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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION-GREEN


METHOD WOLAITA SODO UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION
TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

Research Proposal · December 2017

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD

WOLAITA SODO UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND


MANAGEMENT

REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE


PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD

BY:
BEREKET KEFLEMARIAM
KOTRESH K M

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD

PROJECT TEAM LEADER (MANAGER):


No Full name Aca. Specialization Dep’t Telephone Email
rank

1. Bereket Kiflemariam Basa Bsc. COTM COTM 09 11 15 45 06/ bereket.kiflemariam


09 12 35 69 62 @wsu.edu.et

Project Team Members:

No Full name Academic rank Specialization Department Telephone Email

1 Kotresh Km Ass. Professor CoTM COTM +251938979707 Kmk.cvl@gmail.co


m

Project Sponsor: Wolaita Sodo University

Project Duration: : 1 Year (September 2017 to September 2018

College/ School: Engineering

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD

ACKNOLODGMENT
Primarily we would like to thank God for keeping me alive to do this
proposal. I would like to give special thanks for Wolaita Sodo
University for giving me this special opportunity.

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PROJECT TEAM LEADER (MANAGER): ................................................................................................. I

ACKNOLODGMENT .................................................................................................................................. II

1 . INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................ 1

1.1 GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY AND JUSTIFICATION ............................................................................. 2

1.3 PROJECT ACTIVTIES ....................................................................................................................... 3

1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY ............................................................................................................. 4

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ....................................................................................................... 4

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.................................................................................................................... 5

2 METHADOLOGY................................................................................................................................... 5

2.1 SOURCES OF DATA ........................................................................................................................ 5

3 ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................................. 6

4 PROJECT DESCRITION ........................................................................................................................ 7

4.1 GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 OPTIMUM BITUMEN CONTENT FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE (BC) MIX ..................................... 7

4.3 ADDITION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES TO BITUMINOUS CONCRETE MIX.................................. 7

4.4 EFFECT OF COATING METHOD ON THE MIX PARAMETERS OF BC GRADE I MIX .......................... 8

4.5 WATER SENSITIVITY TEST .............................................................................................................. 9

5 EXPECTED OUTPUT/RESULTS .......................................................................................................... 9

6. IMPLEMANTATION PLAN AND TIME FRAME ................................................................................ 10

7. PLAN TO ENSURE COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION ......................................................................... 10

8. RISKS TO SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION ................................................................................... 11

9. PROJECT MONITORING AND EVALUATION PLAN ......................................................................... 11

10. PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY .......................................................................................................... 11

11. PROJECT BUDGET ......................................................................................................................... 12

11.1 EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS AND LABORATORY TEST COST ........................................................... 12


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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD
11.2 PERSONNEL COST (INCLUDING TRANSPORTATION COST) ......................................................... 13

11.3 Labour COST (loading and unloading cost for materials) ........................................................... 14

11.4 BUDGET SUMMARY .................................................................................................................... 14

12. REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................. 15

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD

1 . INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL
Plastic have become part of our today’s lifestyle. It is used for packaging, for
protecting, serving purpose, & even discharging all types of goods. With the industrial
mass production of goods and plastic would be a cheaper and good constituent. Using of
plastic non-biodegradable (Subjected to recent studies, plastics can stay for as long as
4200 years) product is growing speedily and leads problem in disposal of plastic waste.
Now a day, plastic wastes have been considered in pavement construction with great
interest in developing countries such as Ethiopia and India. The use of these materials in
road construction is totally based on economic, technical and ecological point of view
also. Ethiopia has a large network of metro cities located in different parts of the country
and many more are planned for future. Several metric tons plastic wastes are produced
every year in Ethiopia.

Keeping in mind that the need for bulk use of these plastic wastes in Ethiopia
develops specifications to enhance the use of these wastes in pavement construction, in
which higher economic returns also possible. The use of these materials should be
developed for construction of low-volume roads in different region of our country. The
necessary specifications should be sort-out and attempts are to be made to maximize the
use of plastic wastes in different layers of the road pavement construction. Many highway
agencies are doing various studies on environmental suitability and performance of
recycled products in high construction. Use of these waste plastic in bituminous road
construction will help in disposal of vast quantities of plastic. Consumption of mineral
water bottles which are made up of high density polyethylene has increased abnormally.
These bottles are not readily biodegradable, environmental problems are created due to
dumping; these are either land filled or incinerated which are not ecofriendly which
pollute land and air.

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD
On heating at 100 - 150°C, plastics such as polyethylene, polypropylene and
polystyrene, soften and shows good binding properties. Blending plastic with a bitumen
results in a mix that is amenable for road laying. These roads have withstood loads due to
traffic, heavy rain and variation of temperature.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY AND JUSTIFICATION

Plastics and municipal solid waste are great concern. Finding proper use for the
disposed plastics waste is the need of the hour. On the other side, the road traffic also
increasing, hence need to increase the load bearing capacities of the pavements. As there
is increasing demand in highway construction, scientists and researchers are constantly
trying to improve the performance of bitumen pavement. Asphalt concretes are widely
used in pavements. Bitumen is the naturally occurring by product of crude oil. Due to
increase in vehicles in recent years the road surfaces have been exposed to high traffic
resulting in deformation of pavements due to excessive stress. Permanent deformation
happens when pavement does not have sufficient stability, improper compaction and
insufficient Pavement strength. The performance of pavement is determined by the
properties of bitumen. Bitumen is a viscoelastic material with suitable mechanical and
rheological properties for water proofing and protective covering for roofs and roads,
because of its good adhesion properties of aggregates. One of the most important
properties of bitumen mixture is its ability to resist shoving and rutting under traffic.
Hence stability should be more enough to handle traffic adequately, but not more than the
traffic criteria require. Low stability causes unravelling and flow of the road surface.
Some improvements in asphalt properties have been achieved by selecting the proper
starting crude, to make asphalt. From practical experiences it is proved that the
modification of asphalt binder with polymer additives, offers several benefits. To
enhance various engineering properties of asphalt many modifiers such as styrene based
polymers, polyethylene based polymers, polychloroprene, Gilsonite, various oils have

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD
been used in asphalt. Plastic usage has been increased in our daily life. Because of all
these there is an increased usage of plastic the disposal of plastic has become difficult.
Some studies say that 10million tones of plastic are produced in India and only 2million
tones of plastic waste are recycled. Plastics have to be disposed or else it will be
hazardous to nature and environment. Thus one of the best ways of disposal of these
plastics is to use in bituminous road construction by melting them.

1.3 PROJECT ACTIVTIES


1.3.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The plastic wastes could be used in road construction and the field tests withstood the
stress and proved that plastic wastes used after proper processing as an additive would
enhance the life of the pavements and we can achieve road stability, minimizing cost of
the bitumen. The present study highlights the developments in using plastics waste to
make plastic pavements. The rapid rate of urbanization and development has led to
increasing plastic waste production. As plastic is non-biodegradable, it remains in
environment for numerous years and disposing plastic wastes at landfill are unsafe since
toxic chemicals percolate out into the earth, and under-ground water and pollute the water
bodies. Due to littering routines, insufficient waste management scheme, plastic waste
disposal to be a big problem for the civic authorities, especially in the urban areas. As
mentioned above, plastic disposal is one of the major problems for developing countries
like Ethiopia and India, at a same time Ethiopia needs a large network of roads for its
smooth economic and social development. Scarcity of bitumen needs a deep thinking to
ensure fast pavement construction.
At present the disposal of waste plastic has become a major waste management problem
in the world. Hence in this present investigation efforts have made to identify the
potential application of waste plastic in civil engineering projects. In present study the
aim is to investigate the optimal use of waste plastic in bitumen for road pavement
construction.
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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
GENERAL OBJECTIVES

The main objective of this experimental investigation is to provide tools to evaluate and
to improve the properties of pavement using waste plastic such that it may be more
confidently employed in roadways and driveways etc.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

Keeping in view of the above point the following specific objectives have been set for
study.

To study on polymer modified asphalt mixtures to evaluate engineering properties


using marshal stability.
To study basic properties of aggregates and plain bitumen.
To study the strength and stability characters of BC mix for 80/100 grade bitumen.
To study the effect of waste plastic on strength and stability characteristics of BC
mix.
To study characteristics of bitumen.
Study on performance of Stability characters of BC mix
To study Strength characteristics of waste plastics
Strength characteristics of BC mix

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


There are many significance of present study as follows.
To develop recycled plastics with enhanced physical and mechanical properties
and that are strong, chemically inert and environmental-friendly.
To study the effects of type of reused plastics, content of recycled plastics as
replacement of aggregate.

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD
To select the optimum mix or mixes for use in the road by comparing and standing
various concrete mixes built on the performance measures in physical properties
(hardened density, water absorption etc..) and mechanical performance
(compressive and flexural strength, etc..).
Increase the strength and performance of pavement.
Creating jobs for rag pickers.
Develop a technology, which is eco-friendly.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The scope of the study is to evaluate the performance of Plastic tar flexible pavement
road constructed using plastic coated aggregate bitumen mix.

2 METHADOLOGY
2.1 SOURCES OF DATA
Waste plastic and its source

Waste plastic Sources


Low density polyethylene ( LDPE) Carry bags, sacks, milk pouches, bin lining, cosmetic and
detergent bottles.
High density polyethylene ( HDPE) Carry bags, bottle caps, house hold articles etc.
Polyethylene terephthalate ( PET) Drinking Water bottles & other plastic bottles etc.
Polypropylene (PP) Bottle caps, detergent wrappers, etc..
Polystyrene (PS) Clear egg packs, bottle caps. Foamed polystyrene : food
trays, disposable cups, protective packaging etc.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Mineral water bottles ,credit cards, toys, pipes and gutters,
electrical fittings, and pens, medical disposables etc.

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD

3 ANALYSIS
3.1 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME
The basic materials are required such as
 Bitumen,
 Waste plastic
 Aggregate

Bitumen
Bitumen is a material which is a byproduct of petroleum refining process. It is a
highly viscous at temperature above 100 degrees Celsius and is solid at room
temperature. For this particular project different tests will take place.
Waste Plastic
The bottled water is the fastest growing beverage industry in the world. According to
the international bottled water association (IBWA), sales of bottled water have increased
by 500 Percent over the last decade and 1.5 million tons of plastic are used to bottle water
every year. Plastic bottle recycling has not kept pace with the dramatic increase in virgin
resin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sales and the last imperative in the ecological triad
of reduce / reuse / recycle, has emerged as the one that needs to be given prominence.
Waste bottle plastic of water cans is made up of either High Density Polyethylene
(HDPE) or Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE). Waste plastic bottles were crushed and
shredded and then the different laboratory taste will be done.
Aggregates
Course Aggregate with size of 20mm and 10 mm will be used and test will be done. The
following are the important test carried out for plastic coated flexible pavement.

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD
Moisture absorption and void measurement
Soundness test
Flakiness Index
Aggregate crushing value test
Aggregated impact value
Los Angeles Abrasion (LAA)
Marshall Stability
Flash and fire point test
Softening point test
Penetration index test
Ductility index test

4 PROJECT DESCRITION
4.1 GENERAL
Use of waste plastic has made a good progress in bituminous road construction in
recent years. This investigation is on attempt to evaluate the addition of waste plastic
bottles to bituminous concrete (BC) wearing course mix of aggregate gradation I along
with plain 80/100 bitumen.

4.2 OPTIMUM BITUMEN CONTENT FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE (BC)


MIX
Optimum bitumen content obtained for bituminous concrete grade I mix for 80/100 grade
bitumen was 5.1% as per the specification of MORT&H standards.

4.3 ADDITION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES TO BITUMINOUS CONCRETE


MIX
Waste shredded plastic bottle were added in the increasing percentage of 0% - 10% to
bituminous concrete mix.
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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD
4.4 EFFECT OF COATING METHOD ON THE MIX PARAMETERS OF BC
GRADE I MIX
Addition of 2% to 10% waste shredded plastic bottles by the weight of bitumen to BC
mix has resulted in following.
FOR PLAIN 80/100 BITUMEN

a) The waste plastic which is added to aggregate mix by heating up to 260-2800C. Then
the bitumen is added to form the grade I bituminous concrete and optimum bitumen
content of 5% has shown the following results.
 The maximum stability was 1963 Kg at 8% waste plastic by the weight of
bitumen, 4.7mm flow at 8% waste plastic and 71.942 VFB(void filled with
bitumen) at 8% waste plastic
 Bulk density was found to be maximum of 2.394 gm/cc at 8% waste plastic and
then reduces to 2.315 gm/cc at 12% waste plastic.
 Voids in the total mix Vv varies from 8% to 10% by varying the waste plastic
content from 2% - 12% and at 8% waste plastic Vv was found to be 4.652%.
b) By blending shredded waste plastic to the bitumen by heating and then adding the
required aggregate to form BC mix grade I resulted in improper mix and stability
obtained is less than that of the optimum binder content [OBC]. This is due to following,
 Improper blending of plastic in bitumen. This is because the melting point of poly
ethylene terephthalate [PET] is 260-2800C.
 Since the melting temperature of plastic is too high it is difficult to melt plastic in
bitumen to get a proper blend.
 Bitumen should be heated up to the temperature of 260-2800C in order to obtain
the proper blend. If this is done there will be a chance of bitumen to catch fire and
also there will be a loss in weight of bitumen.

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD
All the parameters like stability, flow, bulk density, voids and VFB shows that, the
addition of waste plastic in mix has no much change in fluidity and rigidity parameters as
compared to that of plain bituminous mix.

Stability of 80/100 bitumen at 8% of waste plastic coated on aggregates has shown higher
value

4.5 WATER SENSITIVITY TEST

The water sensitivity measured in terms of the Marshall stability will shows the following
results
 The stability value of the mix in unsoaked condition has high values than
compared to the soaked specimens
 Stability value decreases as the soaking time of the specimen increases. Specimen
with 3days soaking results in least stability than that of 1day and 2day soaking
periods.

5 EXPECTED OUTPUT/RESULTS
In the present study, the importance was to add waste plastic bottles to bituminous
concrete (BC) mix and to evaluate the various mix properties like Marshall Stability,
flow, bulk density, voids in the mix and VFB helps to produce flexible pavement using
green method. The following are the expected results after using plastic for the
production of flexible pavement:
Reuse of waste plastic will produce the flexible pavements
Opportunity will be created for the students to conduct this research in the
university.
Reduce the environmental pollution via using waste of plastics and to achieve the
economy status.
Helps the community to use the end product of this research
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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD

6. IMPLEMANTATION PLAN AND TIME FRAME


The research will be conducted by using both experimental and analytical methods. The
following procedure is going to be used to conduct the proposed research.
No Activities Time plan Remark
.
1. Collecting locally available materials September 2017
2. Laboratory test on aggregates and waste plastic November 2017
3. Laboratory test for bitumen November 2017
4. Data collection February 2018
5. Data analysis April 2018
6. Result and conclusion May 2018
7. Project report writing May 2018
8. Report writing and dissemination June 208 Tentative

Table 1: Implementation Plan and Time Frame

7. PLAN TO ENSURE COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION


The university takes a lead to ensure the community participation. Also the local
communities will be involved during the planning phase by locating the available
materials in their stock.

For the implementation of the project the communities and university are main
participants by giving their own support and suggestion for the research.

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD

8. RISKS TO SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION

Construction industry has extensive linkages with the rest of economy. To be successful
the community and the research must work in coordination, unless it will affect the end
result of the research. The following are some of the risks to implement our research
project.

 Fluctuation in the prices of materials and laboratory tests


 Project completion on time with the standard quality with assigned budget.
 The availability of sufficient laboratory to conduct test in the Wolaita Sodo
university
 Environmental factors

9. PROJECT MONITORING AND EVALUATION PLAN


The performance of the project will be tracked by achieving the end result of the
research which is producing flexible pavement using waste plastic material. So this
project will be managed by principal investigator of the project in partnership with
co-investigators, research and community service, vice president and other
stakeholders.

10. PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY


This project will be sustainable if the all available materials were used efficiently
and effectively. The project will be sustained if all stakeholders of the project such as
project investigators, researchers, top managers, students and supportive staffs of
the university are committed to transfer flexible pavement using waste plastic
technology.

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD

11. PROJECT BUDGET


11.1 EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS AND LABORATORY TEST COST
Number/Amount Unit Price Total Price in
No. Item Unit
Total in Birr Birr
1 Bitumen Barrel 3 28000 84,000
2 Course Aggregate M3 30 1000 30,000
3 Silt test for Coarse Aggregate No. 6 300 1,800
Specific gravity test for Coarse
4 No. 3 500 1,500
Aggregate

5 Unit Weight for Course Aggergate No. 5 500 2,500

6 Absorption for Coarse Aggregate No. 4 500 2,000

Sieve Analysis for Coarse


7 No. 3 500 1,500
Aggregate
8 Slump Test No. 6 500 3,000
9 Comression Test No. 6 1000 6,000
10 Impaction factor test No. 6 500 3,000
11 tesnile strength test No. 6 1000 6,000
12 Soundness test No. 10 1000 10,000
13 Aggregate crushing value test No. 10 2000 20,000
14 Flakiness Index No. 10 350 3,500
15 Aggregate impact value No. 8 2000 16,000
16 Los Angeles Abrasion (LAA) No. 6 2000 12,000
17 Water Permeability test No. 6 2000 12,000
18 Marshall Stability No. 6 3000 18,000
19 Flash and fire point test No. 6 2000 12,000
20 Softening point test No. 6 2300 13,800
21 Penetration index test No. 6 1500 9,000
22 Ductility index test No. 6 2000 12,000

23 Dentisty Test for Plastic Wastages No. 6 2000 12,000

24 WATER SENSITIVITY TEST No. 4 1500 6,000


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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD
25 Flash disk 32 GB No. 2 500 1,000
26 Photo copy No. 1 100 100
27 Blank CDs No. 5 10 50
28 Typing and Printing No. 1000 0.5 500
Sub Total 299,250

Table 2: Equipment, Materials and Laboratory Test Cost

11.2 PERSONNEL COST (INCLUDING TRANSPORTATION COST)


No. Type of No. of No of Perdiem per Total Remark
Activity participants days day

1. Researchers 2 30 107 6420 Field to the community

2. Researchers 2 30 171 10,260 Field to laboratory test in


Hawassa
3. Researchers 2 30 206 12,360 Field to laboratory test in
Addis Ababa
Sub Total 29,040

Table 3: Personnel Cost (Including Transportation Cost)

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD
11.3 Labour COST (loading and unloading cost for materials)

No. Type of Activity Total


1. Skilled Labour at each activities 15,000
2. Unskilled labour at each activities 10,000
Sub Total 25,000

Table 4: Labour COST (loading and unloading cost for materials)

11.4 BUDGET SUMMARY

No. Budget Item Description Total Cost


1. Equipment, Materials And Laboratory Test Cost 299,250
2. Personnel Cost (Including Transportation Cost) 29,040

3. Labor Cost (Loading And Unloading Cost For 25,000


Materials)

Sub Total 353,290

Contingency (5%) 17,664.5


Grand Total 370,954.5

Table 5: Budget Summary

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REUSE OF WASTE PLASTIC FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION - GREEN METHOD

12. REFERENCES
[1]. ETHIOPIAN ROADS AUTHORITY (ERA), Pavement design manual volume 1, flexible
pavements -2013
[2]. South African specifications (CSRA, 1987) for wearing courses
[3]. British Standard method (BSI, 1989) & (BSI, 1990)
[4]. Mahabir Panda and Mayajit Mazumdar(1999). “Engineering Properties of EVA-Modified
Bitumen For Paving Mixes”. Journal of Materials In Civil Engineering ASCE / May 1999
[5]. Punith V.S and Veeraraghavan A (2007). “Behavior of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures with
Reclaimed Polyethylene as Additive”. Journal Of Materials In Civil Engineering ASCE / June
2007 / 501
[6]. Lee Zhen Hao (2009). “Performance Characteristics of Hot Mix Asphalt with Recycled
Materials”. Bachelor of Engineering Report, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Nayang Technological University Singapore.
[7]. Sabina, Tabrez A Khan, Sangita, Sharma D K and Sharma B M (2009). “Performance
Evaluation Of Waste Plastic/Polymer Modified Bituminous Concrete Mixes”. Journal of
scientific and industrial research Vol.68, November 2009, pp. 975-979.
[8]. Shivani Gupta and Veeraragavan A (2009). “Fatigue behavior of polymer modifies
bituminous concrete mixtures”. Journal of Indian road congress January-March 2009.
[9]. S. N. Nemade and P. V. Thorat: Utilization of Polymer Waste for road construction 206
[10]. American standard testing machine (ASTM) 1990.

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