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Glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites - A review

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DOI: 10.1177/0731684414530790

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Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites
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Glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites − a review


TP Sathishkumar, S Satheeshkumar and J Naveen
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2014 33: 1258 originally published online 8 April 2014
DOI: 10.1177/0731684414530790

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Review
Journal of Reinforced Plastics
and Composites

Glass fiber-reinforced polymer 2014, Vol. 33(13) 1258–1275


! The Author(s) 2014
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DOI: 10.1177/0731684414530790
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TP Sathishkumar, S Satheeshkumar and J Naveen

Abstract
Glass fibers reinforced polymer composites have been prepared by various manufacturing technology and are widely
used for various applications. Initially, ancient Egyptians made containers by glass fibers drawn from heat softened glass.
Continues glass fibers were first manufactured in the 1930s for high-temperature electrical application. Nowadays, it has
been used in electronics, aviation and automobile application etc. Glass fibers are having excellent properties like high
strength, flexibility, stiffness and resistance to chemical harm. It may be in the form of roving’s, chopped strand, yarns,
fabrics and mats. Each type of glass fibers have unique properties and are used for various applications in the form of
polymer composites. The mechanical, tribological, thermal, water absorption and vibrational properties of various glass
fiber reinforced polymer composites were reported.

Keywords
Glass fiber, polymer composites, mechanical property, thermal behaviour, vibrational behaviour, water absorption

laid or laminated in the matrix during the composites


Introduction preparation.6 High cost of polymers was a limiting
Composite materials produce a combination properties factor in their use for commercial applications. Due
of two or more materials that cannot be achieved by to that the use of fillers improved the properties of
either fiber or matrix when they are acting alone.1 composites and ulitimately reduced the cost of the prep-
Fiber-reinforced composites were successfully used for aration and product.7 Composite materials have wide
many decades for all engineering applications.2 Glass range of industrial applications and laminated GF-
fiber-reinforced polymeric (GFRP) composites was reinforced composite materials are used in marine
most commonly used in the manufacture of composite industry and piping industries because of good envir-
materials. The matrix comprised organic, polyester, onmental resistance, better damage tolerance for
thermostable, vinylester, phenolic and epoxy resins. impact loading, high specific strength and stiffness.8
Polyester resins are classified into bisphenolic and Polymeric composites were mainly utilized in aircraft
ortho or isophtalic.3 The mechanical behaviour of a industries such as rudder, elevator, fuselage, landing
fiber-reinforced composite basically depends on the gear doors, that is due to light weight, reduction of
fiber strength and modulus, the chemical stability, higher fatigue resistance in the fasteners and number
matrix strength and the interface bonding between the of components.9 Polyester matrix-based composites
fiber/matrix to enable stress transfer.4 Suitable compos- have been widely used in marine applications; in
itions and orientation of fibers made desired properties
and functional characteristics of GFRP composites was
equal to steel, had higher stiffness than aluminum and
the specific gravity was one-quarter of the steel.5 The Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College,
various GF reinforcements like long longitudinal, Erode, Tamilnadu, India
woven mat, chopped fiber (distinct) and chopped mat
Corresponding author:
in the composites have been produced to enhance the TP Sathishkumar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu
mechanical and tribological properties of the compos- Engineering College, Erode, Tamilnadu, India.
ites. The properties of composites depend on the fibers Email: tpsathish@kongu.ac.in

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Sathishkumar et al. 1259

marine field the water absorption was an important


parameter in degradation of polymer composites. Preparation of glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix
The different mechanisms were used to identify the composites
degradation of material such as initiation, propaga-
tion, branching and termination.10 Epoxy resins have
been widely used for above applications that have Mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer
high chemical/corrosion resistance properties, low matrix composites
shrinkage on curing. The capability to be processed
under various conditions and the high level of cross-
Vibration behaviours of glass fiber reinforced polymer
linking epoxy resin networks led to brittle material.11
Energy dissipation of composite was important when matrix composites
they were subjected to vibration environment. Several
factors influenced the energy dissipation of FRP com- Environmental properties of glass fiber reinforced
posites such as fiber volume, fiber orientation, matrix
polymer matrix composites
material, temperature, moisture and others like thick-
ness of lamina and thickness of the composites.12 All
polymeric composites have been temperature-depen- Thermal properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer
dent mechanical properties. The dynamic stability of
polymer matrix composites like the storage modulus
and damping factors were essential to investigating
under cold and higher temperature.13 Four different Tribological behaviours of glass fiber reinforced
techniques were used for determining the damping polymer matrix composites
based on time domain and frequency domain meth-
ods. The time domain method was considered in loga-
Application of glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix
rithmic decrement analysis and Hilbert transform
composites
analysis. The moving block analysis and half power
bandwidth method were considered in the frequency
method.14 In tribological applications, the composites Figure 1. Flowchart of the GFRP matrix composites
were subjected to different conditions such as sliding, preparation and characterization.
rubbing, rolling against other materials or against
themselves. Load, sliding distance, duration of sliding,
sliding speed and sliding conditions were considered
for calculating the effect of tribological performance.2
Silicone rubber mould
Optimum wear rate and coefficient of friction was Aramide et al.1 prepared the woven-mat GF-
found for GFRP matrix with addition of fillers.15 reinforced unsaturated polyester composite using sili-
The composite materials have been used for many cone rubber mould. The mould was cleaned and
tribological applications such as bearing, gears, dried. The mould surface was coated with releasing
wheels and bushes.16 The Figure 1 describes the meth- agent of hard wax for easy removal of composites.
odology of the GFRP matrix composites preparation Initially, unsaturated polyester resin containing curing
and characterization, and its application. additives was applied in the mould surface by using
brush. The GF was placed on the resin and fully
wetted. A steel roller was used to make full wetting of
Classification of GF fiber in resin. A final sealing layer of resin was poured
The major classification of GFs and the physical prop- on the fiber. Over the period of time, the laminated
erties are shown on Figure 2. Also, the chemical com- composite was fully hardened and it was removed
positions of GFs in wt% are shown in Table 1. The from the mould. The hand file was used to time the
physical and mechanical properties of GF are shown edges of the cured composites plate for obtaining the
in Table 2. final size. The different fiber contents (5% to 30%) were
used to prepare the composites plates.
Preparation of GFRP matrix composites
Hand lay-up method followed by compression
The GFRP composites were prepared by adopting vari-
moulding
ous manufacturing techniques as discussed below. The
preparations of random and woven mat GFs are shown Erden et al.4 prepared the woven roving mat E-GF/
in Figures 3 and 4. unmodified and modified polyester matrix composites

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1260 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 33(13)

Classification glass fiber and


physical properties

Classification Physical properties

A glass Higher durability, strength and electric resistivity

C glass Higher Corrosion resistance

D glass Low dielectric constant

E glass Higher strength and electrical resistivity

AR glass Alkali resistance

R glass Higher strength and acid corrosion resistance

S glass Highest tensile strength

S-2 glass High strength, modulus and stability

Figure 2. Classification and physical properties of various glass fibers.

Table 1. Chemical compositions of glass fibers in wt%.

Type (SiO2) (Al2O3) Tio2 B2o3 (CaO) (MgO) Na2O K2o Fe2o3 Ref.

E-glass 55.0 14.0 0.2 7.0 22.0 1.0 0.5 0.3 – 17


C-glass 64.6 4.1 – 5.0 13.4 3.3 9.6 0.5 –
S-glass 65.0 25.0 – – – 10.0 – – –
A-glass 67.5 3.5 – 1.5 6.5 4.5 13.5 3.0 –
D-glass 74.0 – – 22.5 – – 1.5 2.0 –
R-glass 60.0 24.0 – – 9.0 6.0 0.5 0.1 –
EGR-glass 61.0 13.0 – – 22.0 3.0 – 0.5 –
Basalt 52.0 17.2 1.0 – 8.6 5.2 5.0 1.0 5.0

using hand lay-up technique followed by compression transformed into non-orthogonal fabric by using shear-
moulding at a pressure of 120 bars at room temperature ing process with various weaving angles between fill
for 120 min with 37% fiber volume fraction (Vf) and and warp. The weight ratio epoxy resin to hardener
3.5 mm thickness of laminates. was 10:3. The composite panels were cured at 60 C
for 2 h and 93 C for 4 h, during the curing process
0.35 MPa pressure was employed on the laminated
Hot press technique composites.
Atas et al.18 prepared the woven mat GF- Aktas et al.19 prepared unidirectional GF-reinforced
reinforced epoxy composites using hot press technique. epoxy laminates using hot press method. The 65%
Non-orthogonal woven fabric prepared with dimen- weight fraction of laminates fabricated in two different
sion of 305 mm  305 mm, an orthogonal fabric was stacking sequences like [0 /90 /0 /90 ] and [0 /90 /

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Sathishkumar et al. 1261

Table 2. Physical and mechanical properties of glass fiber.

Tensile Young’s Coefficient of


Density strength modulus thermal expansion Poison’s Refractive
Fiber (g/cm3) GPa (GPa) Elongation (%) (107/ C) ratio index Ref.

E-glass 2.58 3.445 72.3 4.8 54 0.2 1.558 17


C-glass 2.52 3.310 68.9 4.8 63 – 1.533
S2-glass 2.46 4.890 86.9 5.7 16 0.22 1.521
A-glass 2.44 3.310 68.9 4.8 73 – 1.538
D-glass 2.11–2.14 2.415 51.7 4.6 25 – 1.465
R-glass 2.54 4.135 85.5 4.8 33 – 1.546
EGR-glass 2.72 3.445 80.3 4.8 59 – 1.579
AR glass 2.70 3.241 73.1 4.4 65 – 1.562

dimension of 154  78  12 mm. The fiber and matrix


were transferred to the mould and that was allowed to
cure at room temperature for 24 h.
Kajorncheappunngam et al.20 socked 30 cm square
lamina of E-glass fabric in the epoxy resin and was
cured in between the two Teflon-coated layer of
0.32 cm thickness. The roller was used to remove the
excess resin and leave for 3 days curing. The cured
composites was post-cured 3 h at atmospheric on
60 C in an oven. The resulting composite was of
1.5 mm thickness with 47% weight fraction.

Compression moulding
Hameed et al.11 prepared the chopped stand mat E-
GF-reinforced modified epoxy composite using com-
pression moulding technique with various fiber Vfs
Figure 3. Preparation of glass fiber woven mat. (10% to 60%). Fiber mats were cut in to size and
heated in an air oven at 150 C to make it moisture
free. The hardner was mixed in epoxy resin. Pre-
+45 /45 ], CY225 epoxy resin and HY225 hardener weighted fiber mat and resin were used to get 3 mm
were mixed, the mixture and 509 g/m2 of GF compos- thickness of composite. The laminates was compressed
ition cured into hot press technique under constant in mould and cured at 180 C for 3 h. The cured com-
pressure of 15 MPa and temperature 120 C for 2 h, posite was post cured at 200 C for 2 h and then cooled
the fabricated composite plate thickness was 3 mm. slowly to room temperature for obtained final
composites.
Mixing and moulding
Hand lay-up method followed by hydraulic press
Gupta et al.7 prepared the discontinuous E-GF-rein-
forced epoxy composites with addition of filler-like Suresha et al.21 prepared woven mat GF-reinforced
flyash. The diameter of GF was 10 mm and cut into epoxy composite using hand lay-up method. The
2.54 cm length for composite preparation. The ratio epoxy resin was mixed with the hardener in the
of epoxy resin and hardener mixed is around 100:10. weight ratio of 100:12. The resin and fibers were
The two different concentrations of flyash filler were mixed to make 3 mm thickness of sample with applica-
selected as 2.5 and 5% vol%, along with calcium car- tion of hydraulic press of 0.5 MPa. The specimen was
bonate fillers added during the mixing of resin and allowed to cure for a day at room temperature. After
hardner. Small size and spherical shape of the flyash de-molding, the post curing was done at 120 C for 2 h
particles facilitate their good mixing and wetting of using an electrical oven. The prepared laminate size was
fiber and matrix. The mould was prepared with 250 mm  250 mm  3 mm.

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1262 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 33(13)

Figure 4. Woven and random glass fiber mat.

composite with different fiber Vfs like 5, 10, 15, 20, 25


Dry hand lay-up method
and 30%. The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and
Suresha et al.22 prepared the woven fabric GF- elastic strain increased with increase of the GF Vf.
reinforced vinyl ester composites using dry hand Impact strength decreased with increase of the GF Vf
lay-up technique and the individual fiber diameter of 25%. The maximum tensile and flexural properties
was 8–12 mm. The resin was mixed into Methyl ethyl were found at 30% Vf of GF as shown in Table 3. The
ketone peroxide (MEKP) as catalyst, cobalt naphtha- maximum strain was found at 25% Vf.
nate as accelerator and, N-dimethyl aniline as promoter Erden et al.4 investigated the mechanical behaviour
used, vinyl ester resin, cobalt naphthanate and MEKP of woven roving E-GF-reinforced unsaturated polyes-
were mixed the weight ratio of 1: 0.015: 0.015. Two ter composites with matrix modification technique.
different fillers are mixed into resin such as 50 mm of The oligomeric siloxane was added to polyester resin
graphite and 25 mm size of silicon carbide (SiC), The in different levels like 1, 2, and 3 Wt% respectively.
woven mat stacking one above other and the mixure Incorporation of oligomeric siloxane into the polyester
of resin spreaded over the fabrics by dry hand lay-up resin increased the mechanical properties such as inter-
moulding, and the whole die assembly compressed at laminar shear, flexural and tensile strength, modulus of
constant pressure 0.5 MPa of by using hydraulic press. elasticity and vibration values. Glass/polyester with
The prepared slabs size was 250 mm  250 mm  3 mm. 3 wt% of oligomeric siloxane composite was found
to be better mechanical properties compare to other
combinations. The tensile strength increased from
H-type press
341.5 to 395.8 MPa while the. Flexural Strength
Mohan et al.23 prepared oil cake-filled woven fabric increased from 346.1 MPa to 399.4 MPa, Interlaminar
GF-reinforced epoxy composites with the individual Shear strength increased from 25.5 to 44.7 MPa, nat-
fiber diameter 18 mm. The magnetic stirrer was used ural frequency increased from 6.10 to 7.87 Hz as shown
to mix the epoxy resin and hardner with the weight in Table 3.
ratio of 100:38. Above the prepared mat the resin mix- Al-alkawi et al.24 investigated the fatigue behaviour
ture was applied using roller and brush and the lamin- of woven strand mats E-GF-reinforced polyester com-
ate was cured under the pressure of 0.0965 MPa posites under variable temperature conditions such as
for 24 h by using h-type press, after the moulding pro- 40 C, 50 C and 60 C. The S-N curve reported that the
cess the post curing was conducted at 100 C for 3 h. tensile and fatigue strength decreased with increasing
The prepared laminated size was 300 mm  300 mm temperature up to 60 C at 33% fiber Vf. The percentage
 9 2.6 mm. reduction factor for fatigue strength was higher than
the percentage reduction factor for tensile strength for
Mechanical properties of GFRP matrix all temperature level.
Awan et al.5 investigated the tensile properties of
composites
GF-reinforced unsaturated polyester composite with
Aramide et al.1 investigated the mechanical properties various cross sections of fibers at various ply of 1-ply,
of woven-mat GF-reinforced unsaturated polyester 2-ply and 3-ply sheets. The higher weight percentage of

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Table 3. Mechanical properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymeric (GFRP) composites.
Interlaminar
Tensile Tensile Flexural Flexural shear
Type of glass Strength modulus Elongation strength modulus Impact strength
fiber Resin Curing agent Vf Testing Standard (MPa) (MPa) at break (%) (MPa) (MPa) strength (MPa) Ref.
Sathishkumar et al.

Woven mat Polyester MEKP/Cobalt 0.25 ASTM D412 (T) 1.601 80.5 20.0 – – 41.850 (J) – 1
Woven mat Polyester with (3% naphthalene 0.37 ASTM D-3039 (T), 395.8 18000 3.9 399.4 18800 – 44.7 4
oligomeric ASTM D 790 (F),
siloxane ASTM D 2344 (S)
Woven mat Polyester 0.33 ASTM D 638-97 (T), 249 6240 – – – – – 24
Woven mat Polyester – 2810 E6 (T) 189.0 – – – – – – 5
Chopped strand Polyamide66 0.30 GB/T 16,421–1996 (T), – 124 – 159 – 98.2 (kJ/m2) – 25
(PA66)/poly- GB/T 16,419–1996 (F),
phenylene sul- GB/T 16,420 –1996 (I)
phide (PPS)
blend
Woven mat Isophthalic/neo- 0.42 PS25C-0118 (T) 200 – – – – 10(J) – 26
[0 /90 ] pentyl glycol
polyester
Woven mat (Non- Polyester – 362 F (BS, 1997) (T) 220 7000 0.055 – – – – 8
symmetric)
Woven Polyurethanes 0.49 ASTM D3039 (T), 278 18654 – 444 27075 – 27 27
ASTM D790M (F),
ASTM D2344 (S)
Chopped strand Polyester 0.60 ASTM D638 (T) 250 325 0.022 – – – – 9
mat

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Woven mat Polyester (acid – ASTM D 2344 (S) – – – – – – 30 28
resistant resin)
Chopped strand Polyester resin 0.015 ASTM E 399 (T) – 3000 – 16.5 – – – 29
mat
Chopped Polyester – ASTM D 3039 (T), 103.4719 – – – – 37.926 (J) – 6
strand + verti- ASTM D 5379 (I)
cal roving
Virgin fiber Polyester ASTM D256 (T), 64.4 7200 1.8 – – 645.1 (J/m) – 30
ASTM D2240 (I)
Glass Polyester (3 wt% 0.40 ASTM- D638 (T), 130.03 – – 206.15 – 153.50 (KJ/m2) – 31
Na-MMT) ASTM- D790 (F),
ASTM- D256 (I)
Chopped strand Epoxy (5.1 Vf Hardener 3.98 ASTM standard – – – – – 0.017.6 (J/mm2) – 7
flyash)
Woven (biaxial epoxy 0.57 ASTM D 2355 (S) – – – – – – 18.2 32
stitch)
(continued)
1263
1264 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 33(13)

Ref.
GF in composites gives stronger reinforcement. The

33

34

35
23
36
number of layers, thickness and the cross sectional
Interlaminar

area was different for each specimen. Maximum tensile


strength

strength observed in three ply reinforcement (Table 3).


(MPa)

18.99

41.46
shear

Higher Vf of fibers increased the strength and stiffness




of the composite.
Chen et al.25 investigated the mechanical properties
of polyamide66 (pellets)/polyphenylene sulfide blend
strength

1.840(J)

matrix with different GF volume contents such as


Impact

5%, 10%, 20% and 30% respectively. The maximum





tensile strength was found at 30% Vf of fiber and flex-
modulus

ural strength was found at 25% Vf. The maximum


Flexural

T: Tensile test; F: Flexural test; I: Impact test; S: Shear test; Joc: Jatropha oil cake; Na-MMT: sodium montmorillonite; MWCNT: Multiwalled carbon nanotube.
(MPa)

impact strength was found at 0% Vf of fiber com-




pare to fiber incorporated composites. But the max-


imum impact strength was found at 20% Vf of
strength
Flexural

297.82
(MPa)

fiber that was lower the above. In wear testing, the


minimum frication coefficient (0.35) was found at



20% Vf of fiber and wear volume was lower at 30%


at break (%)
Elongation

Vf of fiber.
Yuanjian et al.26 investigated the low-velocity
0.032

1.65
3.8

impact and tension–tension fatigue properties of GF-


reinforced polyester composites with two fiber geome-


modulus

tries like [45 ] at 42% Wf of fiber and [0 /90 ] at 47%


Tensile

18610
43700
(MPa)

6700

Wf of fiber. The result showed that the residual tensile


strength and stiffness decreased with increasing impact


Strength

energy from 0 to 25 J at 5 J increments. The maximum


Tensile

784.98
(MPa)

179.4

properties were sustained up to 10 J test and the above


311
355

properties were highly reduced due to increasing the


testing energy from 10 to 20 J. The impact damage
ASTM D 3039-76 (T),

was similar for the two geometries. Low-impact


ASTM D 3039 (T)
ASTM D 2344 (S)

ASTM D3039 (T)

energy of GF-reinforced composites cause of matrix


Testing Standard

ASTM D 256 (I)

damage. The tension-tension fatigue failure test was


performed at various impact damage energies of 1.4 J,
5 J and 10 J respectively. In the S-N curve the fatigue
lifetimes was slowly decreased and higher at 1.4 J with

higher stress at [0 /90 ] and at [45 ]4, the fatigue life-
0.55
0.73

0.60

times was suddenly dropped and found lower stress


0.5
Vf

value compared to doped [0 /90 ].


Faizal et al.8 investigated the tensile behaviour of
plane woven E-GF-reinforced polyester composite
Curing agent

with different curing pressure like 35.8 kg/m2, 70.1 kg/


m2, 104 kg/m2 and 138.2 kg/m2. Different lay-up like
symmetrical and non-symmetrical was used to prepare
the composites. The stress-strain curve showed that the
Epoxy (6 wt% joc)

tensile modulus was decreased with increasing curing


Epoxy (0.5 wt%
Epoxy (10 wt%

MWCNTs)

pressure for both symmetrical and non-symmetrical


lay-up. The symmetrical lay-up was less on the stiffness
SiC)

Epoxy

Epoxy

of composites. The ductility increased with increasing


Resin

curing pressure for non-symmetrical arrangement and


Table 3. Continued.

symmetrical arrangement decreased.


Husic et al.27 investigated the mechanical properties
Woven + (35 wt%

borosilicate)
Unidirectional

of untreated E-glass-reinforced polyurethane compos-


Type of glass

oriented
Randomly

ites with two polyurethanes like soypolyol and petro-


short
Woven

Woven

chemical polyol Jeffol resin. The result showed that the


fiber

soypolyol based composite was lower flexural, tensile

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Sathishkumar et al. 1265

and inter laminar shear strength compare to petro- initial notch-depth method and compliance method,
chemical polyol Jeffol-based composite. This was due the GF content increased the KIC values for all polymer
to lower cross linking density and the presence of the content. The lower KIC values were found at 0% grass
side dangling chains in the matrix. The interlaminar fiber content. The maximum J-integral energy was
shear strength was similar for both for two resin found at the 0.6 notch-to-depth ratio.
composites. Alam et al.6 investigated the effect of orientation of
Atas et al.18 investigated the Impact response of chopped strand and roving GFRP composites with dif-
woven mat GF-reinforced epoxy composites with ferent fiber orientation such as 0 , 45 and 90 . Fiber
orthogonal fabric and non-orthogonal fabric of a weav- orientation was not affected by the density and hard-
ing angle of 20 , 30 , 45 , 60 75 and 90 respectively ness of composites. At 90 fiber orientation the maxi-
from vertical direction (warp direction). The energy mum tensile strength was obtained. The short fiber was
absorption increased with decrease of weaving angle found to be reducing the impact strength.
between interlacing yarns. Woven composites with Shyr et al.37 investigated the impact resistance and
smaller weaving angle of 20 and 30 between interla- damage characteristics of E-GF-reinforced polyester
cing yarns, have lower peak force, larger contact dur- composite with various thicknesses of the laminates
ation, larger deflection and higher absorbed energy and three different glass fabrics were multiaxial warp-
than larger weaving angle of 60 , 75 and 90 . The [0/ knit blanket (MWK), woven fabric (W) and non-woven
20 ] woven composite was absorbed higher compared mat (N). Impact tests were conducted using a guided
to [0/90 ] woven composite. drop-weight test rig. The composites were prepared
Leonard et al.9 investigated the fracture behaviour of with various layers with various Vfs of fiber like 24
chopped strand mat GF-reinforced polyester (CGRP) (sample code of N-13a, b and c), 28(sample code of
matrix composites with different Vf of fibers like 12%, N-7a, b and c), 40 (sample code of R-800-13a, b and
24%, 36%, 48% and 60%. The stress–strain curve c), 40 (sample code of R800-7a, b and c), 37 (sample
reported that 60% Vf of GF composite obtained max- code of M-800-13a, b and c), 40 (sample code of M-
imum improvement of tensile strength of 325 MPa, 800-13a, b and c), 45 (sample code of MWK-800-13a, b
Young’s modulus of 13.9 GPa, fracture toughness of and c) and 46 (sample code of MWK-800-13a, b and c).
20-fold and critical energy release rate of 1200-fold. In code, 7 and 13 were the no of layers in the compos-
Putic et al.28 investigated the interlaminar shear ites with a, b and c the 8, 16 and 24 nominal impact
strength of the random/woven GF mat-reinforced poly- energies (NIE), respectively. The test was conducted at
ester matrix composite with three-layer and eight com- various velocity of drop weight. The maximum
binations of the composition patterns. The glass fabric Hertzian failure force of the laminates was found for
with various densities, various polyester resins like MWK-13 laminate in 16 NIE. The maximum Hertzian
bisphenolic resin, water-resistant resin and acid-resis- failure energy of the laminates at various NIE was
tant resin were used to analyse the strength. Outer found for M-80013 in 24 NIE. The major damage
layers were short GF and inner layers were woven energy at maximum impact load was found for
mat fiber and thickness of outer layers 1 mm, middle MWK-13 laminate in 16 NIE. The maximum subjected
layer 0.5–0.8 mm. The P6 [Glass mat (240 g/m2)/woven energy and final absorbed energies of the impenetrated
mat (0/90 ) (800 g/m2)/Glass mat (240 g/m2)] pattern laminates at various NIE were found for MWK-13
model bisphenolic resin-based composites had higher laminate at 24 NIE.
interlaminar shear strength compared to other patterns. Araujo et al.30 investigated the mechanical proper-
Avci et al.29 used three-point bending tests and ties GF/virgin GF wastes-reinforced polyester matrix
investigated the Mode I fracture behaviour of chopped composites with various fiber weight content of fiber
strand GF-reinforced particle-filled polymer compos- like 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%, respectively. The polyes-
ites with varying notch-to-depth ratios (a/b ratios ter/virgin GF-reinforced composite showed higher ten-
0.38, 0.50, 0.55, 0.60 and 0.76). The two different Vf sile strength and modulus at 40% Wf. The maximum
of GF like 1% and 1.5% with various Vf of polyester impact strength and hardness were found at 40 and
resins like 13.00%, 14.75%, 16.50%, 18.00% and 40% Wf.
19.50% were used for the experiments. In 0% Vf of Hossain et al.38 investigated the flexural and com-
GF the maximum flexural modulus was found at pression properties of woven E-GF-reinforced polyes-
16.50% Vf of polyester, in 1% Vf of GF was found at ter matrix composites with addition of various weight
18.00% and in 1.5% Vf of GF was found at 19.50% Vf. percentages of carbon nano filler (CNF). The test was
A similar trend was found in flexural strength. performed on the conventional and 0.1, 02, 03 and
The stress intensity factor (KIC) was found by using 0.4 wt% CNF-filled composites. The stress versus
three methods like (1) Initial notch-depth method, (2) strain curve showed that 0.2 wt% of CNF-filled com-
Compliance method and (3) J-integral method. In posite obtained maximum mechanical properties. This

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1266 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 33(13)

was due to excellent dispersion, maximum enhance- Pardo et al.43 investigated the tensile dynamic behav-
ment in compressive strength, modulus and better inter- iour of a quasi-unidirectional E-glass/polyester com-
facial interaction between fiber and matrix. posite. This composite was not a pure unidirectional
Khelifa et al.39 investigated the fatigue behaviour of material; it was composed of 5% Vf of weft fibers.
E-GF-reinforced unsaturated polyester composite with The weft fibers Vf of 5% observed greater Young’s
different orientation of fiber (0 ,  45 , 0 /90 ). modulus and improved the failure stress (40 MPa).
Experimental and theoretical results reported that the Yang et al.32 investigated the compression, bending
unidirectional [0 ] and cross-ply [0/90 ] composite and shear behaviour of woven mat E-GF-reinforced
laminates had more static bending strength compared epoxy composites with different fabrics like unstitched
to other laminated composites. plain weave, biaxial non-crimp and uniaxial stitched
Baucom et al.40 investigated the low-velocity impact plain weave fabrics. From the experiments they have
damage of woven E-glass-reinforced vinyl-ester com- concluded that the Z-directional stitching fibers
posites with various laminates like 2D plain-woven increased the delamination resistance, reduced the
laminate, a 3D orthogonally woven monolith and a impact damage and as well as lowered the bending
biaxial reinforced warp-knit. Drop-weight apparatus strength of the composites. The compressive strength
result showed that the 3D composites was more resist- of the non-crimp laminate was 15% higher than
ant to penetration and dissipated more total energy woven fabric composite.
(140 J) compared to other systems. Hameed et al.44 investigated the dynamic mechanical
Iba et al.41 investigated the mechanical properties of behaviour of E-GF-reinforced poly (styrene-co-acrylo-
unidirectional continuous GF-reinforced epoxy com- nitrile)-modified epoxy matrix composites with the dif-
posites with three fiber diameters like 18, 37, 50 mm, ferent Vfs of fibers ranging from 10% to 60%. Under
respectively, and fiber Vf from 0.25 to 0.45. The three-point bending mode the viscoelastic properties
stress–strain curve reported that the longitudinal were measured at the frequency of 1 Hz and samples
Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the composite were heated up to 250 C at the heating rate of 1 C/min.
increased with increasing the fiber Vf and the mean While increasing the temperature the storage modulus
strength increased with decreasing the fiber diameter. decreases. Storage modulus versus temperature curve
The maximum strength and modulus was higher for the reported that the 50 vol% fiber content of composites
fiber diameter of 18 mm at 0.45 Vf. had the maximum storage modulus (15.606 GPa). Loss
Ya’acob et al.42 investigated the mechanical proper- modulus versus temperature plot indicated that the loss
ties of E-GF-reinforced polypropylene composites pre- modulus increased up to 50 vol% fiber content. Further
pared using injection moulding and compression increase in the fiber content decreases the loss modulus.
moulding processes. Results show that the tensile Aktas et al.19 investigated the impact response uni-
strength decreased with the increasing of GF content. directional E-GF-reinforced epoxy matrix composite
The tensile modulus increased with increasing the fiber with two different stacking sequences such as [0/90/0/
content and the maximum values were obtained at 90] and [0/90/+45/45]. Damage process and damage
12-mm fiber length composites compared to 3 and modes of laminates were investigated under varying
6 mm fiber-length composites. impact energies ranging from 5 J to 80 J. The penetra-
Mohbe et al.31 investigated the mechanical beha- tion threshold for stacking sequence [0/90/+45/45]
viour of glass fiber reinforced polyester composites was smaller than [0/90/0/90] and the mismatch coeffi-
with constant volume fraction of glass and Na-MMT cient for [0/90/0/90] laminates were higher than [0/90/
(sodium montmorillonite). Mechanical properties were +45/45] laminates.
improved with increase in the Na-MMT quantity in Aktas et al.45 investigated compression after impact
composites; 3% weight of Na-MMT was found (CAI) behaviour of unidirectional
to have maximum tensile strength (130.03 MPa), E-GF-reinforced epoxy matrix composite subjected to
impact strength (153.50 kJ/m2) and flexural strength low-velocity impact energy for various temperatures
(205.152 MPa). such as 40 C, 60 C, 80 C and 100 C. Two stacking
Gupta et al.7 investigated the compressive and sequences [0 /90 /0 /90 ] and [0 /90 /45 /45 ] were
impact behaviour of discontinuous E-GF- tested to investigate the vertical and horizontal orien-
reinforced epoxy composites with addition of fillers tation effects on CAI strength and CAI damage mech-
such as fly ash and calcium carbonate. Fly ash particles anism. CAI strength decreases with increase in
led to reduced compressive and impact strength of the temperature and impact energy. The maximum reduc-
composites compared to the calcium carbonate filler in tion in CAI strength was found between undamaged
the composites. The aspect ratio of the fiber increased specimen and impacted specimen at 100 C and 70 J
the compressive strength and decreased the impact for each stacking sequences and each impact damage
strength. orientation. The CAI strength of horizontal impact

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Sathishkumar et al. 1267

damage was lower than vertical impact damage for all Liu et al.34 investigated interlaminar shear strength
impact test temperatures and all energy levels. of woven E-GF-reinforced/epoxy composites with
Aktas et al.46 investigated the impact and post- unmodified and modified matrix modification tech-
impact behaviour of E-glass/epoxy eight plies lami- nique. Initial epoxy matrix was diglycidyl ether of
nated composites with different knitted fabrics such as bisphenol-F/diethyl toluene diamine system and modi-
Plain, Milano and Rib. Different impact energy levels fied matrix was multiwalled carbon nanotubes
were ranging from 5 J to 25 J. The experimental result (MWCNT) and reactive aliphatic diluent named
showed that the Rib knitted structure had maximum n-butyl glycidyl ether system. The three point bending
mechanical properties for irregular fiber architecture, test result showed that the modified epoxy/GF compos-
Milano knitted structure showed maximum perform- ite inter-laminar shear strength was higher than the
ance in transverse direction and as well as better mech- unmodified epoxy/GF composite; 0.5 wt% MWCNTs
anical properties than Plain knitted structure. and 10 phr butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) adding epoxy/
Patnaik et al.33 investigated the mechanical behav- GF composite was 25.4% increased the inter laminar
iour of randomly oriented E-GF-reinforced epoxy com- shear strength (41.46 MPa) than unmodified
posites with particulate filled like Al2O3, SiC and pine composites.
bark dust and the different composition of specimen Belingardi et al.49 investigated the low-velocity
were prepared such as GF (50 wt%) +epoxy impact tests of woven and unidirectional GF-reinforced
(50 wt%), GF (50 wt%) +epoxy (40 wt%) +alumina epoxy matrix composite with three different stacking
(10 wt%), GF (50 wt%) +epoxy (40 wt%) +pine sequences [0 /90 ], [0 /+60 /60 ] and [0 /+45 /
bark dust (10 wt%), GF (50 wt%) + epoxy 45 ]. Different impact velocities were (0.70, 0.99,
(40 wt%) + SiC (10 wt%). The test result showed that 1.14, 1.72, 1.85, 1.98, 2.10, 2.22 and 2.42 m/s) and dif-
the GF + epoxy had maximum tensile strength ferent deformation rate (25, 50, 100, 150, 175, 200, 225,
(249.6 MPa) and flexural strength (368 MPa) than 250 and 300 mm). The experimental result showed that
other compositions, GF + epoxy + pine bark dust the maximum saturation energy (53.08 J) was found at
combination having the maximum interlaminar shear [0 /90 ] unidirectional composites compared with the
strength (23.46 MPa), GF + epoxy + SiC combination other stacking sequences.
having higher impact strength (1.840 J) and higher Mohamed Nasr et al.50 investigated the fatigue
hardness (42 Hv). behaviour of woven roving GF-reinforced polyester
Karakuzu et al.47 investigated the impact behaviour matrix composites with the fiber Vf ranging from
of unidirectional E-glass/epoxy composite plates with 55% to 65% and two different fiber orientations like
the stacking sequence of plates selected as [0 /30 /60 / [45 ] and [0 , 90 ]. The torsional fatigue test was per-
90 ]. Four different impact energies were 10 J, 20 J, formed on thin wall tubular specimens at different
30 J and 40 J and four impact masses were selected negative stress ratios (R) such as 1, 0.75, 0.5,
like 5 kg, 10 kg, 15 kg and 20 kg. Absorbed energy 0.25 and 0. The experimental result shows that the
versus impact energy curve reported that the energy strength degradation rate depends on the stress ratio
absorption capability of the specimen subjected to and the static strength of the material and the [45 ]
equal mass was lower than the specimen subjected to lay-up specimen had maximum failure rate.
equal velocity for the same impact energy. Mohammad Torabizadeh35 investigated the tensile,
Delamination area versus impactor mass curve compressive, in-plane shear behaviour of unidirectional
reported that the delamination area in the sample GF-reinforced epoxy matrix composites under static
was subjected to a lower impact mass with higher vel- and low temperature (25 C, 20 C, 60 C) conditions.
ocity was lower than the delamination area in the The tensile test result showed that the stress–strain
sample was subjected to higher impact mass with curve decreases with increase in temperature.
lower velocity for same impact energy. The maximum tensile strength (784.94 MPa), young’s
Icten et al.48 investigated the low temperature effect modulus (28.65 MPa), compression strength
on impact response of quasi-isotropic unidirectional E- (186.22 MPa) and shear strength (1.33  108 MPa)
GF-reinforced epoxy matrix composites with stacking was found at 60 C.
sequence [0 /90 /45 /45 ] tested at varied impact Ahmed El-Assal et al.51 investigated the fatigue
energies ranging from 5 J to 70 J and the test were per- behaviour of unidirectional GF-reinforced orthophtha-
formed at different temperatures such as 20 C, 20 C lic polyester matrix composites under torsional and com-
and 60 C. The experimental result showed that the bined bending loads at room temperature and the
damage tolerance and impact response of the composite tests were conducted on constant deflection fatigue
was same for all temperatures up to the impact energy machine with the frequency of 25 Hz. Different fiber
of 20 J and after 20 J of impact energy, the temperature Vfs are used such as 15.8, 31.8 and 44.7%. The experi-
affects the impact characteristics. mental result showed that the number of stress cycles and

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1268 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 33(13)

stress amplitude increased with the increase of fiber Vf where, r, ti and c were density, dimensions of specimen,
and the composite specimen torsional fatigue strength from the above equation, the shear strength were found
was lower compared to bending fatigue strength. for 75 MPa.
Mohan et al.23 investigated the mechanical proper- Dandekar et al.54 investigated the compression
ties of jatropha oil cake-filled woven mat E-GF- and release response behaviour of a woven mat S2
reinforced epoxy composites. The experimental test GF-reinforced polyester composites under shock load-
conducted at longitudinal direction of composite speci- ing applied up to 20 GPa. The stress and particle vel-
men and the surface fracture exposed that the similar ocity properties were described the shock response, the
breakage of fibers and matrix, which represent good plate reverberation and shock and re-shock experimen-
adhesion between fibers and matrix. The experimental tal result showed that the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL)
result showed that 6 wt% of jatropha oil cake fillers of composites ranging from 1.3 GPa to 3.7 GPa.
filled composite specimen was found maximum tensile LeBlanc et al.55 investigated the compressive
strength (311 MPa) and tensile modulus (18.61 GPa) strength behaviour of woven mat S-2 GF-reinforced
but the surface hardness was slightly lower than unfilled Epoxy/Vinyl ester composites with four different areal
composites. weights like 93, 98, 100 and 190 oz/yd2 and the com-
posite specimen subjected to shock loading on experi-
Zaretsky et al.52 investigated the dynamic response
mentally, two different pressure applied on compressive
of woven GFs-reinforced epoxy composite subjected to
specimen such as 2.58 and 4.79 MPa. Compressive
impact loading through fiber direction and the impact
strength versus pressure curve in weft direction result
velocities ranging from 60 to 280 m/s. The free surface
showed 100 and 98 oz composites was obtained max-
velocity versus time curve shows that the impact
imum strength but the warp direction 93, 98 and 190 oz
strength increased with increase of the shock wave vel-
composites are maximum strength and nearly equal
ocity, the unloading wave speed was higher than com-
under each pressure level.
pression wave speed and the wave speed decreased with
decrease of the pressure.
Vibration characteristics of GFRP
Godara et al.36 investigated the tensile behaviour of
GF-reinforced epoxy composite with the different matrix composites
woven fibers orientations like [0 ], [45 ] and [90 ]. Erden et al.4 investigated vibrational properties of
The 35 wt% of short borosilicate GFs-reinforced with glass/polyester composites via matrix modification
multilayered cross woven composite with epoxy matrix. technique. To achieve this, unsaturated polyester was
The stress versus stain curve reported that the tensile modified by incorporation of oligomeric siloxane in the
strength was strongly depend on the fiber alignment to concentration range of 1–3 wt%. Modified matrix com-
the external load, [0 /90 ] laminate composites had the posites reinforced with woven roving glass fabric were
maximum failure strength (355 MPa), low ductility and compared with untreated glass/polyester in terms
low strain failure (1.65%) than [45 ]. of mechanical and interlaminar properties by conduct-
Karakuzu et al.53 investigated the mechanical behav- ing tensile, flexure and short-beam shear tests.
iour of woven mat GF-reinforced vinyl ester matrix Furthermore, vibrational properties of the composites
composites with circular hole and 63% fiber Vf, the were investigated while incorporating oligomeric silox-
different distance from free edge of plate (E) to diam- ane. From the experiment it was found that the natural
eter of hole (D) ratios are 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. During the frequencies of the composites were found to increase
experiment the load is applied to longitudinal direction with increasing siloxane concentration.
of specimen, the tension mode experimental result Sridhar et al.12 investigated the damping behaviour
showed that the young’s modulus was found of woven fabric GFRP composites under saline water
20,769 MPa. The shear modulus (G12) was found treatment with various fiber volumes like 20, 25, 30, 35
using following Equation (1), and 40 and various time period using the logarithmic
decrement method. The damping factor value of
1 untreated specimen damping and stiffness increased
Shear modulus ðG12 Þ ¼ ð1Þ
4
Ex  E11  E12  2E121 with increase in fiber volume percentage. Maximum
decrease in the damping values was observed for 40%
where, E1 ¼ E2 is the youngs modulus of the compos-
ites, from the above equation, the shear modulus was fiber volume specimen.
found for 4133 MPa and n12 ¼ poison’s ratio, the shear Yuvaraja et al.56 investigated the vibration charac-
strength (S) was obtained following Equation (2), teristics of a flexible GFRP composite with shape
memory alloy (SMA) and piezoelectric actuators. In
max first case, the smart beam consists of a GFRP beam
Shear strength ðSÞ ¼ ð2Þ
ti c modelled in cantilevered configuration with externally

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Sathishkumar et al. 1269

attached SMAs. In second case, the smart beam con- surface of cantilever beams could significantly improve
sists of a GFRP beam with surface-bonded lead zirco- their stiffness and strength characteristics.
nate titanate (PZT) patches. To study the behaviour of
the smart beam a mathematical model is developed. Environmental behaviours of GFRP
Using ANSYS the vibration suppression of smart
matrix composites
beam was investigated. The experimental work is car-
ried out for both cases in order to evaluate the vibration Araujo et al.30 investigated the water absorption behav-
control of flexible beam for first mode, also to find the iour of fiber glass wastes-reinforced polyester compos-
effectiveness of the proposed actuators. As a result of ites with different fiber wastes like 20, 30 and 40%. The
the vibrational characteristic, GFRP beam is more test specimen immersed in distilled water at different
effective when SMA is used as an actuator. SMA actu- time interval up to 600 h and time versus water absorp-
ator was more efficient than the PZT actuator because tion curve was plotted. It resulted that the water sorp-
very less voltage is required for actuation of SMA. tion decreased with increase of fiber content in
Bledzki et al.57 investigated the elastic constants of composite and the minimum water absorption was
unidirectional E-glass-reinforced epoxy matrix compos- found for polyester/fiberglass wastes (40%) composite.
ite by the vibration testing of plates with two different Abdullah et al.59 investigated the effects of
fibers–surface treatments. The first type was treated by weathering condition on mechanical properties of
epoxy dispersion with aminosilane to promote fiber/ GF-reinforced thermoset plastic composites. The mech-
matrix adhesion and the second type was sized with anical properties were decreased with various weather-
polyethylene to prevent fiber/matrix adhesion. Elastic ing conditions such as humidity, temperature and
properties were good for epoxy dispersion with amino- ultraviolet radiation and pollutant.
silane composite and poor for polyethylene composites. Botelho et al.60 investigated the environmental
Mishra58 investigated the vibration analysis of uni- behaviour of woven mat GF-reinforced poly ether-
directional GF-reinforced resol/vac-eha composites imide thermoplastic matrix composites. The testing
(with varying Vf of GFs). Resol solution was blended was conducted with varying temperature at relative
with vinyl acetate-2-ethylhexyl acrylate (vac-eha) resin humidity of 90% for 60 days under sea water. The
in an aqueous medium. The role of fiber/matrix inter- moisture absorption behaviour was mostly dependent
actions in GFs-reinforced composites were investigated on temperature and relative humidity. The moisture
to predict the stiffness and damping properties. absorption curve reported that the weight gain was
Damping properties decreased after blending Vac-eha initially increased linearly with respect to time. The
copolymer content with resol, while increasing the GF maximum moisture absorption of 0.18% was found
content in composite plate increases the damping prop- after 25 days.
erties. Due to incorporation of GFs in the matrix, the Chhibber et al.61 investigated the environmental deg-
tensile, stiffness and damping properties were increased. radation of GFRP composite with different tempera-
Colakoglu et al.13 investigated the damping and ture such as 45 C and 55 C. This testing was
vibration analysis of polyethylene fiber composite conducted in normal water and sodium hydroxide
under various temperatures ranging from 10 C to (NaOH) bath after a time of 1 and 2 months. The per-
60 C. A damping monitoring method was used to centage weight gain increased with increase of bath
experimentally measure the frequency response and time and temperature, NaOH bath found larger
the frequency was obtained numerically using a finite weight gain compared with that of water bath.
element program. The damping properties, in terms of Renaud et al.62 investigated the environmental
the damping factor, were determined by the half-power behaviour of E-GF-reinforced isophtalic polyester
bandwidth technique. The experimental result showed composites with different GFs such as boro-silicate
that the natural frequency and elastic modulus and boron-free at different environmental conditions
decreased with increase in temperature. such as strong acids, cement extract, salt water, tap
Naghipour et al.14 investigated the vibration damping water and deionized water. The test was conducted at
of glued laminated beams reinforced with various lay ups 60 C for lifetime of 50 years; the boron-free E-GF com-
of E-GF-reinforced epoxy matrix composites by using posite increased the resistance of moisture absorption
different methods such as, Hilbert transform, logarith- in all environmental conditions.
mic decrement, moving block and half band power meth- Kajorncheappunngam et al.20 investigated the effect
ods. Half band power method improves the accuracy of aging environment on degradation of woven fabric
when considering the vibration damping of composite E-glass-reinforced epoxy with four different liquid
materials possessing relatively high level of damping. media such as distilled water, saturated salt solution,
Furthermore, their experimental results indicated that 5-molar NaOH solution and 1-molar hydrochloric acid
the addition of GRP-reinforcement in the bottom solution. Water immersion had the lower damage than

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1270 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 33(13)

acid or alkali soaking and lower immersion did not Hameed et al.11 investigated the thermal behaviour
affect the mechanical properties. of chopped strand E-GF-reinforced modified epoxy
Agarwal et al.63 investigated the environmental composites with different Vf of fibers such as 10%,
effects of randomly oriented E-GF-reinforced polyes- 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60%. The test was con-
ter composites with different environmental conditions ducted in nitrogen atmosphere at the temperature
such as brine, acid solution, ganga water, freezing range from 30 C to 900 C. The thermogravimetric ana-
conditions and kerosene oil. The test conducted at lysis (TGA) showed that 60% Vf of composites had
different interval of time such as 64 h, 128 h and higher thermal stability and its degradation tempera-
256 h. The percentage reduction in tensile strength ture was shifted from 357 C to 390 C.
decreased after every interval of time, the maximum Budai et al.66 investigated the thermal behaviour of
percentage reduction was found on NaOH solution chopped strand mat E-GF-reinforced unsaturated
and minimum percentage reduction was found on polyester composite with different number of glass
freezer condition. mat layers such as 4, 6 and 11 layers and different
Ellyin et al.64 investigated the moisture absorption GF such as viapal and aropol using TGA and heat
behaviour of E-glass-reinforced fiber epoxy composite distortion temperature (HDT) analysis. The test was
tubes. They were immersed in distilled water at two conducted between 30 C and 700 C in purging nitrogen
different temperatures such as 20 C and 50 C. The and between 30 C and 550 C in purging oxygen.
test was conducted in distilled water for 4 months. Increasing GF content in composite delayed the
The time versus moisture absorption curve reported thermo-oxidative decomposition.
that 0.23% weight gain was found at 20 C and 0.29% Lopez et al.3 investigated the thermo-analysis of
weight gain was found at 50 C. E-GF waste polyester composite without filler. The
Abbasi et al.65 investigated the environmental TGA/differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curve
behaviour of GFRP composites with different combin- showed that the degradation temperature shifted from
ations such as GF/isophthalic polyester, GF/vinyl ester 209.8 C to 448.7 C and mass loss shifted from 1.8 wt%
and GF/urethane-modified vinyl ester. The test was to 4.4 wt%.
conducted at different temperatures from 20 C to
120 C for 30 days, 120 days and 240 days under Tribological behaviours of GFRP matrix
normal water and alkaline environments. The GF com-
composites
posites strength and modulus were decreased in alkali
environment at higher temperatures. El-Tayeb et al.67 investigated the worn surfaces of
Visco et al.10 investigated the mechanical properties chopped GF-reinforced unsaturated polyester com-
of GF-reinforced polyester composites before and after posites of parallel/anti-parallel (P/AP) chopped GF
immersion in seawater. Two different types of polyester orientations with various sliding velocities such as
resins, such as isophthalic and orthophthalic, and two 2.8, 3.52, 3.9 m/s and various load of 30, 60, 90 N
different types of laminates were used for composites at ambient temperature. The experimental result
preparation. One laminate contained five layers of showed that sliding in P-orientation had lower friction
reinforcement with isophthalic polyester resin and coefficient at lower load and higher speed compared
another was obtained by laminating four layers of to AP-orientation. Sliding in AP-orientation had
reinforcement with orthophthalic resin and one exter- lower friction coefficient at higher load, speed and
nal layer with isophthalic. The experimental result distance compared to P-orientation. AP-orientation
showed that flexural modulus, flexural strength and exhibited less mass loss (16%) compared to the
shear modulus decreased with increase in immersion P-orientation.
time. Isophthalic resin was better bonding with GFs, El-Tayeb et al.16 investigated the multipass two-
which was resisting the seawater absorption compared body abrasive wear behaviour of CGRP composites
to orthophthalic resin. with various sliding velocities such as 0.157 and
0.314 m/s and the applied normal loads of ranging
Thermal properties of GFRP matrix from 5 N to 25 N. The test was conducted with sliding
against water-proof SiC abrasive paper under dry con-
composites tact condition. Wear rate decreased with increasing
Husic et al.27 investigated the thermal properties of E- load and decreasing rotational speed. AP-orientation
glass-reinforced soy-based polyurethane composites enhanced the abrasive resistance of CGRP composite.
with two different types of polyurethane such as soy- They concluded that AP-orientation had lowest wear
bean oil and petrochemical polyol Jeffol. Soy-based rate than other orientations and scanning electron
polyurethanes had better thermal stability than petro- microscope (SEM) result indicated AP-orientation
chemical polyol Jeffol-based polyurathene. had no fiber damage.

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Sathishkumar et al. 1271

Quintelier et al.68 investigated the friction and wear dry sliding condition. The varying test parameters
behaviour of GF-reinforced polyester composites with were applied load (20–60 N), velocity (2–4 m/s) and
loading range from 60 to 300 N at a constant speed of sliding distance (0.5–6 km). Pin on disc experimental
10 mm/s under dry conditions. The SEM observations result showed that increasing the load and velocity
showed that parallel orientation had lower friction than increased the weight loss. The debris rate was lower
transverse orientation. for smaller distance and higher for larger distance.
Mathew et al.2 investigated the tribological proper- Yousif et al.72 investigated the wear and friction
ties of E-GF-reinforced polyester composites with vari- behaviour of chopped strand mat GF polyester com-
ous directly oriented warp knit fibers such as biaxial, posites with various loads (30 N to 100 N) under wet
biaxial non-woven, tri-axial and quad-axial fabric with contact condition using two different test techniques
various thermoset resins like polyester, vinyl ester and such as pin-on-disc and block-on-ring. This was con-
epoxy resin. Biaxial non-woven-reinforced vinyl ester ducted with two different fiber orientations like parallel
composite had better performance than other and anti-parallel. From the experiment, they concluded
combinations. that presence of water content increased the roughness
Kishore et al.15 investigated the effects of velocity value in both orientations. Moreover, anti-parallel
and load on the sliding wear behaviour of plain weave orientation had more wear and frictional resistance
bi-directional E-glass fabric-reinforced epoxy compos- than parallel orientation.
ites with different fillers such as oxide particle and Suresha et al.73 investigated the friction and wear
rubber particle under the sliding velocity between 0.5 behaviour of E-GF (woven mat)-reinforced epoxy
and 1.5 m/s at three different loads of 42, 140 and composites with and without SiC particles. The
190 N. Block on roller test result showed that the result showed that (5 wt%) SiC particles-filled com-
oxide particle-filled composite had better wear resist- posite had higher coefficient of friction and higher
ance compared to rubber particles at low load condi- resistance to wear at sliding distance ranging from
tions. But during higher load condition, rubber 2000 m to 4000 m compared to without SiC-filled
particles had better wear resistance than oxide composites.
particles. Pihtili et al.74 investigated the wear behaviour of E-
Yousif et al.69 investigated the friction and interface CGRP composite with the sliding distances of
temperature behaviour of chopped strand mat GF- 235.5 mm, 471 mm, 706.5 mm, 942 mm, 1177.5 mm,
reinforced unsaturated polyester composites with vari- 1413 mm, 1648.5 mm and 1884 mm. When the sliding
ous sliding velocities such as 2.8, 3.52 and 3.9 m/s and distance exceeds 942 mm weight loss of the plain polye-
various loads 30, 60 and 90 N under dry contact sliding ster was increased. The result showed that GF-rein-
against smooth stainless steel. Parallel and anti-parallel forced polyester matrix composite was more wear
chopped GF orientations were measured at ambient resistant than the plain polyester.
temperature. The AP-orientation had more friction Mohan et al.23 investigated the sliding wear
coefficients (0.5–0.6) and interface temperature (29 to behaviour of Jatropha oil cake-filled woven fabric
50 C) compared to P-orientation. E-GF-reinforced epoxy composites with different
Chand et al.70 investigated the three-body abrasive loads (10 and 20 N). The pin on disc setup result
wear behaviour of short E-GF-reinforced polyester showed that the wear loss increased with increase of
composites with and without filler at various sliding sliding distance. Wear loss was observed at 2000 m slid-
speed, abrasive particle size and applied load. ing distance at 10 N applied load. The jatropha oil
Increasing the weight fraction of fiber in composite cake-filled glass epoxy composite had good wear resist-
decreased the volume loss of composite. They have con- ance and high coefficient of friction at various sliding
cluded that higher GF content had less wear loss. distances.
Suresha et al.21 investigated the role of fillers in wear Suresha et al.22 investigated the three-body abra-
and friction behaviour of woven mat GF-reinforced sive wear behaviour of woven E-GF-reinforced
epoxy composites with varying load and sliding veloci- vinyl ester composites with particulate-filled like
ties under dry sliding conditions. Two different inor- SiC and graphite fillers. The test was conducted at dif-
ganic fillers were added such as SiC particles (5 wt%) ferent loads such as 22 and 32 N under the sliding dis-
and graphite (5 wt%). The SEM observation reported tance ranging from 270 to 1080 m. The experimental
that graphite-filled composites have lower coefficient of result showed that the graphite and silicon-filled com-
friction than unfilled SiC-filled composites and SiC- posites had more abrasion resistance and lower specific
filled composite exhibited the maximum wear wear rate (1.95  1011 m3/(Nm)) than unfilled
resistance. composites.
Sampathkumaran et al.71 investigated the wear Patnaik et al.33 investigated the wear behaviour of
behaviour of GF-reinforced epoxy composite under randomly oriented E-GF-reinforced epoxy composites

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1272 Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 33(13)

with particulate-filled like Al2O3, SiC and pine bark to X-ray beds (where X-ray transparency is import-
dust. The different compositions of specimens were pre- ant) are made up of GRP.
pared using GF (50 wt%)/Epoxy (50 wt%), GF . Automobiles: GRP has been extensively used for
(50 wt%)/Epoxy (40 wt%)/Alumina (10 wt%), GF automobile parts like body panels, seat cover
(50 wt%)/Epoxy (40 wt%)/Pine bark dust (10 wt%), plates, door panels, bumpers and engine cover.
GF (50 wt%)/Epoxy (40 wt%)/SiC (10 wt%). The
experimental tests were conducted at different loads However, GRP has been widely used for replacing
like 50 and 75 N and the sliding distance ranging the present metal and non-metal parts in the various
from 200 m to 600 m. They have concluded that GF applications and tooling costs are relatively low as com-
(50 wt%)/Epoxy (40 wt%)/Pine bark dust (10 wt%) pared with metal assemblies.
composite had better wear resistance (0.000881–
0.001365 mm3/(N-m)) for all sliding distance.
Conclusion
Chauhan et al.75 investigated the friction and wear
behaviour of bi-directional woven fabric S-GF- The mechanical, dynamics, tribological, thermal and
reinforced vinyl ester composites with 65 wt% of fiber water absorption properties of GFRP composites
and the resin mixed with different co-monomer such as have been discussed. The important application of
methyl acrylate and butyl acrylate. Three different com- these composites has highlighted.
positions of specimens were prepared such as GF +
(vinyl ester + styrene), GF + (vinyl ester + methyl . The various preparation technologies were used for
crylate) and GF + (vinyl ester + butyl acrylate). preparing the GRP composites with various envir-
The test were conducted at various sliding velocities onmental conditions.
like 1, 2, 3 and 4 m/s and various loads like 10, 20, 30 . Ultimate tensile strength and flexural strength of the
and 40 N under dry sliding condition. GF + (vinyl fiber glass polyester composite increased with
ester + butyl acrylate) composite had higher specific increase in the fiber glass Vf of fiber weight fractions.
wear rate and lower co-efficient of friction at lower . The elastic strain of the composite increased with the
sliding speed. fiber glass Vf up to 0.25, and then subsequently
decreased with further increase in fiber glass Vf.
. The Young’s modulus of elasticity of the composite
Application increased with the fiber glass Vf.
. The damping properties of GRP were improved by
. Electronics: GRP has been widely used for circuit increasing the GF content in composite and the nat-
board manufacture (PCB’s), TVs, radios, computers, ural frequency was measured for all conditions.
cell phones, electrical motor covers etc. . The water absorption was analyzed for various
. Home and furniture: Roof sheets, bathtub furniture, environmental conditions with different time
windows, sun shade, show racks, book racks, tea period. The water absorption decreased the mechan-
tables, spa tubs etc. ical properties of the composites.
. Aviation and aerospace: GRP has been extensively . The coefficient of friction at various sliding distances
used in aviation and aerospace though it is not and loading condition were analyzed with various
widely used for primary airframe construction, as fiber orientations like random, woven mat, longitu-
there are alternative materials which better suit the dinal, P/AP chopped GF. The lower wear was found
applications. Typical GRP applications are engine for more fiber incorporated in the polymers.
cowlings, luggage racks, instrument enclosures,
bulkheads, ducting, storage bins and antenna enclos- For improving the composites properties, the fibers
ures. It is also widely used in ground-handling were treated with various chemicals and matrix blend
equipment. with suitable chemical for making the GRP composites.
. Boats and marine: Its properties are ideally suited to This may improve the mechanical, thermal, tribological
boat construction. Although there were problems properties of the GRP composites.
with water absorption, the modern resins are
more resilient and they are used to make the
simple type of boats. In fact, GRP is lower Funding
weight materials compared to other materials like This research received no specific grant from any funding
wood and metals. agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
. Medical: Because of its low porosity, non-staining
and hard wearing finish, GRP is widely suited to Conflict of interest
medical applications. From instrument enclosures None declared.

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Sathishkumar et al. 1273

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