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LECTURE 9 SHEAR FLOW

CE 2134 Hydraulics
2014/2015
Announcements
• Reminder to complete midterm feedback survey on IVLE

• Midterm quizzes will be graded and returned to you in


tutorials on week of April 13.
• No tutorials next week (week of April 6).
Updated Schedule
Week Lecture Tutorial
Week 8 Lecture 6: Review Tutorial 6: Online assessment
9 Mar – 13 Mar
E-learning week
Week 9 Lecture 7: Dimensional analysis No Tutorials
16 Mar – 20 Mar
Week 10 Lecture 8: Pipe flow Tutorial 7: Dimensional analysis
23 Mar – 27 Mar
Week 11 Quiz (31 Mar Tues) + Lecture 9: Tutorial 8: Pipe flow
30 Mar – 3 Apr Shear flow
Week 12 Lecture 10: More applications No Tutorials
6 Apr – 10 Apr
Week 13 Lecture 11: Turbines/pumps + Tutorial 9: More applications
13 Apr – 17 Apr Tutorial 10: Turbines/pumps
Tues 31 Mar Written Quiz (Time: 13:00 – 14:00)
Lecture Outline
• Introduction

• Laminar/turbulent flow

• Laminar flow between

parallel plates
INTRODUCTION
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Introduction
• In a shear flow, velocity varies in the transverse direction
• Particles on different flow lines travel at different speeds

• Shear strain is 𝑑/𝐿, where 𝑑 is displacement of the top part and


𝐿 is the distance of two parallel plates.
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Strain rate tensor


• Shear strain rate (velocity gradient) is the rate of change in
strain with time,
(𝑑/𝐿)/∆𝑡 = 𝑢/𝐿
where ∆𝑡 is the time interval.
• The strain rate tensor is
𝜕𝑢𝑥 𝜕𝑢𝑦 𝜕𝑢𝑧
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥
𝜕𝑢𝑥 𝜕𝑢𝑦 𝜕𝑢𝑧
𝛻𝑢 =
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
𝜕𝑢𝑥 𝜕𝑢𝑦 𝜕𝑢𝑧
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧
LAMINAR/ TURBULENT FLOW
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Laminar vs Turbulent Flows


• Differ greatly in flow features that will be discussed

• Reynolds number

• Ratio of inertia to viscous force

• Reynolds experiment

• Demonstrate the differences between laminar and turbulent


flows
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

 High flow velocities


 Re > 4000

• Low flow velocities

• Re < 2000

• For 2000 < Re < 4000, transition flow region


Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Velocity profile of pipe flow

Laminar flow Turbulent flow


• Parabolic velocity profile • Flatter velocity profile across
center of pipe
• 𝑅𝑒 < 2000
• 𝑅𝑒 > 4000
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Reynolds number, Re
• Dimensionless number that gives a measure of the ratio of
inertial to viscous forces
𝜌𝑉𝐿
𝑅𝑒 =
𝜇
• where  and  are the mass density and dynamic viscosity of
the fluid, 𝑉 is the average velocity of the flow and 𝐿 is a
characteristic length
• Determine when a fluid flow becomes turbulent

• Laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds number, where viscous


forces are dominant
• Turbulent flow occurs at high Reynolds number, where inertial
forces are dominant
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Reynolds Experiment
• Injected fine stream of dye at entrance to
glass tube
• Adjusted flow velocity in glass tube by
opening/ closing outlet valve
• As flow velocity increased, flow changed
from well-order (laminar) to an irregular
and unstable (turbulent) flow

Increase in
flow velocity,
thus increase in
Reynolds
number
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

• When the outlet valve is opened slightly, the velocity of the flow in the glass
tube is very low and the filament of dye is clearly discernible. (A streak line
or filament line)
• This orderly nature of flow of the dye with a very low velocity gives the
impression that the dye is flowing as a layer of fluid. This slow well ordered
flow is referred to as laminar flow.
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

• When the outlet valve is further opened progressively, the velocity of the flow
in the glass tube increases progressively.
• As the velocity of the flow increases, the filament of dye gradually begins to
depart from a well ordered filament and becomes increasingly irregular and
reveal an unstable structure.
• This is the transition from a well ordered laminar flow to a highly irregular
turbulent flow where the mixing of the dye is clearly observed.
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

DEMO - Transition from laminar to turbulent flow


visualized using dye tracer in a pipe
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Candle Smoke Plume


• Laminar and turbulent flow regimes of a candle smoke plume
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Turbulent flow
• Continuous interchange of fluid parcels over very short
distances as well as larger parcels over larger distances
• Motion of fluid parcels are superposed on a well-ordered
time-averaged flow
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

• Exchange of fluid parcels result in shear stresses in the flow,


which may be expressed as
𝜕𝑢
𝜏𝑡 = 𝜂 𝑡
𝜕𝑧
• where 𝜂𝑡 is eddy viscosity and 𝑢 is time-averaged flow in x-
direction.
• Coefficient of kinematic viscosity 𝜈 epends on type of fluid and
temperature
• Eddy viscosity 𝜂𝑡 depends on local conditions of flow, which
are highly unpredictable in a turbulent motion. Range from
several to thousand times the value of 𝜈
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

EXAMPLE 1
• Consider a pipe with diameter 𝐷 = 0.15 𝑚. Glycerin at 25℃
flows through the pipe. The density of Glycerin is 1258 kg/m3
and 𝜇 = 0.96. The experiment is performed for two cases with
flow velocity 𝑈 = 3.6 𝑚/𝑠. Compute the Reynolds number.
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

SOLUTION 1
• For U= 3.6 𝑚/𝑠,
𝜌𝑉𝐿 3.6 × 0.15 × 1258
𝑅𝑒 = = = 708 < 2000
𝜇 0.96

• The flow is laminar

• For 𝑉 = 40.5 𝑚/𝑠,


𝜌𝑉𝐿 40.5 × 0.15 × 1258
𝑅𝑒 = = = > 4000
𝜇 0.96

• The flow is turbulent


LAMINAR FLOW BETWEEN
PARALLEL PLATES
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Steady flow between parallel plates (1)


• Driven by combination of an externally imposed pressure
gradient and the motion of the upper plate at uniform speed 𝑈

• The pressure-gradient friction balance is


1 𝜕𝑝 𝜕2𝑢
0=− +𝜈 2
𝜌 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
where 𝑝 is pressure, 𝜌 is density, 𝜈 is kinematic viscosity and 𝑢
is velocity
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Steady flow between parallel plates (2)


• Integrating the balance,
𝑦 2 𝜕𝑝
0=− + 𝜇𝑢 + 𝐴𝑦 + 𝐵
2 𝜕𝑥

• The boundary conditions are 𝑢 𝑦 = 0 = 0 and 𝑢 𝑦 = 2𝑏 = 𝑈,


𝜕𝑝 𝜇𝑈
𝐴=𝑏 −
𝜕𝑥 2𝑏
𝐵=0

• The velocity profile is


𝑦𝑈 𝑦 𝜕𝑝 𝑦
𝑢= − 𝑏−
2𝑏 𝜇 𝜕𝑥 2
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Steady flow between parallel plates (3)


• Volume rate of flow per unit width of channel is
2𝑏
2𝑏 2 𝜕𝑝
𝑄= 𝑢 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑈𝑏 1 −
0 3𝜇𝑈 𝜕𝑥

• The mean velocity is


𝑄 𝑈 2𝑏 2 𝜕𝑝
𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 = = 1−
2𝑏 2 3𝜇𝑈 𝜕𝑥

• The magnitude of shear stress is


𝜕𝑢 𝜇𝑈 𝜕𝑝
𝜏=𝜇 = + 𝑦−𝑏
𝜕𝑦 2𝑏 𝜕𝑥
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Steady flow between parallel plates (4)


• For steady flow between parallel plates, only the 𝑥
component velocity is non-zero and a gradient exists only
in the 𝑦 direction.
𝜕𝑢𝑥
• The only non-zero element of the tensor is = 𝛾.
𝜕𝑦
• The strain rate tensor is
0 0 0
𝛻𝑢 = 𝛾 0 0
0 0 0
1 𝜕𝑝 𝑈
where 𝛾 = 𝑦−𝑏 +
𝜇 𝜕𝑥 2𝑏
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Plane Couette flow (1)


• Driven by motion of upper plate alone, without externally
imposed pressure gradient

𝜕𝑝
• There is no externally imposed pressure gradient, i.e. =0
𝜕𝑥
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Plane Couette flow (2)


• Even without the pressure gradient, motion in the fluid can be
initiated by the motion of the upper plate.
• Resulting velocity profile due only to the motion of the upper
𝜕𝑃
plate is linear and is obtained by setting =0
𝜕𝑥
𝑦𝑈
• The velocity profile is 𝑢 =
2𝑏
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Plane Couette flow (3)


• The magnitude of shear stress is
𝜕𝑢 𝜇𝑈
𝜏=𝜇 =
𝜕𝑦 2𝑏
• Volume rate of flow per unit width of channel is
2𝑏
𝑄= 𝑢 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑈𝑏
0

• The mean velocity is


𝑄 𝑈
𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 = =
2𝑏 2
0 0 0
• The strain rate tensor is 𝛻𝑢 = 𝛾 0 0 ,
0 0 0
𝑈
where 𝛾 =
2𝑏
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Plane Poiseuille flow (1)


• Driven by externally imposed pressure gradient, without
motion of upper plate

• The upper plate is stationary, i.e. 𝑈 = 0


Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Plane Poiseuille flow (2)


• The velocity profile is
𝑦 𝜕𝑝 𝑦
𝑢=− 𝑏−
𝜇 𝜕𝑥 2
𝜕𝑃
• Note that < 0, indicating that pressure drop is responsible
𝜕𝑥
for driving the flow through the space between the plates
• Pressure gradient is constant in order to preserve the steady
flow assumption.
• Velocity distribution is parabolic, with maximum value at the
center where y = 𝑏,
𝑏 2 𝜕𝑝
𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 =−
2𝜇 𝜕𝑥
Introduction Laminar/turbulent Between parallel plates

Plane Poiseuille flow (3)


• The magnitude of shear stress is
𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑝
𝜏=𝜇 = 𝑦−𝑏
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥
• Volume rate of flow per unit width of channel is
2𝑏
1 𝜕𝑝 2𝑏 3
𝑄= 𝑢 𝑑𝑦 =
0 𝜇 𝜕𝑥 3
• The mean velocity is
𝑄 1 𝜕𝑝 𝑏 2
𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 = =
2𝑏 𝜇 𝜕𝑥 3
0 0 0
• The strain rate tensor is 𝛻𝑢 = 𝛾 0 0 ,
0 0 0
1 𝜕𝑝
where 𝛾 = 𝑦−𝑏
𝜇 𝜕𝑥