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SITE PLANNING & URBAN DESIGN

[by alver_remolar]

Urban Design Planning vs Design


 how buildings fit into surroundings;  Both: data analysis & synthesis
relationship of spaces with one another  Planning: 2D vs Design: 3D

HISTORY OF SETTLEMENTS
ANCIENT
Egyptian (3000 BC)
Factors  No need for walls
 Calamities  Mobility, little evidence of controlled
 Natural resources planning
 Terrain  No zoning
 Climate  Social classes determined housing sites
 Worker’s camps
Innovations  Nile River
 Plow & rectilinear farming (Grid)  Water reservoirs, canals
 Circular fencing & Radiocentric planning
 Thebes & Memphis
Primitive Dwellings o along Nile
 One room, divisions later on o monumental archi
 Natural cave, piles of rocks at entrance
Pakistan (2500 BC)
Neolithic (7000-9000 BC)  Indus Valley
 Jericho (Israel)  Mohenjo-Daro
o freshwater o administrative/religious center
o 3 ha, circular stone wall o 40,000 persons
 Khirokitia (Cyprus)
o first documented city China (1900 BC)
with streets  Yellow River Valley
 Catalhuyuk (Turkey) o “land within the passes”
o largest Neolithic city, o precursor to Linear City
without streets  Anyang
o 13 ha, 10,000 persons o largest city of the YRV

Mesopotamia (3000-9000 BC) Beijing (800 BC)


 Fertile Crescent  same location today
 Ming Dynasty
 Tigris & Euphrates
 Eridu Mesoamerica (BC to AD)
o oldest city  Elaborate network of cities on rough land
 Damascus  Zapotecs, Mextecs, Aztecs
o oldest continually inhabited city
 Babylon  Teotijuacan & Dzibilchatun
o largest city 80,000 persons o largest cities

GREEK
Aegean (700 BC) Hellenic (450-400 BC)
 “polis” = “city-state”, town “sense of finite”  Miletus
 Acropolis o first planned city
o religious & defensive structure on o Artisans, Farmers, Military
hills  Hippodamus
o No definite geometric plan o first noted urban planner
 Sparta & Athens o Introduced gridiron layout & agora
o largest cities  Aristotle
 Neopolis & Paleopolis o 10,000-20,000 people ideal city
o “new” & “old”
ROMAN AMERICAS
Cities  Colonial outposts with strong trading ties
 Greek forms  Medieval Organic City
 Different scale – monumental o Boug (military town)
 Social hierarchy o Fauborg (citizen’s town)
Forums o no regular street form
 Focal point of planning, 3L:2W by Vitruvius  Medieval Bastide
Conquerors o new towns in previously unsettled areas
 Forum after forum o River valleys
Engineers o Grid-like / radial
 Aqueducts, public baths, utility systems,  Laws of the Indies
fountains o King Philip II
Planners o Towns:
 Basilica - covered markets, law courts o Pueblo (civil)
 Curia - meeting hall/ senate assembly o Presidio (military)
o Mission (religious)
 Domus - Roman house with central atrium
 Insulae - 3-6 storey apartments w/ storefronts  English Renaissance
o “The European Planned City”
 Public art
o 2 as capitals in Chesapeake Bay
region
MEDIEVAL  Annapolis
 Williamsburg
 Winding roads  by Governor Col.
 View of cathedrals or military fortifications Francis Nicholson
o 2 as ports of southeast coast
 Feudalism
 Charleston (California)
o affected UD
 Savannah (Georgia)
 Rise of the Church
 by James Oglethorpe
o main UD component
 Speculators Town
 Constantinople (Turkey)
o Driven by speculation
 Limited expansion o Emphasis on equality
 Increase in number of towns o Philadelphia by William Penn
 Small population per town
 Coastal Port Towns INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
 Mercantilist Cities
o Increased; decline of feudal lords
 Machine Age, 2 schools of thought:
 Nobles & Clergy  Reform Movement
o 2 privileged classes
o building from scratch
o Wealth merchants & Church
o improve worker’s living conditions
 World travel Florence, Paris, Venice o Robert Owens
 Congestion & slums  spearheaded
 ideal city 800-1200
persons, 600-1800 acres
RENAISSANCE & BAROQUE  Industrial Village at
New Lanark Mills,
 Display power by beautifying cities Manchester
 Arts & Architecture
 self-sufficient
o major element of town planning
 complete with
 Geometrical forms of cities
facilities
 Ideal City o Owen’s son
o Vasari  Industrial Village (New
o G.Maggi Harmony), Indiana
 Vienna  Specialists
o city of culture & arts o problems of cities: one at a time
o first “university town” o start with health & sanitary
 Landscape Architecture  New England Planners – Brook Farm,
o palaces, gardens Massachusetts
o Andre Lenotre for Versailles
 Etienne Cabet - Icarus, Red River, Texas
o Karlsruhe in Germany
 Tony Garnier
 Rebirth of classical towns o Une Cite Industrielle
o Piazza planning in Venice  high plateau for residential
o grandeur civic structure & public  level valley for factories
spaces & specialized spaces
o wide streets circumferential with  along river
piazza at center o precursor to modern zoning
EARLY THEORIES & PRACTICES
GARDEN CITIES

 Ebenezer Howard
o “Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Social Reform”
o first conceptualized
o Garden City
 new city in the countryside with rail access to the original city
 central city 58,000 – 65,000 persons in 6,000 acres
 satellite cities connected by rail 30,000 – 32,000 persons
 surrounded by large greenbelts of agricultural land
o Garden City Association
 established by Howard, 1899
 provide financial machinery

 Raymond Unwin & Barry Parker


o Letchworth (1902)
 first Garden City
 combination of landscaping & informal street layouts
 main axis focusing on town center
 4,500 acres

 Louis de Soisson
o Welwyn (1920)
 second Garden City
 formality, 2400 acres
 mile-long mall with beautiful Georgian houses & shops as focal point

 Hampstead Garden Suburbs


o housing lined along streets with terminating axes on civic buildings in a large common green

CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT


 Columbian Exposition, 1891
 “grand formal design, but with social motives”

 Daniel Burnham
o “make no little plans, they have no magic to stir men’s blood”
o Cleveland, San Francisco, Manila, Baguio

 Baron Hausmann
o reconstruction of Paris
o linear connection between the Place de la Concorde, Arc de Triumph, Eiffel Tower by a large
boulevard, Champs de Ellysee
NEW CAPITALS
 BRASILIA
o by Lucio Costa, influenced Le Corbusier; Oscar Niemeyer
o 2 huge axes in the sign of the cross
o principal multi-level traffic arteries traversing the axes
o centers for government, commerce, & entertainment along one axis
o residential districts on another axis
 CHANDIGARH
o India needed a new capital after Lahore was given to Pakistan
o capital of Punjab
o Albert Mayer
 original plan
o Le Corbusier
 regular grid of major roads
 rapid transport surrounding residential superblocks based on 800x1200m rectangle
 Radburn Principle – organization of towns into cohesive neighborhoods
 Radburn, NJ – series of superblocks, important for modern residential community
 rectilinear & monumental
 CANBERRA
o Australia design competition: Daniel Burnham, Sir Leslie Patrick Abercrombie, Frederick
Law Olmstead
o Walter Griffin
 descendant of FLW
 triangular formation: Court of Justice, Parliament House, Capitol building
 each apex pointing to another important monument
 NEW DELHI
o Sir Edward Lutyens
 great east-west axis of Kingsway, 1.5 miles long
 government house on hilltop in West end
 eastern counterpoint, large hexagonal space reserved for palaces of native princes
 Kingsway forms base of a triangle, northern point is a commercial node
 2,650 ha but growth beyond 57,000 persons not contemplated, extremely low density
envisioned

CITY OF TOWERS FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT


 congestion = need for open space  Broadacres
 high density living in tall structures o every family in 1 acre of land
 Le Corbusier o city complete with all amenities
o “The Cities of Tomorrow” o Critics: “not enough land”
o Unite d’ Habitation, Marseilles
 super building  Mile High Tower
 337 dwellings in 10 o Manhattan residents to free-up
acres space for greenfields
o Le Contemporaine o Building a mile high, 10 or more
 3M persons can replace all Manhattan
 high rise office & buildings
residential
 greenbelt for institutions
& recreational
 industrial areas beyond
 grid pattern of 200 x
400m superblocks

RADICAL IDEAS
 congestion = need for open space  Floating City
 Linear City o by Kiyonori Kikutake
o Spanish Engg
Don Arturo Soria Y Mata  Barbican Development
o La Ciudad Lineal & Stalingrad o early type of PUD with all
amenities in one compound with
 Arcology Alternative multi-level circulation pattern
o 3D city by Paolo Soleri
NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT
 Clarence Perry & Clarence Stein
o physical environment where social, cultural, educational, commercial are within easy reach
o not segregated by race, religion, income
o self sustainability of smaller units
o elementary school as center

CONTEMPORARY WORLD URBANIZATION


 “Millionaire Cities”
th
o large cities (exception prior to 20 century) but few existed:
o 900 AD – Baghdad, Changan, Constantinople, Kyoto, Cordova
o 1900 – London, New York, Paris, Berlin, Chicago, Vienna, Tokyo, Leningrad, Philadelphia,
Manchester

 Industrial Revolution
o jobs, productivity, mass markets for goods
o transportation innovations = capital for urban growth
o iron & steel construction, elevator = important in growth of large cities
o medicine & infrastructure are other factors

 Hierarchy of Human Settlements


o Hamlet – neighborhood
o Town – community
o City – urban area
o Metropolis
o Conurbation – composite
o Megalopolis – 2 or more metropolis, 10M people, massive urban concentrations & strong
physical linkages between 3 or more large cities; by Jean Gottmann for urban complexes in
Northeastern US
 BOS – PHI – WAS  Hague – Rotterdam –
 SD – LA – SF Amsterdam
 Dortmund – Essen –  Tokyo – Yokohama –
Duesseldorf Nagoya – Osaka – Kobe

PLANNING IN THE PHILIPPINES


Pre-Colonial American
 Band together for security, close to  American Agenda
resources o guide urban growth
 Coastal & agricultural o emphasis on sanitation, housing,
 Barangay – 30 to 100 families aesthetic

Spanish Colonial  Daniel Burnham


 Laws of the Indies o Manila similar to DC
o uniform standards & planning o Capital Mall = Luneta Park
procedures o reclamation for better view of
o site selection, layout, dimension, ports
location, open space
o Plaza Complex  Burnham’s Manila
 church o grand avenues with strong central
 town hall civic core
 marketplace o civic mall to house national
 school buildings (only Finance &
 homes of principalia Agriculture built)
 other gov’t buildings o fronted Manila Bay like most
 Intramuros Baroque plans fronted bodies of
o “Walled City of Manila” water
o home of Spanish except friars & o Pasig River as main artery of
high rank officials trade & commerce
o 1.2 sq.km with churches, plazas, o too grand, never fully realized
office, 7000 residents, high walls
o decentralization in Malate, San  Manila as First Chartered City
Miguel, Paco
Growth of Manila
 Arrabales
o Quiapo – illustrado territory, folk religiosity
o Tondo – coastal city
o Binondo – trading port, Chinese & Arabs
o Sta. Cruz – main commercial district
o San Nicolas – specialized commercial town
o Sampaloc – “university town”, Our Lady of Loreto & St. Anthony of Padua

 Suburbs
o San Miguel (Malacañang) – rest-houses for Spanish gov’t
o Malate – “summer resort” of wealth & cultured, fishing & salt-making town
o Ermita – tourist belt, red-light district
o Paco – train station
o Pandacan – oil depots

 Further Suburbanization
o Quezon City as New Capital
 transfer of capital to area of 1572 ha
 Juan Arellano, Harry T. Frost, Louis Croft, Engg. AD Williams

o Constitution Hill
 158 ha in Novaliches Watershed, new site for Capital
 3 seats of government form a triangle at the center
 20 ha civic space “Plaza of the Republic”

o Philippine Homesite and Housing Corporation (PHHC)


 precursor to NHA
 homes for the masses based on neighborhood unit concept

o Philamlife Homes
 middle class residential homes
 Carlos P. Arguelles
 based on suburban developments in California

o Bagong Lipunan Sites & Services (BLISS)


 Walk-up housing units
 for government sector

 Present Day Metro Manila


o Population, area, density

 Metro Manila CBDs


o Manila EMERGING
 center of business & o Fort BGC
commerce  former military base
 population nucleus  first intelligent &
 seat of National ecological city
government  500 ha of prime real
o Makati estate land
 business, financial,
commercial, convention o Boulevard 2000
& recreational center  “Renaissance of the City
 Ayala, 1984 of Manila”
o Ortigas  Philippine Estates
 business, financial, Authority
convention, shopping, &  mixed-use, reclaimed
recreational node 1,167 ha along Manila
 Ortigas, 1950s Bay
 600 ha
o Cubao o Filinvest Corporate City
 alternative business center  major center surrounded
 Araneta, 1960s by residential areas
 37 ha, bazaar economy  high accessibility to
 modern commercial & nearby industrial estates
recreational center & techno parks
Government Agencies
HOUSING
 National Housing Authority (NHA)
o sole agency in direct shelter production
o housing assistance to lowest 30% urban income earners
o slum upgrading, squatter relocation, development of sites & services & construction of core
housing units

 Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB)


o formerly Human Settlements Regulatory Commission
o sole regulatory body for housing & land development
o private sector participation in low cost housing

 National Home Mortgage Financing Corporation (NHMFC)


o home mortgage institution
o operate viable home mortgage market
o utilize long term funds to purchase mortgages originated by both public & private

 Home Insurance and Guarantee Corporation (HIGC)


o formerly Home Financing Corporation
o assists private developers in undertaking low & middle income mass housing production
o encourage private financial institutions & commercial leaders to finance developments through
incentives

SUPPORT
 Home Development Mutual Fund
o administers provident fund contributions collected from member employees & employers,
utilizing funds for housing loans

 Social Security System (SSS)


o provider of funds for long term housing mortgages
o private sector employees

 Government Service Insurance System (GSIS)


o provider of funds for long term housing mortgages
o government employees

PLANNING
 Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR)
o data on land valuation & taxation
 Department of Agriculture (DA) / Bureau of Soils & Water Management (BSWM)
o data on network of protected agricultural areas
 Department of Agrarian Reform
o data on lands covered by CARP

 Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) /


Environmental Management Bureau (EMB)
o data on environmentally critical areas

 Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC)


o data on transport & comm. services
 National Statistics Office (NSO)
o data on population & demography

 National Power Corporation (NPC) / Manila Electric Company (MERALCO) /


National Electrification Administration (NEA)
o data on power

 Manila Waterworks and Sewerage Systems (MWSS) / Local Waterworks and Utilities
Administration (LWUA)
o data on water
 Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)
o data on roads
 City / Municipal Assessor’s Office
o tax maps & listings of all real properties with their corresponding market value and/or assessed
values located in their respective localities
KEVIN LYNCH’S IMAGE OF THE CITY

Paths
 Channels along which observer moves Districts
 Predominant element  Medium to large sections of a city, 2D
 Other elements arranged through paths  Observer can mentally enter “inside of”
 Strong paths:  Common, identifying character
o easily identifiable  Dominance depends upon individual and
o continuity & direction the given district
o aligned with larger system  Physical characteristics have variety of
 Spatial extremes highlight paths components
Nodes
Edges  Points, strategic spots by which an
 Linear elements not used or considered as observer can enter
paths  Intensive foci from which observer is
 Lateral references, not coordinate axes traveling
 Barriers or seams  Junctions & concentrations
 Not as dominant as paths but are  Directly related to paths & districts
important organizing features  May be thematic concentrations
 Strong edges:
o prominent Landmarks
o continuous  Point references considered to be external
o impenetrable to cross movement to the observer
 Can be disruptive to city form  Physical elements that may vary widely in
scale
 Unique and special in place of the
continuities used earlier
 Sequential series of landmarks as traveling
guides

IAN BENTLEY’S RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENTS


Permeability
 Places must be accessible to offer people a choice
 Public / private access must be complementary
 Depends on how network of public space divides the environment into blocks
 Decline in public permeability because of current design trends

Variety
 Offers a choice of experience
 Experience implies places with varied forms, uses, meanings
 Developers & planners concerned with economic performance & easier management, than with variety
 3 main factors:
o range of activities
o possibility of supply
o extent to which design encourages positive interactions
 Feasibility: economic, political, & functional

Legibility
 How layout is understood
 2 levels: physical form & activity patterns
 Old days - important buildings stood out
 Form & use reduced in modern environment
 Separating pedestrians from vehicles reduces legibility
 Strengthened by Lynch’s physical elements of the city
Robustness
 Environments for many different purposes
 Distinction between large & small scale robustness
 3 key factors for long term robustness:
o building depth
o access
o building height
 Factors on design of small scale robustness:
o hard & soft spaces
o active & passive spaces

Visual Appropriateness
 Decisions determine the general appearance of the scheme – next focus is on details
 Designing external image of place
 Regardless of what designers want, people interpret places as having meaning
 Vocabulary of visual cues found to communicate levels of choice
 Interpretations reinforce responsiveness by:
o Legibility
o Variety
o Robustness

Richness
 Decisions about appearance leave room for maneuvering at most detailed level of design
 Variety of sense experiences that users can enjoy
 2 ways to choose from different sense experiences:
o Focusing on different sources of sense experience
o Moving away from one source to another
 Sense of motion (through movement), smell, hearing touch, sight (easiest to control)
 Basis of visual richness depends on presence of visual contrasts

Personalization
 Allows to achieve environment that bears stamp of their own taste/values
 Make pattern of activities more clear
 2 ways to personalize
o Improve practical facilities
o Change image of a place
 Personalize as own affirmation because they perceive existing image as inappropriate
 2 levels:
o Private
o Public
 3 key factors:
o Tenure
o Building type
o Technology

Summary
 Permeability – designing overall layout of routes & development blocks
 Variety – locating uses on the site
 Legibility – designing massing of buildings & enclosure of public space
 Robustness – designing spatial arrangement of individual buildings & outdoor spaces
 Visual Appropriateness – designing the external image
 Richness – developing design for sensory choice
 Personalization – making design encourage people to put their own mark
URBAN FORM & FUNCTION
Landform
 Topography
o affect circulation, form, texture, size, shape, utilities
 Relationship with Nature
o landscaping, bodies of water, relationship with urban fabric
 Cities within nature
 Cities in hand with nature
 Nature within cities

Shape
Radiocentric
Large circle with radial corridors of intense development emanating from center

Rectilinear
2 corridors of intense development crossing the center

Star
Radiocentric form with open spaces between outreaching corridors of development

Ring
City built around large open space
Linear
Result of natural topography which restricts growth
Transportation spine
Branch
Linear span with connecting arms

Sheet
Vast urban area with little or no articulation

Articulated Sheet
Sheet accented by one or more central clusters & several subclusters
Constellation
Series of nearly equal sized cities in close proximity
Found in small rather than large cities
Satellite
Constellation of cities around a main center

Size & Density

 Physical Extent
o km across, center to outskirt, or sq.km
 Density Formulas
o number of inhabitants with respect to physical size:
 people per sq.km
 people per ha
 houses per sq.km / ha
 building floor area per section
 automobile population
 FAR
Routes
 Outlying routes traversing the city & approach routes to the city

 Right-of-Way
o Land secured & reserved for public for purposes of building highways

 Highways
o Public way for purposes of vehicular travel

 Super Highway
o Major cross sectional & longitudinal dimension
o Accommodate heavy traffic at high speed rate
o Rapid transit, median, side strip

 Street
o Highway in urban areas
o Arterial Streets
 25-40 m
 fast heavy traffic, intersect with expressways
o Collector Streets
 20-25 m
 connects minor to major system of arterial streets, connects to entrance streets of
developments
o Minor Streets
 16-20 m
 access to abutting properties
o Marginal Access Streets
 12-15 m
 parallel to arterial streets

 Road
o Highway outside urban district
o National Roads
 20 m ROW min
 National Primary Roads
 National Secondary Roads
o Provincial Roads
 15 m ROW min
o City Roads
 15 m ROW min
o Municipal Roads
 10 m ROW min
o Barangay Roads

 Avenue
o Street or highway frequently used to designate streets of a certain direction

 Boulevard
o Broad sheet of major importance, usually planted with trees

 Expressway
o Divided arterial highway for through traffic
o Full or partial control of access & generally with grade separation at intersections

 Freeway
o Expressway with full control of access

 Limited Access Highway


o Access determined by public authorities having jurisdiction over such traffic
o
Architecture
 Urban pattern in geometry, regular or irregular, formed by routes, open spaces, buildings
 Scale, character, grain/texture
 Details = overall visual effect (e.g. signs, billboards, sidewalks, street furniture, landscaping, etc)

 Grain - degree of fineness or coarseness in an urban area


 Texture - degree of mixture of fine & coarse elements

Urban Spaces
 Well-defined public streets, plazas, parks, playgrounds, quadrangles

Movement
 Circulation patterns
 Pedestrian & vehicular
 Pedestrian friendly environment, still accommodating vehicular traffic
 Separate routes designed for each type of mode (mass transit complementing pedestrians)

 Ideal: mix vehicular & pedestrian routes in one urban pattern without compromising safety nor limiting
walking experience

City Functions
 Economic
o producers & market places
o exchange of goods & services

 Defense & Protection


o Obsolete

 Worship & Governance


o previously prime, secondary today

 Transportation
o influence size & location of cities
o shape present day urban patterns

 Education
o Diversity

 Cultural
o sacrificed in favor of economic

 Housing
o largest & simplest
URBAN MODELS

Concentric Zone Theory


 E.W. Burgess (geographer, 1900s)
 CBD at center, other uses around
 Transition zone for CBD expansion
 Deficiencies but tested by time

Sector Model
 Homer Hoyt (economist, 1939)
 Uses grow with CBD, often follows rail/highway arteries, high/low ground, or clustering on same side of
the city
 Most cities grow in direction of higher income
 CBD > l.manufacturing > low R > middle R > high R

Multiple Nuclei Model


 Chauncy Harris & Edward Pullman (geographer)
 Uses do not evolve around a single core but at several nodes/ focal points
 Different activities have varying accessibility requirements
 CBD > l.manufacturing > low R > middle R > high R > h.manufacturing > outlying business > residential
suburb > industrial suburb > commuter zone

Urban Realms
 James Vance (sociologist)
 Cities identify with each of 3 previous conceptualizations rather than one
 Self-sufficient suburban sectors, downtown independent of central city
 Culmination of impact of automobile on urban form
 e.g. LA, USA
URBAN DESIGN CONTROLS

Land Use Planning & Zoning Incentive Zoning


 legal regulation of use of land  relaxes certain restrictions & developers
 allocates types of uses based on growth provide desirable public feature
patterns Cluster Zoning
 creating special policies for medium to
large development

GENERAL LAND USE COLOR CODES

Built-up Areas
YELLOW
10 structures / 10,000 sq.m
Agriculture
LT GREEN
Cropland
Agro-industrial
LT VIOLET
Piggery, poultry
Forest
DK GREEN
Forest, sanctuaries, watersheds, parks
Mining / Quarrying
BROWN
Mineral extractions
OLIVE GREEN Grassland / Pasture
AQUA Swampland / Marshes
ANY Others
URBAN LAND USE COLOR CODES

R-1 Up to 20 du/ha
YELLOW R-2 21-65 du/ha
R-3 >65 du/ha
C-1 CBD
RED C-2 Complement CBD
C-3 High Density Commercial; Regional Centers
I-1 Light Industrial
VIOLET I-2 Medium Industrial
I-3 Heavy Industrial
GI General Institutional
BLUE
SI Special Institutional
GREEN AG Agricultural
LT VIOLET AI Agro-Industrial
DK GREEN F Forest
LT GREEN PR Parks & Recreation
AQUA W Water
ORANGE T Tourist

Floor Area Ratio

 proportions between built area & lot area


 FAR = 1, FAR = 1, FAR = 2.5, FAR = 3.5
 "Plot Ratio"
 Limit heights & bulks, create setbacks & open space, generate uniform urban fabric
Floor Space Index (FSI)
 Divide area of total floor-space on any site, including half the area of adjoining roads
 Floor Space Index (FSI) = [(TGFA) / (Site Area + ½ Roads)]

Urban Design Guidelines


 Used in smaller sized developments
 Ensure uniform urban character in localities, even if sections are designed separately by different
architects & planners
 For safety & security, prevent overly contrasting structures, establish open spaces, retain feel or
atmosphere
 Building heights, bulk, setbacks, character, size of RROW

Environmental Impact Statement


 For large planning projects required to outline possible effects of project on environment

Urban Redevelopment Strategies


 Conservation
o "preservation", adaptation of parts while retaining spirit of original
o Conservation Area - containing group of buildings with architectural/historical significance
designated by Local Authority

 Urban Renewal
o idea of consciously renewing outworn areas of towns & cities
o Redevelopment & rehabilitation
o process of cleaning slum areas which are economically & physically beyond repair, areas
where facilities can be restored to health, safety, & good living standards
o protective measure to prevent undesirable influences

 Adaptive Reuse
o Conversion into different uses without significantly altering the structure
o Commonly performed in old warehouse districts, converting to residential uses

 Rehabilitation
o repairing, redecorating, converting existing structurally sound property to a standard compatible
with modern requirements of amenity & health
o "renovation"

Urban Ecological Process


 Invasion
o entrance of new population/ facilities

 Centralization
o increase in population at geographic center

 Block-boosting
o "forcing" old population out of area because of social or racial difference

 Gentrification
o improving physical set-up and affecting the market for run-down areas
URBAN PLANNING

Planning
 part of organization of society
 universal human activity consisting of making choices among options that appear to be open to the
future
o allocation of necessary resources
o consideration of outcomes before choosing alternatives
o art & science in shaping man's environment so that the right thing is in the right place at the
right time

Environmental Planning
 PD 1308: Law Regulating Environmental Planning Profession in the Philippines (Feb 14, 1994)
 Activities concerned with

 Scope
o community/town/city/regional development
o development of site for particular needs
o land use & zoning
o feasib

 Qualifications for Exam


o Filipino
o 21 years old
o MA EnP / BA EnP, 2 years EnP certified exp
o MA Arch, CE, Econ, Public Ad, Socio, 1 year EnP certified exp
o BS Arch, Engg, Econ, Public Ad, Socio, 2 years Enp certified exp

Mapping
 graphical rep of place/phenomena
 spatial data, distribution, relationships
 reduced model of reality with geo info
Types of Maps
 GENERAL - complex of physical & cultural o Infrastructure
features  Transpo
o Base  Utilities
 Political boundaries  Facilities
 Physical features  Irrigation
 Orientation, scale, title,  Special Projects
legend
o Vicinity o Cadastral
 Study area in relation to  Public record of
reference points ownership
 Radius of influence  Scope of power of
eminent domain
 THEMATIC - single feature/theme  Land values assessment
& land taxation
o Topo
 Config of earth's surface o Land Values
 Man-made physical  Valuation based on
changes potential use
 Vegetation or bodies of  Natural
water Resources
o Climate  Agricultural
 Wind  Residential
 Rainfall  Commercial
 Industrial
o Hydrogeology o Land Use
 Fault zones  General Land Use Map
 Bedrock  General Land Use Plan
 Surface/ground water  Urban Land Use Map
 Urban Land Use Plan
o Slope  Zoning Map
 classification
 0-3% - level to nearly o Population Density
level  Population
 3-5% - gently sloping in Concentration relative to
1 direction Land Area
 5-8% - gently undulating  Can be used for
in more than 1 direction Distribution of Services
 8-15% - moderately
undulating & sloping in  ANALYTICAL - derived results; synthesis
more than 1 direction of 2 or more variables
 15-18% - steeply o Erosion Potential
undulating & rolling in  Soil type
many directions  Slope
 18+% - very steeply  Vegetation
sloping in many  Rainfall
directions o Flooding Hazard
o Soil  Soil type
 Series  Slope
 Type  Rainfall intensity
 Phase  Tidal fluctuations
o Land Capability
o Land Classification  Soil erosion
 Forest reserve  Soil type
 Parks & wildlife  Slope/ flood-prone areas
sanctuaries o Soil Suitability
 Commercial forest  soil erosion
 Mossy forest  soil type
 Logged over areas  slope/ flood-prone areas
 Alienable land  depth of water table
 Swamp lands o Development Constraints
 Water bodies  Obstacles to
development
 Sieve Analysis
EMERGING THEORIES

Planned Unit Development (PUD)


 mid-sized developments built with the intentions of self-sustainability
 used in areas intensely developed for the first time
 Mixed-use/ cluster zoning
 Ordinary zoning regulations can be suspended for this particular property

Transit Oriented Developments (TOD)


 Mixed-use community with average distance of 670 m from transit stop & commercial core area
 Travel by transit, bike, foot, car
 Peter Calthorpe & Congress for New Urbanism

 Urban TOD
o Light/heavy rail, express bus stops
o High commercial intensities, job clusters, & moderate to high residential densities
o Different mix of uses depending on location, market demands, surrounding region
o Intensity of development along trunk line network reflect significant investment necessary to
construct transit system, should generate greatest number of transit-bound trips

 Neighborhood TOD
o located on local or feeder bus line within 10 minutes transit travel time (no more than 3 miles)
from trunk line transit stop
o Moderate density residential, service, retail, entertainment, civic, recreational
o Residential & local shopping focus at densities appropriate for context

 Street & Circulation Systems


o Local street system recognizable & interconnected, converging to transit stops, core
commercial areas/open spaces

 Distribution of TODs
o Maximize access to Core Commercial Areas from surrounding areas without relying solely on
arterials
o Major competing retail centers spaced a minimum 1 mile apart, distributed to served different
neighborhoods
o Located on fixed rail transit systems, allow efficient station spacing
o Distributed throughout new growth area, greatest number of residents & workers access to
variety of shopping opportunities
o Distributed to permit residents to walk to retail & public facilities without having to cross an
arterial street

Traditional Neighborhood Developments (TND)


 Traditional form while still accommodating automobile & other modern amenities
 Finely integrated, walkable communities with strong local identity & with convivial public places
NEW URBANISM
Suburban Sprawl
 Physical expansion a result of increasing number of new developments at outlying areas
 Waste of energy resources, time, money, & blight in central city
 Fragments region & creates series of unrelated developments creating a weak urban fabric
 Unpleasant environments at street level
 by Automobile, greedy developers
 "American Dream", unsightly suburban streets

Congress for New Urbanism (CNU)


 Formed due to effects of suburban sprawl
 Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Katz, Daniel Solomon
 Generate public awareness on ills of sprawl & bring back traditional city form

Hierarchy of Spaces
 Region
o Diversity, pedestrian scale, public space & structure applied regardless of location
 Neighborhood, District, & Corridor
o Fundamental organizing elements
o Neighborhood - mix of human activity
o Districts - single activity
o Corridors - connectors & separators
 Street, Block, & Building
o Streets - not dividing lines but communal passage rooms
o Blocks - field on which unfolds building fabric & public realm
o Buildings - smallest increment of growth, configuration determines character

Context of New Urbanism (Basic Rules)


 Neighborhood has discernible center/ focal point
 Most dwellings within 5-minute walk from center (600-700m, 2,000 ft)
 Variety of dwelling types
 Wide mix of uses
 Connected network, grid pattern, disperses traffic by providing variety of pedestrian & vehicular routes to any destination
 Small playgrounds not more than 200 m away from every dwelling
 Elementary school walkable to home by children
 Streets covered with rows of trees
 Parallel parking along streets, trees in between each space
 3.0 m wide sidewalks, with landscaping elements & street furniture
 Buildings close to street "outdoor room"
 Storefronts close to sidewalk, wide window openings & visible entrances inviting to pedestrian
 Parking lots & garage doors rarely front street, parking underground/multi-level, or rear of buildings
 Prominent sites at termination of vistas reserved for civic buildings
 Bodies of water, buildings face water, rather than water as backyard
 Self-governing neighborhood - maintenance, security, & physical change

New Urbanism Strategies


 Redevelopment
o blighted areas in inner city
o downtown areas
o increases land values, revitalize areas, encourage people to move back to city core,
discouraging further suburbanization
 Infill
o Redevelopment no longer an option while still avoiding physical expansion
o Best utilization of existing infrastructure
o Always be central part of growth policy
o Vary in size & shape, parking lots to large open spaces between built-up areas
 New Towns
o Infill cannot accommodate quantity or rate of growth
o Easiest to develop with transit & pedestrian oriented patterns
o May spread city's size
o Satellite towns larger than new growth areas & provide complete spectrum of facilities
o If well planned & transit oriented, can complement infill & revitalize region
Famous Case Studies
 SEASIDE
o Andres Duany & Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Walton County, Florida (1981)
o strong sense of community with a variety of dwelling units built close to each other
o built by the sea, designed to optimize waterfront access & views
 JACKSON TAYLOR
o Peter Calthorpe & Associates 75-acre in San Jose, California (1991)
o originally industrial, new housing & commercial
o Japanese & Hispanic, with Victorian homes
o Underutilized rail line converted to commuter use
 LAGUNA WEST
o Peter Calthorpe & Phil Angelides 1,045-acre in Sacramento, California (1990)
o Emphasis on well-defined public spaces & amenities
o Focal point is 100-acre town center with civic & commercial use & housing
o System of public spaces - organizing structure
o Town center located at terminus of radial boulevards originating in neighborhood parks
 KENTLANDS
o Andres Duany & Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, 355-acre in Gaithersburg, Marylan
o 6 neighborhoods, mixed-use
o Civic facilities & public open spaces
o Lake, greenbelts, & several small squares defined individual neighborhoods

NOTABLE PLANNERS
Jean Charles Adolph Alphand
 Landscape architect

Sir Leslie Patrick Abercrombie


 won 1913 competition for re-planning of Dublin
 Founder, Town Planning Review
 Greater London Plan (1944)

Edmund Norwood Bacon


 Design of Cities (1967), reference for urban designers
 emergence of Shanghai

James Silk Buckingham


 “Victoria”
 National Evils and Practical Remedies (1849)

Constantinos Doxiadis
 Ekistics author

Domenico Fontana
 architect by the Pope; Plan: street visually accented by obelisks

Francois Fourier
 French social reformer“Phalanst, ery”
 The New World of Industry and Society (1829)

Buckminster Fuller
 assessed state of world's productive energy & suggested how it could be man's advantage

Charles Elliot
 completed Olmstead’s Boston Park system

Tony Garnier
 Cite Industrielle (1898-1904)
 Conceptualized distinct functional zoning throughout large development

Sir Patrick Geddes


 planning circles made by contribution to fresh thought on shape & location of contemporary human communities
 Cities in Evolution (1915)
Walter Gropius
 invention of residential layout in which slab locks of flats placed laterally or obliquely o a street rather
than parallel
 The New Architecture and the Bauhaus (1935)

Victor Gruen
 pioneered development in America of both regional & city center pedestrian shopping areas
 Northland Centre near Detroit & Southdale Center in Minneapolis, with shops clustered at the center &
encircled with car parks rather than placed on each side of a strip

Eugene Henard
 Les Villes de l’Avenis (1910), may have influenced Corbu

Jane Jacobs
 Architectural Forum; The Death & Life of Great American Cities (1962)
 concentrated on how people actually behave & not how designers intend them to

Jens Jensen
 designed Chicago’s original park system

George Kessler
 layout Kansas City park system

Claude Nicolas Ledoux


 French architect, new era in urban design; ideal plan where “everything is motivated by necessity”
 Chaux, France
 Architecture (1804)

Francis Cabot Lowell


 Industrial towns
 Georgiaville, RA (1812); Waltham, Massachusetts; Harrisville, NH (1816); Lowell, Massachusetts (1822)

Louis Kahn
 imaginative sequence of plans for redevelopment of Philadelphia (1952 & 1961)
 utilitarian elements of city structure, made focal points of conceptually designed cities

George Perkins Marsh


 Founder of modern conservation
 Man and Nature (1862, intro to ecology)

Benton Mackeye
 The New Exploration, A philosophy of Regional Planning
 Envisioned the “townless highway” and “highwayless towns”
 showed New York City as the entry and exit portal for the entire US industrial empire

Albert Mayer
 housing developments should blend in with neighboring city to produce change of character but not shock
 "differentiation without division"
 Chandigarh original plan

William Morris
 Return to simpler Christian virtues of Gothic period

Lewis Mumford
 The Story of Utopias (1922), The City in History (1961)
 "long running start in history, in order to solve problems of today"
 balanced neighborhood as solution to the problems of congested & overgrown city

John Nash
 curving forms, rather than grid patterns
 London's Park Crescent & Regent's Park

Sir Frederic James Osborn


 Howard's Garden City
 be accepted as integral elements of government planning policies
Robert Pemberton
 “Happy Colony” in New Zealand

Francois Perroux
 Growth Pole Theory - economic pole existing in space

Dr. Benjamin Richardson


 “Hygeia” in US

Biaggio Rosetti
 architect and town planner regarded as aone of the world’s earliest modern urban designers
o street widening, new buildings, o decide which to concentrate effort
wall improvement o lay down a plan that is theological
o enlarge the town and realizable
o carry-on with the plan o provide framework for others to
o repair an existing city build upon

Eliel Saarinen
 prize-winning plan for Helsinki (1910)
 teaching of architecture and urban planning
 “The City” published in 1913

Antonio Sant’elia
 La Citra Nuova: enormous metropolis inspired by complex plans for NY Grand Central Area

Daniel Schreber
 “Schrenbergarten” : small gardens for children used by elderly
 popularized the idea of Urban playground in Europe

Norman Shaw
 Bedford Park (1875-81)

Lewis Silkin
 New Towns Act of 1946 & Town & Country Planning Act of 1947
 important in quality & direction of planning in Britain

Camillo Sitte
 Der Stadtebau nach seinen kunstlerischen Grundsatzen (City Planning According to Artistic Principles)
 distaste for regular & classical mode of town planning

Kenzo Tange
 cities = 15% of country's population
 design for rebuilt Tokyo of 15M people

Vitruvius
 De Architectura; main reference to classical archi & planning

Johann Heinrich Von Thunen


 Location Theory - around a central town, rural lands assume forms, with intensity of production declining
with distance from the market

John Wood
 Royal Circus & Royal Crescent in Bath, England
 formalism with simple curved buildings

Christopher Wren
 rebuilding after Great Fire of London (1966)
with John Evelyn, Robert Hooke, & Valentine Knight, John Gwynn
 stock exchange building as symbolic focal point instead of traditional palace / cathedral

Henry Wright
 Rehousing Urban American (1934)
 Regional planning, worked under Clarence Stein (Towards New Towns for America, 1951)

OTHERS: Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, John Ruskin, Henry David Thoreau


SITE PLANNING
Introduction
 "art of arranging structures on land & shaping spaces between" (Kevin Lynch)
 "art & science of arranging uses of portions of land"
(Guide to Site & Environmental Planning, 1980 by Harvey M. Rubenstein)
 critical thinking process of research, analysis, synthesis that makes a major contribution to formation of
design decisions
 Research
o existing projects, books, experiments
 Analysis
o natural & man-made features; topo analysis = mandatory

Methods of Establishing a Site


 Site Selection Process - select site for use
 Development Suitability Process - select use for site

FACTORS IN SITE ANALYSIS

NATURAL

Geology
 Igneous (hardest, crystalized liquid)
 Sedimentary (layered, deposited/eroded, 3rd hardest)
 Metamorphosed (deeper levels, change in pressure)
 Soil erosion

Geomorphology
 Physiography - description of landforms
 Landforms - irregularities on earth's surface

 Basic Geomorphologic Info:

o SOIL & SOIL DEVELOPMENT SUITABILITY


 relationship of soil composition & land uses

o SOIL PROPERTIES
 Composition - material make-up
 Mineral Particles (50-80% of volume)
 Sand & Gravel - for greatest stability, high bearing capacity
 Clays - loosely packed, wet particle, tendency to compress/slip under stress
 Bearing Capacity - soil's resistance to penetration from a weighted object
 Organic Matter - varied quantity, structure is weak but important in fertility,
moisture absorption & retention, & landscaping
 Water - content varies with particle size, drainage, topo, & climate

 Gravity Water - moves downward to accumulate in subsoil & underlying


bedrock to form groundwater, fills spaces; soil devoid of air below water table

 Texture - sizes of particles


 Loam - center of 12 basic terms of texture; 40% sand, 40% silt, 20% day

o DRAINAGE
 Good Drainage
 soil's ability to transfer gravity water downward, soil is not conducive to
prolonged periods of saturation

 Infiltration Capacity
o rate at which water penetrates soil surface (cm/hr)
 Permeability
o rate at which water within soil moves through given volume of
material (cm/hr)
 Percolation
o rate at which water in a soil pit/pipe within the sold? is taken up by
the soil (wastewater absorption tests, in/hr)

 Poor Drainage
 when soil is frequently saturated
 by local accumulation of surface water
 by rise in level of groundwater within soil column, soil particles too small to
transmit infiltration water

o TOPOGRAPHY & SLOPE


 Slope Form / Profile
 drawn to known proportions with distance on horizontal axis & elevation on
vertical axis
 vertical axis exaggerated to ease construction & accentuate topographic
details
 4 Basic Slope Forms

 Angle of Repose
 maximum angle for any earth material at which it can be safely inclined &
beyond which it will fail

 Topographic Map
 shape of earth's surface by contour lines

 Contours
 imaginary lines that join points of equal elevation on the surface of land
above or below reference surface such as mean sea level

 Contour Maps
 comprised of lines connecting points of equal elevation
 Slope Analysis
 overall pattern of slopes which determine the best uses for various portion of
site, along with feasibility of construction

SLOPE FOR ELEMENTARY & HIGH SCHOOL CAMPUS

0-5% Generally flat Highly buildable


5-10% Generally rolling Moderately buildable
10-15% Gentle to mild slopes Moderately difficult terrain
15-20% Mild to steep slopes Difficult terrain
20% over Harsh, steep slopes Unbuildable

 Slope Map
 visually express slope patterns on topo map
o establish site boundaries
o graduated scale
o mark edges
o color/hatch
 Desirable Slopes
 slopes selected according to building type & activities
 e.g. Expressways (divided, limited access, 4-6 lanes) designed for high
speed, uninterrupted movement & limited grades of 4%
 city street, speed limits are 20-30 mph, grades may be as steep as 10%,
driveways up to 15%

 Slope Requirements for Various Land Uses

LAND USE MAXIMUM MINIMUM OPTIMUM

Housing sites 20-25% 0% 2%


Playgrounds 2-3% .05% 1%
Public stairs 50% -- 25%
Lawns (mowed) 25% -- 2-3%
Septic drainfields* 15% 0% .05%
Paved Surfaces
Parking Lots 3% .05% 1%
Sidewalks 10% 0% 1%
Streets & Roads 15-17% -- 1%
20 mph 12%
30 mph 10%
40 mph 8%
50 mph 7%
60 mph 5%
70 mph 4%
Industrial Sites
Factories 3-4% 0% 2%
Lay Down Storage 3% .05% 1%
Parking 3% .05% 1%
*special drainfields 10-12%

SLOPE CONSTRUCTION

0-5% Highly buildable


5-10% Moderately buildable
10-15% Moderately difficult
15-20% Difficult
20% + Unbuildable
o SOIL EROSION
 rocks broken down/weathered into small fragments, by wind, water, ice, gravity
 Vegetation
 most important control, intercept raindrops reducing force that strike soil
 plant roots increase soil resistance to running water
 Density: heavier cover, lower soil loss to runoff
 Soil Type
 Sand erodes first
 Intermediate textures most erodible
 Clay & particles coarser than sand more resistant
 Compactness & structure affect erodibility after texture

 Slope Size & Inclination


 Long slopes collect more rainfall & generate larger volume of runoff
 Steep & long slopes produce greatest erosion, runoff high in velocity & mass
 ^only true for slopes up to 50 degrees; steeper angles, exposure of slope
face to rainfall grows rapidly smaller, vanishing for vertical cliffs

 Frequency & Intensity of Rainfall


 intense rainfall, higher rates of erosion
 Rainfall Erosion Index - erosive energy delivered annually to soil by rainfall

o HYDROLOGY
 study of Waters, occurrence, circulation, properties, etc
 Hydrologic Cycle (Earth's Water Cycle)
 Water Table - upper boundary of zone of groundwater, top of unconfined aquifer

 Aquifer - permeable geological stratum or formation that can both store & transmit
groundwater in significant quantities

 Watershed - geographic area of land bounded by topographic features & height of


land that captures precipitation, filters & stores water & drains waters to shared
destination

o VEGETATION
 Climatic Control
 Solar Radiation
o source of light & heat, reflected, produces glare
o Trees are best controls
 block/filter sunlight
 cool air (84degF air temp, up to 20degF lower)
 Wind
o velocity - pleasant/destructive
o Trees buffer winds caused by convection & Venturi Effect
 Precipitation
o Plants intercept rain & slow it down, aid in moisture retention &
prevention of soil erosion

 Environmental Engineering
 Air Purification
o photosynthesis, use up CO2 emissions, releases oxygen, filter
pollutants
 Noise
o noisy = 60 dB
o absorb soundwaves, (100 ft deep forest, 21 dB lower)

 Glare & Reflection


o reduce primary/secondary (reflected) glare

 Erosion Control
o prevent erosion from stormwater runoff & of controlling erosion
during construction
o extensive root systems = stability
o sandy slopes = need woody vegetation, increase angle of repose by
10-15deg
o Vitiveria ziziainoides (Vitiver Grass) = "miracle grass", bio-engg
 Architectural & Aesthetic
 Space Definition
o as wall elements to form outdoor spaces
o as canopies to provide shade
o as ground covers to provide color & texture
 View Control
o screen out objectionable views
o backdrops for sculpture/fountains
o filter/frame a view
 Mood
o affect people's moods

o WILDLIFE
 Openland Wildlife
 grain & seed crops
 grasses & legumes
 wild herbaceous upland plants
 hardwood woody plants

Woodland Wildlife
 grasses & legumes
 wild herbaceous upland plants
 hardwood woody plants
 Cone-bearing shrubs (e.g. pines)
 Wetland Wildlife
 wetland food plants of wild herbaceous plants of moist to wet sites, excluding
submerged or floating aquatic plants
 shallow water development with water impoundments not deeper than 5ft
 excavated ponds with ample supply of water at least 1 acre & average 6fth
depth
 streams
o CLIMATE
 Cold, temperate, hot arid, hot humid
 Passive Cooling
 proper siting & use of energy-efficient materials = energy conservation

CULTURAL Utilities / Services


 sanitary, electric, water, drainage
Existing Land Use Historic
 available in each city & municipality to  legal responsibilities in historic/archaeological
determine areas for uses landmarks
 each site must conform to land use plan Site Context
 Gesellschaft
Traffic & Transit System o type of community urban living
 relationship of traffic pattern to each other & to o acquaintance, secondary/less
site personal, business-like
 adequacy of access & efficiency of circulation  Gemeinschaft
(vehicular & pedestrian) o rural
 direction of dominant traffic flow = establish o personal/intimate, family & friends
highest visual impact
AESTHETIC
Density & Zoning
 Density - population per unit land area (no. of Natural Features
families per ha or FAR)  outstanding features of earth, rock, water, plant
 existing utilities sufficient to sustain future devt material
 privacy, social contact, & freedom of movement  incorporated in site dev as natural assets
 building height, coverage, open space
Spatial Patterns
Socio-economic  open space configured according to
 need, interest, or objections on the project arrangement of elements that evoke activity/flow
(compatibility)
 e.g. high-end boutique in low-income community Visual Resources
 View - scene observed from a vantage point;
theme = meaning; full-view not always best view
 Vista - confined view directed at terminal or
dominant feature; Viewing Station, View, &
Foreground
Planning Theories
 Figure Ground – solid mass to open voids
 Linkage – derived from lines, connecting one element to another
 Place – adds components of human needs & cultural, historical, & natural contexts

5 Types of Urban Voids


 Entry Foyer Space – transition from common territory to personal domain
 Inner Block Void – semi-private leisure or utility space or mid-block open space
 Streets & Squares – connectors of homes & civic spaces
 Public Parks & Gardens – independent landscape compositions
 Linear Open Space – water features

3 Types of Urban Space Creating Framework of Spatial Linkages


 Compositional Form
 Megaform
 Group Form

Modes of Planning
 Authoritarian (formal, geometric, power)
 Utilitarian (profit, industrial)
 Romantic (against Utilitarian, human values)
 Utopian (ideal, Garden City)
 Technocratic (machine, technological)
 Organic (4-dimensional, answer to every city function)

RA 7160: Local Government Code of 1991


 City - Php 20M income, 10,000 has, 150,000 pop
 Highly Urbanized City – Php 50M, 200,000 pop
 Component City - income below ^
 Urban Area
o City - 1000/sq.km
o Poblacion – 500/sq.km
o Central District – 6 establishments & street networks
o Barangay – 1000 people with 6 establishments

 Density
o Low < 150 persons/ha
o Medium 151-120 persons/ha
o High > 250 persons/ha