also modify as the person grows.
In this example, communication evolves with the child crying. This is where the helix is small at
the bottom. And he continues communication, the helix gradually grows. When the
communication becomes more complex, the spiral grows wider. From then on, it grows
steadily as his life goes on.

Advantages of Helical Model of Communication


 The model assumes sender and receiver to be interchangeable and makes communication
process to be two way.
 The model takes the communication process speculative and intellectual.

Disadvantages of Helical Model of Communication


 The model is taken as more simple than it should be.
 Some critics don’t take it to be a model as it has very few variables.
 It is not testable because it is abstract.
 It is not represent in a systematic and orderly way.
 Variables cannot be differentiated in this model.
 Continuity may not always be true for communication. There might be breaks in situations
as well as events can be meaningless, forced or unproductive.
 The purpose of communication is not always growth.
Shannon and Weaver Model Of
Communication
Shannon Weaver model of communication was created in 1948 when Claude Elwood
Shannon wrote an article "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" in Bell System Technical
Journal with Warren Weaver. Shannon was an American mathematician whereas Weaver was
a scientist. The Mathematical theory later came to be known as Shannon Weaver model of
communication or “mother of all models." It is more technological than other linear models.

Concepts in Shannon Weaver Model


Sender (Information source) – Sender is the person who makes the message, chooses the
channel and sends the message.
Encoder (Transmitter) –Encoder is the sender who uses machine, which converts message
into signals or binary data. It might also directly refer to the machine.
Channel –Channel is the medium used to send message.
Decoder (Receiver) – Decoder is the machine used to convert signals or binary data into
message or the receiver who translates the message from signals.
Receiver (Destination) –Receiver is the person who gets the message or the place where the
message must reach. The receiver provides feedback according to the message.
Noise –Noise is the physical disturbances like environment, people, etc. which does not let the
message get to the receiver as what is sent.

Levels of Communication Problems


There are three levels of problems of communication according to Shannon Weaver. They are:

1. Technical problem –How a channel causes a problem


2. Semantic problem –Is the meaning of message sent and received very different
3. Effectiveness problem –How effectively does the message cause reaction

Advantages of Shannon Weaver Model


 Concept of noise helps in making the communication effective by removing the noise or
problem causing noise.
 This model takes communication as a two way process. It makes the model applicable in
general communication.
 Communication is taken as quantifiable in Shannon Weaver model.

Criticisms of Shannon Weaver Model


 It can be applied more for interpersonal communication than group communication and mass
communication.
 Receiver plays the passive part in the communication process as sender plays the primary
role that sends messages.
 Feedback is taken as less important in comparison to the messages sent by the sender.
 The model is taken by some critics as a "misleading misrepresentation of the nature of
human communication" as human communication is not mathematical in nature.
Mga Ibat Ibang Uri ng Teksto
1. Informativ- ang isang teksto kung ito ay naglalahad ng mga bagong kaalaman, bagong pangyayari, bagong paniniwala at mga
bagong informasyon. Ang mga kaalaman ay nakaayos ng sekwensyal at inilalahad nang buong linaw at kaisahan

Halimbawa: mga kasaysayan, mga balita


2. Argumentativ- ang isang teksto kung ito ay naglalahad ng mga posisyong umiiral na kaugnayan ng mga proposisyon na
nangangailangan ng pagtalunan o pagpapaliwanagan.Ang ganitong uri ng teksto ay tumutugon sa tanong na bakit.

Halimbawa: mga editoryal


3. Persweysiv- Tekstong nangungumbinse o nanghihikayat.
Halimbawa: mga nakasulat na propaganda sa eleksyon, mga advertisment
4. Narativ- Naglalahad ng magkakasunod-sunod na pangyayari, o simpleng nagsasalayasay
Halimbawa: mga akdang pampanitikan

5. Deskriptiv- ang isang teksto kung ito ay nagtataglay ng informasyong may kinalaman sa pisikal na katangian ng isang tao, lugar,
bagay. Madali itong makilala sapagkat ito ay tumutugon sa tanong na ano.

Halimbawa: mga lathalain, mga akdang pangpanitikan


6. Prosijural- ang isang teksto kung ito ay nagpapakita at naglalahad ng wastong pagkakasunod-sunod ng hakbang ng malinaw na
hakbang sa pagsasakatuparan ng anumang gawain. Naglalahad ng wastong pagkakasuno-sunod ng hakbang sa paggawa ng isang
bagay.

7. Nareysyon-ang isang teksto kung ito ay naglalahad ng mga informasyon tumutugon sa mga tanong na paano at kailan.

8. Exposisyon- ang isang teksto kung ito ay naglalahad ng mga informasyon tungkol sa pag-aanalays ng mga tiyak na konsepto.
Tinutugon nito ang tanong na paano.

9. Referensyal- ang isang teksto kung ito ay naglalahad ng mga tiyak na pinaghanguan ng mga inilalahad na kaalaman. Ang mga
kaalamang hinango mula sa iba ay malinaw na tinitiyak at inilalahad.

Physics (from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη) phusikḗ (epistḗmē) "knowledge of nature", from φύσις phúsis"nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural
science that involves the study of matter[4] and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such
as energy and force.[5] One of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how
the universe behaves
Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.[1][2] Chemistry
includes topics such as the properties of individual atoms, how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds, the
interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between
substances through chemical reactions to form different substances.Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it
bridges other natural sciences, including physics, geology and biology.[3][4]For the differences between chemistry and physics
see comparison of chemistry and physics.
Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant
progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather
observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data.
Astronomy, a natural science, is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae) and
processes (such as supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation), the physics, chemistry,
and evolution of such objects and processes, and more generally all phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth. A related
but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with studying the Universe as a whole.
Geology (from the Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse"[1][2]) is an earth science comprising the study
of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change. Geology can also refer generally to the
study of the solid features of any celestial body (such as the geology of the Moon orMars).
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known asoceanology, is
the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It covers a wide range of topics, including ecosystemdynamics; ocean
currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxesof various chemical
substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries.
Earth science or geoscience is an all-encompassing term that refers to the fields of science dealing with planet Earth.[1] It can be
considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to
Earth sciences. The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere,
andbiosphere. Typically, Earth scientists will use tools from physics, chemistry, biology, chronology, and mathematics to build a
quantitative understanding of how the Earth system works, and how it evolved to its current state.
Hertzsprung–Russell diagram
Hertzsprung–Russell diagram with 22,000 stars plotted from theHipparcos Catalogue and 1,000 from
the Gliese Catalogue of nearby stars. Stars tend to fall only into certain regions of the diagram. The
most prominent is the diagonal, going from the upper-left (hot and bright) to the lower-right (cooler
and less bright), called the main sequence. In the lower-left is where white dwarfs are found, and
above the main sequence are the subgiants, giants and supergiants. The Sun is found on the main
sequence at luminosity 1 (absolute magnitude 4.8) and B−V color index0.66 (temperature 5780
K, spectral type G2V).

An HR diagram showing many well known stars in the Milky Way galaxy.

HR diagrams for two open clusters, M67 and NGC 188, showing the main-sequence turn-off at
different ages.
The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram or HRD, is a scatter
graph of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute
magnitudes or luminosities versus their spectral classifications oreffective
temperatures. More simply, it plots each star on a graph measuring the star's brightness
The diagram was created circa 1910 by Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris
Russell and represents a major step towards an understanding of stellar evolution or
"the way in which stars undergo sequences of dynamic and radical changes over time".
Historical background[edit]
In the nineteenth-century large-scale photographic spectroscopic surveys of stars were
performed at Harvard College Observatory, producing spectral classifications for tens
of thousands of stars, culminating ultimately in the Henry Draper Catalogue. In one
segment of this work Antonia Maury included divisions of the stars by the width of their spectral lines.[1] Hertzsprung noted
that stars described with narrow lines tended to have smallerproper motions than the
others of the same spectral classification. He took this as an indication of greater
luminosity for the narrow-line stars, and computed secular parallaxes for several
groups of these, allowing him to estimate their absolute magnitude.[2]
In 1910 Hans Rosenberg published a diagram plotting the apparent magnitude of stars in
the Pleiades cluster against the strengths of the Calcium K line and
two Hydrogen Balmer lines.[3] These spectral lines serve as a proxy for the temperature
of the star, an early form of spectral classification. The apparent magnitude of stars in the
same cluster is equivalent to their absolute magnitude and so this early diagram was
effectively a plot of luminosity against temperature. The same type of diagram is still
used today as a means of showing the stars in clusters without having to initially know
their distance and luminosity.[4] Hertzsprung had already been working with this type of
diagram, but his first publications showing it were not until 1911. This was also the form
of the diagram using apparent magnitudes of a cluster of stars all at the same distance.[5]
Russell's early (1913) versions of the diagram included Maury's giant stars identified by Hertzsprung, those nearby stars with
parallaxes measured at the time, stars from the Hyades (a nearby open cluster), and several moving groups, for which
the moving cluster method could be used to derive distances and thereby obtain absolute magnitudes for those stars.[6]
Forms of diagram[edit]
There are several forms of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, and the nomenclature is not very well defined. All forms share
the same general layout: stars of greater luminosity are toward the top of the diagram, and stars with higher surface
temperature are toward the left side of the diagram.
The original diagram displayed the spectral type of stars on the horizontal axis and the absolute visual magnitude on the
vertical axis. The spectral type is not a numerical quantity, but the sequence of spectral types is a monotonic series that
reflects the stellar surface temperature. Modern observational versions of the chart replace spectral type by a color index (in
diagrams made in the middle of the 20th Century, most often the B-V color) of the stars. This type of diagram is what is often
called an observational Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, or specifically a color-magnitude diagram (CMD), and it is often used by
observers.[who?] In cases where the stars are known to be at identical distances such as within a star cluster, a color-magnitude
diagram is often used to describe the stars of the cluster with a plot in which the vertical axis is the apparent magnitude of
the stars. For cluster members, by assumption there is a single additive constant difference between their apparent and
absolute magnitudes, called the distance modulus, for all of that cluster of stars. Early studies of nearby open clusters (like
the Hyades and Pleiades) by Hertzsprung and Rosenberg produced the first CMDs, antedating by a few years Russell's
influential synthesis of the diagram collecting data for all stars for which absolute magnitudes could be determined.[3][5]
Another form of the diagram plots the effective surface temperature of the star on one axis and the luminosity of the star on
the other, almost invariably in a log-log plot. Theoretical calculations of stellar structure and the evolution of stars produce
plots that match those from observations. This type of diagram could be called temperature-luminosity diagram, but this term
is hardly ever used; when the distinction is made, this form is called the theoretical Hertzsprung–Russell diagram instead. A
peculiar characteristic of this form of the H–R diagram is that the temperatures are plotted from high temperature to low
temperature, which aids in comparing this form of the H–R diagram with the observational form.
Although the two types of diagrams are similar, astronomers make a sharp distinction between the two. The reason for this
distinction is that the exact transformation from one to the other is not trivial. To go between effective temperature and color
requires a color-temperature relation, and constructing that is difficult; it is known to be a function of stellar
composition and can be affected by other factors like stellar rotation. When converting luminosity or absolute bolometric
magnitude to apparent or absolute visual magnitude, one requires abolometric correction, which may or may not come from
the same source as the color-temperature relation. One also needs to know the distance to the observed objects (i.e., the
distance modulus) and the effects of interstellar obscuration, both in the color (reddening) and in the apparent magnitude
(extinction). For some stars, circumstellar dust also affects colors and apparent brightness. The ideal of direct comparison of
theoretical predictions of stellar evolution to observations thus has additional uncertainties incurred in the conversions
between theoretical quantities and observations.
Interpretation[edit]
Most of the stars occupy the region in the diagram along the line called the main sequence. During that stage stars are fusing
hydrogen in their cores. The next concentration of stars is on the horizontal branch (helium fusion in the core and hydrogen
burning in a shell surrounding the core). Another prominent feature is the Hertzsprung gap located in the region between A5
and G0 spectral type and between +1 and −3 absolute magnitudes (i.e. between the top of the main sequence and the giants in
the horizontal branch). RR Lyrae variable stars can be found in the left of this
gap. Cepheid variables reside in the upper section of the instability strip.

An HR diagram with the instability strip and its components highlighted.


The H-R diagram can also be used by scientists to roughly measure how far away a star
cluster is from Earth. This can be done by comparing the apparent magnitudes of the
stars in the cluster to the absolute magnitudes of stars with known distances (or of
model stars). The observed group is then shifted in the vertical direction, until the
two main sequences overlap. The difference in magnitude that was bridged in order
to match the two groups is called the distance modulus and is a direct measure for
the distance (ignoring extinction). This technique is known as main sequence
fitting and is a type of spectroscopic parallax.
Diagram's role in the development of stellar
physics[edit]
Contemplation of the diagram led astronomers to speculate that it might
demonstrate stellar evolution, the main suggestion being that stars collapsed from red giants to dwarf stars, then moving
down along the line of the main sequence in the course of their lifetimes. Stars were thought therefore to radiate energy by
converting gravitational energy into radiation through the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism. This mechanism resulted in an age
for the Sun of only tens of millions of years, creating a conflict over the age of the Solar System between astronomers, and
biologists and geologists who had evidence that the Earth was far older than that. This conflict was only resolved in the 1930s
when nuclear fusion was identified as the source of stellar energy.
However, following Russell's presentation of the diagram to a meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1912, Arthur
Eddington was inspired to use it as a basis for developing ideas on stellar physics. In 1926, in his book The Internal
Constitution of the Stars he explained the physics of how stars fit on the diagram.[7] This was a particularly remarkable
development since at that time the major problem of stellar theory, the source of a star's energy, was still
unsolved. Thermonuclear energy, and even that stars are largely composed of hydrogen (see metallicity), had yet to be
discovered. Eddington managed to sidestep this problem by concentrating on thethermodynamics of radiative transport of
energy in stellar interiors.[8] So, Eddington predicted that dwarf stars remain in an essentially static position on the main
sequence for most of their lives. In the 1930s and 1940s, with an understanding of hydrogen fusion, came a physically based
theory of evolution to red giants, and white dwarfs. By this time, study of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram did not drive such
developments but merely allowed stellar evolution to be presented graphically
Mga Ibat Ibang Uri ng Teksto
1. Informativ- ang isang teksto kung ito ay naglalahad ng mga bagong kaalaman, bagong pangyayari, bagong paniniwala at mga
bagong informasyon. Ang mga kaalaman ay nakaayos ng sekwensyal at inilalahad nang buong linaw at kaisahan

Halimbawa: mga kasaysayan, mga balita


2. Argumentativ- ang isang teksto kung ito ay naglalahad ng mga posisyong umiiral na kaugnayan ng mga proposisyon na
nangangailangan ng pagtalunan o pagpapaliwanagan.Ang ganitong uri ng teksto ay tumutugon sa tanong na bakit.

Halimbawa: mga editoryal


3. Persweysiv- Tekstong nangungumbinse o nanghihikayat.
Halimbawa: mga nakasulat na propaganda sa eleksyon, mga advertisment
4. Narativ- Naglalahad ng magkakasunod-sunod na pangyayari, o simpleng nagsasalayasay
Halimbawa: mga akdang pampanitikan

5. Deskriptiv- ang isang teksto kung ito ay nagtataglay ng informasyong may kinalaman sa pisikal na katangian ng isang tao, lugar,
bagay. Madali itong makilala sapagkat ito ay tumutugon sa tanong na ano.

Halimbawa: mga lathalain, mga akdang pangpanitikan


6. Prosijural- ang isang teksto kung ito ay nagpapakita at naglalahad ng wastong pagkakasunod-sunod ng hakbang ng malinaw na
hakbang sa pagsasakatuparan ng anumang gawain. Naglalahad ng wastong pagkakasuno-sunod ng hakbang sa paggawa ng isang
bagay.

7. Nareysyon-ang isang teksto kung ito ay naglalahad ng mga informasyon tumutugon sa mga tanong na paano at kailan.

8. Exposisyon- ang isang teksto kung ito ay naglalahad ng mga informasyon tungkol sa pag-aanalays ng mga tiyak na konsepto.
Tinutugon nito ang tanong na paano.

9. Referensyal- ang isang teksto kung ito ay naglalahad ng mga tiyak na pinaghanguan ng mga inilalahad na kaalaman. Ang mga
kaalamang hinango mula sa iba ay malinaw na tinitiyak at inilalahad.

Physics (from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη) phusikḗ (epistḗmē) "knowledge of nature", from φύσις phúsis"nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural
science that involves the study of matter[4] and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such
as energy and force.[5] One of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how
the universe behaves
Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.[1][2] Chemistry
includes topics such as the properties of individual atoms, how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds, the
interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between
substances through chemical reactions to form different substances.Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it
bridges other natural sciences, including physics, geology and biology.[3][4]For the differences between chemistry and physics
see comparison of chemistry and physics.
Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant
progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather
observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data.
Astronomy, a natural science, is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae) and
processes (such as supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation), the physics, chemistry,
and evolution of such objects and processes, and more generally all phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth. A related
but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with studying the Universe as a whole.
Geology (from the Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse"[1][2]) is an earth science comprising the study
of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change. Geology can also refer generally to the
study of the solid features of any celestial body (such as the geology of the Moon orMars).
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known asoceanology, is
the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It covers a wide range of topics, including ecosystemdynamics; ocean
currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxesof various chemical
substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries.
Earth science or geoscience is an all-encompassing term that refers to the fields of science dealing with planet Earth.[1] It can be
considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to
Earth sciences. The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere,
andbiosphere. Typically, Earth scientists will use tools from physics, chemistry, biology, chronology, and mathematics to build a
quantitative understanding of how the Earth system works, and how it evolved to its current state.
 Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of
individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social
challenges.[1] The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948
constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of
disease or infirmity."[2][3] This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational
value and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete".[4][5][6] Other definitions have been
proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction.
 Wellness is generally used to mean a
 healthy balance of the mind, body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well-being. It has been used in
the context of alternative medicine since Halbert L. Dunn, M.D., began using the phrase high level wellness in
the 1950s, based on a series of lectures at a Unitarian Universalist Church in Arlington, Virginia, in the United
States. Dunn (196, p. 4) defined wellness as "an integrated method of functioning which is oriented toward
maximizing the potential of which the individual is capable. It requires that the individual maintain a continuum
of balance and purposeful direction within the environment where he is functioning." He also stated that
"wellness is a direction in progress toward an ever-higher potential of functioning" (p. 6). Dunn also described
wellness as health being, "much more than the absence of disease remains a cornerstone concept of
wellness today." (Dunn, 787, p 7) Dunn saw wellness as hierarchical: there were lower levels of wellness and
higher ones, and the aim was to move everyone up from where they started to high-level wellness. (Dunn,
789, p 8)[1] The modern concept of wellness did not, however, become popular until the 1970s.[2]
 Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform
aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through
proper nutrition,[1] moderate-vigorous physical exercise, physical activity,[2] and sufficient rest.
 A definition of metabolic fitness is proposed as the ratio between mitochondrial capacity for substrate utilisation
and maximum oxygen uptake of the muscle. Indirect means of determining this parameter are discussed. Skeletal
muscle is an extraordinarily plastic tissue and metabolic capacity/fitness changes quickly when the level of physical
activity is altered. High metabolic fitness includes an elevated use of fat at rest and during exercise.