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GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS

AIM

To determine the particle size distribution of the given fine aggregate and to determine ,the fineness
modulus,the effective size and uniformly coefficent .

THEORY

Fine aggregate is the sand used in mortars. Coarse aggregate is the broken stone used in concrete .The
coarse aggregate unless mixed with fine aggregate serves no purpose in cement works .the size of fine
aggregate is limited to a maximum of 4.75 mm gauge beyond which it is known as coarse aggregate .

FINENESS MODULUS.

Fineness modulus is only a numerical index of fineness, giving some idea of the mean size of the
particle s in the entire body of the aggregate. To a certain extent it is a method of standardization of the
grading of the aggregate. It is obtained by adding the percentage weight of material retained in each of
the standard sieves and dividing it by 100.

To object of finding the fineness modulus is to grade a given aggregate for the most economical mix and
workability with minimum quantity of cement .Certain limits of fineness modulus for fine coarse
aggregates are given in the table below and a sample under test should satisfy these results so that the
aggregate may give good workability under economical conditions.

Minimum Maximum

Fine Aggregate 2 3.5

Coarse aggregate 20mm 6 6.9
Coarse aggregate 40mm 6.9 7.5
Coarse aggregate 75mm 7.5 8.0

If the test aggregate gives higher fineness modulus the mix will be harsh and if on the other hand gives a
lower fineness modulus it gives uneconomical mix .

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GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS

EFFECTIVE SIZE

Effective size (in microns) is the maximum particle size of the smallest 10% of the aggregate or it is the
sieve opening corresponding to 10% finer and is designated by the symbol D10.

UNIFORMITY COEFFICIENT

This is the ratio of the maximum size of the smallest 60% to the effective size .

APPARATUES

Size of sieves to be used.

(I) for fine agggregate- 4.75mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600 microns, 300microns ,150microns .

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GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS

PROCEDURE

FINE AGGREGATE

(i)Take one kg of sand from the laboratory sample

(ii)Arrange the sieves in order of IS sieves no’s 480, 240, 120, 60, 30 and 15, Keeping sieve no.480 at
the top and 15 at the bottom and cover the top.

(iii)Keep the sample in the top sieve no.480.

(iv) Carry out the sieving in the set of sieves for not less than 10 minutes .

COARS AGGREGATES

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GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS

(i)Take one kg of coarse aggregate

(ii)Arrange the sieves one over the other in relation to their size of opening.
(25mm,20mm,12.5mm10mm,4.75mm)

(iii) Carry out the sieving for the specified time

(iv) Find the weight of agggregate retained on each sieve taken in order and tabulate in table.

GRAPH

Draw a graph with sieve opening to log scale on the X-axis and % finer on Y-axis .The curve iscalled a

CALCULATION

FINE AGGREGATE

3. Fineness modulus (Sum of cumulative % wt retained /100) =

COARSEAGGREGATE

1. Effective size in microns (D10,sieve opening corresponding to 10% finer in the graph)

RESULT S

FINE AGGREGATE

1. Effective size =……………..micron

2. Uniformity coefficent =

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GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS

3. Fineness modulus =

COARS AGGREGATES

4. Effective size =……………..micron

5. Uniformity coefficient =

6. Fineness modulus =