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Introduction

Recall that BPSK is actually a modulation scheme for DSBSC which only sent one bit
of data in each time. But QPSK is also a modulation scheme of DSBSC but the
difference between QPSK and BPSK is that QPSK send out two bit of data in each
time without using second carrier signal. Although QPSK send out two bit of data in
each time, but it does not necessarily mean that QPSK was faster than BPSK. Indeed,
while separating two bit of data , it actually reduce the speed of the bit of the data to
be send by half. Although the data’s bit rate has been reduce, but it lead us to another
advantages of QPSK which when the speed is reduced, the radio frequency spectrum
required to transmit the QPSK has also been reduced compared to BPSK and this
allows more user on the channel. After the data was split into two bit by using the bit
splitter. The odd bit was then experience a phase change of 90 degree. Then it was
added together for transmission because they actually having the same carrier
frequency.

Objective

The generation and reception of quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) waveform is
investigated.

Result

1. Serial-to-parallel output waveform

Figure 1: Serial-to-parallel output waveform

CH1: Original message signal CH2: Serial-to-parallel output waveform


2. Even bits and PSKI waveform

Figure 2: Even bits and PSKI waveform


CH1: even bit waveform CH2: PSKI waveform

3. Odd bits and PSKQ waveform

Figure 3: Odd bits and PSKQ waveform


CH1: Odd bit waveform CH2: PSKQ waveform
4. QPSK waveform

Figure 4: QPSK waveform


CH1: Digital input CH2: QPSK Signal

5. Original odd/even bit and Tunable LPF module’s output (phase shifted 0
degree)

Figure 5: Original odd/even bit and Tunable LPF module’s output


CH1: Original signal waveform CH2: recovered signal waveform

Observation: Initially the output signal is distorted compared to the even data
bits. The voltage level varies.
6. Original odd/even bit and Tunable LPF module’s output (phase shifted 180
degree)

Figure 6: Original odd/even bit and Tunable LPF module’s output


CH1: Original waveform CH2: recovered signal waveform

Observation: Initially the output signal is distorted compared to the odd data
bits.
7. Even data bits on the Serial-to-parallel converter module’s X1 and the Tunable
LPF module’s output

Figure 7: Even data bits on the Serial-to-parallel converter module’s X1


and the Tunable LPF module’s output

CH1: Even bit data waveform on serial-to-parallel converter

CH2: Output waveform of tunable LPF

Observation: Initially, the output voltage is different from the even bits.

8. Odd bits with the recovered data

CH1: Odd bit data waveform CH2: recovered data waveform


Discussion

The even bit of the data are split from the data stream by a bit-splitter and then was
multiplied by a carrier to generate a BPSK signal. At the same time, the odd bit of the
data stream was multiplied with the carrier frequency to generate another BPSK.
There only one sine wave when the QPSK signal is made up of two BPSK signals
main reason as due to the product detection of DSBSC signal which is phase sensitive.
The recovery of the message is optimal if the transmitted and the local carrier
frequency are in phase with each other. But unfortunately, both of the generated
BPSK was not in phase, hence there is only one signal is obtained. The present phase
relationship between the local carrier and the carrier signal are in the same phase with
each other. In another word, they did not experience any phase shifting. The new
phase relationship between the local carrier and the carrier signal used to generate the
PSKI and PSKQ signal are separated by 180 degrees between the two signal used. The
demodulator considered to be only one half of a full QPSK receiver is because the
detector of the demodulator have rejected one of the BPSK signal in the transmission
carrier signal due to the phase sensitive case. Therefore, the output of the demodulator
considered to be one half of a full QPSK receiver.

Conclusion

From this experiment, we learned how to investigate the generation and reception of
quadrature phase shift keying (BPSK) waveforms. QPSK is a variation of BPSK.
QPSK is a DSBSC modulation scheme also but it sends two bits of digital
information a time. Converting the data from a series of individual bits to a series of
bit-pairs necessarily halves the data’s rate-bit. This cancels the speed advantage of
sending two bits at a time. The amount of radio-frequency spectrum required to
transmit QPSK reliably is half that required for BPSK signals. This in turn makes
room for more users on the channel.