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Adeel Rafique — May 3, 2014 in Tactics

Ferrite number control in Austenitic Stainless

Steel Welding
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Ferrite is defined as the solid solution of carbon in iron. What do we perceive from ferrite
number in welding? Ferrite number is the amount of retained delta ferrite into the weldment of
austenitic stainless steels, which may support mechanical and corrosion properties (if present
within the acceptable range). Ferrite number approximates 5-20. Lower limit is required for
protection from aggressive corrosion while the higher limit is required to assure the minimum
solidification cracking in weld deposits.
1. Stainless steel (austenitic)
2. Solidification modes
3. Problems
4. Factors affecting the ferrite content
5. Measurement of ferrite number
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6. Ferrite control One Month Free
7. Heat Treatment
8. Conclusion WATCH NOW

1.Stainless Steel Austenitic

Stainless steel family includes three types; austenitic, martensitic and ferritic. Austenitic
stainless steel is known for best welding properties and excellent corrosion resistance. It has
face centered cubic structure with the alloying elements of chromium, nickel, manganese, Popular Posts
carbon, nitrogen, chromium, molybdenum. Their strength can be increased when
applied for cold working. Unlike other carbon steels they don’t undergo martensitic formation Latest Welding Jobs
on quenching and similarly not subjected to cold cracking. However they can be subjected to 2018-New Vacancies for
hot cracking which is the concerning problem. On the basis of alloying elements it is classified
as full austenitic or austenitic ferritic. Elements nickel, carbon, manganese and nitrogen
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constitutes austenite while the chromium, silicon, niobium, molybdenum form ferrite. Career Choice? Benefits
2.Solidification modes of being a Welder
The solidification modes are classified on the basis of austenite and ferrite phases. The
modes are named as A (austenitic), AF (austenitic + ferrite), FA (ferrite + austenite) and F How to MIG weld square tube with flat plate
(ferrite). These modes depends on Crreq / Nireq ratio. Lower ratio will favor the formation of A
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mode while the higher ratio will favor F mode. In AF mode austenite is primary phase while in Welding Process
FA mode ferrite is the primary phase. (Complete Guide)

3.Problems 7 Effective Ways to

Weld deposit with less ferrite number will lead to hot cracking while on the other hand more Prevent Weld
ferrite content can also lead to other mechanical problems. Lower amount is required to
protect the weldment from corrosive media.
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and Definitions
4.Factors affecting the ferrite content
Cooling rate of weld metal, is the major one that controls the ferrite number in austenitic Ferrite number control in Austenitic
stainless steel weld deposits. So the selection of electrode diameters, arc length, amperages Stainless Steel Welding

(current) and heat treatments are the controlling parameters that influence the ferrite number.
Five alternatives to
As we know the common practice is to select the current according to the electrode diameter. eliminate expensive
Right selection of all above mentioned parameters assists in achieving controlled cooling rate purging in pipe welding
which is required to obtain desired ferrite content.
5.Measurement of ferrite number Types of Underwater Welding
Following are the common methods which are being utilized for the evaluation of ferrite
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number into the weldment. Schools in USA
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 Magnetic testing
How to Prevent Weld Solidification
 Eddy current testing Cracking
 Use of Severn gage
 Use of Magne gage
 Use of Ferrite meter Five must to know welding electrode
6.Ferrite Control
Special electrodes are being used called controlled ferrite consumables in order to achieve
required amount of delta ferrite into the weld metal. As it is stated above cooling rate has an
amazing effect on ferrite number. As the cooling rate decreases, ferrite content tends to
reduce while on the other hand cooling rate increases, the ferrite content tends to increase
and (appear as fine particles into the microstructure). We should know that an acceptable
range of ferrite is required for particular service conditions when

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However the factors like multipass welding, heat input, penetration and cooling rate are the
keys for controlling ferrite number in austenite welds. Recent Posts

7.Heat Treatment Latest Welding Jobs

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Some post weld heat treatments may embrittle the ferrite in microstructure. Delta ferrite has Welders
body centered cubic structure. Heat treatment within 1040-1100 C and holding for 10 minutes December 27, 2017
can dissolve the delta ferrite. Hence reducing the ferrite content up to 7-8%.
Heat treatment of austenite welds by annealing has a damaging effect by increasing delta Is Welding A Good
ferrite content that may lead to the brittleness in weld. However the decomposition – Career Choice? Benefits
of being a Welder
transformation depends on the annealing temperature and time.
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1) Stainless steels (austenitic) have worldwide applications in chemical plants, brewing, food Metal Fume Fever
industries, nuclear plants and power plants. They has excellent welding mechanical (Symptoms, Effects &
January 13, 2018
2) Control of ferrite number is the ultimate requirement in austenite welds. An acceptable
range of ferrite number is required in austenite welds that provides resistance to hot cracking Stick Welding (Complete
and corrosion. Guide) Tips and Safety
3) WRC 1992 provided some measurement techniques and methods for the evaluation of measures
December 31, 2017
weld ferrite content. Ferrite number can be predicted by magnetic permeability, Severn gage
and ferrite meter. Best Auto Darkening
4) Austenite composition in filler materials are responsible for the control of ferrite in weld Welding Helmet (Reviews
deposits. and Buyer Guide)
5) Ferrite number can be controlled by cooling rate, heat input and multipass tempering. December 24, 2017

Moreover Heat treatment can also be used to maximize and reduce the ferrite content.
Welding safety tips (Head
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Welding terminologies and their
abbreviations Auto Darkening Welding
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It is usual practice to write
terminologies in shortened form.
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For this we combine first
alphabetic letters of the specific
words, which is so called Five alternatives to eliminate 5 Common types of Heat
expensive purging in pipe Treatment for Weldable Steels
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About the Author: Adeel Rafique


James Andrew February 24, 2015 at 3:11 am

Thanks for the post! I learned a lot in your blog.By the way please visit TKL for stainless
steel products!

 Reply

Lavis Laln July 10, 2015 at 10:49 am

A famous foodservice equipment gives you positive idea tools that you need to share a
lifetime of your kitchen,s equipment,
I can give you some information on the importance of observing foodservice
equipment,They can
understand, and react appropriately to your demand or need.see more,
stainless steel

 Reply

Bagmara Rajshahi October 14, 2015 at 11:51 am

There are many different types of foods that can be finger foods for the event. Not
everyone will want to choose only finger foods though.
They may want to have a meal that they are able to sit down and eat also.[] for detail,
foodservices equipment

 Reply

Adeel Rafique October 22, 2015 at 2:35 pm

Thanks for providing such a valuable information ! There may a wide variety of stainless
steel products out which I know are; bars, purlins, pipes, plates, sheets and wires.

 Reply

Adeel Rafique October 22, 2015 at 2:39 pm

Hi! I think the article is about industrial manufacturing and construction, not for the food

 Reply

Tawfik Mohamed January 30, 2016 at 11:46 pm

Dear Sir,
thank you for the useful article.
we have a case, we have a 304 stainless steel pipeline in cryogenic service (-180 C), in
some locations we found increase in ferrite content considering that the line is in operation
since 10 years without any problem.
any specific tests do we need to perform to avoid any problem?
do you think that increased ferrite no. would affect a pipeline operating at -180 C?
looking forward to your reply.
 Reply

Anonymous January 11, 2017 at 10:25 am

You have mentioned that annealing leads to increase in % Delta Ferrite, but earlier you
have also mentioned that the cooling rate is directly proportional to the formation of Delta
ferrite. As annealing involves slow cooling, the formation of delta ferrite should be less and
not more which is contradicting to what you have mentioned. Could you please explain.
Thanks Jack

 Reply

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