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EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY REVIEWER

HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD

 Used pointed sticks and symbols to in script or write signs.


 Cave paintings started during the 30,000 B.C
 The invention of writing is divided into 3 Ages:
1. PALEOLITHIC AGE (OLD STONE AGE)
- characterized by the used of knapped stone stools. Human also used woods and bone tools.
- leather and vegetable fibers were adapted also for use as tools.
2. NEOLITHIC AGE (NEW STONE AGE)
- Began around 12, 000 years ago and ended as civilization started to rise around 3,500 BCE.
- Neolithic comes from two words: Neo (NEW) and Lithic (STONE)
- used stone tools and weapons, but started to enhance their tools.
- the invention of agriculture arises. (Distinction from the Paleolithic Age)
3. METAL AGE
- Discovered and used metal as tools.
- started around 4500 BC and ended when the first written text began.
- divided into 3 stages:
1. Copper Age
- Lasted from around 3500 to 2300 BCE.
- Human societies utilize copper for the production of metal tools for agriculture, construction and other
aspects of daily life.
- They still used stone tools.
- Copper is also used for weapons to defend their resources.
2. Bronze Age
- About 2500-800 BC.
- The period after the stone-age.
- Metal was discovered and proper clothes were made.
- They used copper first, but then the Beaker people came to show up how to make bronze.
- They mined the tin and copper to make bronze.
3. Iron Age
- Final technological and cultural stage in the Stone-Bronze-Iron Age Sequence.
- Made a great difference to people’s lives in terms of iron tools which helps them to make their life easier.
- Bread was the main food in the iron-age diet and beef was also eaten either boiled or roasted.

PHOENICIAN AND HEBREW

Phoenicians and Hebrews


o two very different kinds of people with different ways of living.
o Differs in technology, writing, government, social structure, stable food supply, and arts. But also similar
in some parts of the topics.
PHOENICIANS HEBREW
 People who lived in what is now Lebanon.  Hebrew is the name given to one the world’s
 cities were built on islands off the coast to make oldest languages. • The name derives from Eber
them easier to defend. (‘ever), the son of Shem; “ever means “region
 famous for their alphabet, which they invented across or beyond” and derives from a root that
about 1200 BC. The basis of the alphabet we use means to pass over.
today
PHOENICIANS HEBREW
 Used boats to travel to ports to trade  invented terracing
different items. Boats were made strong  smelting iron ore into iron. Hebrew’s were
that last long for the duration of time in the first ones to figure out how to do it.
In Technology
the sea.
 Had cisterns (System of getting fresh
Water)
 Used acrophonics to verbally explain  used the Egyptian alphabet
words and letters.  soon were adopted to the Egyptian alphabet
 It could be written on papyrus in ink or which was the use of pictures and symbols to
In Writing dye and could be sounded out. stand for letters, words, and sentences
 symbols could be drawn on papyrus just like
the acrophonics, they used ink or dye to
imprint the pictures
 Believed in many Gods relating to nature.  main religion is the creation of the Bible
 Built temples for the Gods and shrines  believed in Yahweh as a God that did not
In Religion with offerings. marry, eat, get thirsty, or have children
 Believed in life after death and buried  Other people believed that their Gods had
their dead in clay urns or vases. human traits
 Was never a united country because the  had twelve tribes and leaders more than
mountains separated the different groups rulers
of Phoenicians.  ten commandments were laws for thievery,
 The main three of the city-states were murder, lies, violation of property, respect
In Government Byblos, Tyre, and Sidon. for parents, and loyalty to Yahweh
 Individual city state was ruled by a king
who was also a high priest.
 The king and council of Merchants were in
charge of war, trade, farming, and laws.
 The Phoenicians had kings and merchant  begins with the king and the council of
councilors at the top Elders
 Main occupations were being artisans,  Main occupations are herding, farming, and
merchants, and shippers. (Middle Class trading. Most of these jobs are lower class
In Social
except for the artisans) and the trading is middle class according to
Structure
 Farming and being an artisan and were at the Phoenician social structure
the bottom.  Hebrew’s trading was a middle class and so
 • Priest was at the top. They were believed was farming but herding as lower class.
to be able to communicate in trading.
 Rich land to farm on but not enough land  grew crops of wheat, barley, grapes, olives,
to use to feed them all. and flax.
 Relies on the ocean to get fish and  raised sheep which provided them with
In Food Supply shellfish. dairy and meat
 Grew olives, figs, and grew wheat.  They got some food from trade and fished in
 Main source of their food was from trade the sea but had enough food to supply
themselves
 Created bottles and jars of glass.  Has a very unique type of art like mosaic.
 They also used ivory and metal to create  Painted people and symbols instead of
many various pieces of art creatures.
 The first ones to start glass blow
In Arts
 The purple dye found in a shellfish, was
used to dye clothing purple and soon
became the color of royalty because of its
rarity. (Major Art of Phoenicians)
GREEK INFLUENCES

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT GREECE


 Starts at age 7
 Boys were given military training at the age of 7. Girls were also given military training but at a later
age than boys
 Poor children did not go to school.
 Middleclass boys go to school for only 3-4 years
 Uses a wax-covered board and uses a stylus to carve out letters in the wax
 Subjects includes reading, writing, basic math, music and physical training.
 When boys reach the age of 18 they are required to join the military. After military, wealthy students
studied Public Speaking and Rhetoric through a ‘Sophist”.

Contributions of Greek Education Other Contributions


1. Equal Education Opportunity for Both Sexes 1. The Alphabet
2. National Service 2. Library
3. State Control of Education 3. Science and Math
4. Education for Relevance 4. Architecture
5. Education Theory and Philosophy 5. Mythology
6. Olympic Games 6. Standardized Medicine
7. Monocracy 7. Trial by Jury
8. Theatre

EGYPTIAN AND CHINESE

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN EDUCATION


 implemented to educate the young children in various subjects and topics
 Common subjects were reading, writing, mathematics, as well as religious instruction and morals.
 Girls were not sent to school and instead their education was conducted at home.
 People of lower classes cannot send their children in school because of limited number of school.
 Schools were reserved only for children from the royal and rich family.
 Education was necessary for Elite Egyptians because of royal offices that the family owns for years.

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SCHOOLS


 Generally attached to religious temples or government buildings
 education was constantly monitored and molded by the authorities
 People who acted as teachers were generally priests of the temples or government officials acting as
scribes.
 Writing material for younger students consisted of wooden tablets to which material was copied from
existing documents
 There were general village schools that instructed in preliminary education and there were schools that
gave specialized education for specific careers such as a priest or a scribe.

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN TEACHERS


 priests and scribes are known as the ancient Egyptian teachers
 subjects were generally confined to reading, writing, and basic forms of mathematics
 range of education expanded as students grew old and included such subjects as medicine, mathematics,
geography, history, music, and science.

SUMMARY OF EDUCATION IN ANCIENT EGYPT


 Ancient Egyptian education system was elaborately formed and was structured to the current social and
political needs of society.
 Hierarchy of social status and classes was maintained in education too, as is evident from the fact that
different schools existed for commoners, nobles and royals.
 Education curriculum in ancient Egyptian education system was well-rounded and instructed children in
almost all forms of knowledge that existed at that time
ANCIENT CHINESE EDUCATION
 began with classic works, namely, the Four Books and the Five Classics regarded as cardinal texts that
one had to learn, in order to understand the authentic thought of Confucianism.
 Formal schools were established during the Xia dynasty (2070 BC-1600 BC)
 The local schools are divided into four levels: 1. Shu 2.Xiang 3.Xu 4.Xiao
 State schools were established just for children of the nobility; and consisted of elementary schools and
higher-level colleges
ANCIENT OFFICIAL SCHOOL EDUCATION
 refers to a whole set of education systems sponsored by central and local governments of slave and
feudal societies
 aimed to train talent of various kinds for the ruling classes, whose rise and fall was related to social and
political developments in ancient China
ANCIENT PRIVATE SCHOOL EDUCATION
 played an important part in the educational history of China
 It was first initiated by Confucius in the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) and exercised a great
influence on the Chinese people

MEDIEVAL PERIOD
 lasted from the 5th all the way to the 15th century in Europe
 The beginning marked with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the end of the Middle Ages by the
rise of the humanism idea in North Italy, known as Renaissance.
EDUCATION IN THE MIDDLE AGES
 educational institutes of Romans ceased to offer their services
 Education was not the main concern anymore and fighting skills became more important.
 rulers and politicians of this historical time gained power either through wars or inheritance while
education played a little or no role in their success
 Influence of Church gave rise to monasticism. Monks, priests and bishops took the responsibility of
teaching and the whole educational pattern became purely religious

The establishment of Medieval University


 Emperor Frederick I of Bologna in 1158 chartered the first University degrees
 The Saracens or the Arabs among the Moors of Spain aimed to search for knowledge and the application
of scientific facts to their daily lives.
 They originated the scientific method of teaching

Proponents:
Pierre Abelar
 introduced a technology of instruction which was really a new method of structuring and presenting
materials that helped set the style of scholastic education
John Amos Comenius
 recognized as the pioneer of modern instructional technology by reason of his book Orbis Pictus (The
World in Picture) which was illustrated textbooks for children studying Latin & Sciences
Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbart and Montessor
 contributed their own concept on educational technology improving educative process
 Their curriculum was the most organized and complete in the elementary, secondary and collegiate
levels
Charles Martel
 The first ruler who sought to educate the population.
 At first, he appointed several priests to educate the sons of important men
REACH OF EDUCATION IN THE MIDDLE AGES
 Bishops and monks started to educate pupils of upper class while education for serfs and their kids
was a rare chance
 The whole education system was designed to keep serfs and peasants uneducated; indeed, education
during that time was very elitist
 The education system of Middle Ages was highly influenced by the Church
 They used bones or ivory stylus.
 They used to scrawl notes on wax coated wooden blocks
RENAISSANCE PERIOD
• Began in the Italy during the 1300’s and come to an end about 1600’s
• RENASCERE- the act of being reborn
• means REBIRTH and Europe was recovering from the Dark Ages.
• the revival of learning and it denotes in its broadest sense the gradual enlightment of the human
mind after the darkness of the Middle Ages.
• people had lost faith in the church and began to put more focus on human beings
• began as revival of interest in the literature and culture of ancient Greece and Rome. Its emphasis
was on the richness of earthly life on human achievements . One result of the Renaissance spirit was
a brilliant period of creativity in the arts.
• originally referred to a new interest in the learning of ancient Greece and Rome, which began in
1300’s.
ALSO KNOWN AS:
• Elizabeth age • Age of Drama
• Age of Shakespeare • Age of Enlightment

INVENTIONS
 Printing Press
• 1455
• Developed in Germany
• Associated with Gutenberg
• 1456 the first Gutenberg Bible was printed
• Printing press allowed for the spread of knowledge and ideas throughout Europe.
 Clock
• The idea of quantification developed
• The universe came to be conceived in more quantifiable terms (measurable terms)
• Allowed for more precise measurements
• Changed the focus of daily life which had been guided by the rhythms of the Church.
Other developments
• Advances in the fields of chemistry and medicine
• Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek- Microscopes
• Isaac Newton- Invented calculus
The Three Main Lines of Concern:
• Intellectual- to which education belongs
• Aesthetic
• Scientific
Art In renaissance
• Renaissance Artists embraced some of the ideals of Greece and Rome in their art
• They wanted their subjects to be realistic and focused on humanity and emotion
• New techniques also emerged.
• Frescos: Painting done on wet plaster became popular because it gave depth to the paintings
• Sculpture emphasized realism and the human form
• Architecture reached new heights of design
Literature in renaissance
• Literature is the expression of human life, emotions and feelings through the medium of language.
• It is defined as the imaginative reconstruction of Human life
Genre of Literature
• Prose
the word derived from the Latin prosa or proversa oratio, “straight forward discourse”. Thus a direct
unadorned form of language, written or spoken in ordinary usage
• Drama
literary composition involving conflict, actions, crisis and atmosphere designed to be acted by
players on a stage before an audience. (Romeo & Juliet, Hamlet, Macbeth)
• Poetry
composition that evokes emotion and imagination by the use of vivid, intense language, usually
arranged in a pattern of words or lines with a regularly repeated accent or stress.
1600s-1800s (Age of Naturalism)
Naturalism
 a concept that firmly believes that ultimate reality lies in the nature of the matter. Matter is
considered to be supreme and mind is the functioning of the brain that is made up of matter.
 Truth can be discovered only through nature.

Proponents:
Jean Jacques Rousseau
 Author of the book Emile
 Aims to the preservation of natural goodness of the individual and the formation of the society based
upon the recognition of individual natural rights
 Pointed out that the mind of a child is not merely the mind of an adult in miniature, and that it must
be considered on its own terms
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
 believed that teaching is more effective if it proceeds from concrete to abstract
 His teaching philosophy, which he first proposed in the 1770s, was based on the principle that
children were naturally good and that education should nurture and preserve this innate innocence.
Freidrich Froebel
 Father of Kindergarten, emphasized the use of actual objects, which could be manipulated by the
learners.
 Based his educational philosophy on a belief in the innate creativity of children.
 His kindergarten stressed that children should spend part of each day engaged in play to naturally
develop their creative and intellectual potential.

TECHNOLOGY USED DURING THE AGE OF NATURALISM


The Slide Rule
 first introduced in 1654 by Robert Bissaker.
 designed for use by scientists and engineers up to the early 1970s.
 used in the classroom for mathematics and was a precursor to what we know today as electronic and
graphing calculators.
The Hornbook
 Used in the classroom as a technology device that taught basics such as vowels and consonants as
well as the alphabet.
 The lesson material was laminated to protect the information from the everyday wear and tear of
student use.
The Magic Lantern
 First introduced in 1646
 also known as the Magin Catacoprica which meant “magic lantern.”
 the device was used in homes and theaters, magic lanterns were deployed in the classroom to
enhance learning and student engagement.
The Jacquard Loom
 First introduced in France in 1725 by Joseph-Marie Jacquard.
 The loom was designed to weave silk using punch cards that controlled the actions of the device.
Punch cards were used as controls in the very first computers which led to the advanced
programming capabilities used in today’s classrooms.
Slates and Chalk
 During the 1800s, students used slates which were small blackboards that were written on using a
piece of chalk.
Blackboards
 Made of slate that was surrounded by a wood border to prevent the slate from breaking. Slate was
the material of choice due to its broad availability throughout the world during the 19th century
when mining provided abundant access.
The Calculating Engine.
 In 1822, Charles Babbage introduced a calculating engine which led to modern day digital computing.
The engine was created with the realization that a computing device must have input, memory, a
central processing unit, and an output device (printer).
 For this reason, Charles Babbage is known as the “Grandfather of Modern Digital Computing” as we
know digital computers in today’s classrooms.
The Typewriter
 In 1873 Christopher L. Sholes first introduced the typewriter which also debuted the QWERTY
keyboard which is still used on modern day devices and computers used to enhance classroom
learning.
 limited to capital letters however, other competitors began to use both uppercase and lowercase
letters in the latter part of the 1800s.

19TH CENTURY

• Paved the way to be development of effective educational technology, including the production of
books, use of blackboards, and the improvement of writing implements like pen and ink.
• Photography was invented giving way to a movement called “visual instructions”.
• During the Second World War, the experiences of the American shoulders showed the importance of
educational devices such as movies, filmstrips, radio and other pictorial devices. They used these
devices in military trainings.
• After the world war developments in educational technology were seen like the use of programmed
instruction by Skinner: the taxonomy of educational objectives by Bloom; the use of modularized
instruction.
• Marked the advent of textbooks and improvements in writing tools available to teachers and
students, notably blackboards and chalk, as well as the use of ink pen rather than just pencil.
• Learning has primarily been focused on the curriculum rather than the child. In other words, for a
great many children, compulsory education has been monotonous affair, marked by rote learning
and memorization.

20th CENTURY

EDUCATION DURING THE 20TH CENTURY


• Students are “graded” on their performance on various activities they performed in school.
• Schools were a much different place than they are today
• Teachers and educational leaders determined what students should learn, often without consulting
the students themselves

• Schools and museums began using visual aids such as drawings, paintings, slides,
1900
film objects and models to complement verbal instruction
• Behaviourism Theory. John Watson helped establish behaviourism, which
1914
became one of the theoretical foundations of learning
1920 • Emphasis was placed on radio and television
• The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) was
1923
created to help improve instruction through technology.
1929 • The Ohio “School of the Air” broadcast instruction to homes
• Ralph Tyler “Objectives in Education” at Ohio State University was developed and
1933
has refined procedures for writing objectives.
• Ralph Tyler “Objectives in Education” at Ohio State University was developed and
1940
has refined procedures for writing objectives.
• Instructional Technologists increased with the role of technology in learning. The
194-1945 need for expertise in both education and technology grew, and professional
instructional technologists emerged
• Multiple Media was used by the military. The Armed Forces used films, sound,
1945
graphics, models, and print to help prepare recruits for war
1947 • Columbia Records introduced 33 1/3rpm discs
1948 • Cable TV was introduced
1953 • ITV was launched by the University of Houston called KUHT, the first non-
commercial education station
1956 • Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, Create
1965 • Robert Gagne introduced a model for a system approach to design instruction
• The Public Broadcasting Act established the Public Broadcasting.
1967
• Service and National Educational Radio
• 22 universities used mainframe systems to teach programming and developed
1960-1970
programs and utilities for sharing among teachers and students
• Intense interest in CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) was shown
• First computing system was dedicated to instruction – IBM 1500 system. Stanford
University introduced a high level course ware or instructional software called
Early 1970’s
Course Writer to prepare lessons.
• First multimedia learning station with a cathode tube (CRT) screen, earphones, a
microphone, an audiotape player and a slide projector.
• The Computer Curriculum Corporation (CCC) and the Control Data Corporation
(CDC) both dominated the educational computer field
Late 1970’s • Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations (PLATO) was developed
• Time-shared Interactive Computer Controlled Information Television (TICCIT)
and Computer – Managed Instruction (CMI) systems came.
1976 • Video Cassette recorder (VCR) was introduced.
• The first personal microcomputer, the Apple, was created by Steve Wozniak and
Steve Jobs
• Microcomputer Era
• First microcomputers entered schools
1977 • Focus shifted from mainframes to desktop systems transforming the
computer’s role in education
• Classroom teachers began to determine computer usage
• Administrative applications turned school based computer
• School-based management became feasible with microcomputers
• Computer was considered as a subject in school curriculum
• Logo and the problem-solving movement emerged. Logo and Logo-based
1980
products (Logo Writer, Logo Logo) dominated the field
• CAI on personal computer reached its peak
• Seymour Papert and Jean Piaget promoted Logo as a programming language for
1983
children in the book, Mindstorms
• By mid-1908’s. schools began to make budgetary allocations for computers
• Logo contributed to a new outlook on how technology could be used to
1987
restructure educational method
• Compact Disc (CD) and MP3 were introduced
• Integrated learning systems (ILL) emerged
• Stand-alone computers provided computer managed instruction and practice
• Curriculum trends move toward less structured and teacher-directed methods
• Constructivist Approach replaced the influence of Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky and
others. This led to the emergence of the constructivist view of learning
• Computer-Based Technologies (CBT) greatly increased the technologies to
1990’s
enhance teaching and learning. It includes video discs, CD-ROMs, multimedia,
digital presentations, interactive video, teleconferencing, compressed video and
the internet
• Virtual Reality (VR) allowed teachers to present in digital representations a given
reality so that students experience it.
• Digital Assistants (DA’s) help one to interact with his equipment and cyberspace
1991 • Saettler changed the function of ET to a process which is focused on the ‘process
of applying tools for educational purposes as well as the tools and materials used’
• Companies began to market multimedia systems, integrated technology, or open
learning systems
• The World Wide Web (Internet) became accessible to all with the creation of the
web by Tim Berners-Lee
• Systems networked with a central server from single computer systems
1994
dominated the market
• Mufoletto recognized technology is not a collection of machines and devices but
a way of acting based on the background
• There was ready access to information and to people. Sending and receiving
1994- Internet multimedia displays and the presence of realistic simulation of ;being there’
Era become possible
• The Information Super Highway became an expressway for education
• Computers were seen as important as Learning and Productivity tools
1995 • Instructional designers and producers began to mass produce softwares for
educational use
1996 • Digital Video Disc (DVD) was introduced
• International Standards for Technology in Education (ISTE) created computer
standards, sponsored by the National Educational Technology (NETS) for
1998
students, teachers and administrators
• The first digital TV broadcast was shown
• Satellite radio began airing
• Multimedia use in the web emerged  Online life extended through the internet
to include “live” audio and video leading to instruction anywhere and anytime
• Distance learning became common at all levels of education\
• Web-based videoconferencing and other forms of communication, CAI and
2000 and Virtual Reality (VR) became acceptable options in education.
BEYOND- Future
Generations of
• The focus became more on using computers as tools which assist in the
Computer development of cognitive skills
• The multimedia nature of modern computing appealed to prevailing
understandings about how people learn Multiple Intelligences
• Mobile Devices. Cellphones, hybrids, PDAs and tablet PC’s joined with wireless
networking to make mobile computing commonplace everywhere, including the
classroom.

21st CENTURY
• The term 21st century becomes the central part of educational thinking and planning for the future.
• Creating a 21st century education system is about making sure that all students are prepared to succeed
in a competitive world
• Teachers in this new environment will become less as instructors and more as orchestrators of
information, giving children the ability to turn knowledge into wisdom
• Teachers and administrators need to cultivate and maintain the student's interest in the material by
showing how this knowledge applies in the real world.
ROLE OF EDUCATION
• to prepare students to become active, successful and contributing members in the society and
in order to prepare student to play their role in the 21st century society

Following can be considered when deciding how education will look in our schools and classrooms:
• Student-Centered Learning
• Education should be collaborative
• Learning should have context

ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY


• Technology allows for 24/7 access to information
• Constant social interaction
• Easily created and shared digital content

Educators should leverage technology to create an engaging and personalized environment to meet the
emerging educational needs of our current generations. It is necessary to embrace these highly motivational
interests and embed it in our teaching

FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY


1. Improvement of Teaching 7. Development of Teaching Learning Materials
2. Analysis of the teaching-learning process 8. Teaching-Learning Strategies
3. Improvement of Learning 9. Development of Audio-Visual Aids
4. Enhancing Goals of Education 10. Help in Overall Improvements
5. Training to Teachers 11. Identification of Needs in the Community
6. Development of Curriculum

21ST CENTURY NEW SCHOOLS


• Students have full access to technology and, if possible, every student will have a laptop.
• Within the school there will be labs and learning centers, as well as studios for art, music, theatre,
and so on.
• Each classroom will be equipped with a television so that all students can watch school productions
and other school presentations.

Three Categories of the 21st Century Skills


1. Learning Skills ( the 4 C’s)
• Critical Thinking
• Creativity
• Collaboration
• Communication
2. Literacy Skills (IMT)
• Information literacy
• Media literacy
• Technology literacy
3. Life Skills (FLIPS)
• Flexibility
• Leadership
• Initiative
• Productivity
• Social Skills