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Bachelor in Mass Communication

(B.M.C.)

BMC – 108
MASS COMMUNICATION
(fgUnh)
Authors :
Mr. S. K. Singh
Ms Madhu Deep
Ms Sunaina

Vettor :
Prof. B. K. Kuthiala

Course Co-ordinator :
Sushil K. Singh
Sr. Lecturer
Department of Communication Management and Technology,
Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar - 125001

2004 - 2005
fo"k; & lwph
Ø-la - ist ua-
CykWd ,
;wfuV I
1- tula p kj 3
;wfuV II
2- tulapkj dh fo'ks"krk,a 10

CykWd ch
;wfuV I
3- tulapkj ek/;eksa dk bfrgkl ¼lalkj ds izi{s k; ls½ 14
;wfuV II
4- tulapkj ek/;eksa dk bfrgkl ¼Hkkjr ds izi{s k; ls½ 25

CykWd lh
;wfuV I
5- tulapkj ds ek/;e 39
;wfuV II
6- jsfM;ks (Radio) 43

CykWd Mh
;wfuV I
7- Hypodermic Needle Theory 51
;wfuV II
8- Selective Exposure, Selective Perception
and Selevtive Retention 55

CykWd bZ
;wfuV I
9- Reach and Role of Different Media 58
;wfuV II
10- Effect of Mass Media 64
PAPER - II BLOCK - A UNIT - I

tula p kj
tulapkj 'kCn vaxt sz h Hkk"kk ds Mass Communication dk fgUnh
i;kZ;okph gS A bldk vfHkizk;% cgqy ek=k esa ;k Hkkjh ek=k esa ;k Hkkjh vkdkj
esa fc[kjs yksxks ;k vf/kd ek=k esa yksxksa rd lapkj ek/;e ls lwpuk ;k lUns'k
igqpa kuk gS A tulapkj esa tu 'kCn tulewg] HkhM o turk dks crkrk gS A ijUrq
okLrfodrk esa bu rhuksa ds fofHkUu vFkZ gSa A tulewg rks leku fgr] ewY;ksa dh
iwfrZ ds fy, laxfBr gksrk gS A HkhM+ fdlh LFkku fo'ks"k ij vkdfLed :i ls
tek gksrh gS A tSls fdlh ?kVuk ?kfVr gksus ij Hkkoqd ;k rek'kehu HkhM+ rFkk
turk dk vkdkj fo'kky gksrk gS A bldk lkekftd thou gksrk gS rFkk turk
vius er] :fp] jktuhfr ds fo"k; esa Lora= igpku j[krh gS A
blds vfrfjDr tulapkj esa ^lapkj* 'kCn vaxtsz h Hkk"kk ds Communication
dk i;kZ;okph gS A ;g 'kCn ysfVu Hkk"kk ds Communis ls fy;k x;k gS ftldk
vFkZ gS to make common, to share, to impart, to transit vFkkZr~ lkekU;hdj.k]
lkekU; Hkkxhnkjh] eqDr lwpuk o lEiz"s k.k A fdlh ,d O;fDr ls nwljs O;fDr
dks vFkok fdlh ,d O;fDr ls dbZ O;fDr;ksa dks dqN lkFkZd fpUgks]a ladrs ksa ;k
izrhdksa ds lEiz"s k.k ls lwpuk] tkudkjh] Kku ;k euksHkko dk vknku iznku djuk
lapkj gS A dqN lapkj fo'ks"kKksa dk dguk gS fd lapkj] vFkZ dk lai"sz k.k gS]
lkekftd ekU;rkvksa dk lapkj.k gS] ;k vuqHko dk ckaVuk gS A
lapkj ,d xfr'khy izfØ;k gS tks lac/a kksa ij vk/kkfjr gS ;g lac/a k tksM+us
dk ,d cM+k gfFk;kj gS & ,d O;fDr dks nwljs O;fDr ls ,d lewg dks nwljs
lewg ls vkSj ,d ns'k dks nwljs ns'k ls tksM+uk lapkj dk dke gS A vr% lapkj
lkekftd ikjLifjd fØ;k dh izfØ;k gS lapkj dk lkekU; vFkZ yksxksa dk vkil
esa fopkj] vkpkj] Kku rFkk Hkkoukvksa dk ladrs ksa }kjk vknku&iznku gS A bl izdkj
dgk tk ldrk gS fd ^lapkj gh fodkl gS* A
lwpuk] fopkjksa vkSj vfHko`fÙk;ksa dks ,d O;fDr ls nwljs O;fDr rd
lEizfs "kr djus dh dyk dk uke lapkj gS A tks i=kdkj ,oa tulEidZdehZ bl

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(3)
lapkj dyk dks ugha tkurs og fdrus Hkh l'kDr tulapkj ek/;e ls D;ksa u
tqM+s gksa mUgsa lQy ugha dgk tk ldrk A
Communication comes from the Latin communis, common, when we
communicate we are trying to share information, an idea, or an attitude.
— Wilbur Schramm

Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he
wants to create understanding in the mind of another. Communication is a
bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuing Process of telling,
listening and understanding.
— Lous A. Allen

Communication is the process by which information is transmitted


between individuals & organisations so that an understanding response truth.
— Peter Little

bl izdkj tulapkj ls vfHkizk;% ,d cM+s fefJr tulewg dks ,d lkFk


lUns'k igqp
a kuk gS A vr% tulapkj ,d fo'ks"k izdkj dk lapkj gS tks ;a=pkfyr
gS vkSj lUns'k dks nqxuq k frxquk dj nwj&nwj rd Hkstrk gS A tulapkj dk izokg
vlhfer ,oa vfr O;kid gS A tulapkj ds ek/;e %& jsfM;ks] flusek] lekpkji=]
fdrkcsa vkfn gSa A ;g ,d laLFkk gS tks lUns'k dks cukus rFkk mldks laifsz "kr djus
esa yxh jgrh gSAa tulapkj dh dqN fo'ks"k ifjHkk"kk,a bl izdkj gSa %&
Mass communication is dilivering information, ideas, and attitudes to a
sizeable and diversified audience, through use of the media developed for the
purpose.
— Emery Ault Agee

Mass communication is directed to a large, heterogenous and anonymous


audience.

— Charles R. Wright

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(4)
^---- og vla[; <ax ftuls ekuork ls lEcU/k j[kk tk ldrk gSA dsoy
'kCnksa ;k laxhr] fp=ksa ;k eqn.z k }kjk b'kkjksa ;k vax&izn'kZu] 'kkjhfjd eqnkz ;k
if{k;ksa ds ijksa ls && lHkh dh vkW[a kksa rFkk dkuksa rd lan's k igqp
a kuk gh tulapkj
gS A*
&&&,'kys ekSVa xq rFkk Qyks,M eSVlu
tulapkj dk vFkZ lwpuk dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd igqp
a kuk gS A
tulapkj gh crkrk gS fd jktlÙkk ;k 'kklu dh O;oLFkk dk vk/kkj D;k
gks\ ljdkj dk :i dSlk gks] LosPNkpkjh jktk ;k lSfud vf/kdkfj;ksa dk 'kklu
gks ;k Lora= vkSj yksdfiz; ljdkj gks && tulapkj ek/;e ls gh ;g irk pyrk
gS A
&&MsfoM g~;ew
u;s Kku ds lEcU/k esa vf/kdkf/kd yksxksa dks ekywe gksuk izlkj gS A izlkj
QSyus ;k O;kIr gksus dh fØ;k gS A lEiz"s k.k esa lUns'k Hkstus dk dk;Z lfEefyr
gS A fdlh rF;] lwpuk] Kku] fopkj vkSj euksjt a u dks O;kid <ax ls tu lkekU;
rd igqWpa kus dh izfØ;k tulapkj gS A leku y{; dh izkfIr vkSj ikjLifjd
esy&tksy ds fy, bldh vifjgk;Zrk Lo;afl) gS A tulapkj ,d lgt izof` Ùk
gS A lapkj gh thou gS A lapkj&'kwU;rk e`R;q gS A vk/kqfud tuthou vkSj
lkaLd`frd] vkfFkZd] lkekftd O;oLFkk dk rkuk&ckuk tulapkj lk/kuksa }kjk
lqO;ofLFkr gS A os gh turk] lekt] jk"Vª ds ltx izgjh gS A lapkj O;oLFkk
lekt dh izxfr] lH;rk vkSj laLd`fr ds fodkl dk ek/;e gS A vlH; dks lH;]
ladh.kZ dks mnkj rFkk uj dks ukjk;.k cukus dh vHkwriwoZ 'kfDr lapkj esa fufgr
gS A blds fcuk ekuo&xfjek dh dYiuk ugha gks ldrh A lapkj gh rF;ksa vkSj
fopkj/kkjkvksa ds fofue; dk foLr`r {ks= gS A
tulapkj dh izdf` Ùk
(Nature of Mass Communication)

1- lapkjd dh izdf` r %
tulapkj ,d laxfBr lapkj gS A tulapkj izfØ;k esa ,d lUns'k dk fuekZ.k

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(5)
djus okyk ,d vdsyk ys[kd o dykdkj ugha gksrk gS cfYd ,d cM+k laxBu
gksrk gS tks fd Hkkjh [kpZ o O;kid Je foHkktu ls dk;Z djrk gS A tulapkjd
ij tuek/;eksa dh tfVyrk Hkh izHkko Mkyrh gS A tulapkj esa ,d vdsyk O;fDr
LorU= :i ls dke ugha dj ldrk D;ksfa d ;a=pkfyr lapkj ek/;e esa lan's k
lkewfgd iz;kl ls laifsz "kr gksrk gS A mnkgj.k ds fy, lekpkji= esa lekpkj nsus
esa laiknd] lgk;d laiknd] lg&laiknd] fjiksVZ j] QksVksxkz Qj] fizVa j vkfn dbZ yksxksa
dk ;ksxnku gksrk gS vkSj ,d lekpkji= ds ihNs gtkjksa is'ksoj vkSj rduhf'k;u
lfEefyr gSa A ;gh ckr jsfM;ks] Vh-oh- fdrkcksa rFkk fQYeksa ij Hkh ykxw gksrh
gS A bl rjg tu ek/;e esa cgqr lkjs lapkjd gks ldrs gSa A
2- lan's k dh izdf` r %
tulapkj esa lan's k ,d cM+s tulewg dks ,d lkFk lacksf/kr djus ds fy,
gksrk gS A blfy, bldh fo"k; oLrq dk p;u vke izkid dks /;ku esa j[kdj
fd;k tkrk gS A blh dkj.k lan's k O;fDrxr ugha gksrkA blds vykok tu ek/
;eksa ls ftruh rsth ls lUns'k izkid rd igqpa k;k tkrk gS mruh gh tYnh bldh
[kir Hkh gksrh gS A bl fo'ks"krk ds dkj.k lan's k vLFkk;h gS ;kfu izkid lUns'k
izkIr rks dj ysrk gS ij mldk fjdkMZ ugha j[krk A blh dkj.k tulapkj esa
lUns'k de O;fDrxr] de fo'ks"k] T;knk 'kh?kz vkSj T;knk vLFkk;h gksrk gS A
3- izkid dh izdf` r %
tulapkj ds fofHkUu ek/;eksa ds dkj.k blds izkid Hkh vyx&vyx gSa A
tulapkj esa izkid esa ek/;eksa ds vuqlkj rhu Hkkxksa esa ckaVk x;k gS A
(a) lquus okys (b) ns[kus okys (c) i<+us okys
(i) izkid le:i u gksdj fefJr gS ;kfu os fofHkUu lkekftd oxZ ds gSa
mudh laLd`fr] Hkk"kk] :fp vkfn fHkUu gSa A
(ii) izkid vis{kkd`r xqeuke gS A lapkjd lkekU;r% fof'k"V O;fDr dks ftlls
og lai"sz k.k dj jgk gS ugha tkurk gkykafd mls lkekU; izkid dh
fo'ks"krkvksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh gksrh gS A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(6)
(iii) izkid dh la[;k cgqr cM+h gS tks fd cgqr FkksM+s le; ds fy, ehfM;k
ds izHkko esa vkrk gS A QyLo:i lapkjd lnL;ksa ls ikjLifjd fØ;k ugha
dj ldrk tSls fd vkeus&lkeus A
(iv) viuh vknr rFkk :fp ds vuqlkj gh izkid ehfM;k dh jpukvksa dks pqurk
gS vkSj Lo;a dks blds izHkko esa ykrk gS A ckdh jpuk,a NksM+ nsrk gS
tks O;FkZ gks tkrh gSa A
(v) izkid 'kkjhfjd rkSj ij lapkjd ls i`Fkd gS A ;g nwjh fnDdky rFkk le;
ds lUnHkZ esa HkkSfrd gS A
4- QhMcSd %
tulapkj esa QhMcSd dh vge~ Hkwfedk gS A blesa QhMcSd /khjs feyrk
gS ;k fQj nsjh ls feyrk gS A mnkgj.k ds fy, Vh-oh- ;k jsfM;ks izkxs kz e esa
izLrqrdrkZ ;g ugha tku ikrk gS fd izkid us izkxs kz e dks iwjk ns[kk gS ;k fQj
vk/kk gh NksM+ fn;k gS A laiknd vius lekpkji= ds ckjs esa yksxksa dh izfrfØ;k
ugha tku ikrk] gkykafd dqN izkidksa ds i= mls feyrs gSa A ysfdu mudh la[;k
izkidksa dh la[;k ls cgqr de gksrh gS A blds vfrfjDr tulapkj esa vf/kd
QhMcSd izkIr djus ds fy, le;&le; ij izkid losZ gksuk vko';d gS ftldh
ehfM;k dk;ZdÙkkZ vDlj dj nsrs gSa A QyLo:i QhMcSd ds vHkko esa lapkj
ehfM;k cgqr izHkko'kkyh ugha gks ikrk A
5- 'kksj %
tulapkj esa 'kksj dh laHkkouk,a vf/kd gSa tks ek/;e esa gh ugha tulapkj
izfØ;k ds fdlh Hkh fcUnq ij izfo"V gks ldrh gS A mnkgj.k ds fy, Vh-oh- o
jsfM;ks esa ok;qo|S rq {kksHk] csdkj Nik lekpkji=] fQYe dk f?klk fiVk fizVa ] i<+rs
lqurs le; ?kj ;k ckgj ls 'kksj vkfn dk vkuk A ;s lc :dkoVsa gSa ftuls
lUns'k iznfw "kr gksrk gS rFkk izkid rd ugha igqp
a ikrk A ;fn lan's k fod`r voLFkk
esa igqp
a Hkh tkrk gS rks izkid dh le> esa ugha vkrk A vr% lkjk lapkj iz;kl
foQy gks tkrk gS A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(7)
tulapkj izfØ;k &
tulapkj dh izfØ;k ewy :i ls lapkj dh izfØ;k gh gS] ysfdu bldh
dqN cstksM+ fo'ks"krkvksa ds dkj.k dbZ ekWMy fodflr gq,q ftuesa lcls yksdfiz;
gS gsjkWYM ykloSy (Harold Lasswell) dk Dykfld ekWMy & dkSu dgrk gS]a
D;k dgrk gS]a fdl ek/;e es]a fdldks vkSj D;k izHkko iM+rk gS A ;g ekWMy
dqN lhfer gS A blesa dbZ [kkl rRoksa dks tks tulapkj izfØ;k dks le>us ds
fy, t:jh gS] tSls QhMcSd] 'kksj vkfn dks NksM+ fn;k x;k gS A
,d nwljk ekWMy gS esfYou Mh Q~y;w j (Melvin De Fleur) dk tks lEiw.kZ
tulapkj izfØ;k dh :ijs[kk izLrqr djrk gS A ;g ekWMy bl izdkj gS &&
bl ekWMy esa L=ksr rFkk Vªkl
a ehVj dks tulapkj dk;Z dh fHkUu voLFkkvksa
ds :i esa ns[kk x;k gS tks L=ksr }kjk fØ;kfUor gqvk gS A ek/;e tu ek/;e
gS ftlls lwpuk o tkudkjh Hksth tkrh gS A fjlhoj tkudkjh izkIr dj eryc
(Decode) fudkyrk gS rFkk mls lans'k dk :i nsrk gS A xUrO; (Destination)
esa cnyrk gS] O;k[;k djrk gS A fnekx dh Hkh ;gh fØ;k gSA QhMcSd L=ksr
ds izfr xUrO; dh izfrfØ;k gS A ;g ekWMy bl ckr dh iqf"V djrk gS fd ^'kksj*
tulapkj izfØ;k esa fdlh Hkh fcUnq ij n[ky ns ldrk gS vkSj ;g flQZ ek/;e
ls gh lacfa /kr ugha gS tSlk fd lapkj ds ekWMyksa esa fn[kk;k x;k gS A
tulapkj dk ,d vkSj egRoiw.kZ ekWMy czlq osLys rFkk eSYde eSDyhu
(Bruce Wesley and Malcom Maclean) us fodflr fd;k ftlls tulapkj esa
^xsVdhij* (Gatekeeper) ;kuh pkSdhnkj dh Hkwfedk dks egRo fn;k A ;g bl
izdkj n'kkZ;k x;k gS %&
Åij fn, x, ekWMy esa mu jkLrksa dh dYiuk dh xbZ gS ftuesa ehfM;k
O;oLFkk esa O;fDr rFkk laxBu ;g r; djrs gSa fd D;k lan's k laifsz "kr fd;k
tk,xk rFkk D;k fo"k; oLrq :ikarfjr dh tk,xh ;k fudkyh tk,xh A ^xsVdhij*
bl Åij ds fp= esa izkid c ds ,tsVa dk dke djrk gS tks lwpuk dks pqurk
gS rFkk mls L=ksr ls izkid rd igqp
a krk gS A lapkjd dk lan's k izkid rd igqp
a kus
ls igys ^xsVdhij* lan's k dk foLrkj djrk gS ;k mlesa n[ky ns ldrk gSA mls

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(8)
bruk vf/kdkj gS fd og lan's k dh fo"k;oLrq esa gsj&Qsj dj ldrk gS A bl
rjg ehfM;k esa dbZ Lrj ij ^xsVdhij* gksrs gSa A os dbZ rjg ds dk;Z djrs
gSa vkSj rjg&rjg dh Hkwfedk,a fuHkkrs gSa A os lgt esa gh lan's k dks jksd ldrs
gSa A ^xsVdhij* dqN va'k dks dkVdj lan's k esa jn~nkscny dj ldrs gSa A mnkgj.k
ds fy, lekpkj laiknd fjiksVjZ ds lan's k esa viuh rjQ ls rFkk vU; L=ksr ls
vkbZ tkudkjh tksM+dj lekpkj dks u;k :i ns ldrk gS A if=dk dk ysvkmV
laiknd vf/kd fp= Mkydj dgkuh ;k Qhpj dk izHkko c<+k ldrk gS A blh
rjg fQYeksa esa izkM
s ;wlj vkSj lhu tksM+us ds fy, fizVa dks laiknd ds ikl Hkst
ldrk gS A
Tkulapkj dk ,d vkSj egRoiw.kZ ekWMy gS] }hpj.kh; lwpuk izokg (Two-
step flow of information or communication) A ;g /kkj.kk ystjQsYM (Lazerfeld)
rFkk muds lg;ksfx;ksa }kjk vejhdk esa gq, jk"Vªifr v/;{kh; pquko ¼1949½ ds
,d Dykfld v/;;u (The Peoples Choice 1949) ls mRiUu gqvk A ifj.kkeksa
ls irk pyk fd ,d Hkh ernkrk tuek/;e ls lh/kk izHkkfor ugha gqvk cfYd
ifj.kke ;g crkrk gS fd fopkjksa dk egRo vDlj jsfM;ks ;k fizVa ls vksifu;u
yhMjks (Opinion Leaders) rd lhfer gS vkSj ogka ls fQj de lfØ; :i esa
turk rd igqp a rk gS A ;kuh ehfM;k ls lwpuk o tkudkjh] tks okLro esa tu
lewg ds fy, gS] igys vksfifu;u yhMj ds ikl igqp a rh gS] ftls og vkxs izlkfjr
djrs gSa A gksrk ;wWa gS fd ^vksfifu;u yhMj* lwpuk igys izkIr djrs gS]a D;ksfa d
;s vke yksxksa dh rqyuk esa T;knk i<s+&fy[ks] izHkko'kkyh rFkk lEiUu gksrs gSa rFkk
lwpuk dks viukdj fQj ls O;k[;k djrs gSa vkSj fQj nwljksa dks crkrs gSa A v/
;;u ds vuqlkj T;knkrj yksx tkudkjh blh izdkj izkIr djrs gSAa ;g /kkj.kk vkxs
pydj :ikarfjr rFkk fQj ls ladfyr gksdj cgq&pj.kh; lapkj izokg (Multi-
step Flow) esa cnyh] ftlesa ,d ek/;e ls nwljs ek/;e rd dbZ fjys fcUnq gSa
A tSlk fd igys le>k x;k Fkk mlls ;g dgha vf/kd tfVy tulapkj izfØ;k
gS A ;kuh ehfM;k lwpuk o tkudkjh ^vksfufu;u yhMj* ls lh/kh ugha] cfYd dbZ
ek/;eksa ls gksrh gqbZ vke yksxksa rd igqp
a rh gS A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(9)
PAPER - II BLOCK - A UNIT - II

tulapkj dh fo'ks"krk,a &


,d lkFk ,d cgqr cM+s fefJr tulewg dks lUns'k igap q kuk tulapkj
dgykrk gS A tulapkj dh fofHkUu fo'ks"krk,a tks bl izdkj gS%&
1- tulapkj esa lUns'k dk fuekZ.k djus okyk ,d O;fDr u gksdj ,d lewg
o laxBu gksrk gS A tSls ,d lekpkj dk fuekZ.k lEiknd] lglEiknd
fizVa j] QksVksxkz Qj vkfn feydj djrs gSa A
2- tulapkj esa lUns'k dh fo"k; oLrq dk p;u o foospu vke izkid dks
/;ku esa j[kdj fd;k tkrk gS A
3- tulapkj esa izkid le:i u gksdj fefJr gS A ;kfu os fofHkUu lkekftd
oxZ ds gSa mudh laLd`fr] Hkk"kk] :fp vkfn fHkUu gSa A
4- tulapkj esa izkid vis{kkd`r xqeuke gS A lapkjd lkekU;r% fof'k"V
O;fDr dks ftlls og lai"sz k.k dj jgk gS ugha tkurk] gkykafd mls lkekU;
izkid dh fo'ks"krkvksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh gksrh gS A
5- izkid 'kkjhfjd rkSj ij lapkjd ls i`Fkd gSa A og nwjh fnDdky rFkk
le; ds lanHkZ esa HkkSfrd gS A
tulapkj ds fof'k"V la?kVd rRo %
1- lEizs"kd %
lekt ds mi;ksxh lwpuk ds lEiz"s k.k esa lEiz"s kd dh eq[; Hkwfedk gksrh gS
A lEiz"s kd ds vk/kkj ij ,d gh lwpuk dh izLrqfr esa vUrj vk tkrk gS ijUrq
blls lwpuk ds izHkko esa vUrj D;ksa vk tkrk gS\ lwpuk dks vPNh izdkj rS;kj
djus] izfs "kr djus] vPNh rjg ys[ku djus rFkk vPNh rjg O;Dr djus ds dkj.kksa
ls gh fdlh lwpuk ds izHkko esa vUrj vk tkrk gS A lapkj esa rks lEiz"s kd ds
O;fDrRo dk egRo gS tSls izkphudky esa nsof"kZ ukjn] Hkkjr ds jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(10)
esa xka/kh th vesfjdk esa dSuM
s h vkfn dk peRdkfjd O;fDrRo Hkh lEiz"s k.k esa
lgk;d Fkk fdUrq ;g oS;fDrd lapkj dk gh t:jh rRo gS A tulapkj esa
fuoS;fDrd lapkj (impersonal communication) gksrk gS A ftlesa lapkjxr xq.kksa
dk vf/kd egRo gS A
2- p;fur lwpuk %
O;fDr o laLFkk,a fofHkUu lwpuk,a xzg.k djrh gSa A ijUrq ;s mudk gh
lEiz"s k.k djrs gSa tks lwpuk Jksrk ;k lekt ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gks A iz"s k.k ds fy,
dsoy mUgha lwpukvksa dk p;u gksrk gS A lwpuk dk p;u djrs le; lkekftd
egÙo] uohurk] Jksrklewg dk Hkh /;ku j[kk tkrk gS A
3- lan's k %
lwpukvksa ds feJ.k dks lUns'k dgk tkrk gS A bls laokn Hkh dgrs gSa A
lapkj izfØ;k o lapkj dh 'kq:okr lUns'k ls gh gksrh gS A ,d lUns'k esa
vFkZ] Hkk"kk] lUnHkZ] Lo:i vkfn egRoiw.kZ LFkku j[krs gSa A NksVh&NksVh lwpukvksa
ls gh lUns'k dk fuekZ.k gksrk gS A ftls lEiz"s kd ,d lw= ls cka/k dj lUns'k
cukrk gS A ;g lUns'k lEiz"s kd ds efLr"d dh mit gksrk gS vkSj mlh dk gh
lEiz"s k.k gksrk gS A lUns'k esa vFkZ fufgr gksrk gS A tulapkj esa izR;sd pj.k dk
ewyk/kkj lan's k gS A lapkj Lo;a lUns'k ij fuHkZj gS A vr% Li"V gS fd tulapkj
dk lewpk vfLrRo lUns'k esa fufgr gS A lUns'k fofHkUu {ks= lkekftd] /kkfeZd]
vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd vkfn ls tqM+k gks ldrk gS A fdUrq egRoiw.kZ ;g gS fd
lUns'k dk eq[; rRo tuksi;ksxh gks A
4- lapkj lk/ku %
lapkj lk/kuksa dk iz;ksx lUns'k dks Hkstus o izkz Ir djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk
gS A lapkj ds ize[q k lapkj lk/ku jsfM;ks] Vh-oh-] lekpkji= vkSj if=dk,a vkfn
gSa A lekpkj i= o if=dk,a fizVa ehfM;k esa vkrs gSa o jsfM;ks o Vh-oh-
bySDVªkfud ehfM;k esa vkrs gSa A
lwpuk izokg esa ,d ;k vf/kd lapkj lk/kuksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS A
izkIrdÙkkZ }kjk lwpuk izkIr gksus ij og mldh izfriqf"V o viuh izfrfØ;k fofHkUu

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ekxksaZ ls djrk gS A foycj Jse ds vuqlkj gj lapkj ekxZ dh viuh izof` r gksrh
gS ftls vU; lapkj ek/;eksa ls lEikfnr ugha fd;k tk ldrk A
tulapkj vUrjO;fDr dk vUrfuZfgr laHkkx gS D;ksfa d fizVa ;k bySDVªkfud
ehfM;k L=ksr vkSj Jksrk dks tksM+rs gSa A bl rjg lapkj ekxZ lapkj izokg esa
iwjd dh Hkwfedk Hkh fuHkkrs gSa A vkt vk/kqfud ;qx esa rduhdh fodkl gksus ds
dkj.k lUns'k ekSf[kd ls fizVa ] bySDVªkfud o mixzg ekxZ }kjk fo'o lapkj cu
x;k gS A
5- JksrkoxZ %
JksrkoxZ ls vfHkizk;% lapkj ek/;eksa ls lwpuk izkIr djus okys yksxksa ls
gS A tulapkj ek/;eksa ds fodkl ls JksrkoxZ ds vkdkj esa vfr'k; vfHko`f) gqbZ
gS A
6- QhMcSd %
QhMcSd o izfriqf"V og izfØ;k gS A ftlds }kjk lwpuk ikus okyk Jksrk
viuh izfrfØ;k izdV djrk gS A vUrjO;fDr lapkj esa rks vkW[a k] eqLdjkgV]
O;ogkj ;k gko Hkko }kjk izfriqf"V O;Dr dh tkrh gS tcfd tulapkj ek/;eksa
QhMcSd ,d tfVy izfØ;k gS A ek/;eksa }kjk izfs "kr lwpuk Jksrkvksa dh izfrfØ;k]
lwpuk iz"s k.k esa nks"k vkfn dk irk QhMcSd ls gh py ikrk gS A fofHkUu vuql/a
kkuksa los{Z k.k dh lgk;rk ls izfrfØ;k vkfn dk irk rks py tkrk gS ij blesa
vf/kd le; yx tkrk gS A QhMcSd dk ,d ykHk ;g gS fd tulapkj ek/
;e vius dk;ZØeksa esa lq/kkj dj ysrs gSa A Jksrkvksa ls i=] lk{kkRdkj] ifjppkZ
vkfn ds ek/;e ls ;g lEHko gS A
7- 'kksj %
tulapkj esa 'kksj dh laHkkouk,a vf/kd gSa tks ek/;e esa gh ugha tulapkj
izfØ;k ds fdlh Hkh fcUnq ij izfo"V gks ldrh gS A mnkgj.k ds fy, Vh-oh- o
jsfM;ks esa ok;q fo|qr {kksHk] csdkj Nik lekpkji=] fQYe dk f?klk fiVk fizVa ] i<+rs
lqurs le; ?kj ;k ckgj ls 'kksj vkfn dk vkuk A ;s lc :dkoVsa gSa ftuls

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


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lUns'k iznfw "kr gksrk gS rFkk izkid rd ugha igqp
a ikrk A ;fn lan's k fod`r voLFkk
esa igqp
a Hkh tkrk gS rks izkid dh le> esa ugha vkrk A vr% lkjk lapkj iz;kl
foQy gks tkrk gS A
Tkulapkj ek/;e dk dk;Z ,oa egRo &
lHkh tu ek/;e fofHkUu :i ls lekt ds fy, dke djrs gSa A ;g ns'k
ds lai.w kZ fodkl esa ,d fuf'pr Hkwfedk vnk djrs gSa A blds dbZ egRoiw.kZ dk;Z
gSa tks bl izdkj gS%&
lekpkj rFkk lwpuk ;k tkudkjh & tuek/;e dk mi;ksx lkef;d rFkk
egRoiw.kZ rF;ksa dks izpkfjr o izlkfjr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS ftldk gekjs
nSfud thou ds fy, egRo gks A
fo'ys"k.k rFkk izfriknu & ehfM;k ?kVuk dk ewY;kadu mfpr ifjiz{s ;
esa j[kdj gesa nsrk gS A
f'k{kk & 'kSf{kd fØ;k lEiUu djus ds fy, ehfM;k dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk
gS A tSls & lekthdj.k] lkekU;&f'k{kk] Dykl :i izf'k{k.k vkfn A ehfM;k iSrd
`
lekt dh lkaLd`frd ijEijk dks lqn<` +] :ikarfjr rFkk izfrLFkkfir djus dk dke
djrk gS A
izR;k;u rFkk tulaidZ & ehfM;k tu izR;k;u rFkk izkis xs MaS k ds midj.k
dh rjg dk;Z djrk gS A ljdkj] O;olk;] fuxe rFkk O;fDr tu ek/;e ds
}kjk vius lac/a kksa dks LFkkfir ;k :ikarfjr djus dk iz;Ru djrs gSa A
lsYl rFkk tulaidZ & vkfFkZd O;oLFkk esa ekdsfZ Vax rFkk forj.k izfØ;k
esa ehfM;k dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS A foKkiu turk dks u, izkM s DV dh tkudkjh
nsrs gS]a muds ewY;ksa ds ckjs esa fo'okl mRiUu djrs gSa rFkk mudks [kjhnus ds fy,
jkth djkrs gSa A
euksjt
a u & ehfM;k yksxksa dk Qqjlr ds le; euksjta u Hkh djrk gS A
bl iyk;uoknh mi;ksx ds lkFk ehfM;k euksjt a u djrs gq, yksxksa dks lwpuk nsu]s
fo'ys"k.k djus] jkth djus] f'kf{kr djus rFkk cspus dk dke Hkh djrk gS A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(13)
PAPER - II BLOCK - B UNIT - I

tulapkj ek/;eksa dk bfrgkl ¼lalkj ds izi{s k; ls½


nwjn'kZu &
lapkj dk lokZf/kd yksd&izpfyr n`';&JO; ek/;e gS nwjn'kZu A ;g
orZeku rduhdh ;qx dh egÙoiw.kZ HksVa gS A rLohjksa dks izlkfjr djus dh ;qfDr
lu~ 1890 bZ- esa Kkr gks pqdh Fkh A 1906 esa yh-Mh- QkjsLV us 'kh'ks dh uyh
ls fctyh fudkydj u;k iz;ksx fd;k rFkk Q~yfs eax }kjk ok;jySl VsyhxzkQ dks
isVVas djk;k x;k A 1908 esa dSEiosy us Vsyhoftu ds fl)kUr dks izLrqr fd;kA
26 tuojh] lu~ 1926 dks LdkVyS.M ds tkWu yksxh os;MZ us bldk lQy izn'kZu
fd;k A 2 uoEcj] 1936 dks yanu esa ch-ch-lh- }kjk fu;fer nwjn'kZu lsok izkjaHk
dh xbZ A ekjdksuh daiuh ds bySDVªkfud dSejk vkSj fjlhfoax V;wc ds fodkl us
bldh ;kaf=d leL;kvksa dks rks nwj fd;k gh] rLohj vkSj /ofu dh xq.koÙkk esa
Hkh visf{kr lq/kkj fd;k A /ofu okys nwjn'kZu dk izFke lkoZtfud izlkj.k fczVus
esa lu~ 1930 esa gqvk A /khjs&/khjs Vsyhfotu lkjh nqfu;ka esa rsth ls QSyus yxk
A Qzkl a esa fu;fer izlkj.k 1938 esa izkjaHk gqvk rFkk 1941 esa vesfjdk esa izkjaHk
gqvk A 1938 esa O;kolkf;d izlkj.kksa dh 'kq:vkr gqbZ A ysfdu f}rh; fo'o;q)
ds nkSjku ;wjksi esa nwjn'kZu izlkj.k vkdfLed :i ls can gks x;k] fQj Hkh bl
fn'kk esa iz;ksx pyrs jgs A ;q)ksijkar nwjn'kZu dh lsok,a iqu% 'kq: gqbZ A lu~ 1953
esa la;D q r jkT; vesfjdk us loZiFz ke fu;fer jaxhu nwjn'kZu izlkj.k izkjaHk fd;k A
1955 bZ- esa ^;wjksfotu* usVodZ fof/kor~ ns[kk x;k ftlesa fczVus ] Qzkl a ] bVyh]
MsuekdZ] fLoV~tjySM a ] if'pe teZuh] csfYt;e vkSj uhnjySM a dks tksM+k x;k A
1 tqykbZ] 1962 ls mixzg izlkj.k dh 'kq:vkr gqbZ A mixzg ds }kjk igys thoar
(Live) dk;ZØe dk vknku&iznku ;wjksi rFkk vesfjdk ds chp gqvk A fQj rks
^;wjksfotu* us O;kid Lrj ij iwohZ ;wjksfi;u usVodZ ^baVjfotu* ds lkFk dk;ZØeksa
dk vknku&iznku 'kq: dj fn;k A blus Ldsfa Musfo;u usVodZ ^ukWMfZ otu* ds lkFk
Hkh lg;ksx fd;k A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


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js f M;ks
vk/kqfud ;qx esa tulapkj ds vusd lqfodflr ek/;e miyC/k gS A
VsyhQksu ds ckn jsfM;ks ds vkfo"dkj us lapkj dh izfØ;k dks nwjLFk LFkkuksa rd
laHko cukdj] euq"; lektksa dks ijLij tksM+k A tc i=dkfjrk jsfM;ks ds lkFk
layXu gqbZ rks /khjs&/khjs blus euq"; lekt ds Hkhrj viuk LFkku ,d fo'oluh;
fe= ds :i esa cuk fy;k A okLro esa jsfM;ks ,slk lapkj lk/ku gS] ftlds ek/
;e ls O;kid tuleqnk; rd ,d lkFk lan's k igqp a k;k tk ldrk gS A jsfM;ks
fo|qr&mtkZ ds }kjk /ofu rjaxksa dks dkQh nwj rd Hkstrk gS vkSj bu /ofu rjaxksa
dks Hkstus esa bruk de le; yxrk gS fd dky cks/k dh n`f"V ls bls 'kwU; dgk
tk ldrk gS A vFkkZr~ fdlh jsfM;ks LVs'ku ls ftl le; lan's k izlkfjr gksrk gS]
Bhd mlh le; dqN gh lSfdaM ds vUrjky esa og gtkjksa ehy nwj cSBs yksx mls
vius jsfM;ks lsV ij lqu ldrs gSa A Vªkfa tLVj ds vkfo"dkj us rks fo|qr&mtkZ dks
vfuok;Zrk dks Hkh lekIr dj fn;k gS A vc lkekU; cSVjh ls de gks tkrk gS
A Vªkfa tLVj lapkj dk lLrk] lqfo/kktud ,oa yksdfiz; lk/ku cu x;k gS A fuj{kj
yksx Hkh bl tu ek/;e ls :fpiwod Z lan's k xzg.k dj ldrs gSa A ,d lkFk cSBdj
euksjt
a uijd dk;ZØe lqu ldrs gS]a ns'k&fons'k ds lekpkj lqu ldrs gS]a mu ij
cSBdj ckrphr dj ldrs gS]a ?kVukvksa dk fo'ys"k.k le> ldrs gS]a ubZ&ubZ
tkudkfj;ka ik ldrs gSa A
tc Vsyhfotu vk;k rks yksxksa us le>k fd vc jsfM;ks vizklafxd gks
tk;sxk A ;g /kkj.kk Hkh xyr lkfcr gqbZ gS A nwjn'kZu ds foLrkj ds lkFk jsfM;ks
ds izfr tu lkekU; dk vkd"kZ.k cMk gS] dkj.k&nwjn'kZu dh rqyuk esa jsfM;ks ls
izlkfjr gksus okys dk;ZØeksa dh fofo/krk vkSj loZ fo|ekurk A nwjn'kZu dk;ZØeksa
dks ns[kus ds fy, tgka fuf'pr nwjh ds vanj izlkj.k dsUnz vkSj Vkoj dk gksuk
vkSj mixzg pSuyksa dh lqfo/kk ds fy, fMLd ,aVhuk ;k mlls tqM+h dscy ¼rkj½
t:jh gS rks ogha jsfM;ks egt ,d Vªkt a hLVj lsV ij lHkh dk;ZØeksa dks nsrk jgrk
gS A
Hkkjr ds igys iz/kkuea=h ia- tokgjyky usg: ds 'kCnksa es]a ^jsfM;ks ekuo
dks foKku dk ,d ojnku gS] tks iyHkj esa gtkjksa ehy nwj cSBs yksxksa dh vkilh
fLFkfr ls voxr djkrk gS vkSj muesa [kq'kh dh ygj Hkj nsrk gS A
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
(15)
tojheYy ikjs[k us Bhd gh fy[kk gS fd] ^^jsfM;ks fuj{kjksa ds fy, Hkh
,d ojnku gS A ftlds }kjk os flQZ lqudj vf/kd ls vf/kd lwpuk] Kku vkSj
euksjt
a u gkfly dj ysrs gSa A
jsfM;ks vkSj Vªkfa tLVj dh dher Hkh cgqr vf/kd ugha gksrh A bl dkj.k
og lkekU; turk ds fy, Hkh deksc's k lqyHk gS A ;gh dkj.k gS fd Vh-oh-
ds O;kid izlkj ds ckotwn rhljh nqfu;ka ds ns'kksa esa jsfM;ks dk viuk egRo vkt
Hkh dk;e gS A
jsfM;ks dk vkfo"dkj 19oha 'krkCnh esa gqvk A okLro esa jsfM;ks dh dgkuh
1815 bZ- ls 'kq: gksrh gS] tc bVyh ds ,d bathfu;j xqfXy;ks ekdkZuh us jsfM;ks
VsyhxzkQh ds tfj, igyk lan's k izlkfjr fd;k A ;g lan's k ^ekslZ dksM* ds
:i esa Fkk A jsfM;ks ij euq"; dh vkokt igyh ckj 1906 esa lqukbZ nh A ;g
rc laHko gqvk tc vesfjdk ds yh Mh QkjsLV us iz;ksx ds rkSj ij ,d izlkj.k
djus esa lQyrk izkIr dh A mlus ,d ifj"d`r fu;kZr ufydk dk vkfo"dkj fd;k]
tks vkus okys ladrs ksa dks foLrkj nsus ds fy, Fkh A Mh QkjsLV gh Fkk] ftlus
loZiFz ke 1916 esa igyk jsfM;ks lekpkj izlkfjr fd;k A og lekpkj okLro esa
la;D q r jk"Vª esa jk"Vªifr pquko ds ifj.kke dh fjiksVZ Fkh A 1920 ds ckn rks
vesfjdk vkSj fczVus gh D;k fo'o ds dbZ ns'kksa esa jsfM;ks us /kwe epk nh A blh
vof/k esa ;wjksi] vesfjdk rFkk ,f'k;kbZ ns'kksa esa cgqr ls 'kks/kdk;Z gq, Fks A bu
'kks/k dk;ksaZ ds QyLo:i jsfM;ks us vHkwriwoZ izxfr dh A dkykarj esa bySDVªkfud
rFkk Vªkfa tLVj dh [kkst us jsfM;ks&Vªkfa tLVj rFkk nwj&lapkj ds {ks= esa vHkwriwoZ
fodkl fd;k A
The Books:- tulapkj ds ek/;eksa ls vxj ge ns[ksa rks ;g iqLrdsa
tulapkj dk iw.kZ ek/;e ugha gS A ;g lekpkj i=ks]a jsfM;ks] Vsyhfotu dh rjg
lHkh n'kZd o ikBdksa rd ,d leku ugha igqp a ikrh A tuek/;eksa dh nwljs
ekè;eksa dh rqyuk esa iqLrdksa ds ikBdksa dh la[;k cgqr de gS A
mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij cgqr ls Newspaper tks jkst Nirs gSa mudh izfr;ka
yk[kksa gksrh gSa A ijUrq ,slh cgqr gh de iqLrdsa gksrh gSa ftudh izfr;ka ,d yk[k
rd fcd ikrh gSa A lkekU; rkSj ij iqLrdksa dh tuek/;eksa dk ,d :i ekuus
dk dkj.k mldh vkSlr ikBdksa dh la[;k gS A
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
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fo'oluh; rkSj ij iqLrdsa tulapkj dk egRoiw.kZ ek/;e gSa A iqLrdsa vius
vUnj cgqr lh tkudkjh dks latk;s gq, gksrh gSa vkSj ;g yEcs le; rd pyus
okyh rFkk yEcs le; rd lEHkky dj j[kus okyh gksrh gSa vkSj ;g Magzine
vkSj lekpkj i=ksa ls T;knk fo'oluh; gksrh gS A
dqN fdrkcsa gtkjksa lky igys Nkih xbZ Fkh rFkk vHkh rd vfLrRo esa
gSa A rFkk iqLrdksa esa mifLFkr fopkj dkQh yEcs le; rd pyrs gSa A cgqr lh
iqLrdsa ,d laLd`fr dks ,d ih<+h ls nwljh ih<+h rd igqWp
a krh gS A iqLrdsa yEcs
le; rd cuh jgrh gSa A ijUrq euq"; thou lekIr gks tkrk gS A
ek'kZy eSdyq gku ds vuqlkj iqLrdsa euq"; ds O;fDrxr] lq<+ky
S o
rdZi.w kZ fopkjksa dk c<+krh gS A
iqLrdksa dk bfrgkl (History of Books)% iqLrdksa dk bfrgkl
5]500 lky iqjkuk gS] ml le; u rks dkxt Fkk u gh dksbZ NikbZ dk lk/ku
Fkk A ml le; tks iqLrdas fy[kh tkrh Fkh oks isM+kas dh iryh Nkyksa ;k rkM+
ds isM+kas ds iÙkksa ij irys cz'q k dh lgk;rk ls fy[ks tkrs Fks A
2]500 lky igys feL= ds yksxksa us Papyrus ls dkxt cukus dk rjhdk
vkfo"dkj fd;k Fkk A bl [kkst ls cz'q k vkSj L;kgh ls fy[kuk vklku gks x;k
Fkk A blds ckn dkxtksa dks tksM+dj iqLrdsa cuus yxh A
4Fkha 'krkCnh ds e/; esa ,d u;k cM+k vkfo"dkj gqvk ftlesa 1450 bZ-
es-a xqVucxZ us NikbZ dh e'khu dk vkfo"dkj fd;k A 100 o"kZ igys phu us
fofHkUu ydM+h ds Nkiksa dk vkfo"dkj fd;k ijUrq og vf/kd fodflr ugha gks
ik, A
xqVucxZ us viuh igyh iqLrd e'khuhdj.k NikbZ dh izfØ;k ds }kjk Nkih A
;g 42 iUuksa dh ,d ckbZcy Fkh A ftls 1456 bZ- esa Nkik x;k Fkk vkSj blds
lkFk gh iqLrdksa dh tulapkj ds ek/;eksa esa 'kq:vkr gqbZ A
tYn gh ;wjksi ds nwljs Hkkxksa esa Hkh iqLrdsa Niuh 'kq: gks xbZ A 1476
bZ- esa fofy;e dSDlVkWu us bZXySa.M esa izFke NikbZ e'khu LFkkfir dh vkSj Dictes
or sayengis of the philosophes ds uke ls iqLrdsa Nkih A lu~ 1500 esa 30]000

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ls vf/kd iqLrdsa ;wjksi ds lHkh Hkkxksa esa Nkih tk pqdh Fkh A buesa cgqr lh iqLrdsa
/kkfeZd ,oa nk'kZfud izdf` r dh Fkh A
vesfjdk esa izFke NikbZ e'khu 1638 esa vkbZ vkSj 'kh?zk gh ubZ dkyksfu;ksa
esa iqLrdaas Niua yxh A ysVj izl
s o xqVdksa vkfn dk vkfo"dkj xqVucxZ us fd;k A
lu~ 1450 ls 1800 ds chp u rks dksbZ rduhd esa ifjorZu gqvk vkSj u
gh iqLrd Nius dh fdlh rduhd esa ifjorZu vk;k A ml le; yksx i<s&fy[ks
Hkh vf/kd ugha Fks A lu~ 1800 esa vesfjdk esa dscy 10 izfr'kr yksx gh
i<+&fy[k ldrs Fks A iqLrdksa dh NikbZ esa 19oha 'krkCnh rd dksbZ mUufr ugha
gqbZ Fkh A
19oha lnh ds e/; esa ,d u;k vkfo"dkj iqLrdksa ds izdk'ku ds lkFk
gqvk A vesfjdk] vksfg;ks ds Willian Holmes Mcguffey dks Ldwyh iqLrdksa dk
tUenkrk dgk x;k gS A bUgksaus igyh f'k{kkRed iqLrd The Mcguffey Eclectic
Reader dk 1836 esa izdk'ku fd;k A bUgksua s dbZ f'k{kkRed iqLrdsa fy[kh A

20oha 'krkCnh ds e/; rd iqLrdksa dks Nkius ds fodkl esa fLFkjrk vk


xbZ A bldk dkj.k nksuksa fo'o ;q)ksa dk gksuk Fkk A f}rh; fo'o ;q) ds ckn
izdk'ku LFkkuksa ij vkikÙkdkyhu dh fLFkfr mRiUu gks xbZ vkSj NksVh iqLrdsa Nih
A buesa Penguin Books ¼fczVus ½] Pocket Books, Avon Books, Dell Books,
Bantam Books 'kkfey gSa A
Types of Books:- ml le; cgqr lh iqLrdsa Nkih xbZ Fkh vkSj ;s iqLrdsa
rhu Hkkxksa esa caVh Fkh A ¼1½ miHkksDrk ds vuq:i iqLrdsa ¼2½ O;olkf;d o 'kks/
kdÙkkZvksa dh iqLrdsa ¼3½ ikB~; iqLrdsa tks iqLrdsa miHkksDrkvksa ds fy, Fkh vkSj
nqdkuksa ij csph tk jgh Fkh] og O;kikj iqLrdsa dgykbZ A isij cSd a iqLrds]a iqLrdksa
dh nqdkuksa ij o lekpkj LFkkuksa ij csph xbZ A rhljh iqLrdsa ikB~; iqLrdsa Fkh
tks Ldwy o dkWyt s ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, Fkh vkSj buds vfrfjDr O;olkf;d
o 'kks/kdÙkkZvksa dh iqLrdsa Fkh tks fd fo'ofo|ky;ksa ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa vkSj egRoiw.kZ
mPp Lrj ds yksxksa ds fy, Fkh A
iqLrdksa us dkQh fo"k;ksa dk Kku vius esa latks, gq, Fkk A izR;sd iqLrd
fdlh fo'ks"k fo"k; ij Fkh A buesa ize[q k iqLrdsa Fkh & fiction, nonfiction
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
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chrography, literary books, art books, and sports, drama, music, poetry books
vkfn A O;kikj iqLrdsa vf/kd [kpsZ ij rS;kj gqbZ Fkh A dqN iqLrdsa vf/kd iSlk
ugha dek ikbZ A
ikB~; iqLrdsa lHkh iqLrdksa ls vf/kd ykHk dek jgh Fkh A bldk dkj.k
budk izfro"kZ fcduk Fkk vkSj izdk'kd iqjkuh iqLrdksa ds u, ,Mh'ku Nki jgs Fks A
O;olkf;d iqLrdksa dh fcØh ugha Fkh A ;s iqLrdsa dsoy ml fo"k; ds Kkuh
O;fDr gh fy[k ldrs Fks A ftl fo"k; ij iqLrdsa fy[kh tk jgh Fkh A dqN
iqLrdsa egRoiw.kZ O;olkf;d fo"k; ij fy[kh tk jgh Fkh A os fo"k; Fks & dkuwu]
nokbZ;ksa vkfn ij A
tcfd cgqr lh iqLrdsa izdkf'kr gks jgh Fkh ijUrq mUgsa Nkius dk rjhdk
,d leku Fkk A izR;sd mUgsa Nkius dk rjhdk ,d leku Fkk A izR;sd iqLrd
ds vkjEHk esa ,d lEikndh; ys[k gksrk Fkk vkSj fQj fdrkc dks Nkius okyk
izdk'kd mls Nki jgk Fkk vkSj vUr esa og iqLrd foi.ku ds fy, rS;kj Fkh A
Books Publishing Today and Tomorrow:- vU; ek/;eksa dh rjg
iqLrdksa dks Hkh dqN Hkh fy[kus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gS A iqLrdaas lHkh fo"k;ksa ij
fy[kh tk pqdh gS vkSj fy[kh tk jgh gSa A izdk'kd iqLrdsa Nkius ds fofHkUu
rjhdksa dks [kkstrk jgrk gS A
vkSj vUr es]a bl le; iqLrd cgqr lh tkudkfj;ksa dks iznku dj jgh gSa A
fQYe %
fo'o flusek dh uhao QksVksxkz Qh ds vkfo"dkj ds lkFk gh 1820 esa
^vkfIVdy f[kykSuks*a ds :i esa j[k nh xbZ Fkh A lu~ 1878 ESA ,MoMZ eq;kfczt
us tksVkª is }kjk fLFkj fp=ksa esa xfr'khyrk dk izHkko mRiUu fd;k A rnqijkar lu~
1890 esa FkWkel vYok ,Mhlu us dkbusVksLdksi dks vkfo"d`r dj eq;kfczt ds }kjk
mRiUu pyfp=h; izHkko dk u;k vk;ke fn;k A bls O;olk; ds :i esa LFkkfir
djus dk Js; Y;qfe,js ca/kqvksa dks tkrk gS ftUgksua s 28 fnlacj] 1895 dks isfjl
esa loZiFz ke bldk izn'kZu fd;k A tkusl Z esfyl us 1897 esa isfjl ds fudVfo'o
dk izFke LVqfM;ks ^iSFks xkjekUVs* LFkkfir dj flusek ds O;olk; dks laxfBr :i
fn;k A Hkkjr esa bldk lw=ikr 1913 esa ^vkyevkjk* ds izn'kZu ls gqvk A
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
(19)
vesfjdu O;fDr ,Mfou ikWVjZ us flusek dks ubZ fn'kk nh A eYVhiy
'kkV~Wl] lhu dV] Dykst vi] ykax 'kkWV~l tSlh rduhd ls ySl X;kjg feuV dh
mudh fQYe ^n xzVs Vªus jkcjh* us n'kZdksa dks lUu dj fn;k A 1903 esa fufeZr
;g igyh Qhpj fQYe Fkh A 1911 esa ykal ,ftYl esa izkiVhZ ds /ka/ks ls tqM+s
ifr*iRuh foydkEls us 120 ,dM+ tehu [kjhndj mlds IykV dkVdj csps vkSj
bl txg dk uke j[kk Fkk & gkyhoqM A vkmVMksj 'kwfVax ds fy, vkl&ikl
vPNh txg gksus ls dbZ daifu;ksa us IykV [kjhndj ogkWa LVqfM;ks [kksys A
ch- MCY;w fxzfQFk us gkyhoqM esa vkdj igys ck;ksxkz Q LVqfM;ks [kksyk vkSj
ckn esa viuh izkMs D'ku daiuh cukbZ A Ng lky esa mUgksua s yxHkx pkj lkS fQYesa
cukbZ A /khjs&/khjs 1920 esa vesfjdh flusek m|ksx dk :i ysus yxk A vkxs
LVqfM;ks flLVe vk;k vkSj fQj LVkj flLVe A blh nkSj esa yxHkx 1925 esa
pkyhZ psifyu] esjh fidQksM]Z Mxyl QS;jcSD a l mHkjdj lkeus vk, A bl lnh
ds igys n'kd esa iwjs ;wjksi esa fQYe&fuekZ.k vkjaHk gqvk A
Ng vDVwcj] 1927 dks bafM;u fluseVS ksxkz Q daiuh cuh A blh fnu U;w;kdZ
esa nqfu;ka dh igyh cksyrh fQYe ^tkt flaxj* fn[kkbZ xbZ A bl fn'kk esa 1926
esa okuZj cznlZ dks i;kZIr lQyrk feyh A blds nks lky ckn osLVuZ bysfDVªd
fQYe esa vkokt ykus esa lQy jgh A vkokt vkrs gh fQYeksa esa xhr] laxhr]
u`R;] thou vkSj izdf` r dh reke vkoktksa ds lkFk ubZ /kM+du] xfr vkSj rktxh
vk xbZ A rhl vkSj pkyhl ds n'kd esa QzM as ,LVsj vkSj ftatj jkstlZ us insZ
dks pedk, j[kk A fefdve Vkifdax dh ize[q k Hkwfedk okyh fQYe ^csch 'kkiZ*
igyh fQYe Hkh A igyh f=vk;keh fQYe ^gkml vkWQ cSDl* Fkh A 1952 ls
inkZ 70 ,e-,e- dk gks x;k A vesfjdh fQYeksa esa HkO;rk ij tksj Fkk] fczfV'k
fQYe ;q) ij fVdh Fkh vkSj Qzkl a esa u;k flusek fufeZr gks jgk Fkk A bu fnuksa
bVyh esa varksfuvksuh] QsfMfjdks QSfYyuh] LohMu esa baxekj cxZeus ] tkiku esa vdhjk
djkslksok fQYeksa ds fodkl esa viuk ;ksxnku ns jgs Fks A
igys fnu ls gh flusek nks Hkkxksa esa caV x;k Fkk & ¼1½ dFkk 'kSyh vkSj
¼2½ f'k{kk@tkudkjh A 1911&13 ds chp gcZVs tksfjx us LdkWV dh nf{k.kh /kqoz
;k=k ij ^LVkWV~l vaVkdZfVd ,DlisMh'ku* o`Ùkfp= cuk;k A jkWcVZ Q~ygs VhZ us
o`Ùkfp= fo/kk dks lokZf/kd egÙkk fnykbZ A lksfly gsicFkZ o`Ùkfp=ksa esa dF; vkSj

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


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izLrqrhdj.k lac/a kh fofo/krk,a yk, A 1920 ds vkl&ikl Hkkjr] vesfjdk] :l]
teZuh] Qzkl
a ] baXySM
a vkfn ns'kksa esa o`Ùkfp=ksa dk fuekZ.k gksus yxk vkSj lekpkj n'kZu
fo/kk dks Bksl :i izkIr gqvk A
vusd fQYedkjksa us fQYe&fuekZ.k rduhd dks u,&u, vk;ke fn, A
1923 esa T;ka xzhfeyksa us viuh fQYe ^pkVZl*Z esa flusek ds lHkh i{kksa dk mfpr
mi;ksx dj ,d Dykfld d`fr dk fuekZ.k fd;k A 1907 esa isfjl esa ,fey
dksy us ,uhes'ku ¼xfr dyk½ dh [kkst dh A blls flusek esa ,d u;k vk;ke
iSnk gqvk A bl fo/kk dks ukWey s eSDykWju us ,d dykRed fn'kk nh A
eSxt+hu
eSxt+hu ,d fuf'pr le; ds ckn fQj ls ubZ tkudkfj;ksa dks vius lkFk
ys dj vkrh gS A bldh gj ubZ izfr esa ubZ tkudkfj;ka] u, fo"k; o euksjt a u
gksrk gS A eSxthu dks Store House dk uke Hkh fn;k x;k gS D;ksfa d blesa fofHkUu
Kkuksa dk Hk.Mkj gksrk gS A vktdy ;s eSxthu fo'ks"krk fy, gksrh gS vFkkZr~
fofHkUu fo"k;ksa tSls jktuSfrd] Qs'ku] [ksydwn] vknfe;ksa ds fy,] o vkSjrksa ds
fy, vkfn dh iz/kkurk fy;s gksrh gS A izR;sd eSxthu vius fuf'pr ikBdksa dks
vkdf"kZr djrh gS rFkk ikBd Hkh viuh ilan vuqlkj eSxthuksa dk p;u djrs gSa A
;g izc/a k foKkiu dh n`f"V ls cgqr mÙke gS A D;ksfa d blds }kjk foKkid vius
yf{kr y{; rd izHkkoh <ax ls igqWp a ldrk gS A eq[;r% eSxt+hu dks pkj Hkkxksa
esa ckWVa k x;k gS A
1- miHkksDrk eSxt+hu
2- O;kikj vkSj rduhdh eSxt+hu
3- O;olkf;d eSxt+hu
4- 'kSf{kd vkSj 'kks/kdrkZ tjuy
miHkksDrk eSxt+hu eq[;r% foKkiuksa ij vk/kkfjr gksrh gS A os ,d fuf'pr
oxZ rd igqp a uk pkgrs gSa tSls uj] ukjh] cPps] cM+s cqtxq Z O;fDr] [ksy fiz;]
fQYeksa dks ilan djus okys] vkVkseksckby o ;qok yksxksa rd A
O;kikj vkSj rduhdh eSxt+hu O;olkf;d tjuy gksrs gSa tks fd fo'ks"k

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(21)
ikBdksa O;kikfj;ks]a O;olk;ks]a dkj[kkuksa ds Lokfe;ksa ds fy, gksrh gS A ;s buls
lEcfU/kr fo"k;ksa ij tkudkjh fy;s gksrh gS A
tulaidZ eSxt+hu laxBuks]a ljdkjh ,tsfa l;ks]a 'kS{kf.kd laLFkkuksa vkSj nwljs
laxBuksa ds fy, gksrh gS tks fd deZpkfj;ks]a miHkksDrkvks]a vksfifu;u yhMj ds fy,
tkudkjh fy;s gksrh gS A
'kSf{kd vkSj 'kks/kdrkZ tjuy tkudkjh vkSj Kku dks QSykus ds fy, gksrh
gS A bu eSxt+huksa esa foKkiu ugha gksrs gSa A
eSxt+hu] ehfM;k xziq ] izdk'ku laLFkk] lekpkji=ks]a NksVh laLFkkvks]a laxBuks]a
O;kikfjd laxBuks]a 'kS{kf.kd laLFkkuksa vkSj /kkfeZd laxBuksa }kjk Nkih tkrh gS A
eSxt+hu ljdkjh foHkkxksa o jktuSfrd ikfVZ;ksa }kjk Hkh Nkih tkrh gS A
eSxt+hu eq[;r% lkIrkfgd] ikf{kd o ekfld Nirh gS A ;g pkj eghus
ckn o N% eghus ckn Hkh Nirh gS A dqN eSxt+hu lky esa ,d ckj Nirh gSa A
eSxt+hu lkekU;r% 'Readers digest' dh Hkkafr Hkh gks ldrh gS vkSj
Vsyhfotu dk;ZØeksa dks iznf'kZr djus okyh xkbM ds :i esa Hkh gks ldrh gS A
cgqr lh eSxt+hu ,slh Hkh gksrh gSa tks fd nks fof'k"Vrk dks fy;s gksrh gSa A ;s
lkekU;r% yxkrkj Nirh gSa vkSj izR;sd eSxt+hu lekt ds dqN fo'ks"k oxksaZ ds fy,
gksrh gS A
dqN eSxt+hu Kku fy, o dqN euksjt a u fy;s gksrh gSa A 'kq:okrh nkSj esa
eSxt+hu dk vkfLrRo /kq/a kyk Fkk] lekpkji= o eSxt+hu dh lhek esa dksbZ fo'ks"k
vUrj u Fkk A
izkphu dky dh eSxt+hu esa Journal des Scarans dks fy;k tkrk gS A
tks fd isfjl ls 1665 esa 'kq: gqbZ Fkh A bl fdrkc dks NksVk djds fy[kk x;k
Fkk A 'kh?kz gh ;g Lo;a ds fo"k;ksa (Material) ds lkFk vkbZ A mlds i'pkr~
“The Tatler" vkSj “The Spectator" baxySM a ls Nkih x;h A ;g eSxt+hu 18oha
'krkCnh esa 4&4 eghus ds ckn Nih A bu nksuksa eSxt+hu us vius fopkjksa vkSj
euksjt
a u dks o dqN lekpkjksa dks Nkik A
vesfjdh eSxt+hu General Magazine vkSj Historical Chronicle 1741
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
(22)
esa Nih A General Magazine dks Benjamin Franklin us Nkik Fkk vkSj blds rhu
fnu ckn Franklin ds izfr;ksxh Andrew Bradford us American Magazine dks
Nkik A
;g nksuksa eSxt+hu tYn gh can gks x;h A ;g nksuksa eSxt+hu yacs le; rd
viuh lsok,a blfy, iznku ugha dj ik;h D;ksfa d mudh izfr;kWa vf/kd ugha fcd
jgh Fkh (Limited circulation ) vkSj foKkiuksa dh Hkh deh Fkh A
vesfjdk esa eSxt+hu dk lqugjh lQj 19oha 'krkCnh esa 'kq: gqvk A 1879
esa eSxt+hu cgqr de dher ij cukbZ xbZ A
bl le; ds nwljs fodkl iYi dkxt dk lLrk gksuk fizfa Vax izl sz dk lq/
kjk :i] yhuks Vkbi dh [kkst] vksVksefs Vd Vkbi&lSfVax Fkk nwljs fodklksa esa fp=ksa
dk iqu% izdkf'kr gksuk Fkk A
blh dkj.k eSxt+hu de [kpsZ ij Nkih xbZ tks fd cgqr vkd"kZd Fkh A
lLrh gksus ds dkj.k bls dkQh yksxksa rd igqpa k;k x;k A blls tgka eSxt+hu dh
izfr;ka vf/kd fcdh (Circulation ) ogha foKkiu Hkh vf/kd vkus yxs A ml le;
dh lcls lQy eSxt+hu vesfjdk dh Colliers vkSj Cosmopolitan Fkh A
vf/kd rduhdh ;ksX;rk vkSj vU; fodkl gksus ds dkj.k 20oha lnh dh
eSxt+hu us viuk :i cnyk] og de dher fy,] vf/kd fcdus okyh] vf/kd
foKkiu fy, vkSj fofHkUu oxksaZ ds fy, fofHkUu fo"k;ksa dh iz/kkurk fy;s gq, Fkh A
izFke fo'o ;q) ds le; cgqr lh cM+h eSxt+husa Nih A os Fkh Reader
Digest (1922), Time (1923), New Yarker (1925) Fkh A 1930 ds e/; esa “Life
and Look" eSxt+hu iq:"kksa ds fy, vkbZ “Esquire".

vkt eSxt+hu fofHkUu fo"k;ksa esa iz/kkurk fy;s gq, gS The American Audit
Bureau off circulation us 30 fHkUu&fHkUu izdkj dh fo'ks"krk fy;s eSxt+huksa dks
ckaVk gS ftlesa eq[; lkSUn;Z] O;olkf;d] flykbZ] QS'ku] [ksy&dwn] fQYe] lkbZl a ]
bfrgkl] LokLF;] ?kj] QksVksxkz Qh] ;k=k] laxhr] lekpkj] iq:"k] ukjh] dEI;wVj vkfn gSA
eSxt+hu dks rhu Hkkxksa esa ckWVa k tk ldrk gS A lekpkj iz/kku] euksjt
a u

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(23)
iz/kku] Lo;a fopkj/kkjk iz/kku A vkt izR;sd eSxt+hu vius yf{kr ikBdksa ds bfPNr
vuqlkj gksrh gS A
'kq:vkr es]a tc oSKkfud vfLrRo esa vkbZ mls viuk LFkku cukus ds fy,
tu ek/;eksa ls la?k"kZ djuk iM+k A tSls jsfM;ks] Vsyhfotu] fQYe A ijUrq
lekpkji= o eSxt+hu viuk LFkku cukus esa lQy jgs A
eSxt+hu tulapkj ds fofHkUu ek/;eksa esa ls ,d gS A eSxt+hu dh la[;k]
lkexzh dh izdf` r] mi;ksfxrk vkfn bls ,d jkT; ls nwljs jkT; rd QSyk;k x;k
A bu eSxt+huksa dks ,sfrgkfld] lkekftd] lkaLd`frd] vkfFkZd vkSj jktuSfrd vk/
kkj ij Hkh ckaVk x;k A
lk/kkj.kr% eSxt+hu tkudkjh] fopkj/kkjk vkSj O;ogkj dks QSykus esa
egRoiw.kZ jksy vnk djrh gS A ;g tgka gesa tkudkjh iznku djrh gS ogha nwljh rjQ
f'k{kk o euksjta u dks Hkh is'k djrs gq, ikBdksa dh :fp dk Hkh è;ku j[krh gS A
Future of Magazine

eSxt+hu tgka igys ,d esa gh fof'k"Vrk dh fofHkUurk dks fy;s gksrh Fkh
vc izR;sd eSxt+hu fof'k"V fo"k;ksa dks fy;s gq, gksrh gS A vc eSxt+hu ikBdksa
ds ilan ds vuqlkj lkekftd] vkfFkZd] 'kSf{kd] O;olkf;d] lkaLd`frd] /kkfeZd
vkfn dh fof'k"Vk fy;s gksrh gSA ;g izFkk 21oha lnh rd pysxh A
vkxs vkus okyh lnh esa eSxt+hu] rduhdh vkSj vkfFkZd ubZ [kkstksa ds dkj.k
vkt ls cnyh gqbZ gksxh A vkxs vkus okys le; esa eSxt+hu vkSj gYds o vPNs
dkxt ij Nisxh A cgqr lh eSxt+hu bUVjusV ij ekStnw gksxh A blls tkudkjh
dk foLrkj cgqr ls yksxksa rd QSy ldsxk A os rc miHkksDrkvksa o ikBd viuh
ilan ds vuqlkj fdlh Hkh eSxt+hu dks vius dEI;wVj LØhu ij ns[k ik,axs A mUgsa
tks lkexzh ilUn gks mls LySDV djds fizVa dh dkeakM nsdj vius fizVa j ls mldh
dkih fudky ik;sxa s A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


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PAPER - II BLOCK - B UNIT - II

tulapkj ek/;eksa dk bfrgkl ¼Hkkjr ds izi{s k; ls½


jsfM+;ks
bySDVªkWfud lapkj&ek/;eksa esa jsfM;ks vR;ar izHkko'kkyh ek/;e gS A ;g ,d
,slk ek/;e gS tks vn`'; fo|qr pqca dh; rjaxksa ds }kjk lan's k dks ,d LFkku ls
nwljs LFkku ij izfs "kr djrk gS A lwpuk] euksjt a u] f'k{kk vkfn ds izlkj.k {ks= esa
bl ek/;e us fo'ks"k [;kfr vftZr dh gSA jsfM;ks fuj{kjksa ds fy, ,d ojnku
gS ftlds }kjk os flQZ lqudj vf/kd ls vf/kd lwpuk] Kku vkSj euksjt a u gkfly
dj ysrs gSa A jsfM;ks vkSj Vªkfa tLVj dh dher Hkh cgqr vf/kd ugha gksrh A bl
dkj.k og lkekU; turk ds fy, lqyHk gS A bl ds fy, fctyh dh Hkh t:jr
ugha iMrh o dgha ij Hkh mBk dj ys tk ldrs gS]a lqu ldrs gS A ;gh dkj.k
gS fd Vh-oh- ds O;kid izlkj ds ckotwn rhljh nqfu;ka ds ns'kksa esa jsfM;ks dk
viuk egRo vkt Hkh dk;e gS A
jsfM;ks dk vkfo"dkj 19oha 'krkCnh esa gqvk A okLro esa jsfM;ks dh dgkuh
1815 bZ- ls 'kq: gksrh gS A tc bVyh ds ,d bathfu;j xqfXy;ksa ekdksuZ h us jsfM;ks
VsyhxzkQh ds tfj, igyk lUns'k izlkfjr fd;k A ;g lan's k ^ekslZ dksM* ds :i
esa Fkk A lu~ 1864 esa LdkVyS.M ds HkkSfrd'kkL=h tsEl DykdZ eSDlosy us jsfM;ks
rduhd ds izkjafHkd iz;ksx fd, A rRi'pkr~ 1888 esa teZu HkkSfrd'kkL=h gSufj[k
gVZt us pqca dh; rjaxksa dks mRiUu djds mUgsa LFkkukarfjr djus esa lQyrk izkIr
dh A 1901 esa igyh ckj jsfM;ks rjaxksa }kjk iksYFk dkuZoky ls U;w Qkm.MyS.M
dh 2000 ehy dh nwjh rd lan's k&iz"s k.k esa lQyrk izkIr dh xbZ A
jsfM;ks ij euq"; dh vkokt igyh ckj 1906 esa lqukbZ nh A ;g rc laHko
gqvk tc vesfjdk ds yh Mh QkjsLV us iz;ksx ds rkSj ij ,d izlkj.k djus esa
lQyrk izkIr dh A mlus ,d ifj"d`r fuokZr ufydk dk vkfo"dkj fd;k] tks
vkus okys ladrs ksa dks foLrkj nsus ds fy, Fkh A Mh- QkjsLV us gh igyh ckj
1916 esa jsfM;ks lekpkj izlkfjr fd;k A og lekpkj okLro esa la;D q r jk"Vª ds
jk"Vªifr pquko ds ifj.kke dh fjiksVZ Fkh A 1920 ds ckn rks vesfjdk vkSj fczVus
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
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gh D;k fo'o ds dbZ ns'kksa esa jsfM;ks us /kwe epk nh A blh vof/k esa ;wjksi]
vesfjdk rFkk ,f'k;kbZ ns'kksa esa cgqr ls 'kks/kdk;Z gq, Fks A bu 'kks/k dk;ksaZ ds
QyLo:i jsfM;ks us vHkwriwoZ izxfr dh A dkykarj esa bySDVªku vkSj Vªkfa tLVj dh
[kkst us jsfM;ks Vªkfa tLVj rFkk nwj lapkj ds {ks= esa vHkwriwoZ fodkl fd;k A
Hkkjr esa jsfM;ks izlkj.k dk bfrgkl lu~ 1926 ls 'kq: gksrk gS A cEcbZ]
dydrk rFkk enzkl esa O;fDrxr jsfM;ks Dyc LFkkfir fd, x, Fks A bu Dycksa
ds O;olkb;ksa us ,d izlkj.k daiuh xfBr dj yh Fkh vkSj futh izlkj.k lsok 'kq:
dj nh A 1926 esa Hkkjr ljdkj us bl izlkj.k daiuh dks ns'k esa izlkj.k dsUnz
LFkkfir djus ds fy, ykblsl a iznku fd;k A bl daiuh dh vksj ls igyk izlkj.k
23 tqykbZ] 1927 dks cEcbZ esa gqvk A bls izlkfjr fd;k Fkk bafM;k czkMdkfLVax
daiuh us A blh ds lkFk cEcbZ jsfM;ks LVs'ku dk mn~?kkVu rRdkyhu okbljk;
ykMZ MfoZu us fd;k Fkk A
dydrk dsUnz dk mn~?kkVu rRdkyhu xouZj lj LVSuyh tSDlu us fd;k
A bl mn~?kkVu ds lkFk 26 vxLr 1927 dks caxyk esa lekpkj cqyfs Vu dk izlkj.k
gqvk A bl izdkj caxyk dks izknsf'kd Hkk"kkvksa esa lcls igys jsfM;ks ij lekpkj
cqyfs Vu ds :i esa izlkfjr gksus dk Js; izkIr gS A
lu~ 1930 esa Hkkjr ljdkj us izlkj.k lsok dk izc/a k vius vf/kdj esa ys
fy;k A Hkkjr ljdkj us 1930 esa ^bafM;u LVsV czkMdkfLVax lfoZl* dh LFkkiuk
dh ftlds izFke egkfuns'kd Fks fy;ksuy s QhYMsu A mUgsa ;g in 30 vxLr 1935
dks lkSia k x;k A 1933 esa ch-ch-lh- }kjk 'kkVZ oso vksojlht lfoZl vkjaHk dh
xbZ A 1 tuojh] 1936 esa igyk izlkj.k dsUnz 18 vyhiqj jksM+] fnYyh esa LFkkfir
gqvk A 8 twu] 1936 ls bldk uke ^vky bf.M;k jsfM;ks* fn;k Fkk A
1936 dh bl ?kVuk ls ,d o"kZ iwoZ lu~ 1935 esa rRdkyhu nslh fj;klr
eSljw esa ,d Lora= jsfM;ks LVs'ku dh LFkkiuk gqbZ Fkh A rRdkyhu eSljw fj;klr
us bl LVs'ku dk uke ^vkdk'kok.kh* fn;k Fkk A lu~ 1935 esa rRdkyhu mrj
if'pe lhekUr ljdkj us xzkE; izlkj.k izkjEHk fd;k A lu~ 1939 esa xzkeh.k eap
izlkj.k izkjEHk fd;k x;k A
f}rh; fo'o;q) ds nkSjku Hkkjr esa vkdk'kok.kh dh fons'kh izlkj.k lsok
izkjaHk gqbZ A lu~ 1939 esa i'rks Hkk"kk esa ;g fons'kh lsok izkjEHk gqbZ A lu~ 1941

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(26)
esa blds izlkj.k dk foLrkj tkiku rFkk iwohZ ,f'k;k ds ns'kksa esa gqvk A blh o"kZ
24 vDVwcj dks Hkkjrh; lwpuk izlkj.k ea=ky; dh LFkkiuk dh xbZ A
lu~ 1943 esa ubZ fnYyh esa izlkj.k Hkou dh LFkkiuk gqbZ vkSj ^vky bafM;k
jsfM;ks* us bl Hkou ls dk;Z djuk izkjEHk fd;k A Lora=rk ds mijkar jsfM;ks dh
izlkj.k lsok esa vlk/kkj.k izxfr gqbZ A Lora=rk ds mijkar 1957 esa Hkkjr ljdkj
us bl laxBu dk uke ^vkdk'kok.kh* ?kksf"kr fd;k A ysfdu ^vkdk'kok.kh* uke
dk iz;ksx fgUnh rFkk vU; Hkk"kkvksa ds izlkj.k esa gh gks jgk gS A vaxt sz h izlkj.kksa
vkSj fons'k lsok ds izlkj.kksa esa tc Hkh vky bf.M;k jsfM;ks gh izlkfjr gksrk gSA
lu~ 1947 esa tgkWa iwjs ns'k esa ek= 6 izlkj.k dsUnz] 18 Vªkl a ehVj vkSj
yxHkx <kbZ yk[k jsfM;ks lsV Fks A ogh vkt 195 jsfM;ks LVs'ku gSa A 164
,Q- ,e- dsUnz gSa A 57 LFkkuh; jsfM;ks dsUnz gS]a 31 fofo/k Hkkjrh lsok dsUnz
gSa vkSj djhc rhu djksM+ ls vf/kd jsfM;ks lsV ?kjksa esa ct jgs gSa A lu~ 1952
esa vky bafM;k }kjk laxhr dk vf[ky Hkkjrh; dfo lEesyu izkjEHk fd;k x;k
A 25 tuojh] 1956 dks izFke vf[ky Hkkjrh; dk;ZØe izlkfjr gqvk A lu~ 1957
esa O;kolkf;d izlkj.k ds mn~n's ; ls ^fofo/k Hkkjrh* lsok izlkfjr gqbZ A 1961
esa vkWy bf.M;k jsfM;ks us viuk jtro"kZ euk;k A lu~ 1964 esa vkdk'kok.kh ds
dk;ZØeksa dh leh{kk gsrq pank lfefr dk xBu fd;k x;k ftlus jsfM;ks ,oa
Vsyhfotu fjiksVZ vkWQ n desVh vku ozkMdkfLVax ,aM bUQkes'Z ku ehfM;k ¼1966½
ds uke ls fjiksVZ izLrqr dh A blesa jsfM;ks vkSj Vsyhfotu ds fy, Lok;Ùk fuxe
dh flQkfj'k dh xbZ A lu~ 1965 esa 10 dsUnzkas ls d`f"k izlkj.k izkjEHk gqvk A
lu~ 1967 ls vky bafM;k jsfM;ks O;olkf;d cuk A uoacj 1967 dks foKku
izlkj.k lsok Hkh izkjaHk dj nh xbZ A lu~ 1969 esa lkeqnkf;d Jksrk ;kstuk izkjEHk
dh xbZ A lu~ 1971 ls ^;qook.kh* dk;ZØe izkjaHk gqvk A izFke pquko izlkj.k lu~
1977 esa gqvk A
vkdk'kok.kh dh ,Q-,e- lsok 1993 ds vBkjg ?kaVs ds izlkj.kksa ds lkFk
'kq: gqbZ A 14 Qjojh 1995 ls fnYyh esa ,Q-,e- pkSchl ?kaVs izlkfjr gks jgk
gS A bl ,Q-,e-&ou esa euksjt a u ize[q k gSa A ;|fi lkFk esa tkudkfj;ka Hkh nh
tkrh gSa A vxLr 1993 esa vkdk'kok.kh us viuk ,d vyx fganh izHkkx] lekpkj
vkSj lwpuk laxgz .k ds fy, izkjaHk fd;k A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(27)
1 vizyS lu~ 1994 ls izkjaHk ^LdkbZ jsfM;ks* dk;ZØe us vkdk'kok.kh txr~
esa ubZ gypy epk nh gS A vkdk'kok.kh us Hkw&fLFkj lapkj mixzg bUlsV&2 ch
dh lgk;rk ls bl dk;ZØe dk vkjEHk fd;k Fkk A bl rduhd ls vusd dsUnzkas
ds izlkj.k dks iwjs ns'k esa lquk tk ldrk gS A 1995 esa jsfM;ks isfa tx lsok
'kq: gqbZ A 15 vxLr 1997 ls izlkj Hkkjrh fcy ikfjr gksus ls jsfM;ks ds
fodkl esa uohu psruk vkbZ A o"kZ 2001 esa vkdk'kok.kh us ,Q-,e- dk ,d
u;k pSuy 'kq: fd;k & ,Q-,e- Vw A vkt vkdk'kok.kh 20 pSuyksa ds fy,
fjys izlkj.k dj jgk gS A vkdk'kok.kh ls izfrfnu yxHkx 31 fgUnh lekpkj
cqyfs Vu izlkfjr fd, tkrs gSa ftuesa ls Ng vUrjkZ"Vªh; pSuy ij izlkfjr gksrs gSa A
orZeku esa gkse jsfM;ks] ,esP;ksj jsfM;ks }kjk fo'o ds nwljs ,esP;ksj jsfM;ks ls laidZ
LFkkfir djus dk iz;kl fd;k tk jgk gS A vHkh gky gh esa jsfM;ks ds
,Q- ,e- pSuy ij futh pSuyks dk izo's k gks x;k gS A ;s pSuy gSa & jsfM;ks
flVh 91 ¼,Q-,e-½] jsfM;ks ,Q- ,e- fephZ 98-3] jsfM;ks 93-50 ¼lk<+s frjkuos½
,Q-,e- A
nwjn'kZu (Television) –

Hkkjr esa izFke izk;ksfxd nwjn'kZu dsUnz dk mn~?kkVu 15 flrEcj] 1959 dks
rRdkyhu jk"Vªifr MkW- jktsUnzil z kn }kjk fnYyh esa fd;k x;k A ;g NksVs Lrj
dk 'osr&';ke izlkj.k Fkk A fnYyh esa vk;ksftr ;wuLs dks lEesyu ds varxZr Hkkjr
esa nwjn'kZu dk;ZØe izkjaHk djus gsrq 20]000 MkWyj dk vuqnku izkIr gqvk ftldh
,d ik;yV ifj;kstuk ds rgr vesfjdk ljdkj rFkk fQfyIl dh lgk;rk ls ,d
y?kq nwjn'kZu dsUnz dh LFkkiuk dh xbZ A 15 vxLr] 1965 ls ,d ?kaVs dh nSfud
lkekU; lsok izkjaHk gqbZ A ;g dk;ZØe lIrkg esa pkj fnu izlkfjr gksrk Fkk A
izkjaHk esa nwjn'kZu dk mi;ksx Ldwyh f'k{kk ,oa xzkeh.kksa ds fodkl dks /;ku esa
j[kdj fd;k x;k A 15 vxLr] 1965 dks nwjn'kZu ls loZiFz ke lekpkj cqyfs Vu
izkjaHk gqvk A 26 tuojh] 1967 ls fdlkuksa ds fy, d`f"k ls lacfa /kr ubZ
izk|
S ksfxdh] lalk/kuksa o rduhd vkfn ds izpkj ds fy, d`f"k dk;ZØe vk;ksftr
fd;k x;k A vxLr 1975 ls Hkkjr esa mixzg dh lgk;rk ls vka/kzinz 's k] mM+hlk]
mÙkjizn's k] xqtjkr] fcgkj vkSj egkjk"Vª ds 2400 xkWoa ksa esa nwjn'kZu lsok izkjaHk dh
xbZ A vizy S ] lu~ 1976 dks pank lfefr dh flQkfj'k ij nwjn'kZu vkSj

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(28)
vkdk'kok.kh dks vyx&vyx dj fn;k x;k vkSj blh o"kZ nwjn'kZu us foKkiu&txr
esa izo's k fd;k A 15 vxLr] 1982 dks ,f'k;kbZ [ksyksa ls iwoZ nwjn'kZu dk jaxhu
izlkj.k izkjaHk gqvk A 15 vxLr 1984 dks lkjs ns'k esa ,d lkFk izlkfjr fd,
tkus okys nSfud jk"Vªh; dk;ZØe dk 'kqHkkjEHk gqvk A 19 uoEcj] 1985 ls
nwjn'kZu ij ^buVsDLV* uked VsyhdkLV lsok izkjaHk dh xbZ A nwjn'kZu dh
okf.kfT;d lsok tuojh] 1986 ls vkjaHk gqbZ A 23 tuojh] 1987 ls izkr%dkyhu
izlkj.k lsok dk 'kqHkkjaHk gqvk A 26 tuojh] 1989 dks nksigj dk izlkj.k 'kq:
fd;k x;k A lu~ 1993 esa eSVkª s pSuy ds lkFk&lkFk fons'kh pSuyksa dk vkxeu
gqvk A jk"Vªh; izlkj.k Mh&Mh& 1] 2] 3 esa foHkDr gks x;k vkSj {ks=h; Hkk"kkvksa
ds eSVkª s pSuyksa dks Øe'k% Mh&Mh& 4] 5] 6 uke fn;k x;k gS A nwjn'kZu dh
vk; dk ize[q k lzkrs ^nwjn'kZu foKkiu lsok* dk izkjaHk o"kZ 1996 esa gqvk A
Lakizfr orZeku esa 563 Vªkl
a ehVj] 834 izlkj dsna ]z 41 dk;ZØe fuekZ.k dsna z
rFkk 19 pSuy dk;Zjr gSa tks fujarj lwpuk] f'k{kk vkSj euksjt a u dk izlkj dj
jgs gSa A
flusek &
Qzkl
a ds nks Hkkb;ks vxLr yqejs ,oa yqbl
Z yqejs us Hkkjr esa 7 tqykbZ 1896
dks flusek dk igyk 'kks fd;k A ;g 20 feuV dk 'kks Fkk A 7 tqykbZ 1889
eas Hkkjr ds VkbEl vkWQ bafM;k esa igyk flusek foKkiu Nik A gfj'panz l[kkjke
HkkVoydj us blh o"kZ yanu ls igyk flusek dSejk [kjhnk vkSj igyh ns'kh fQYe
dq'rh rFkk canj dks izf'kf{kr djrs gq, ,d O;fDr dh cukbZ A 1904 esa ekusV
Vh- lsBuk us cEcbZ esa ykbZQ vkWQ fØLV ls igyk flusek vius izkt s Ds V esa fn[kk;k
A ts- ,Q- enku us dydrk esa lu~ 1907 esa igyk Nfox`g ,yfQLVu fiDplZ
iSyls flusek cuk;k A nknk lkgc QkYds dh igyh fufeZr Qhpj fQYe ^jktk
gfj'pUnz* Fkh A bldk izn'kZu 3 ebZ] 1913 dks gqvk A 1919 esa vkj-th- Vkjuh
us isLVuZ ewoht ds uke ls igyk fQYe forj.k dk;kZy; [kksyk ,oa 1920 esa
oRlyk gj.k dk igyk iksLVj cuk;k x;k A eqca bZ] enzkl] dydrk] jaxuw o ykgkSj
esa lu~ 1920 esa gh lsl a j cksMZ xfBr fd, x, A 1922 esa igyh ckj caxky
ljdkj us euksjt a u dj yxk;k A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(29)
^vkyevkjk* izFke cksyrh fQYe Fkh tks ekpZ 1931 esa cuh Fkh A ikWp a os
n'kd rd fgUnh flusek ,d jpukRedrk ds pje fcanq rd igqp a pqdk Fkk vkSj
cgqr yksdfiz; gqvk A blh ds lkFk vU; Hkk"kkvksa esa Hkh fQYe&fuekZ.k gqvk A
Hkkjr esa 1931 ls gh o`Ùkfp=ksa dk pyu tkjh jgk vkSj vkt Hkh og
loksPZ p LFkku ij gS A 1932 esa ^bUnzlHkk* fQYe cuh tks va'kr% jaxhu Fkh A
blesa 70 xhr Fks] 1932 esa gh foYoeaxy fQYe cuh tks va'kr% jaxhu Fkh A igyh
jaxhu fQYe vnsfZ 'kj bZjkuh dh ^fdlku dU;k* Fkh tks 1937 esa cuh A ebZ 1933
esa Hkkjrh; fQYeksa dh jtr t;Urh eukbZ xbZ A
lu~ 1955&1956 esa lR;thr jk; us viuh izxhrkRed] ekuorkoknh ,oa
lefiZr 'kSyh ds lkFk Hkkjrh; flusek dh rLohj gh cny nh vkSj fo'o flusek
esa Hkkjrh; flusek dks LFkk;h LFkku fnyk;k A lkWra ok n'kd de ctV dh fQYeksa
dk jgk A
/khjs&/khjs Hkkjrh; fQYeksa ij O;olkf;drk] fgalk vkSj v'yhyrk gkoh gksrh
pyh xbZ vkSj vkt Hkh fQYeksa dk ize[q k vax cuh gqbZ gS A ijUrq fQYesa gekjs
lekt esa vkt Hkh euksjt a u dk ize[q k lk/ku gSa lkFk gh ;g lekt dh rLohj
Hkh izLrqr djrh gSa A
Newspaper in India:-

gekjs Hkkjrh; lekt esa lekpkji=ksa dk ,d egRoiw.kZ LFkku gS A ;g gesa


tkudkjh] f'k{kk] euksjt
a ukRed lekpkj igqp
a kdj viuk dk;Z djrk gS A blds lkFk
;g gesa izkRs lkfgr o mÙksftr djus dk dk;Z Hkh djrk gS A ;g lekt ds gj
igyw ij utj j[krk gS ftlds dkj.k bls okWp MkWx dh laKk nh xbZ gS A
Hkkjr esa 29 tuojh] 1780 esa tsEl vxLVl fgfd us ^caxky xtV* ds
uke ls lekpkj i= izdkf'kr fd;k A og izFke Hkkjrh; lekpkj i= ds lEiknd
izdk'kd] fuekZrk Fks A bl lekpkj i= dks ^dydrk tujy ,MojVkbtj* dk uke
Hkh fn;k x;k A turk bls ^fgfd xtV* ds uke ls Hkh tkurh gS A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(30)
;g lekpkj&i= NksVs vkdkj dk] nks iUuksa dk] lkIrkfgd vkSj }s"k iw.kZ
vFkksaZ ls Hkjk gqvk Fkk A blds dkxt dh o bls Nkius dh xq.korÙkk Hkh vPNh
ugha Fkh A bl lekpkj i= esa foKkiuksa dh Hkjekj Fkh rFkk blds Åij ^dydÙkk
tujy ,MojVkbtj* dk uke fy[kk Fkk A blds izFke i`"B ij Hkh foKkiuksa dh
Hkjekj Fkh A ;gh dkj.k gS fd bl dk uke ^^dydÙkk tujy ,MojVkbtj**
vf/kd yksdfiz; gqvk A
dqN eghuksa ds i'pkr~ ^fgfd* us izfr;ksfxrk dk lkeuk fd;k D;ksfa d ^^ch-
feflUd vkSj ihVj jhM us ^bf.M;u xtV* uked lekpkj&i= dks 'kq: fd;k A
;g lekpkj i= Hkh foKkiu dh iz/kkurk fy;s gqvk Fkk A nwljs dbZ lekpkj i= Hkh
tYn 'kq: gks x;s Fks A blesa dydÙkk xtV ¼1784½] caxky tujy ¼1785½ gSA
1785 esa fjpkMZ tkWulu us Government Printer of Madras ls enzkl
dksfj;j lekpkj i= 'kq: fd;k A blds i'pkr~ vkj- fofy;e dk enzkl xtV
¼1795½ vkSj geQzh dk bf.M;u gsjkYM ¼1796½ izdk'k esa vk;k A
cEcbZ esa cEcs gsjkYM ¼1789½ uke ls izFke lekpkj i= dh 'kq:okr gqbZ A
blds i'pkr~ ckEcs dksfj;j ¼1789½ vkSj cEcs xtV 1791½ vk, A
blds ckn gj lekpkj i= dks ljdkj ds l[r dkuwu o xq.k&nks"k tkuus
okyh iz.kkyh (Censership) ls xqtjuk iM+k A tks Hkh lekpkj ljdkj ds f[kykQ
fy[k jgk Fkk mls Hk;adj ;krukvksa ls xqtjuk iM+k A okLro es]a fczfV'k ljdkj
us fofy;e cksyV~l ds lekpkj i= dks tks mlus 1776 esa 'kq: fd;k Fkk] ns'k
fudkyk ns fn;k Fkk A
blds pkj lky ds ckn fgfd xtV izdkf'kr gqvk Fkk A fgfd dks cgqr
lrk;k x;k] bldh izl
s dks tCr dj fy;k x;k vkSj vUr esa mls etcwju ,d
lky ds i'pkr~ vius lekpkj i= dks cUn djuk iM+k A nks vU; lEikndksa
fofy;e M;wuh vkSj Mk- esdyhu dks ftUgksua s Øe'k% caxky tujy ¼1794½ o
caxky gwdk: ¼1798½ lekpkj i= fudkys Fks] okfil baXySM
a Hkst fn;k x;k Fkk A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(31)
Golden Era Begins
lekpkj i=ksa dh lqugjh 'kq:okr %
18oha o 19oha lnh ds 'kq:okr rd dksbZ Hkh izHkkoh o ;ksX; i=dkj
¼fjiksVjZ ½ o lekpkj ugha vk;k Fkk A rc 1811 esa tsEl flYd cqfdaxge vk, A
dydÙkk ds dqN O;kikfj;ksa us feydj ^dydÙkk Øksfudy* dks izdkf'kr fd;k vkSj
cqfdaxge dks baXySM a ls cqykdj mUgsa bl lekpkj i= dk lEiknd cuk fn;k A
vf/kd tkudkjh o foLr`r ;k=k dk Kku gksus ds dkj.k cqfdaxge us Hkkjr
ds lekpkji=ksa esa ubZ fopkj/kkjkvksa dks tUe fn;k A bUgksua s izkphu dky ls pyh
vk jgs cnukeh QSykus okys lekpkjksa dks vkxs ugha c<+k;k A cfYd bUgksua s
lkQ&lqFkjh fjiksfZ Vax dks pquk vkSj blesa {ks=h; yksxksa ds thou esa vkus okyh
dfBukbZ;ksa dks mtkxj fd;k A cqfdaxge us ^lfr* ds f[kykQ /keZ;) q NsM+k A
lkFk gh ;g igys ,sls i=dkj Fks ftUgksua s lkekftd cqjkb;ksa o izl S dh LorU=rk
dks mtkxj fd;k A
buds i'pkr~ jktk jke eksgu jk; vk, A os ml le; ds lkekftd
dk;ZdÙkkZ Fks rFkk mUgksua s Hkh cfdaxge dh rjg lekt dh vusd cqjkbZ;ksa tSls lfr
izFkk] cky fookg] inkZ izFkk vkfn ds f[kykQ ;q) dk fcxqy ctk;k A bUgksua s
lekpkj i= dh 'kfDr esa turk ls voxr djk;k vkSj caxkyh lekpkj i= laokn
dkSenq h ¼1822½] ikjlh Hkk"kk esa fejkr&my&v[kckj* ¼1822½ vkSj vaxt sz h esa ,d
/kkfeZd eSxthu dks Hkh izdkf'kr fd;k A ;g igys vk/kqfud Hkkjr ds fuekZrk Fks A
jktk jke eksgu jk; igys ,sls Hkkjrh; Fks ftUgksua s lekpkj i= dks ifjofrZr :i
fn;k o lekpkj i= dh lgk;rk ls lkekftd dqjhfr;ksa dks nwj djus dk iz;kl
fd;k A
lu~ 1838 esa Times of India lekpkj i= 'kq: gqvk tks fd vaxt sz h Hkk"kk
esa Fkk A 1947 esa tc Hkkjr vktkn gqvk rc ;g Hkkjrh; gkFkksa esa vk;k A vc
rd ;g lekpkj i= gesa 150 lkyksa ls viuh lsok,a fujUrj iznku dj jgk gS A
izR;sd i=dkj viuk dk;Z tks'k ds lkFk djrs gSa A i=dkfjrk ,d fe'ku gS A
cgqr ls i=dkjksa vkSj lekpkj i=ksa us turk ds eu esa jk"Vªh; Hkkouk dks mtkxj
djus ds fy, LorU=rk izkfIr esa viuk fo'ks"k ;ksxnku fn;k A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


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Hkkjrh; i=dkjksa dk fe'ku Lora=rk izkIr djuk Fkk vkSj tc Hkkjr vktkn
gqvk rc mudk fe'ku iwjk gqvk A LorU=rk izkfIr ds i'pkr~ cgqr ls ifjorZu
gq, A cgqr ls lekpkj i= tks igys fczfV'k ljdkj ds gkFk esa Fks vc Hkkjrh;ksa
ds gkFkksa esa vk x;s Fks A fu;fer :i ls lekpkj izkIr djus ds fy, lekpkj
,tsUlh lsok,a 'kq: gqbZ A ftlesa Press Trust of India blh izdkj dh gh lekpkj
miyc/k djokus okyh ,tsUlh gS tks fd lu~ 1946 esa 'kq: gqbZ A
fe'ku dks izkIr djus okys tks'k dks mn~n's ; j[kus okys lekpkj i= us
vc vius mn~n's ; dks cny dj O;olkf;drk esa cny fn;k gS A i=dkfjrk
vc is'ks esa ifjofrZr gks xbZ gS A yksx lekpkj i=ksa esa 'kkfey ysrs gSa A vc
mudk mn~n's ; ns'k dh lsok u jgdj] vk; izkIr djus rd lhfer gks x;k gS
A lkekUkr% lekpkj i= laLFkk dk eq[; mn~n's ; vc ykHk izkIr djuk jg x;k
gS A lekpkj i=ksa esa viuh iBuh;rk dks c<+kus o viuh izfr dks vf/kd yksxksa
rd igqpa kus dh izfr;ksfxrk vc fujUrj c<+rh tk jgh gS A 1970 ds ckn ls Hkkjr
esa lekpkj i=ksa us ,d laxBu (Orgaisation) dk :i ys fy;k gS A
vkt Hkkjr esa 30]000 ls Hkh vf/kd lekpkj i= Nirs gSa A okLro es]a
buesa ls 3000 ls Hkh vf/kd lekpkj i= jkst Nirs gSa vkSj yxHkx lHkh lekpkj
i=ksa esa ls ,d lekpkj i= (Circulation:- Total no. of copies) 55 million
copies gS A
Hkkjrh; lekpkj laxBu fo'o esa lcls cM+h laxBu gS A bldk bfrgkl
yEck o mn~ns';iw.kZ gS A Times of India lekpkj i= 150 lky iqjkuk gS A Hkkjr
esa vk/kk ntZu lekpkj i= ,sls gSa (The Tribune, The Statesman) tks fd dkQh
yEcs le; ls pys vk jgs gSa o lnh dks ikj dj pqds gSa A The Hindustan Times
us vHkh gky gh esa viuh 75oha lkyfxjkg eukbZ gS A
brus lkyksa es]a Hkkjrh; lekpkj i= laxBu ,d 'kfDr'kkyh :i ysdj
lkeus vk;k gS A ;g gtkjksa yksxksa dks jkstxkj iznku djrk gS A ;g tkudkjh]
euksjt
a ukRed o f'k{kk ikBd rd igqp a krk gS rkfd os iw.kZ :i ls vius jkT;
ds izfr lpsr gks lds vkSj vius fopkjksa dks Hkh ckWVa lds A

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lekpkji=ksa dk Lo:i %
Role of Newspaper
Hkkjrh; lekpkj i=ksa dk tUe fczfV'k dky esa gqvk Fkk vkSj bUgksua s vius
ns'k dks vktkn djus esa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkbZ Fkh A okLro esa cgqr ls lekpkj
i= ml dky ds egRoiw.kZ o izfl) O;fDr;ksa ds }kjk 'kq: fd;s x;s A lekpkj
i= jk"Vªh; Lrj o {ks=h; vk/kkj ij 'kq: fd;s x;s Fks ftudk eq[; mn~n's ; turk
dks LorU=rk vfHk;ku esa fd;s tkus okys dk;ksaZ o fd;s x;s dk;ksaZ ds ckjs esa
tkudkjh nsuk Fkk A
cky xaxk/kj fryd us ^dsljh* o ^ejkBk* lekpkj i= pyk, rks egkRek
xka/kh us ;ax ^bf.M;k* o ^gfjtu* dks 'kq: fd;k A tokgj yky usg: us ^us'kuy
gsjkYM* dks pyk;k A
cgqr ls lekpkj i= 'kq: gq, ijUrq lHkh dk mn~n's ; turk dks LorU=rk
vfHk;ku ds fy, fd;s tkus okys dk;ksaZ ls voxr djkuk Fkk A tc bl y{;
dks izkIr dj fy;k x;k vkSj Hkkjr vktkn gks x;k rc Hkkjrh; lekpkj i=ksa us
viuk :i ifjofrZr dj fn;k A ckn esa fQj blus lekt esa ,d okWp MkWx dh
Hkwfedk fuHkkbZ A
Hkkjrh; lekpkj i= us lkekftd o vkfFkZd fodkl dks Hkh vius lekpkj
i=ksa esa LFkku fn;k rFkk blds c<+rs Lo:i ls turk dks voxr djk;k A
blds lkFk lekpkj i= us jktuhfrd dqdeZ] [kwu[kjkck vkfn [kcjksa dks
izdkf'kr fd;k A blus jktuSfrd [kcjksa dks lcls vf/kd egRoiw.kZ crkdj bls
izFke i`"B dk LFkku fn;k vkSj LFkku o {ks= ds fglkc ls Økbe [kcjksa dks
vyx&vyx LFkku fn;k A
vkt Hkkjrh; lekpkj i= cgqr cM+s lekpkj i= dk :i ys pqds gSa A
ftlds gj dkWye esa euksjta u iz/kku gS A cgqr ls lekpkj i= vPNh :i lTtk
fy;s] fofHkUu jax fy;s gksrs gSa o bu lekpkj i=ksa ds lkFk vfrfjDr lekpkj
fy;s gq, i= Hkh gksrs gSa ftudh i`"B la[;k 4 ;k 5 rd gksrh gS A

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Magazines in India:-

lekpkj i=ksa ds lkFk izdk'k esa vkbZ eSxthu 17oha 'krkCnh ds vUr es]a
o 18oha 'krkCnh ds 'kq:okr esa ;wjksi ls izdk'k esa vkbZ A vesfjdk dh igyh
eSxthu Andrew Bradfard'sAmerican Magazine Fkh tks fd cSutkehu Qzd S yhu dh
^tujy eSxthu* vkSj ^fgLVksfjdy Øksfudy* ds lEidZ esa Fkh A bu nksuksa eSxthuksa
dh 'kq:okr 1741 esa gqbZ A
Hkkjr es]a lekpkj i=ksa dh rjg eSxthu Hkh dqN le; ds ckn vkbZ A
jktkjke eksgu jk; us 'kk;n Hkkjr dh igyh eSxthu fy[kh A ;g ,d /kkfeZd
izof` Ùk okyh vaxt sz h if=dk Fkh A ;g eSxthu 1920 ls izdk'k esa vkbZ A bu fnuksa
cgqr ls eSxthu izdkf'kr gqbZ ijUrq dksbZ Hkh eSxthu viuh vf/kd Issues ugha
dj ikbZ vkSj igys gh can gks xbZ A
lcls vf/kd lQyrk Weekly of India eSxthu dks ftls dh Times of India
Group us 'kq: fd;k Fkk] fey ikbZ A

LorU=rk izkfIr rd eSxthu esa dksbZ vf/kd izdk'ku ugha gqvk ijUrq 1970
ds vkrs gh eSxthu izdk'ku esa ,d rwQku vk;k blesa dkQh ifjorZu gq, A tSls
eSxthu dks cukus es]a dkxt es]a jaxhu i`"Bksa o :i lTtk] fp=ksa o foKkiu eq[;
gSa A nwljk dkjd tks fd egRoiw.kZ ekuk tk jgk Fkk og ladVdky ds le; tYnh
izdk'ku Fkk A
1970 ls igys eSxthu ds izdk'k esa deh dk eq[; dkj.k izdk'ku rduhd
dk vPNk u gksuk Fkk A blds lkFk eSxthu cgqr vf/kd egaxh Fkh ftls nwljs
O;fDr] ikBd mls [kjhn ugha ikrs Fks A ifjorZuksa us /khjs&/khjs viuk LFkku fy;k A
loZiFz ke Lo:i esa ifjorZu lEikndh; i`"B] fofHkUu fo"k;ksa dks 'kkfey djuk] is'kk]
cktkjhdj.k o :i lTtk eq[; gS A
1975 ls 1977 esa ladVdky dh voLFkk esa ^i=dkfjrk dh [kkst* dk
cksyckyk Fkk A lekpkj i= lekpkjksa dh vf/kdrk ds dkj.k bl fo"k; ij è;ku
ugha ns jgk Fkk A blh dkj.k cgqr lh if=dk,a bl fo"k; ij izdkf'kr gqbZ A

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e/kq rzhgu tks fd la;D q r jk"Vª la?k ds vuqHkoh i=dkj Fks us esa 'kq: dh A
og ;g lekpkj if=dk ds :i esa 'kq: gqbZ tcfd mlds lkFk dh nwljh if=dk,a
fofHkUu fo"k;ksa dks vius esa latks, gq, Fkh A e/kq rzhgu dh India Today ds izFke
izdk'ku ij cgqr ljkguk dh xbZ A rzhgu ds HkkbZ] v:.k iqjh us bl if=dk ds
lEiknu dk dk;ZHkkj laHkkyk vkSj mls mPp cqyfa n;ksa rd igqp a k;k A
;ksX; lEiknu o vPNs mRiknu ds dkj.k India Today us nks izdkj dks
ikBdksa dks tdM+k gqvk gS A igys os gSa tks fd lekpkj i=ksa dks /;ku ls i<+rs
gSa vkSj mldh gj [kcj dks foLrkjiwod Z O;k[;kRed tkuuk pkgrs gSa vkSj nwljs
os tks lekpkj i= ugha i<+rs gSa vkSj ,d ckj i<+dj lIrkg Hkj ds lekpkjksa
dks tkuuk pkgrs gSa A
tYnh gh India Today US English esa viuh Circulation dks c<+k fy;k gSA
;g ,d lkIrkfgd if=dk gSA vktdy India Today vU; {ks=h; Hkk"kkvksa esa Hkh
izdkf'kr gks jgh gSA tSls fgUnh] rfey] rsyxw w A
India Today lewg vc Business Today ds :i esa Hkh izdk'k esa vk;k gS A
Business Today if=dk us O;olkf;d if=dk esa viuk egRoiw.kZ LFkku cuk fy;k
gS A India Today dk viuk ,d Vsyhfotu lekpkj pSuy Hkh gS ftldk uke vkt
rd gS A
jk"Vªh; Lrj dh nks if=dk,a tks fd nf{k.k ls izdkf'kr gqbZ 'The Week'
vkSj 'Frontline' Fkh A The Week if=dk ey;kye euksjek xziq ds }kjk dksV~Vk;e
ls 'kq: gqbZ A 18oha lnh rd bl if=dk us cgqr miyfC/k izkIr dh ijUrq 1990
ds e/; vkrs bl if=dk us viuh dks Circulation [kks fn;k o de dj fy;k
A fQj blds vius esa dqN vko';d ifjorZu fd;s A vc ;g if=dk vPNk dk;Z
dj jgh gS A QzVa ykbu ikf{kd if=dk Fkh A ;g Hkkjr dh izFke fp=ksa dh iz/
kkurk j[kus okyh lekpkj if=dk Fkh A
The Illustrated Weekly of India us cgqr miyfC/k izkIr dh A blds
lEiknd [kq'koar flag Fks A ijUrq blus 1980 esa viuh Circulation dks [kks fn;k A
tYnh gh blus vius <ax] Lrj] Lo:i] vf/kd tkx:drk iz/kku vkfVZdy o Qhpj
dks nsdj bldh Nfo dks fQj ls cuk fy;k A blds u, lEiknd izhfr'k uUnh
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
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us vius izHkkokRed yhMjf'ki ls blds Lo:i dks ifjofrZr fd;k A blds
'kq:okrh lk{kkRdkj] jktusrkvksa ls] usrkvksa ls o egRoiw.kZ O;fDr;ksa ls ikBdksa dks
vf/kd Hkkrs Fks A
lcls vf/kd egRoiw.kZ lk{kkRdkj dk nsoh izhfr'k uUnh yky o pUnz'ks[kj
ds lkFk Fkk A ijUrq ,d lnh ds ckn The Illustrated of India us vius mRiknu ij
1990 ds e/; rd jksd yxk nh vkSj blh dkj.k bldh Circulation fxj xbZ A
1970 ds e/; ls fo'ks"krk iz/kku okyh if=dk,a 'kq: gqbZ A The Sportstar
dh 'kq:okr The Hindu us dh A fQj mlds i'pkr~ Sports Week if=dk 'kq:
gqbZ A cgqr lh fQYeh if=dk izdk'ku esa vkbZ A lcls ckn esa lekpkj iz/kku
if=dk izdk'ku Outlook esa vkbZ A ;g vPNk dk;Z dj jgh gSa A
vkt ge ml LFkku ij igqp a x, gSa A tgka gekjs ikl if=dkvksa dh
Hkjekj gS A vkt gekjs ikl dEI;wVj] vksVks eksckby] izdf` r] taxyh thou vkfn
ij Hkh if=dk miyC/k gS A blds vfrfjDr vU; Hkh dbZ gSa A 'kk;n gh dksbZ
fo"k; if=dkvksa ls vNwrk jgk gksxk vU;Fkk vkt gj fo"k; ij if=dk cktkj esa
miyC/k gS A
Hkkjr esa baVjusV &
(Internet in India)
Hkkjr esa baVjusV dh 'kq:vkr yxHkx 15 o"kZ igys gqbZ A loZiFz ke lSfud
vuql/a kku uSVodZ ¼bvkjusV½ us 'kSf{kd vkSj vuql/a kku {ks=ksa ds fy, bldk mi;ksx
'kq: fd;k A bZvkjusV Hkkjr ljdkj ds bySDVªkfud foHkkx rFkk ;wukbVsM us'kUl
MsoyiesVa izkxs kz e dk ,d la;D
q r miØe Fkk A Hkkjr esa baVjusV dks dkQh lQyrk
feyh vkSj blus vusd uksMksa dk ifjpkyu 'kq: fd;k A yxHkx vkB gtkj ls
vf/kd oSKkfudksa vkSj rduhf'k;uksa }kjk bZvkjusV dh lqfo/kk,a izkIr dh tkus yxh A
,ulh,lVh- eqca bZ }kjk varjkZ"Vªh; laidZ izkIr fd;k tkus yxk A
15 vxLr 1995 dks fons'k lapkj fuxe fyfeVsM us xsVos baVjusV ,Dll
lfoZl ¼thvkbZ,,l½ dh LFkkiuk okf.kfT;d rkSj ij dh A blus eqEcbZ] fnYyh]
psUubZ] dydrk] caxywj vkSj iq.ks esa baVjusV uksM LFkkfir fd, A blus vesfjdk]

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tkiku] bVyh vkfn ns'kksa dh baVjusV daifu;ksa esa le>kSrk djds ns'k ds ize[q k 'kgjksa
esa baVjusV dh lqfo/kk,a miyC/k djokuh 'kq: dh A mlds ckn nwjlapkj foHkkx
ls feydj blus ns'k ds vU; cM+s 'kgjksa dks Hkh baVjusV ls tksM+k A rRi'pkr~
nwjlapkj foHkkx vkbusV uked usVodZ ds }kjk ns'k ds nwjnjkt bykdksa dks Hkh
baVjusV ls tksM+us dk Hkh dke 'kq: fd;k A
bl le; Hkkjr esa rhu ljdkjh ,tsfa l;k¡ baVjusV lfoZl izkos kbMj
¼vkbZ,lih½ vFkkZr~ baVjusV dh lqfo/kk,a miyC/k djkus dk dke dj jgh gSa &
¼1½ nwjlapkj foHkkx ¼2½ egkuxj VsyhdkWe fuxe fyfeVsM rFkk ¼3½ fons'k lapkj
fuxe fyfeVsM A
1904 dh mnkjhdj.k uhfr us bl {ks= esa futh daifu;ksa ds izo's k ds fy,
Hkh jkLrk [kksy fn;k A ljdkj }kjk cukbZ xbZ baVjusV uhfr ds QyLo:i dbZ
ns'kh&fons'kh daifu;ka vkt Hkkjr ds baVjusV izfs e;ksa dks baVjusV lqfo/kk,a iznku dj
jgh gSa A baVjusV ds xzkgdksa dh la[;k Øe'k% c<+ jgh gS A bl le; ns'k esa
yxHkx pkj yk[k yksx baVjusV dk mi;ksx dj jgs gSa A
baVjusV dh dk;Z&iz.kkyh ij Hkh ppkZ djuk ;gka vizklafxd u gksxk A
baVjusV ij dksbZ Hkh lwpuk NksV&s NksVs Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr gksdj xfr'khy gksrh gS A
loZj lwpuk dks fuf'pr vkdkj esa foHkkftr djds xzkgd ds ikl ys tkrk gS A
tc xzkgd ds dEI;wVj ds ikl lHkh VqdM+s igqWp a tkrs gSa rks og mUgsa ,d= djds
,d LFkku ij izLrqr dj nsrk gS A bZ&esy ds lanHkZ esa loZj ,d LFkuh; Mkd?kj
dh rjg dke djrk gS tks fofHkUu LFkkuksa ls vkbZ Mkd dks mlds irs ij igqWp a kus
dh O;oLFkk djrk gS A VqdM+kas dks tksM+us dk tks dk;Z gksrk gS mldh izfØ;k
esa iz;D
q r gksus okys fu;eks dks Vªkl
a fe'ku izkVs ksdkWy dgykrs gSa A la{ksi esa bZ&esy
dk vFkZ gS fdlh Hkh lan's k dk ,d dEI;wVj ls nwljs dEI;wVj ij gLrkarj.k A
baVjusV dk eq[; dk;Z gS lwpukvksa dk vknku&iznku djuk A okLro esa og
lwpukvksa dk leqnz gS A ;g ,slk vkdk'k gS tks vlhe gS A baVjusV bl czg~ek.M
esa mifLFkr yxHkx leLr fo"k;ksa ij tkudkjh lesVs gq, gS A

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PAPER - II BLOCK - C UNIT - I

tulapkj ds ek/;e
vk/kqfud lekt esa lwpuk dk fo'ks"k egRo gS A lwpuk ds vHkko esa O;fDr
'ks"k fo'o ls dV tkrk gS A vyx&Fkyx iM+ tkrk gS A O;fDr ds lkFk&lkFk
ns'k ds vkfFkZd] jktuSfrd] lkekftd ,oa lkaLd`frd fodkl esa lwpuk vkSj lwpuk
lEiz"s k.k ds ek/;e vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSa A bl izdkj tulapkj dk
vFkZ gS lwpuk vkSj fopkjksa dk izlkj o lapkj ds vk/kqfud lk/kuksa ds tfj,
euksjt a u iznku djuk A tulapkj ds bu ek/;eksa esa bySDVªkWfud vkSj fizVa ehfM;k
nksuksa gh vkrs gSa A lapkj ds ijEijkxr lk/ku vk/kqfud lekt dh ifjofrZr
ifjfLFkfr;ksa dh vko';drkvksa dks iw.kZ djus esa vleFkZ jgs gSa A blhfy, rhoz
xfr ls lwpuk lEiz"s k.k dk dk;Z lEiUu djus gsrq lapkj ds u;s&u;s ek/;eksa dh
[kkst gksrh jgh gS A vk/kqfud ehfM;k esa jsfM;ks] Vsyhfotu] fQYe] v[kckj vkSj
foKkiu vU; u;s&u;s ek/;e Hkh vkt lkeus vk jgs gSa A bu ek/;eksa dks lkekU;
:i ls nks Hkkxksa esa ckaVk tk ldrk gS &&
1- fizVa ¼eqfnzr½ ehfM;k ¼ek/;e½
2- bySDVªkWfud ehfM;k ¼ek/;e½
lekpkji= &
lu~ 1450 esa tkWu xqVus cxZ ds }kjk eqn.z k ds vkfo"dkj ds ckn lapkj lk{kjksa
ds fy, ,d ojnku cu x;k A fodflr ns'kksa esa lekpkj i=ksa dk egRoiw.kZ
;ksxnku gS A vesfjdk esa 95 izfr'kr yksx lekpkj i= i<+rs gSa A mlds ckn :lh
yksxksa dk uEcj vkrk gS A Hkkjr esa vBkjgoha 'krkCnh ds vUr esa ;kfu lu~ 1780
esa v[kckj dh 'kq:vkr gqbZ A tsEl vxLVl fgfd us caxky xtV 1780 esa fudky
dj v[kckj izpyu 'kq: fd;k A ;g xqtjkr Hkk"kk esa izdkf'kr Hkkjr dk lcls
iqjkuk v[kckj gS A blds i'pkr~ 1826 esa mnUr ekrZ.M fudyk A orZeku le;
esa 41 ,sls lekpkj i= gSa tks lkS o"kZ iwjs dj pqds gSa A VkbZEl vkWQ bf.M;k
lekpkji= 150 lky iqjkuk gS o fgUnqLrku VkbZEl us vHkh gky esa viuh 75
lkyfxjkg dks euk;k gS A
vkt ns'k ds gj izkra ] {ks= vkSj Hkk"kk esa nSfud] lkIrkfgd vkSj ekfld
i=&if=dkvksa dk izdk'ku rsth ls gks jgk gS A gj o"kZ budh la[;k esa Hkh o`f)

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gksrh tk jgh gS A cgqlLa dj.kh;] lka/; laLdj.kh; izdk'ku] bySDVªkfud rduhdh
ds fodkl ds lkFk fujUrj c<+rs gh x, A jkspd ys&vkÅV] lq:fpiw.kZ lkt&lTtk
vkSj Js"B eqn.z k ds dkj.k buds izfr yksxksa dk vkd"kZ.k Hkh c<+rk tk jgk gS A
vf/kd ls vf/kd tkudkjh gkfly djus ds mn~n's ; ls lekpkj i= Hkh gj oxZ
ds fy, mudh :fp;ksa ds vuq:i lkexzh izLrqr dj jgs gSa A [ksy] fQYe] dyk]
cktkj Hkko] jktuSfrd] mBk&iVd] thou ds gj {ks= ls lEcfU/kr lekpkj
lekpkji=ksa ds }kjk iznku fd, tkrs gSa A
lekpkji=ksa esa izdkf'kr foKkiu Hkh lapkj dk vax gS tks fofHkUu mRiknksa
ls lEcfa/kar tkudkfj;ka nsrs gSa A lkekftd foKkiu ?kkrd jksxksa ls cpko] lkekftd
izn"q k.kksa ds ifjgkj vkSj LokLF; ds izfr tkx:drk dk Hkh lUns'k nsrs gSa A tSls
,M~l ls cpko] Vhdkdj.k vkSj LoPN is;ty dks viukus dh izjs .kk A /kweiz ku]
u'khyh nokb;ksa ds lsou dks R;kxus dh ea=.kk lkekftd foKkiuksa ds mnkgj.k gSa A
tuer dh l'kDrrk] lkaLd`frd psruk] ewY;ksa dks LFkkfir djus esa lekpkj
Ik= lgk;d gq, gSa A ns'k ds Lora=rk laxkz e esa lekpkj i=ksa dk fo'ks"k ;ksxnku
Lej.kh; gS A lekt lq/kkj dk gj vkUnksyu lekpkj i=ksa dks viuk izoDrk cukrk gS A
eSxt+hu
eSxt+hu ,d fuf'pr le; ds ckn fQj ls ubZ tkudkfj;ksa dks vius lkFk
ys dj vkrh gS A bldh gj ubZ izfr esa ubZ tkudkfj;ka] u, fo"k; o euksjt a u
gksrk gS A eSxthu dks 'Store House' dk uke fn;k x;k gS D;ksfa d blesa fofHkUu
Kkuksa dk Hk.Mkj gksrk gS A vktdy ;s eSxthu fo'ks"krk fy, gksrh gS vFkkZr~
fofHkUu fo"k;ksa tSls jktuSfrd] Qs'ku] [ksydwn] vknfe;ksa ds fy,] o vkSjrksa ds
fy, vkfn dh iz/kkurk fy;s gksrh gS A izR;sd eSxthu vius fuf'pr ikBdksa dks
vkdf"kZr djrh gS rFkk ikBd Hkh viuh ilan vuqlkj eSxthuksa dk p;u djrs gSa A
;g izc/a k foKkiu dh n`f"V ls cgqr mÙke gS A D;ksfa d blds }kjk foKkid vius
yf{kr y{; rd izHkkoh <ax ls igqWp a ldrk gS A eq[;r% eSxt+hu dks pkj Hkkxksa
esa ckWVa k x;k gS A
1- miHkksDrk eSxt+hu
2- O;kikj vkSj rduhdh eSxt+hu
3- O;olkf;d eSxt+hu
4- 'kSf{kd vkSj 'kks/kdrkZ tjuy

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miHkksDrk eSxt+hu eq[;r% foKkiuksa ij vk/kkfjr gksrh gS A os ,d fuf'pr
oxZ rd igqp a uk pkgrs gSa tSls uj] ukjh] cPps] cM+s cqtxq Z O;fDr] [ksy fiz;]
fQYeksa dks ilan djus okys] vkVkseksckby o ;qok yksxksa rd A
O;kikj vkSj rduhdh eSxt+hu O;olkf;d tjuy gksrs gSa tks fd fo'ks"k
ikBdksa O;kikfj;ks]a O;olk;ks]a dkj[kkuksa ds Lokfe;ksa ds fy, gksrh gS A ;s buls
lEcfU/kr fo"k;ksa ij tkudkjh fy;s gksrh gS A
tulaidZ eSxt+hu laxBuks]a ljdkjh ,tsfa l;ks]a 'kS{kf.kd laLFkkuksa vkSj nwljs
laxBuksa ds fy, gksrh gS tks fd deZpkfj;ks]a miHkksDrkvks]a vksfifu;u yhMj ds fy,
tkudkjh fy;s gksrh gS A
'kSf{kd vkSj 'kks/kdrkZ tjuy tkudkjh vkSj Kku dks QSykus ds fy, gksrh
gS A bu eSxt+huksa esa foKkiu ugha gksrs gSa A
eSxt+hu] ehfM;k xziq ] izdk'ku laLFkk] lekpkji=ks]a NksVh laLFkkvks]a laxBuks]a
O;kikfjd laxBuks]a 'kS{kf.kd laLFkkuksa vkSj /kkfeZd laxBuksa }kjk Nkih tkrh gS A
eSxt+hu ljdkjh foHkkxksa o jktuSfrd ikfVZ;ksa }kjk Hkh Nkih tkrh gS A
eSxt+hu eq[;r% lkIrkfgd] ikf{kd o ekfld Nirh gS A ;g pkj eghus
ckn o N% eghus ckn Hkh Nirh gS A dqN eSxt+hu lky esa ,d ckj Nirh gSa A
eSxt+hu lkekU;r% 'Readers Digest' dh Hkkafr Hkh gks ldrh gS vkSj
Vsthfotu dk;ZØeksa dks iznf'kZr djus okyh xkbM ds :i esa Hkh gks ldrh gS A
cgqr lh eSxt+hu ,slh Hkh gksrh gSa tks fd nks fof'k"Vrk dks fy;s gksrh gSa A ;s
lkekU;r% yxkrkj Nirh gSa vkSj izR;sd eSxt+hu lekt ds dqN fo'ks"k oxksaZ ds fy,
gksrh gS A
dqN eSxt+hu Kku fy, o dqN euksjt a u fy;s gksrh gSa A 'kq:okrh nkSj esa
eSxt+hu dk vfLrRo /kq/a kyk Fkk] lekpkji= o eSxt+hu dh lhek esa dksbZ fo'ks"k
vUrj u Fkk A
vkt eSxt+hu fofHkUu fo"k;ksa esa iz/kkurk fy;s gq, gS A The American
Audit Bureau of Circulation us 30 fHkUu&fHkUu izdkj dh fo'ks"krk fy;s eSxt+huksa
dks ckaVk gS ftlesa eq[; lkSUn;Z] O;olkf;d] flykbZ] QS'ku] [ksy&dwn] fQYe]
lkbZl
a ] bfrgkl] LokLF;] ?kj] QksVksxkz Qh] ;k=k] laxhr] lekpkj] iq:"k] ukjh]
dEI;wVj vkfn gS A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


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eSxt+hu dks rhu Hkkxksa esa ckWVa k tk ldrk gS A lekpkj iz/kku] euksjt
a u
iz/kku] Lo;a fopkj/kkjk iz/kku A vkt izR;sd eSxt+hu vius yf{kr ikBdksa ds bfPNr
vuqlkj gksrh gS A
'kq:vkr es]a tc oSKkfud vfLrRo esa vkbZ mls viuk LFkku cukus ds fy,
tu ek/;eksa ls la?k"kZ djuk iM+k A tSls jsfM;ks] Vsyhfotu] fQYe A ijUrq
lekpkji= o eSxt+hu viuk LFkku cukus esa lQy jgs A
eSxt+hu tulapkj ds fofHkUu ek/;eksa esa ls ,d gS A eSxt+hu dh la[;k]
lkexzh dh izdf` r] mi;ksfxrk vkfn bls ,d jkT; ls nwljs jkT; rd QSyk;k x;k A
bu eSxt+huksa dks ,sfrgkfld] lkekftd] lkaLd`frd] vkfFkZd vkSj jktuSfrd vkèkkj
ij Hkh ckaVk x;k A
lk/kkj.kr% eSxt+hu tkudkjh] fopkj/kkjk vkSj O;ogkj dks QSykus esa
egRoiw.kZ jksy vnk djrh gS A ;g tgka gesa tkudkjh iznku djrh gS ogha nwljh
rjQ f'k{kk o euksjt a u dks Hkh is'k djrs gq, ikBdksa dh :fp dk Hkh è;ku
j[krh gS A
The Books:- tulapkj ds ek/;eksa ls vxj ge ns[ksa rks ;g iqLrdsa
tulapkj dk iw.kZ ek/;e ugha gS A ;g lekpkj i=ks]a jsfM;ks] Vsyhfotu dh rjg
lHkh n'kZd o ikBdksa rd ,d leku ugha igqp a ikrh A tuek/;eksa dh nwljs ek/
;eksa dh rqyuk esa iqLrdksa ds ikBdksa dh la[;k cgqr de gS A
fo'oluh; rkSj ij iqLrdsa tulapkj dk egRoiw.kZ ek/;e gSa A iqLrdsa vius
vUnj cgqr lh tkudkjh dks latk;s gq, gksrh gSa vkSj ;g yEcs le; rd pyus
okyh rFkk yEcs le; rd lEHkky dj j[kus okyh gksrh gSa vkSj ;g Magiz ne
vkSj lekpkj i=ksa ls T;knk fo'oluh; gksrh gS A
dqN fdrkcsa gtkjksa lky igys Nkih xbZ Fkh rFkk vHkh rd vfLrRo esa
gSa A rFkk iqLrdksa esa mifLFkr fopkj dkQh yEcs le; rd pyrs gSa A cgqr lh
iqLrdsa ,d laLd`fr dks ,d ih<+h ls nwljh ih<+h rd igqWp
a krh gS A iqLrdsa yEcs
le; rd cuh jgrh gSa A ijUrq euq"; thou lekIr gks tkrk gS A
ek'kZy eSdyq gku ds vuqlkj%& iqLrdsa euq"; ds O;fDrxr] lq<+ky
S o
rdZi.w kZ fopkjksa dk c<+krh gS A

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PAPER - II BLOCK - C UNIT - II

jsfM;ks (Radio)

Hkkjr esa jsfM;ks dk le; 1923 esa fczfV'k mifuos'kokn ls 'kq: gqvk A
Lora=rk ds le; cM+s egkuxjksa esa N% jsfM;ks LVs'ku Fks A lu~ 2002 rd ;g
ifjn`'; bruk cnyk dh Hkkjr ds 2@3 ?kjksa rd vFkkZr~ 110 fefy;e ikjksa rd
bldh igqp a gks xbZ A Hkkjrh; fLFkfr;ksa esa jsfM;ks ,d izHkko'kkyh ek/;e fl)
gqvk A ;g vlk{kj yksxksa rd Hkh igqp a kA Vh-oh- ,oa fQYe ls lLrk gksus ds
dkj.k Hkh ;g yksdfiz; gqvk A LFkkuh; jsfM;ks LVs'ku Hkh egRowi.kZ lkfcr gqvk A
20oha lnh ds vUr rd jsfM;ks lokZf/kd izHkko'kkyh ek/;e Fkk A ftldh xzkeh.kksa
,oa 'kgjh xjhcksa rd igqp a gks xbZ Fkh A Vh-oh- ds izlkj esa Hkkjr esa jsfM;ks
dks ihNs dh vksj /kdsyk gS ysfdu bldh vgfe;r vkt Hkh cuh gqbZ gS A
tulapkj ek/;eksa dh vis{kk jsfM;ks vuqie ;ksX;rk j[krk gS viuh
dk;Zd'q kyrk esa ;fn ge Vh-oh- ns[krs gSa ;k lekpkj i= i<+rs gSa rks gesa ,d
txg cSBdj ml ij /;ku dsfUnzr djuk iM+rk gS ijUrq jsfM;ks esa ,slk ugha gS
A ge viuh nSfud fnup;kZ ds lkFk jsfM;ks ds dk;ZØe dk vkuUn ys ldrs gS]a
lwpuk,a izkIr dj ldrs gSa A
jsfM;ks esa LFkku dk lnSo vHkko jgrk gS tgka ,d lekpkji= esa 40 ;k
50 dkWye (Column) gksrs gSa ogh jsfM;ks mlds eq[; i`"B rd dk le; j[krk
gS ;gh dkj.k gS fd jsfM;ks ds fy, laf{kIrk vf/kd egRoiw.kZ gks tkrh gS A
jsfM;ks gh tulapkj dk ,d ,slk ek/;e gS ftls tc tSls pkgs ogkWa lquk
tk ldrk gS A bls vius 'k;ud{k esa lqu ldrs gSa ;k fQj vki viuh dkj]
[ksr [kfy;k] vki bls i<+rs gq, Hkh lqu ldrs gSa ;k O;atu cukrs gq, Hkh lqu
ldrs gSa A blds nks dkj.k gSa &&
1- n`';ghurk
2- VªkaftLVj Økafr

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


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n`';ghurk gksus ds dkj.k jsfM;ks ,dkfpr gksus ds fy, ,d txg cSBus ds
fy, ckf/kr ugha djrk A Vh-oh- ns[krs gq, vki nwljs dke ugha dj ldrs ijUrq
jsfM;ks ds lkFk ;g lqfo/kk gS fd vki dksbZ Hkh dk;Z djrs gq, dk;ZØe dk vkuUn
ys ldrs gSa A jsfM;ks ds bl xq.k dk dkj.k Vªkfa tLVj dk vkfo"dkj gS A igys
igy jsfM;ks gSMQksu yxkdj lquk tkrk Fkk A izxfr gqbZ rks cM+s vkdkj ds jsfM;ks
lSV cuk, x, A ijUrq Vªkfa tLVj ds vkfo"dkj ds dkj.k jsfM;ks esa Økafr vk xbZ A
,d vkSj jsfM;ks lSV dh ykxr de gqbZ vkSj nwljh rjQ bls ys tkus esa lqfoèkk A
vkt ikWdVs jsfM;ks cgqr yksdfiz; gks x, gSa A
jsfM;ks ij lekpkj rst xfr ls pyrs gSa A vfHkizk;% gS fd JO; ek/;e
gksus ds dkj.k jsfM;ks lwpuk rqjUr igqp
a k ldrs gSa dgha ij vkdfLed dksbZ ?kVuk
?kVh laoknnkrk us Qksu ls LFkkuh; dsUnz dks [kcj Hksth tgka ls rqjra fnYyh ds
U;wt :i esa [kcj igqp a xbZ vkSj lkjs ns'k us U;wt dks tku fy;k A ;g vdlj
gksrk gS fd nsj jkr esa gqbZ ?kVuk 24 ?k.Vs ds vUnj lekpkj i=ksa ds ek/;e
ls gekjs rd igqp a rh gSa A dbZ ckj Vh-oh- Hkh vius lekpkj jsfM;ks ls xzg.k djrk
gS A vr% rRijrk dh n`f"V ls jsfM;ks dk ek/;e vuqie gS A
jsfM;ks ;fn f'k{kk nsrk gS rks 'kq"d ugha cfYd euksjta u ds jl esa iw.kZrk
fHkxksdj vusd fo/kk,a jsfM;ks ds ikl gSa A tSl&s ukVd] laxhr vkfn A ftudk iz;ksx
djds Jksrkvksa ds eu rd igqp a k tkrk gS rFkk tks lan's k mudks nsuk pkgrk gS
mls mudk vuqHko djk;s fcuk ns fn;k tkrk gS A blls tgkWa ,d vkSj euksjt a u
gksrk gS ogha lkFk gh eu dk va/kdkj nwj gks tkrk gS A
bruh fo'ks"krk,a gksrs gq, Hkh jsfM;ks dh dqN lhek,a gSa bldk n`f"Vghu
gksuk A ;gh dkj.k gS fd Vh-oh- ds vk tkus ls jsfM;ks ds Jksrkvksa dh la[;k esa
deh vk xbZ gS vkSj n`'; dk izyksHku mUgsa viuh vksj ys x;k A nwljh lhek
Jksrk vkSj izlkj.k dÙkkZ ds chp nhokj tks lnk cuh jgrh gS vkSj mldk QhMcSd
cgqr gh de fey ikrk gS A blesa lq/kkj djus dh xqt a kbl de gh jg tkrh
gS A jsfM;ks dqN fn[kk ugha ldrk] cfYd lquk ldrk gS A lekpkj i= dh Hkkafr

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ge blesa ihNs ykSV ugha ldrs A ,d ckj dk;ZØe fudy x;k rks x;k A ;g
/ofu ,d ,slk {k.kHkaxjq lk/ku gS tks FkksM+k lk tfVy gqvk ugha fd gok esa foyhu
gks x;k A
Hkkjr esa jsfM;ks izlkj.k 1927 esa vkjEHk gqvk vkSj 1947 rd bldk
foLrkj ean xfr ls gqvk ijUrq LorU=rk izkfIr ds ckn uhfr fuekZrkvksa dk /;ku
lapkj dh vksj x;k vkSj tgka ml le; ek= N% izlkj.k dsUnz Fks ogka vc izlkj.k
dsUnzkas dh la[;k 185 gks xbZ gS ftlesa ls 72 LFkkuh; izlkj.k dsUnz Hkh LFkkfir
gks x, gSa A ns'k ds 90 izfr'kr Hkw&Hkkx ij rFkk 97-3 izfr'kr tula[;k rd
viuk lan's k igqp a kus okyk Hkkjrh; jsfM;ks izlkj.k vkdk'kok.kh fo'o dh vuwBh
O;oLFkk gS A vkdk'kok.kh izfrfnu 291 lekpkj cqyfs Vu dh O;oLFkk djrh gSa A
;g 19 Hkkjrh; rFkk 24 fons'k Hkk"kkvksa esa izlkfjr dh tkrh gSa A ;gh ugha
fofHkUu Jksrkvksa ds fy, fofo/k dk;ZØeksa dk fuekZ.k vusd fo/kkvksa tSls okrkZ
ukVd] :id] i=&if=rk vkfn esa fd;k tkrk gS vkSj Jksrkvksa ds i{k ds ek/;e
ls le; vuqlkj muesa ifjorZu Hkh fd, tkrs gSa A lwpuk f'k{kk rFkk euksjt a u ds
mn~n's ; ls cgqtu fgrk; vkSj cgqtu lq[kk; dk y{; j[krs gq, vkdk'kok.kh us
n'kdksa dk yEck lQj r; dj fy;k gSA
Vsyhfotu (Television)

Vsyhfotu ,d JO;n`'; ek/;e gS ftls u dsoy lquk tkrk gS cfYd n`';


dks ns[kdj ;FkkFkZ dk vf/kd cks/k gksrk gS ;|fi ;g Hkh jsfM;ks dh Hkkafr
bySDVªkWfud ehfM;k gS ijUrq Vsyhfotu dh viuh dqN fo'ks"krk,a gSa tks jsfM;ks esa
ugha ikbZ tkrh A ;gh dkj.k gS fd blds dk;ZØeksa ds fuekZ.k esa bu fo'ks"krkvksa
dk /;ku j[kuk t:jh gks tkrk gS A
dgk tkrk gS fd ,d fp= gtkj 'kCnksa ds lerqY; gksrk gS jsfM;ks ds
ek/;e ls ftl n`'; dk o.kZu pqu&pqudj fd;k tkrk gS ogh ,d je.kh; n`';
fn[kkdj Jksrkvksa dk jlkLoknu djk nsrk gS A vr% n`'; vkSj J`O; vkSj nksuksa
feydj Vsyhfotu dks vf/kd l'kDr cukus esa lQy gksrs gSa A
Vsyhfotu esa cgqr ls vU; ek/;eksa esa lkSiku lfEefyr gksrs gSa tSls jsfM;ks

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dk ekbØksQksu] Fks;Vj ls xfr] fQYeksa ls dSejk ,oa lekpkj i=ksa ls bl izdkj
bu lHkh dk ,d lkFk feJ.k bl ek/;e dks uohu :i ns tkrk gS A
vkt Vsyhfotu dh ifjf/k dk bruk foLrkj gks pqdk gS fd mldh
ifjdYiuk Hkh ugha dh tk ldrh A Vsyhfotu gesa leqnz dh mu xgjkbZ;ksa dk n'kZu
djkrk gS vkSj varfj{k ds ml Hkw&Hkkx dh Hkh tgkWa ekuo ds ikWoa Hkh ugha iM+s A
ekuo ds Kku p{kqvksa dks [kksyus dh vn~Hkwr {kerk blesa gS A Vsyhfotu dh ,d
fo'ks"krk gS ekuo dks fo'okl fnyokus dh A
;fn dksbZ [kcj geus lquh rks 'kk;n ge ml ij fo'okl u Hkh djsa ijUrq
ml n`'; dks ns[kdj fo'oluh;rk dk iqV 'kkfey gks tkrk gS A lkFk gh dyk
foKku ds vtwcksa dks n'kkZus ls mlds fl)kUrksa dks vf/kd cy feyrk gSA
Vsyhfotu tura= dk ek/;e gS tgkWa i=&if=dkvksa ls vkuan ds fy, lk{kj
gksuk vko';d gS rFkk Ø; 'kfDr t:jh gS A ogh Vsyhfotu lk{kj o fuj{kj
lHkh ds fy, ,d lEeku gS A lkFk gh ,d ckj Vsyhfotu [kjhnus ds i'pkr~
mlds dk;ZØe dk iw.kZ vkuUn fy;k tk ldrk gS A
jsfM;ks dh gh Hkkafr rRijrk dk xq.k Vsyhfotu esa Hkh gS A dksbZ ?kVuk
?kVh rks 'kh?kz gh Vsyhfotu Vhe ogka igqp
a dj mldk iw.kZ C;kSjk dsUnz rd igqp
a krs
gSa vc rks eksckby Vhe ds ek/;e ls ;s vkSj Hkh 'kh?kz lEHko gks x;k gS A bl
izdkj ?kVuk LFky dk iw.kZ fooj.k n`'; ds ek/;e ls ns[kk tk ldrk gSA
Vsyhfotu ij vkt foKkiuksa dh cgqrk;r us mls ,d m|ksx dk vax lk
cuk fn;k gS A gj mRiknd vius mRiknu ;k lsok ds lac/a k esa vf/kdkf/kd yksxksa
rd lwpuk igqp a kuk pkgrk gS vkSj bl ek/;e dk og iw.kZ iz;ksx djrk gS A blls
izfr;ksfxrk esa Hkh o`f) gqbZ gS vkSj yksxksa dk Kku c<+k gS A
Hkkjr dk Vsyhfotu izlkj.k ra= nwjn'kZu fo'o esa vius LVwfM;ks] Vªkla ehVjks]a
dk;ZØeksa rFkk n'kZdksa ds vk/kkj ij vkfnR; gS A 1959 esa dqN ?k.Vksa ds izlkj.k
ds lkFk vkjEHk gq, nwjn'kZu us 1965 ls fu;fer izlkj.k vkjEHk fd;k vkSj vkt
rhu jk"Vªh; pSuyksa ^nks fo'ks"k vfHk:fp pSuyks]a ukS {ks=h; ckgjh; pSuys vkSj ,d
vUrjkZ"Vªh; pSuy ds ,d fo'kky usVodZ dk lQj r; dj fy;k gS A vkt 750

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HkwLFkyh; Vªkl
a ehVjksa ds }kjk bldh igqp
a 86 izfr'kr ns'kokfl;ksa rd cu xbZ gS A
nwjn'kZu ds dk;ZØeksa dks 45 djksM+ n'kZd vius ?kjksa esa ns[krs gSa A
bl izdkj fo'o dk viuh rjg dk lcls cM+k usVodZ lR;e f'koe~ lqUnje
ds y{; ls ns'kokfl;ksa dks lwpuk igqp
a kus ds dk;Z esa layXu gSa A
Hkkjr esa Vsyhfotu dh 'kq:okr 1959 esa gqbZ A ;g 'kq:okr ;wuLs dks ds
lg;ksx ls ,d 'kS{kf.kd ifj;kstuk ds :i esa Fkh A 1960 esa /kheh xfr ls Vh-
oh- vkxs c<+k A jsfM;ks izlkj.k dh rjg gh Hkkjr esa Vh-oh- czkMdkfLVax ds :i
esa ch-ch-lh- ds ekMy ij vk/kkfjr Fkk A Hkkjr us blds lanHkZ esa vesfjdk
dh O;olkf;d o futh 'kSyh dks ugha viuk;k A 1975 esa lSVy s kbV Vsyhfotu
,DlisfjesUV (SITE) dk Ng jkT;ksa ds 2400 xkaoksa rd izlkj.k ds lkFk Vh-oh-
n'kZdksa dh la[;k esa foLrkj gksus yxk A vesfjdu lSVy s kbV ,-Vh-,l&6 ds }kjk
xzkeh.k dk;ZØe izLrqr gksus yxs A ;s 'kS{kf.kd dk;ZØe xzkeh.k Hkkjr ds fodkl
dks /;ku esa j[kdj cuk, x, Fks A ,f'k;u&xsEl 1982 ds le; Hkkjr esa jaxhu
Vh-oh- vk;k A Hkkjr ds xzkeh.k fodkl ds fy, Vh-oh- dks ,d egRoiw.kZ gfFk;kj
ekudj blds foLrkj ds iz;kl fd, x, A ysfdu 2002 ds vkrs&vkrs fn'kk gh
cny xbZ A Vh-oh- ds fodkl ds lanHkZ esa {kerk dk mi;ksx v/kwjk jg x;k vkSj
euksjt
a u dh vksj >qd x;k A
CINEMA

ekuoh; laons ukvks]a Hkkoukvksa ,oa vuqHkwfr;ksa dks vfHkO;Dr djus oktk
flusek ,d ,slk ek/;e gS ftlesa dYiuk n`';] ys[ku] eapfunZ's ku] :i lTtk ds
lkFk izdk'k] byDVªkus ] dkcksfZ ud vkSj HkkSfrd jlk;u foKku dk vn~Hkwr feJ.k gS A
,d vksj blesa l`tukRedrk gS rks nwljh vksj tkfrd izfrHkk A bu nksuksa ds laxe
ls ,d ,slk vkd"kZ.k gksrk gS tks u dsoy euksjt a u iznku djrk gS cfYd Kku
vkSj f'k{kk ds {ks= esa foLrkj djrk gS lkekftd dqjhfr;ksa dks nwj dj lkekftd
tkx`fr ykus esa ;ksxnku nsrk gS A
flusek tulapkj dk l'kDr ek/;e gS A ,d fQYe ,d lkFk gtkjksa
O;fDr;ksa }kjk ns[kh tkrh gS vkSj vyx&vyx 'kgjksa esa tc iznf'kZr dh tkrh

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gS rks mldk lan's k yk[kksa O;fDr;ksa rd igqp
a rk gS A ,d 'krkCnh iwoZ ftl
Moving dSejs ds dkj.k flusek dk vkfo"dkj gqvk mlesa ns[krs gh ns[krs vius
ek;koh lalkj esa lkjh nqfu;ka dks tdM+ fy;k A igys flusek ewd Fkk vkSj yxHkx
rhu n'kd ckn lokd gks x;k A igys og Black & White Fkk] lnh ds e/;
rd vkrs&vkrs og jaxhu gks x;k A
;|fi flusek euksjt
a u dk lk/ku jgk rFkkfi o`Ùk fp=ksa vkSj U;wt fjyksa ds
}kjk og lwpuk o Kku ds izpkj dk ek/;e Hkh cuk A Vsyhfotu ds vkxeu
ls igys rd flusek gh e/;oxZ vkSj fuEuoxZ dk euksjt a u dk laLrk vkSj yksdfiz;
lk/ku Fkk A Hkkjr tSls ns'k esa rks vkt Hkh yksdfiz; gS A Vh-oh- dk;ZØeksa esa
Hkh blus egRoiw.kZ txg cuk yh gS gkykafd Vh-oh-] dscy] ohfM;ks ls bldh
yksdfiz;rk dk vk/kkr yxk gS A nqfu;ka esa izfro"kZ yxHkx 800 fQYesa vdsys Hkkjr
esa curh gSa tks fQYe fuekZ.k ds {ks= esa lcls vkxs gSa A
ukVd dh Hkkafr fQYe ,d iw.kZdyk ek/;e gS ftlesa ijEijkxr dyk :iksa
ds lkFk&lkFk vk/kqfud dykvksa dk lekos'k Hkh gksrk gS rFkk laokn] vfHku;] QksVks
xzkQh] laxhr vkfn fo/kkvksa vkSj dykvksa dh loksrZ e vfHkO;fDr bl ek/;e ls
lEHko gS A
vkBosa n'kd ds e/; rd vkrs&vkrs flusek?kjksa esa tkdj fQYe ns[kus okys
n'kZdksa dh la[;k esa dkQh deh vkbZ gS A fo'ks"k :i ls ;wjksi] vesfjdk vkfn
ns'kksa esa A bldk vfHkizk;% ;g Hkh ugha gS fd fQYeksa dh yksdfiz;rk esa deh
vkbZ gS lPpkbZ myV gS A
Vh-oh- us fQYeksa dh yksdfiz;rk vkSj vf/kd c<+k fn;k gS A
fo|qrh; lapkj ek/;eksa esa pyfp= ,d egRoiw.kZ fo/kk gS A bldh n`';]
JO; lapkj dh {kerk bldh vikj yksdfiz;rk ds dkj.k cuh gS A lcls igys
lu~ 1824 esa ihVjekdZ jkstVs us Nfo dks insZ ij mrkjus ds fl)kUr dk izfriknu
fd;k ij bl fl)kUr dk O;ogkfjd :i lsY;wykbM ij yqbl Z Mkxj us 1860&70
ds n'kd esa izLrqr fd;k A vkjfEHkd pyfp= ek= euksjt a u ds mn~n's ; ls cus
Fks A ckn esa mlesa vkSj y{; Hkh lfEefyr gq, A lu~ 1926 esa okuZj cznlZ us

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izFke pyfp= dk fuekZ.k fd;k A mlds igys ewd pyfp=ksa dk ewd Fkk A
pyfp= ds loZiFz ke tuizn'kZu dk dk;Z vesfjdk esa 1896 esa lEiUu gqvk A ;gh
1903 esa iw.kZ yEckbZ dk pyfp= iznf'kZr gqvk A 1935 ls pyfp= esa jaxksa dk
mi;ksx Hkh 'kq: gks x;k A
Hkkjr pyfp=ksa dk cM+k mRiknu gS A gj o"kZ ,d gtkj ds yxHkx
pyfp= cukus okys bl ns'k dh igyh fQYe 1913 esa cuh tks ewd Fkh vkSj
ml fQYe dk uke vkYevkjk Fkk A u`R;] ukV~;] xhr] laxhr dh bl feyh&tqyh
fo/kk us yksxksa dks vius tknw esa cka/k fn;k A ;s fuj{kj tuleqnk; dks vklkuh
ls izHkkfor dj jgh Fkh A dscy euksjt a u gh ugha lkekftd eqn~ns ij Hkh
tkx:drk QSykrs jgs gSa A ns'kHkfDr] jk"Vªh; ,drk] tkfr izFkk] Nk=ksa dh
leL;k,a] ;qokvksa dh leL;k,a] Hkz"Vkpkj] efgyk mRihM+u] pyfp=ksa dks fopkjksrt
s u
dFkkud jgs gSa A
Records & Cassettes

80 ds n'kd esa ohfM;ks ds vkxeu ls de ykxr ij vf/kd euksjt a u djus


dh lqfo/kk,a feys A gj fo"k; ds dSlVs ksa dk fuekZ.k 'kq: gqvk A f'k{kk ds {ks=
esa ;g vuwBh miyfC/k Fkh A lwpukvksa ds izlkj ls ohfM;ks lekpkj if=dkvksa dks
yksdfiz;rk feyh A os vf/kd fo'oluh; gksus ds dkj.k turk ds chp LFkku cuk
ik, A pquko vfHk;kuksa esa bu dSlVksa dk iz;ksx dkQh rsth ls gqvk A lcls igys
1983 esa vkU/kzinz 's k ds pqukoksa esa ohfM;ks dSlVs iz;Dq r gq, Fks fQj rks lHkh
jktuSfrd nyksa esa vius lan's k dks turk rd igqp a kus ds fy, dSlVs ksa dh tax
pyh A
Advertising:-

tulapkj ds fofHkUu ek/;eksa esa foKkiu Hkh ,d ek/;e gS A ftl izdkj


lapkj ds nwljs ek/;eksa esa lUns'k dks izfs "kr fd;k tkrk gS A mlh izdkj foKkiu
esa Hkh lUns'k dks lEizfs "kr fd;k tkrk gS A blesa ls Hkh lUns'k dk fuekZ.k vU;
ek/;eksa ds vuqlkj 'kCnks]a fpUgksa o ladrs ksa ds }kjk fd;k tkrk gS rFkk lUns'k dks

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cukrs le; izkIrdrkZ dks O;ogkj o mldh bPNk] vko';drk] {ks=] euksoK
S kfud
fLFkfr vkfn dk /;ku j[kk tkrk gS A
sz h Hkk"kk ds Advertisement dk fgUnh :ikUrj gS rFkk
foKkiu 'kCn vaxt
og ysfVu Hkk"kk ds Adverter ls cuk gS A ftldk vFkZ gS ^iyVuk* vFkok turk
dks lwfpr djuk A bl izdkj foKkiu dk 'kkfCnd vFkZ turk dks lwfpr djuk
gS A fdlh Hkh lwpuk dks tu&tu rd igqp a kus dh ize[q k Hkwfedk foKkiu dh gS
vkSj ;gh mldk ize[q k mn~n's ; gS A ^iyVus* dk vfHkizk; bl :i esa fy;k tk
ldrk gS fd foKkiu tu lkekU; ds le{k uohu lwpukvksa dks iznku djrk gS A
lkekU;r% foKkiu dks fofHkUu ek/;eksa }kjk ,d fopkj] dk;Z vFkok
mRikfnr oLrq ds lEcU/k esa lwpukvksa dks izpkfjr djus rFkk foKkiunkrk dh bPNk
o bjkns ds vuq:i dk;Z djus ds :i esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gS A foKkiu
dsoy lan's k dk ,d 'kCn] fp=] if=dk] nwjn'kZu vkfn ds }kjk nsuk gh ugha gS
A cfYd ;g ,d ,slk 'kfDr'kkyh ek/;e gS ftldk iz;ksx vU; O;fDr;ksa ls dk;Z
djus ds mn~n's ; ls fd;k tkrk gS A ;fn vki lekt ds ,d cgqr cM+s fgLls
ls dksbZ dk;Z djokuk pkgrs gSa rks foKkiu mu lHkh dks vius vuq:i dk;Z djus
ds fy, izksRlkfgr djrk gS A
vr% foKkiu O;olkf;d laLFkk dk egRoiw.kZ lk/ku gS A ;g miHkksDrk
dks ,slh lwpuk,a iznku djrk gS A ftlls miHkksDrk [kjhnus ds lEcU/k esa lgh
fu.kZ; ys lds A vr% foKkiu ,d ,slk izHkko'kkyh ek/;e gS ftlds vk/kkj ij
mRikfnr oLrq ds lac/a k esa turk dh Lohd`fr fufeZr dh tk ldrh gS rFkk bl
izdkj ds okrkoj.k dks fujUrj vkxs c<+k;k tk ldrk gS A
Hkkjr esa foKkiu dk bfrgkl cgqr iqjkuk gS A foKkiu ds {ks= esa lcls
igyk foKkiu lu~ 1780 esa tsEl vxLVl fgfd ds lekpkj i= caxky xtV esa
Nik Fkk A lekpkj i= esa foKkiuksa dh vf/kdrk ds dkj.k bldk uke ^dydrk
tujy ,MojVkbtj* Hkh iM+k A
blds lkFk vU; lekpkj i= Hkh izdkf'kr gq, tks foKkiu dh iz/kkurk dks
fy;s gq, Fks blesa ch- feflUd vkSj ihVj jhM dk lekpkji= ^bf.M;u xtV* Fkk A
vU; lekpkji= dydrk xtV ¼1784½ o caxky tujy ¼1785½ Fks A

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PAPER - II BLOCK - D UNIT - I

HYPODERMIC NEEDLE THEORY

;g ,d egRoiw.kZ fl)kUr gS tks tu ek/;e ds izHkko dks fn[kkrk gS A


bl fl)kUr ds vuqlkj gj lekt dk ,d vkd"kZ.k gksrk gS vkSj ;g vkd"kZ.k
lHkh euq";ksa dks lapkj ds fy, mÙksftr djrk gS vFkok ;g vkd"kZ.k lapkj ds
ek/;e dk dke djrk gS ftl izdkj lekt esa vkus tkus ds fy, jkLrs cus gksrs
gSa ftuds }kjk euq"; ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij tkdj vU; O;fDr;ksa ls feyrk
gS A mlh rjg gj lekt esa lUns'k dks Hkstus ds fy, ek/;e gksrs gSa A ftuds
}kjk lan's k dks ,d O;fDr ls nwljs O;fDr dks igqp a k;k tkrk gS A
bl fl)kUr ds vuqlkj cgqek/;e vius izHkko o viuh ubZ 'kfDr;ksa ls
n'kZdksa esa fo'okl txkrs gSa A tu ek/;e turk dks lpsr djus ds fy, mu rd
'kh?kz tkudkjh igqp a krs gSa ftldk mu ij cgqr vf/kd izHkko iM+rk gS A bldk
dkj.k ;g gS fd n'kZdksa ls bl rjg dk O;ogkj fd;k tkrk gS fd mu ij
vklkuh ls izHkko NksM+k tk lds A
bl fl)kUr dks uhMy F;ksjh blfy, dgk tkrk gS D;ksfa d ftl izdkj
'kjhj esa nokbZ igqp
a kus ds ft, lqbZ ¼uhMy½ dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS vkSj nokbZ
'kjhj ds lHkh vaxksa esa igqpa tkrh gS A mlh rjg gh tc tkudkjh dks lekt
esa fn;k tkrk gS rks ;g lHkh {ks=kas esa QSy tkrh gS A
;g tkudkjh ,d ckj nsus ds ckn lapkj ek/;eksa ds }kjk lekt esa QSyrh
gS vkSj bfPNr ifj.kke dks ykrh gS A bl fl)kUr dks cqyVs F;ksjh Hkh dgk tkrk
gS D;ksfa d lwpuk ,d xksyh dh rjg dke djrh gS ftl izdkj xksyh dks ,d
y{; fu/kkZfjr djds cUnwd ls NksM+k tkrk gS vkSj og y{; ij ;k mlds
vkl&ikl tkdj fxjrh gS mlh izdkj lwpuk Hkh fdlh y{; dks fu/kkZfjr djds
lapkj ds fdlh ek/;e ds }kjk lapkfjr dh tkrh gS A

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;g fl)kUr bl lksp ij vk/kkfjr gS fd lh[kuk vkSj lapkj nksuksa gh
mrstuk vkSj izfrfØ;k ds lEcU/k ij lEHko gS A bl fl)kUr ds vuqlkj ,d
rjQk lapkj vU; O;fDr dks nckus esa fof'k"V LFkku j[krk gS fd lapkj ek/;e
n{krk o :fp ls dke djus okyk] ohjrk ls dke djus okyk o dq'ky gS tks
fd ges'kk lR; ugha gS A
Two-step & Multi-step Theory

lkekU;r% lapkj ,d ;kstuk ij vk/kkfjr izfØ;k gS A ;g dqN Lrjksa dk


ikyu djrh gS rHkh ;g izHkko'kkyh gks ldrh gS A ;g izfØ;k gS 1. One Step
2. Two Step 3. Multi Step A tulapkj ds 'kks/k&dÙkkZvksa us ;g lR; [kkst fudkyk
gS fd fof'k"V ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa yksxksa dk lkekftd lEcU/k egRoiw.kZ LFkku j[krk
gS vkSj rHkh og vius lan's k dks izkIr dj o ns ldrs gSa A
One Step esa vksfifu;u yhMj egRoiw.kZ LFkku ugha j[krk gS A blesa lan's k
dks lh/kk gh yksxksa rd igqp
a k;k tkrk gS A 'kks/kdÙkkZvksa us ;g irk yxk;k gS
fd vksfifu;u yhMj ds }kjk lan's k vPNh o izHkkoh <ax ls nwljksa rd igqp a k;k
tk ldrk gS A
;gh dkj.k gS fd lUns'k dks igys Two Step ds }kjk Hkstk tkrk gS fQj
Multi Step }kjk A bl esa lUns'k igqp
a kus ds fy, fofHkUu ek/;eksa dk iz;ksx fd;k
tkrk gS A
'kks/kdÙkkZ ;g Hkh irk yxk pqds gSa fd tu ek/;e izR;sd O;fDr dks
izkRs lkfgr djrk gS ijUrq ;g vUrO;ZfDr lapkj Hkh gS vkSj mlls fHkUu Hkh gS A
Multi Step esa igys vUrZO;fDr lapkj gksrk gS fQj tu ek/;eksa ds }kjk lUns'k
Hkstk tkrk gS A ftl izfØ;k ls lUns'k Hkstk tkrk gS og cgqr izHkko'kkyh gS A
Multi Step esa lUns'k dks Hkstus ds fy, fofHkUu tu ek/;eksa dk iz;ksx izR;sd
O;fDr dks izkRs lkfgr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS A
blds lkFk nwljs rRo tks fd bl esa 'kkfey gSa os gSa L=ksr] xq.koÙkk]

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,Dlikstj ek/;eksa dh igqp
a ] n'kZdksa dk lapkj ,tsfUl;ksa ls lEidZ] izdf` r] lUns'k
vkSj vUr esa n'kZdksa o ikBdksa ds fy, lUns'k fdruk egRoiw.kZ gS bldk irk
yxkuk gS A
Two Step Theory lUns'k dks izHkkoh <ax ls izkIr djus o bl izfØ;k dks
yxkrkj cuk, j[kus esa egRoiw.kZ fl) gqbZ gS A tu lapkj ds lUnHkZ esa Multi
Step Theory lkekftd iz.kkyh ds nwljs <axksa dks Hkh vius esa 'kkfey djrh gS A
blesa lUns'k nsus okyk o lUns'k izkIr djus okyk ,d nwljs dks iwjh rjg ls tkurs
gSa A lUns'k izkIr djus okyksa esa ,d lewg] cM+k lkekftd lewg o lekt 'kkfey
gksrk gS A
Commercial Theory

vkt tu ek/;e vius lUns'k dks ;kstuk] cukus o QSykus ls igys mlds
okf.kT; rF; dks /;ku esa j[krs gSa A 'kks/kdÙkkZvksa ds vuqlkj ;fn fodklkRed
lUns'k dks euksjt
a ukRed <ax ls fn;k tkrk gS rks ;g n'kZdksa dk utfj;k cnyus
esa lgk;d gksrs gSa A ;g fl)kUr miHkksDrkvksa dks viuk izkFkfed y{; ekurk
gS vkSj tu ek/;e vius dk;ZØe] /kkjkokfgd rFkk euksjt a ukRed dk;ZØe cukus ls
igys n'kZdksa dh ilUn] vko';drkvks]a bPNkvksa vkSj muds Lrj dks /;ku esa j[krs
gSa A
bl fl)kUr dks Laiseez faire Theory Hkh dgk tkrk gS A bl fl)kUr
ds vuqlkj tu ek/;eksa dks cM+s O;olkf;;ks]a ,dkf/kiR; o cgqjk"Vªh; laxBuksa ds
}kjk pyk;k tkrk gS A dk;ZØe cukus okyksa esa izfrLi/kkZ pyrh jgrh gS rFkk lHkh
ek/;e vius&vius dk;ZØeksa dks vf/kd ls vf/kd dq'ky o mÙke cukus esa yxs
jgrs gSa A
/khjs&/khjs le; ds ifjorZu ds vuqlkj ;s lHkh ek/;e vc dq'kyrk dks
viuk eq[; mn~n's ; u ekudj tkudkjh dh vf/kdrk dks egRoiw.kZ LFkku nsus yxs
gSa A vkt lHkh ek/;eksa us dk;ZØeksa dh dq'kyrk dks de djds vf/kd ls vf/

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kd ek=k esa tkudkjh Lo;a dh fopkj/kkjkvksa o n`f"Vdks.k dks n'kZdksa rd igqp
a kuk
'kq: dj fn;k gS A 1990 ls Hkkjr esa izlkfjr gksus okys lHkh pSuyksa esa blh
izdkj dh Laies z faire dh uhfr dks ns[kk tk ldrk gS A
Individual Difference Theory

Melvin Defluer vkSj Everette Denis ds vuqlkj izR;sd O;fDr dk gj


ek/;e ds izfr ,d utfj;k gksrk gS A og viuh le> o bPNk ds vuqlkj vius
ek/;e dks pqurk o ialn djrk gS A bu lHkh dk dkj.k O;fDr dh Lo;a dh
fo'ks"krkvksa ij fuHkZj djrk gS A tc tkudkjh izlkfjr dh tkrh gS rc izR;sd
O;fDr viuh ilan] bPNk o miyC/k ek/;eksa ds vuqlkj tu lapkj ds fofHkUu
ek/;eksa esa ls fdlh ,d dks pqurk gS A
bu ek/;eksa dks pquus esa O;fDr dh vko';drkvks]a O;ogkj] fo'okl] nwljs
dkj.k o euksoK S kfud fLFkfr o mldk ek/;e ls HkkoukRed lEcU/k vgfe;r
j[krk gS A bldk vFkZ ;g gS fd izR;sd O;fDr mlh ek/;e dks pqurk gS ftls
og lquuk] ns[kuk o i<+uk pkgrk gS A Klapper ds vuqlkj izR;sd O;fDr dk ek/
;eksa ds lUns'k ds izfr le> o vFkZ nwljs O;fDr ls vyx gksrh gS A
rHkh tc ,d O;fDr dh lUns'k ds izfr le> nwljs ls fHkUu gS rks ml
ij ek/;eksa dk izHkko Hkh nwljs ls fHkUu gksxk A
vr% ;g lR; mHkj dj lkeus vk;k gS fd lekt ds fofHkUu yksxksa ij
tu ek/;eksa dk fHkUu&fHkUu izHkko iM+rk gS rFkk lkFk esa gh ek/;e dk
vyx&vyx lkaLd`frd lewg ij Hkh vyx&vyx izHkko iM+rk gS A

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PAPER - II BLOCK - D UNIT - II

SELECTIVE EXPOSURE, SELECTIVE PERCEPTION


AND SELECTIVE RETENTION

;g fl)kUr n'kZdksa ds ek/;eksa dks ns[kus ls lEcfU/kr gS fd n'kZd fdruh


mRlqdrk ls ek/;eksa dks ns[krs gSa vkSj mu ij fdruk le; O;rhr djrs gSa rFkk
mldk n'kZdksa ij D;k izHkko iM+rk gS A
lwpuk ds le>us (Selective Perception) esa ge fofHkUu lUns'k dks dSls
izkIr djrs gSa A ;g vH;kl ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd ge lUns'k dk dSlk vFkZ
le>dj fudkyrs gSa rFkk izkIr lUns'k ij dSlh izfrfØ;k djrs gSa A
lwpuk ds le>us (Selective Perception) ls ge nks rjhdks]a pquko djus
dh {kerkvksa (Selective Exposer) vkSj joS;k cukus dks Hkh 'kkfey djrs gSa A
pquko djus dh izfØ;k esa ge dsoy mUgha ek/;eksa dks ns[krs] i<+rs o lqurs gSa
ftUgsa ge ilan djrs gSa o ftuls gesa Qk;nk gksrk gks A tSls ;fn ge nwjn'kZu
ns[kuk ilan djrs gSa rks ge LVkj U;wt o vkt rd U;wt dks ugha ns[ksxa s vkSj
vxj ge ns[ksxa s Hkh rks gesa vU; pSuy ds dk;ZØe ilUn ugha vk;sxa s A gesa muesa
fo'oluh;rk ugha yxsxh A blh izdkj ;fn ge ^vkÅVyqd* if=dk dks i<+uk ilan
djrs gSa rks ge vU; dksbZ vkSj if=dk tSls ^bf.M;k VqM*s ugha i<+xas s A ge viuh
vfHko`fÙk dks cnyrs ugha gSa A ge ogh djrs gSa ftls ge ilUn djrs gSa A ekuo
lnSo ls gh vius izR;{khdj.k ds lkFk pyrk vk;k gS A mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij
ge vius jgu&lgu esa tYnh ls cnyko ugha yk ldrs A
lwpuk ds le>us (Selective Perception) o ml ij viuk joS;k izdV
djus (Selective Retention) esa FkksM+k lk vUrj gS A tkslQ+ DySij ds vuqlkj
tc rd O;fDr fdlh fo"k; ij yksxksa dks tkudkjh iznku djrk gS rks yksx ml
tkudkjh dks fdruk xzg.k djrs gSa A mldk d;k vFkZ fudkyrs gSa rFkk ml ij
dSlh izfrfØ;k O;Dr djrs gSa ;g egRoiw.kZ gS A ijUrq gj O;fDr lHkh ckrksa
dks ;kn ugha j[krk og flQZ mUgha ckrksa dks ;kn j[krk gS tks mlds dke dh
gks o ftlls mls Qk;nk gksrk gks A ekuo lnSo gh viuk ,slk joS;k j[krk gS

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fd og vius cqjs iyksa dks Hkwyuk pkgrk gS A o vPNs iyksa dks ;kn j[kuk
pkgrk gS A
,tsM
a k fu/kkZj.k dk fl)kUr %
;g fl)kUr vesfjdh i=kdkj okYVj fyieSu us fn;k A muds vuqlkj yksx
okLrfod dks lp u eku dj ehfM;k esas fn[kkbZ tkus okyh vokLrfodrk dks lR;
ekurs gSa rFkk mlh ij viuh izfrfØ;k O;Dr djrs gSa A ;g blfy, gS fd D;ksfa d
ehfM;k gekjs efLr"d esa rLohjksa dk fp=.k djrs gSa A fyieSu us dgk gS fd
^^gekjk okLrfod okrkoj.k bruk fo'kky] tfVy o {kf.kd gS fd ge mls lewps
:i esa ugha tku ldrs vkSj ,sls okrkoj.k esa fopjus ds fy, vkSj mls le>us
ds fy, gesa ,d ljy ekWMy cukuk iM+xs k A
,tsMa k fu/kkZj.k ds fl)kUr dks iw.kZ :i ls MksuYM 'kkW (Donald Shaw)
vkSj eSDlosy eSDdkWEc (Maxwell Mccombs) us izLrqr fd;k A bl fl)kUr ds
vuqlkj ehfM;k yksxksa dks ;g crkus esa mrus lQy ugha gksrs fd ^^D;k lkspuk
gS** fdarq ;s ;g crkus esa lQy gSa fd fdl ckjs esa lkspuk gS A
tu ek/;eksa dk izHkko vkSj mudh Jksrkvksa dh lksp 'kfDr dks fu/kkZj.k
djus dh ;ksX;rk dks tulapkj dk ,ts.Mk fu/kkZj.k dk;Z dgk x;k gS A vU; 'kCnksa
esa ,ts.Mk fu/kkZj.k dqN fo'ks"k eqn~nksa ;k Nfo;ksa dks mHkkj dj mUgsa yksxksa ds eu
esa clkuk gS A ;g fl)kUr jktuSfrd vfHkxkuksa ij fo'ks"kdj ykxw gksrk gS A
,ts.Mk fu/kkZj.k izfØ;k ij 'kks/k v/;;u vf/kdrj bUgha vfHk;kuksa dks ysdj fd;k
x;k gS A bu v/;;uksa ls irk pyrk gS fd ftl Øe esa eqn~nksa dks ehfM;k esa
egRo fn;k tkrk gS D;k turk Hkh mlh Øe esa mls xzg.k djrh gS A vFkkZr~
ftl eqn~ns dks ehfM;k izkFkfedrk nsrk gS D;k ogh eqn~nk turk ds fy, Hkh
izkFkfed gksrk gS A bl fl)kUr ds vuqlkj ehfM;k }kjk eqn~nksa dks nh izkFkfedrk,a
turk dh izkFkfedrk,a cu tkrh gSa A
izl
s o vU; ehfM;k lekpkjksa dks Jksrkvkaas rd igqp
a kus ls igys mudk
pquko djrs gSa A ehfM;k ds }kjiky ;g r; djrs gSa fd D;k lUns'k yksxkssa rd
Hkstuk gS o fdl :i esa A bl izdkj yksx tks lwpuk xzg.k djrs gSa og ehfM;k
dh xsVdhfiax izfØ;k dk urhtk gksrh gS A blh dkj.k ,ts.Mk fu/kkZj.k izfØ;k dh
vko';drk gksrh gS A

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,ts.Mk fu/kkZj.k dk fl)kUr ,d rjQ ehfM;k dh l'kDrrk dks mHkjrk
gS rFkk nwljh vksj Kku lac/a kh izHkko gS tks 'kks/k dks ,d u;k vk;ke nsrk gS A
ehfM;k }kjk eqn~nkasa dks izkFkfedrk nsuk ,d egRoiw.kZ izfØ;k gS A ;g fl)kUr
ehfM;k vkSj eqn~nksa dh xgurk dks ,d izdkj dk lEcU/k LFkkfir djrk gS ijUrq
bl lEcU/kh 'kks/k ds lcwr T;knk fo'oluh; ugha gSa A 'kks/k drkZvksa us eqn~nksa ds
egRo ij Jksrkvksa vkSj ehfM;k ds fopkjksa ds chp ,d l'kDr lEcU/k rks Lohdkj
fd;k gS fd ehfM;k dk pquko gh eqn~nksa dks egÙkk nsus dk ,d ek= dkj.k gS A
Play Theory:-
tu ek/;e fo'ks"k izHkko vius n'kZdks]a ikBdksa o Jksrkvksa ij NksM+rs gSa A
lkekU;r% ,slk fo'okl fd;k tkrk gS fd ek/;e cqjk o Hk;kud izHkko turk
ij NksM+rk gS A dqN lapkj Kkfu;ksa dk ekuuk gS fd ek/;e turk ij d"Vnk;d
izHkko NksM+rs gSa A nwljh fopkj/kkjk ;g Hkh gS fd ek/;e turk dks euksjt a u Hkh
iznku djrk gS A
lapkj 'kks/kdÙkkZ William Stephenson dk ekuuk gS fd ek/;e flQZ [kq'kh
iznku djus ds fy, gS A lekpkj i= flQZ lekpkj vkSj tkudkjh izkIr djus ds
fy, ugha i<s+ tkrs A ;g lkFk esa [kq'kh o euksjt a u izkIr djus ds fy, Hkh i<+s
tkrs gSa A Stephenson us lapkj esa ;g Hkh 'kkfey fd;k gS fd tuek/;eksa dk eq[;
dk;Z euksjt a u iznku djuk gS A
budk ekuuk gS fd tu ek/;e yksxksa dks eqf'dyksa o rdyhQksa ls nwj djds
[kq'kh iznku djrs gSa A vr% bu ek/;eksa ds lEidZ esa vkdj yksx vius nq[kksa dks
Hkwy tkrs gSa A
;s eglwl djrs gSa fd ,slk djus ls ek/;e yksxksa ds nq[kksa ds Hkkj de
dj nsrs gSa A og fo'okl djrs gSa fd lkekftd mÙkjnkf;Ro vkSj nwljs vU; nks"k
yxkus ds dkj.k yksx viuh [kq'kh dks Hkwy tkrs gSa A ijUrq ;g ek/;e mUgsa
izkRs lkfgr djds vkuUn iznku djrs gSa A
rHkh os pkgrs gSa fd tuek/;eksa dk eq[; mn~n's ; yksxksa dh rdyhQksa dks
de djuk gksuk pkfg, vkSj ,slk lapkj djuk pkfg, ftlls mUgsa izlUurk izkIr
gks A ;g fl)kUr lkekU; rkSj ij bySDVªkfud ehfM;k ls lEcfU/kr gS A
Reference: The Dynamics of mass communication -

MC Graw- Hill Companies

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(57)
PAPER - II BLOCK - E UNIT - I

REACH AND ROLE OF DIFFERENT MEDIA

dksbZ Hkh ;a= tks lan's k dks c<+krk gS rFkk ,d lkFk ,d cgqr cM+s fefJr
tulewg dks igqp a krk gS] mls tulapkj (Mass Communication) dgrs gSa A ;g
,d laLFkk gS tks lan's k dks cukus rFkk mldks laifsz "kr djus esa yxh jgrh gS A
tulapkj ,d fo'ks"k izdkj dk lapkj gS A tks ;a=pkfyr gS vkSj lan's k dks nqxuq k
frxquk dj nwj&nwj rd Hkstrk gS A tulapkj esa ,d lUns'k dks cgq foLr`r {ks=ksa
esa QSys yksxksa rd ,d lkFk igqWp a k;k tkrk gS A
tulapkj dks bu ifjHkk"kk ls O;Dr fd;k tk ldrk gS A
Mass communication is dilivering informations ideas and attitudes to a
sizeable and diversified audience through use of the media developed for the
purpose.
— Emery Ault Agee

“Mass communication is directed to a large heterogenous and


anonymous audience."
-- Charles R. Wright

^^tulapkj dk vFkZ lwpuk dks ,d LFkku ls igqp


a kuk gS** A
&&tktZ ,- feyj
bu ifjHkk"kkvksa esa lUns'k dks foLr`r {ks=ksa esa O;kIr yksxksa rd igqp
a kuk gh
tulapkj dgk x;k gS A ijUrq brus cM+s foLr`r {ks=ksa esa QSys O;fDr;ksa rd lUns'k
igqp
a kus ds fy, fofHkUu ek/;eksa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS A tSls jsfM;ks] Vsyhfotu]
lekpkji=] flusek vkfn A vkSj bu lHkh ek/;eksa dh viuh igqWp a vkSj dk;Z gksrs gSa A
Role and Reach of newspaper

tulapkj dk ,d ek/;e gksus ds dkj.k lekpkji= vius esa cgqr lh


tkudkfj;ka latks, gksrk gS A blh rjg iqLrdsa o if=dk,a Hkh vius esa Kku] f'k{kk

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(58)
o tkudkfj;ksa dks j[krh gSa A ijUrq fQj Hkh ikBd vius vkl&ikl dh tkudkfj;ksa
dks izkIr djus ds fy, lekpkj&i= ij fuHkZj jgrs gSa A
vkt jsfM;ks o Vsyhfotu] lekpkj i= ls igys gh tkudkjh fy;s rS;kj
jgrs gSa ijUrq blesa dksbZ 'kd ugha gS fd fQj Hkh yksx lqcg&losjs lekpkji=
dks i<+us ds fy, ykykf;r jgrs gSa A fnu dh 'kq:okr Hkh pk; dh pqfLd;ksa
ds lkFk lekpkj i= i<+rs gq, gksrh gS A lekpkj i= ls tgkWa mUgsa vklikl
dh ?kVukvksa dh tkudkjh gksrh gS cfYd mudk euksjt a u Hkh gksrk gS A
nwljs ek/;e jsfM;ks o Vsyhfotu yksxksa rd tkudkjh rks igqpa krs gSa ijUrq
muesa fn[kk, o lquk, tkus okys lekpkj laf{kIr fy, gksrs gSa A ijUrq lekpkj
i=ksa esa lekpkj O;k[;k fy;s gq, gksrs gSa A buesa vk, lekpkj i=ksa dks o fdlh
fo'ks"k lekpkj dh dfVax dks ge laHkky dj j[k ldrs gSa ijUrq jsfM+;ks o
Vsyhfotu esa vkus okys lekpkj dks o tkudkjh dks ge laHkky dj ugha j[k
ldrs A
lekpkj i= dks iztkrU= ds pkj LrEHkksa esa ls ,d LrEHk dgk x;k gS A
iztkrU= ds rhu vU; LrEHk Øe'k% dk;Zikfydk] fo/kkuikfydk o U;k;ikfydk gS A
dk;Zikfydk o fo/kkuikfydk dkuwu dks cukrh o ykxw djrh gSa A ogha
U;k;ikfydk ml dkuwu dk /;ku j[krh gS fd fdlh ds lkFk vU;k; u gks vFkok
U;k;ikfydk dk dk;Z lHkh O;fDr;ksa dks U;k; fnyokuk gS A bu lcds ckn ,d
vksj LrEHk dh Hkh vko';drk eglwl dh xbZ tks fd bu lc ij utj j[k
lds A rkfd fdlh ds lkFk vU;k; u gks ik, A rc lekpkj i= dks pkSFks LrEHk
dh laKk nh xbZ A ;g LrEHk vius pkjksa vksj ?kVus okyh lHkh fØ;kvksa o ?kVukvksa
ij /;ku j[krk gS rFkk mu lHkh dh tkudkjh vU; yksxksa rd igqp a krk gS A blh
dkj.k lekpkj i= dks ^okp Mkx* dh laKk Hkh nh xbZ gS A
vkt lekpkj i=ksa dh igqp a gj O;fDr rd gS A pkgs lekpkj i= vius
esa ;g deh fy;s gq, gks fd og lk{kj O;fDr;ksa rd gh lhfer gS A ijUrq esjk
;g mÙkj bl deh dk [k.Mu djrk gS fd fuj{kj yksxksa }kjk Hkh lekpkji= dks
,d lewg cukdj fdlh O;fDr }kjk lqurs gq, dgha Hkh ns[kk tk ldrk gS A
pkgs cl LVS.M gks ;k jsyos LVs'ku ;k fQj vU; dksbZ lkoZtfud LFkku gj fdlh
dks ;gka lekpkji=ksa ds iUus iyVrs ns[kk tk ldrk gS A
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
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vkt cgqr ls lekpkj i= izdkf'kr gksrs gSa tks vius esa ns'k&fons'k dh
[kcjksa ds vfrfjDr euksjta u] f'k{kk vkfn dks fy, gksrs gS A lekpkji= esa
lekpkj izdkf'kr djus ls igys ikBdksa dh :fp dk Hkh /;ku j[kk tkrk gS fd
ikBdksa dh D;k :fp;ka o ilan gSa A blh dks utj esa j[krs gq, lekpkji= us
[ksy lekpkj] efgykvksa dh leL;kvks]a ;qokvksa ds fy,] QS'ku] cky txr] T;ksfr"kh
vkfn ds vyx&vyx dkWye o ist cuk j[ks gSa A lekpkj i= esa gj O;fDr
dh bPNk dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, lekpkj fn;s tkrs gSa A blh dkj.k lekpkj i=ksa
dh igqp a gj fdlh rd gS A lekpkj i= lLrk gksus ds dkj.k gj O;fDr bls
[kjhn dj tkudkjh izkIr dj ldrk gS A vr% dgk tk ldrk gS fd lekpkj
i= ,d egRoiw.kZ tulapkj dk egRo gSA
Role and Reach of Radio:-

jsfM+;ks tulapkj ds ek/;eksa esa ls ,d gSa A ;g ,d JO; ek/;e gS A


;g ,d cgqr gh lLrk ek/;e gS A vFkkZr~ bldh dher cgqr gh de gS rFkk
bls dksbZ Hkh [kjhn ldrk gS A lekpkji= dh Hkkafr ;g ek/;e dsoy f'kf{kr
oxZ dks /;ku esa ugha j[krk cfYd ;g f'kf{kr o vf'kf{kr nksuksa oxZ ds fy,
gS A blesa iz;ksx dh tkus okyh Hkk"kk ljy gksrh gSA rkfd ;g lHkh oxksaZ dks
le> esa vk tk, A ;g ek/;e fcuk fctyh dh lgk;rk ls pyrk gS vFkkZr~
;g 'kgjksa ls nwj xkaoksa esa tgka fctyh dh O;oLFkk ugha gS ogka ij Hkh lquk tk
ldrk gS A lekpkji= dks ?kj&?kj igqp a kus dh vko';drk iM+rh gS A xkaoksa rd
lekpkj i=ksa dks igqp a kuk dfBu dk;Z gS D;ksfa d lM+dksa ds VwVs gksus ds dkj.k o
dPps jkLrs gksus ds dkj.k leL;kvksa dks ?kj&?kj igqp a kuk dfBu gS A ijUrq jsfM;ks
esa ,slk ugha gS D;ksfd blesa tkudkfj;ksa o lekpkj dks ?kj&?kj igqp a kus dh
vko';drk ugha gS A
jsfM;ks esa ,d vU; mi;ksfxrk bldk dgh Hkh ys tkuk gS A ;g vkdkj
esa NksVk gksus ds dkj.k bldk iz;ksx fdlh Hkh LFkku ij fd;k tk ldrk gS o
blds dk;ZØe dks lquus ds fy, ,d txg cSBdj /;ku yxkuk vko';d ugha gS
A D;ksfa d lekpkji= dks i<+rs le; o Vsyhfotu dks ns[krs le; gesa ,d txg
fVd dj cSBuk viuk iwjk /;ku ml ij yxkuk iM+rk gS A ijUrq jsfM;ks esa ,slk
ugha gS ge vU; dk;Z djrs gq, tSls [kkuk cukrs gq,] xkM+h pykrs gq, Hkh jsfM;ks
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
(60)
dks lqu ldrs gSa A lekpkj i= dks ,d le; esa dsoy ,d gh O;fDr i<+ ldrk
gS tcfd jsfM;ks dks ,d le; esa lHkh O;fDr feydj lqu ldrs gSa A
jsfM;ks esa dbZ rjg ds dk;ZØe vkrs gSa tSls xhr&laxhr] d`f"k n'kZu] ;qok
ok.kh] cky&txr] lekpkj] drkZ] MkD;weVas jh vkfnA ;s lHkh dk;ZØe vyx&vyx
O;fDr;ksa ij vyx&vyx izHkko NksM+rs gSa rFkk lHkh dk;ZØe Jksrkvksa dh ilan
vuqlkj gh vkrs gSa A vkt le; ds cnyus ds vuqlkj Jksrkvksa dh ilan Hkh
fujUrj cnyrh tk jgh gS A vkt dk Jksrk tkudkjh ds lkFk&lkFk euksjt a u dh
Hkh ekax djrk gS A blh dkj.k mls ,Q- ,e- ds dk;ZØe vf/kd ilan vkrs gSa
A ,Q- ,e- ds dk;ZØe tgka Jksrk dk euksjt a u djrs gSa ogha nwljh vksj mls
mlds {ks= dh tkudkjh Hkh iznku djrs gSa A blh dkj.k bl dk;ZØe dks vf/
kd lquk tkrk gS A vkt jsfM;ks dh igqp a 72 izfr'kr yksxksa rd gS A
Role and Reach of Television

Vsyhfotu ,d JO;&n`'; ek/;e gS A ftls u dsoy lquk tkrk gS cfYd


n`'; dks ns[kdj ;FkkFkZ dk cks/k Hkh gksrk gS A dgk tkrk gS fd ,d fp= gtkj
'kCnksa ds lerqY; gksrk gS A jsfM;ks ds ek/;e ls ftl n`'; dk o.kZu 'kCn
pqu&pqu dj fd;k tkrk gS A ogh ,d je.kh; n`'; fn[kkdj Jksrkvksa dks
jlkLoknu djk nsrk gS A vr% n`'; vkSj JO; nksuksa feydj Vsyhfotu dks vf/
kd l'kDr cukus esa lQy gksrs gSa A
Vsyhfotu ,d ,slk ek/;e gS tks vius pyfp= o n`'; vkfn dh xq.kork
ds dkj.k n'kZdksa dks viuh vksj vkdf"kZr djrk gS A dgk Hkh x;k gS fd lquh
lqukbZ ckrksa ij de fo'okl djrs gSa tcfd viuh vka[kksa ls ns[kh xbZ ckr ij
vf/kd fo'okl djrs gSa A blfy, Vsyhfotu dh fo'oluh;rk vf/kd gS A
blds vfrfjDr tgka i=&if=dk o lekpkj i= dks i<+us ds fy, lk{kj
gksuk vko';d gS ogh Vsyhfotu ds fy, lk{kj gksuk vko';d ugha gS A blh
dkj.k Vsyhfotu esa iz;ksx dh tkus okyh Hkk"kk ljy rFkk n'kZdksa dh lkekU; Hkk"kk
gksrh gS A ftls le>uk vke turk ds fy, vklku gksrk gS A lkFk gh ,d ckj
Vsyhfotu [kjhnus ds i'pkr~ mldk iwjk vkuUn izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gS A
Vsyhfotu esa jsfM;ks dh Hkkafr rRijrk Hkh gS A tgkWa dksbZ ?kVuk ?kVh ogh
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
(61)
Vsyhfotu pSuy dh Vhe rqjra igqpa dj ml ?kVuk dh tkudkjh ds ckjs esa n'kZdksa
dks rqjra lwpuk nsrh gS A bl izdkj ?kVuk LFky dk iwjk fooj.k n`'; ds ek/
;e ls ns[kk tk ldrk gS A
Vsyhfotu vius fofHkUu pSuyl dh lgk;rk ls n'kZdksa rd gj tkudkjh
igqp
a kuk pkgrk gS rFkk ;g vius dk;ZØe is'k djus ls igys n'kZdksa dks ilan o
ukilan dk Hkh /;ku j[krk gS fd n'kZdksa dks dkSu ls dk;ZØe vf/kd ilan gSa
tkudkjh iz/kku] f'k{kk iz/kku o euksjt
a u iz/kku A fQj mlh ds vuq:i ;g vius
dk;ZØe izLrqr djrk gS A tSl&s tSls le; ds lkFk n'kZdksa dh jk; o ilan cnyrh
tkrh gS mlh Hkkafr gh dk;ZØe Hkh viuk :i ifjofrZr djrs jgrs gSa A
dqN le; igys Vsyhfotu ij lwpukRed dk;ZØe vf/kd vkrs Fks vkSj
n'kZdksa ds }kjk ilan Hkh fd;s tkrs Fks A vkt n'kZdksa dk vankt cny x;k gS
mldh :fp;ksa esa ifjorZu vk x;k gS A og dsoy euksjt a u pkgrk gS o euksjt
a u
esa fyiVh dqN tkudkjh A ;gh dkj.k gS fd vkt Vsyhfotu ij fn[kk, tkus okys
dk;ZØe ckgj ls rks euksjt a u dk [kksy vks<+s gksrs gSa ijUrq vius vUnj tkudkjh
o lwpuk dks fNik, gksrs gSa A ;gh n'kZdksa }kjk vf/kd ilan fd;k tkrk gS A
blh dkj.k vkt gj dk;ZØe cPpks]a cw<+]s ;qokvks]a efgykvks]a iq:"kksa vkfn
ds fglkc ls vyx&vyx cuk, tkrs gSa tks mUgsa ilUn vk,a A vkt izR;sd O;fDr
izfrfnu 2 ;k 3 ?k.Vs Vh-oh- t:j ns[krk gS D;ksfa d ;g ns[kuk mldh fnup;kZ
dk vax gS A
;gh dkj.k gS fd Vsyhfotu ,d euksjt a ukRed ek/;e gksus ds lkFk&lkFk
lwpuk o tkudkjh Hkh igqpa krk gS vkSj rHkh bldh igqp a gj O;fDr rd gS A
pkgs og f'kf{kr gks ;k vf'kf{kr A pkgs og xkaoksa esa jgrk gks ;k 'kgjksa esa A
gj O;fDr ds vuqlkj dk;ZØe vkus ds dkj.k ;g cgqr vf/kd ljkgk tkrk gS A
Role and Reach of Cinema

ukVd dh Hkkafr flusek ,d iw.kZ dyk ek/;e gS A ftlesa ijEijkxr dyk


:iksa ds lkFk&lkFk vk/kqfud dykvksa dk lekos'k Hkh gksrk gS A dFkk] laokn]
vfHku;] QksVksxkz Qh] laxhr vkfn dbZ fo/kkvksa vkSj dykvksa dh loksÙZ ke vfHkO;fDr
bl ek/;e ls lEHko gS A flusek tgka ,d rjQ l`tukRedrk gS rks nwljh vksj
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
(62)
;kaf=d izfrHkk A bu nksuksa ds laxe ls ,slk vkd"kZ.k gksrk gS tks u dsoy euksjt
a u
iznku djrk gS cfYd Kku vkSj f'k{kk ds {ks= esa foLrkj djrk gS vkSj lkekftd
dqjhfr;ksa dks nwj dj lekt esa tkx`fr ykus esa ;ksxnku nsrk gS A
flusek dk eq[; dk;Z n'kZdksa dk euksjt
a u djuk gS A tc flusek dk fodkl
gqvk rc lkekftd dqjhfr;ksa ls lEcfU/kr fQYesa o /kkfeZd fQYesa cukbZ xbZ Fkh A
tSls lrh izFkk ij] cky&fookg] iznk izFkk] ngst izFkk] dkfy;k enZu] jk/kk&d`".k
vkfn ij A fQYeksa dk eq[; dk;Z lekt esa O;kIr lkekftd cqjkbZ;ksa dks nwj djuk
gS rFkk n'kZdksa esa ,d ubZ psruk o meax dks Hkjuk gS ftlls fd os vius ns'k
dk fodkl dj lds A
vkt ds dqN le; igys cgqr ls n'kZd flusek ns[kus tkrs Fks ijUrq
Vsyhfotu ds vkfo"dkj ds lkFk bls ns[kus okyksa dh la[;k esa deh gks xbZ gS A
bldk rkRi;Z ;g ugha gS fd bldh yksdfiz;rk esa deh vkbZ gS A flusek dh
yksds fiz;rk o igqp
a dk vuqeku bls ns[kus okyksa dh la[;k ls yxk;k tk ldrk
gS A ;gh dkj.k gS fd n'kZdksa dh la[;k c<+kus ds fy, mudh ilan dk /;ku
j[kk tkrk gS A mUgha dh bPNkuqlkj gh fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k gksrk gS A fQYeksa esa
iz;D q r Hkk"kk ljy gksrh gS A blh dkj.k ;g lHkh n'kZdksa dks vklkuh ls le>
esa vk tkrh gS A
fQYesa euksjt
a u djus ds lkFk&lkFk uSfrd dk;Z Hkh djrh gSA gj O;fDr
fdlh u fdlh ijs'kkuh ls f?kjk gksrk gS vkSj og tc flusek dks ns[krk gS rks
mldh lHkh ijs'kkfu;ka nwj gks tkrh gSa A bl dkj.k tgkWa flusek lHkh dh ijs'kkfu;ksa
dks nwj Hkxkrk gS lkFk esa muesa ubZ psruk] ubZ meax] ubZ LQwfrZ vkfn dks Hkh txkrk
gS A ftlls fQj os mRlkfgr gksdj vU; dk;Z esa e'kxwy gks tkrs gSa A
flusek dh igqp
a gj ukxfjd rd gS A ns'k dk 'kk;n gh dksbZ ,slk ukxfjd
gksxk tks fd flusek ls vNwrk gks A blh dkj.k flusek dks ,d ubZ psruk txkus
okyk ek/;e dgk x;k gS A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


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PAPER - II BLOCK - E UNIT - II

EFFECT OF MASS MEDIA

lapkj l`f"V dk egRoiw.kZ vax gS A ;g ,d ,slk lk/ku gS tks vk/kqfud


thou dks vf/kd izHkkoh cukrk gS A le; ds lkFk&lkFk lapkj ek/;eksa dk Hkh
fodkl gqvk gS A ijEijkxr lapkj ek/;eksa esa LFkkuh; esy]s uqDdM+ ukVd]
lkaLd`frd lHkk,a] /kkfeZd lHkk,a vkfn Fkh A vkt dy lekpkj i= vkSj if=dkvksa
dks Hkh ijEijkxr lk/kuksa esa fy;k tkus yxk gS D;ksfa d ;g 'krkfCn;ksa iqjkuh gS A
orZeku le; esa bySDVªkWfud ek/;eksa jsfM;ks] fQYe] Vh-oh- vf/kd yksdfiz; gS A
bu lHkh ek/;eksa ds izHkkoksa dks tkuus ls iwoZ lapkj dh izfØ;k dks le>uk
vko';d gS A lapkj izfØ;k esa lUns'k dks L=ksr&cukrk gS A fQj mls og Jksrkvksa
rd igqpa krk gS A blds i'pkr~ Jksrkvksa ij bl lUns'k dk izHkko iM+rk gS A
lUns'k izfØ;k esa lUns'k bl izdkj Jksrkvksa rd igqp a rk gS o fQj Jksrkvksa ij
lUns'k dk izHkko iM+rk gS A
oDrk && lUns'k && Jksrk && volj &&izHkko
yklosl us Hkh vius lapkj ekMy esa lapkj dh izfØ;k dks le>kus dh
dksf'k'k dh gS A
dkSu
D;k dgrk gS A
fdls
fdl ek/;e }kjk
vkSj D;k izHkko iM+rk gS A
'kSuu vkSj ohoj us lwpuk L=ksr] lwpuk iz"s kd] lapkj lk/ku] ladrs xzkg~;rk]
xzkg~; ;k izkfIr rd gh lapkj izk:i eku fy;k gS tcfd izfriqf"V ;k izHkko ij
izdk'k ugha Mkyk gS A

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(64)
lapkj izfØ;k esa fuEu rRo 'kkfey gksrs gSa A lUns'k nkrk] lUns'k] ek/;e]
lUns'k izkIrdÙkkZ] lapkj izfØ;k esa lUns'k izkIrdÙkkZ dks feyrk gS rFkk og lUns'k
izkIrdÙkkZ }kjk viuh le> ls] o vius Kku ls le>k tkrk gS A bl izdkj lUns'k
izkIrdÙkkZ ij izHkko Mkyrk gSA lUns'knkrk }kjk cuk, x, lUns'k esa vFkZ] Hkk"kk]
Lo:i] lUnHkZ lHkh 'kkfey gksrs gSa A ;g lUns'k lUns'knkrk dh efLr"d dh mit
gksrs gSa A bu lUns'k dks lqu dj lUns'k izkIrdÙkkZ viuk mÙkj gka o ugha esa nsrk
gS A vr% Li"V gS fd lUns'k dk izkIrdÙkkZ ij izHkko iM+rk gS rFkk ;g izHkko
ldkjkRed (Positive) o udkjkRed (Negative) gks ldrk gS A
lUns'k dk izHkko le;] LFkku] lUnHkZ vkfn ij Hkh vk/kkfjr gS fd dkSu
lk lUns'k fdl le; o fdl LFkku ij fn;k tk jgk gS vkSj og fdl lUnHkZ
esa gS A ;g ,d vfr egRoiw.kZ dk;Z gS A blfy, dgk Hkh x;k gS fd lgh
le; o lgh LFkku ij fn;s x, lUns'k gh izkIrdÙkkZ ij bfPNr izHkko NksM+rs gSa A
blh dkj.k izR;sd lapkj ek/;e viuk lUns'k izlkfjr djus ds i'pkr~ ;g
tkudkjh ,df=r djus dk iz;kl djrs gSa fd lUns'k dks izkid fdl rjg xzg.k
dj jgs gSa rFkk muds }kjk izlkfjr lUns'k tu&leqnk; esa fdruk yksdfiz; gS A
tSls pSuyl ij fofHkUu /kkjkokfgd] dk;ZØeksa dh ekul yksdfiz;rk ds izfr'kr
vkWda M+s fn;s tkrs gSa A jsfM;ks ij Hkh Jksrkvksa ds i=ksa o lq>ko ds ek/;e ls
;g irk yxk;k tkrk gS fd jsfM;ks o vkdk'kok.kh ij izlkfjr gksus okys dk;ZØe
fdrus yksdfiz; gSa A blh izdkj lekpkj i= vkSj i=&if=dkvksa esa ikBdksa dh
jk; A ikBdksa ds lq>ko vkfn dks fy;k tkrk gS rkfd mudh ilUn o ukilUn
dk vuqeku gks lds A
tulapkj ds izR;sd ek/;e pkgs og futh gksa ;k ljdkjh] gj ek/;e turk
esa yksdfiz; gksuk pkgrs gSa A blhfy, og ckj&ckj fujh{k.k dj turk dh
izfrfØ;k dk irk yxkrk jgrk gS A izR;sd ek/;e turk rd ldkjkRed o
jpukRed dk;ZØe igqp a k dj mu ij viuk vfPNr izHkko Mkyuk pkgrk gS vkSj
vius ek/;e dks vf/kd yksdfiz; cukuk pkgrs gSa A gj ek/;e vius esa fujUrj
ifjorZu dj o viuh Nfo lq/kkj tuekul ds efLr"d ij jkt djuk pkgrk gS A
lekpkj i= ,oa if=dkvksa dk izHkko %
Hkkjr fofHkUurkvksa dk ns'k gS vkSj blesa fofHkUu /keZ] tkfr] lkaLd`fr vkSj

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(65)
Hkk"kk ds yksx jgrs gSa A ;gh dkj.k gS lekpkj i= vkSj if=dk,a fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa
esa izdkf'kr gksrh gS A vktdy budh cgqr O;kidrk gS A bySDVªkWfud ek/;e
jsfM;ks vkSj Vsyhfotu ds vk tkus ds ckn bldh yksdfiz;rk viuh txg fo|eku
gS A vkt Hkh fnu dh 'kq:okr uk'rs ds lkFk lekpkj i= ns[kus ls gh gksrh gS A
Vªus ] cl o vU; lkoZtfud LFkkuksa ij Hkh yksxksa dks lekpkj i= ds iUuksa dks
iyVrs gq, ns[kk tk ldrk gS A le; dh deh gksus ds dkj.k Hkh mldh lqf[kZ;ksa
dks i<+k tkrk gS A tks yksx lekpkj i= ugha i<+rs os ;k rks fuj{kj gksrs gSa
o vFkksiZ ktZu esa Qals gksrs gSa A ijUrq fQj Hkh og vius vkl ikl ds lewg ls
tkudkjh izkIr dj ysrs gSa A lekpkj i= i<+us ds i'pkr~] fdlh lewg dks vkil
es]a lekpkj i= esa vkbZ fdlh fo'ks"k [kcj ij] okrkZ djrs] dgha Hkh ns[kk tk
ldrk gS vkSj tks yksx fuj{kj gksrs gSa mUgsa Hkh ,d lewg cukdj fdlh O;fDr
ls lekpkj lqurs ns[kk tk ldrk gS A fdlh fo'ks"k volj pquko] ;q)] [ksy]
laln vkfn ij budh mRlqdrk lekpkj lquus ds izfr vkSj vf/kd c<+ tkrh gS A
okLro esa lekpkj i= o if=dkvksa dh yksdfiz;rk dk dkj.k bldh fofo/
krk fy;s gq, tkudkfj;ksa dk ysuk gS A lekpkj i= esa pquko] jktuhfr] ukjh dh
leL;k,a] cky&txr] ;qok&txr] [ksy&QS'ku vkfn lHkh ds fy, vius&vius i`"B
o dkWye fu/kkZfjr gksrs gSa A vr% ,d lekpkj esa gj O;fDr ds fy, lekpkj
miyC/k gksrk gS A blds vfrfjDr fdlh fo'ks"k O;fDr o izc) q O;fDr ds ys[k]
lEikndh; vxz ys[k vkfn Hkh gksrs gSa tks fd fdlh fo'ks"k leL;k ij fy[ks x,
gksrs gSa A
lekpkj i= o if=dk dk lcls egRoiw.kZ izHkko bl ckr ls Li"V gksrk
gS fd fnu&izfrfnu budh izlkj la[;k esa o`f) gks jgh gS vkSj buesa O;kIr fofHkUu
tkudkjh ysus ds dkj.k ikBd viuh bPNkuqlkj lkexzh dk p;u dj ldrs gSa vkSj
bls latk; dj Hkh j[k ldrs gSa o fQj ls bl tkudkjh dh vko';drk iM+us
ij bls i<+ ldrs gSa A ,slh lqfo/kk vU; ek/;eksa esa miyC/k ugha gS A
dqN lekpkj i=kaas ds vius LFkkuh; o {ks=h; lekpkj i= Hkh ysrs gSa A
bu lekpkj i=ksa esa ml {ks= ds lekpkjksa dks izkFkfedrk nh tkrh gS tcfd cM+s
lekpkj i=ksa esa bu {ks=h; lekpkjksa dk LFkku u ds cjkcj gksrk gS ijUrq {ks=h;
yksxksa ds fy, muds {ks= ds lkepkj gh vf/kd egRoiw.kZ gksrs gSa A
BMC - 108 Mass Communication
(66)
lekpkj i=ksa esa ns'k&fons'k ds lekpkjksa ds fy, Hkh viuk fo'ks"k LFkku
fuf'pr gksrk gS A ;g Hkh lR; gS fd ftruh vf/kd lekpkj i=ksa dh izlkj la[;k
gksrh gS og lekpkj i= mruk gh vf/kd yksd s fiz; gksrk gS A {ks=h; o dLch;
{ks=ksa esa {ks=h; lekpkj i= dh izlkj la[;k gh vf/kd gks ldrh gS A jk"Vªh;
lekpkj i=ksa dh ugha A
if=dk,a pkgs lkIrkfgd] ikf{kd] ekfld gksa ;k fQj okf"kZd A gj if=dk
dqN fo'ks"krk fy;s gksrh gS A dqN if=dk,a lekt vkSj thou ds gj vk;ke ls
tqM+h gksrh gSa rks dqN fdlh fo'ks"k oxZ o leL;k ls] dqN euksjt a u dks fy;s gksrh
gSa rks dqN Kku dks A bl rjg if=dk,a gj oxZ ds fy, Hkh fHkUu&fHkUu gksrh
gSa tSls efgykvksa ds x`g'kksHkk] lfjrk] Qsfeuk vkfn rks cPpksa ds fy, pEid] uanu]
pUnkekek vkfn A
fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ij miyC/k gksus ds lkFk&lkFk ;g ikBdksa dh :fp dks Hkh
/;ku esa j[krh gS tSls dqN ikBdksa dks ØhM+k txr dh lwpuk :fpdj yxrh gS
rks fdlh vU; dks QS'ku lEcU/kh A bu ikBdksa dh :fp;ksa ds vuqlkj dbZ if=dk,a
vkt cktkj esa miyC/k gSa tSls ØhM+k txr] foKku txr] f'k{kk txr] 'kks/k] QS'ku
vkfn ls lEcfU/kr if=dk,a A
jsfM;ks %
bySDVªkWfud ek/;e esa jsfM;ks dk LFkku egRoiw.kZ gS A chloha 'krkCnh dh
nsu jsfM;ks dk vkxeu nwjn'kZu ls Hkh igys gqvk A ;|fi nwjn'kZu ds vkus ds
i'pkr~ bldks lquus okys Jksrkvksa esa deh vkbZ D;ksfa d mu Jksrkvksa dks 'osr&';ke
py fp= us viuh vksj vkd`f"kr fd;k ijUrq blds ckotwn Hkh jsfM;ks us vius
Jksrkvksa dks viuh xq.kork ds cy ij vkdf"kZr fd;k gS A jsfM;ks ,d vR;Ur
lqyHk] lLrk vkSj xeuh; (Portable) ek/;e gS A jsfM;ks ls vusd lwpuk,a vkfn
izkIr gks tkrh gSa rFkk vusd dk;ZØe Hkh vkrs gSa rFkk blds fofHkUu pSuy gksus
ds dkj.k Jksrk viuh ilanuqlkj fdlh Hkh pSuy dks lqu ldrs gSa A
jsfM;ks dk yksxksa ij izHkko dbZ ckrksa ij fu/kkZfjr gksrk gS A jsfM;ks dks
xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa vf/kd lquk tkrk gS A xzkeksa esa iapk;r o isM+ ds uhps cSB dj]
yksxksa ds lewg dks jsfM;ks lqurs gq, ns[kk tk ldrk gS A jsfM;ks esa xzkeh.k fodkl

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


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dk;ZØe] d`f"k n'kZu] yksd laxhr] efgyk txr] yksd&ukVd] okrkZ] MkD;weVas jh
vkfn vkrs gSa A bUgsa yksx viuh :fp vuqlkj izfrfnu o dHkh&dHkh lqurs gSa A
jsfM;ks esa ,d xq.koÙkk ;g Hkh gS fd bls vU; dk;Z djrs gq, Hkh lquk tk ldrk
gS A ;g ml le; Jksrkvksa ij vR;f/kd izHkko NksM+rk gS tc Jksrk jsfM;ks ij
dk;ZØe lquus ds i'pkr~ ml fo"k; ij ppkZ djrs gSa A jsfM;ks ls mUgsa ns'k dh
tkudkjh o lekpkj izkIr gksrs gSa fd fdl txg dkSu lh ?kVuk ?kV jgh gS o
gekjs vkl ikl ds jkT;ksa esa D;k gks jgk gS cfYd nwljs ns'kksa ds ckjs esa Hkh
tkudkjh izkIr gksrh gS A jsfM;ks dks lquus okys Jksrkvksa dh la[;k xkaoksa esa vf/
kd gS D;ksfa d 'kgjksa esa yksx vius dk;ksaZ esa vf/kd O;Lr jgrs gSa A blfy, 'kgjh
yksx cgqr de ek=k esa jsfM;ks lqurs gSa A nwjn'kZu ds vkxeu ds dkj.k jsfM;ks
dh yksdfiz;rk dks /kDdk yxk gS ijUrq fQj Hkh eSp dh dkesUVjh lquus ds fy,
yksx dkQh ek=k esa jsfM;ks dk iz;ksx djrs gSa A blds vfrfjDr lekpkj lquus
o fQYeh xkuksa dks lquus ds fy, Hkh jsfM;ks dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS A
pquko ds le; jsfM;ks dh yksdfiz;rk vkSj vf/kd c<+ tkrh gS A yksx
jsfM;ks ls izlkfjr gksus okyh pquko lwpuk o pquko fo'ys"k.k dks cM+s pko ls
lqurs gSa o mudh ckrksa ij vey Hkh djrs gSa A pquko izfØ;k ds vfrfjDr fdlh
fo'ks"k fLFkfr o ?kVuk ds le; Hkh jsfM;ks lquus okys Jksrkvksa esa o`f) gks tkrh
gS A vr% bu lwpukvksa ls Jksrkvksa ij iMus okyk izHkko Hkh lgt gh ns[kk tk
ldrk gS A
jsfM;ks esa iz;ksx dh tkus okyh Hkk"kk Hkh Jksrkvksa ij viuk izHkko NksM+rh
gS D;ksfa d jsfM;ks ek/;e fdlh fo'ks"k oxZ ds fy, ugha gSA ;g f'kf{kr oxZ vkSj
vf'kf{kr oxZ nksuksa ds fy, gh mi;qDr gS A ftl izdkj lekpkj i= dks dsoy
f'kf{kr oxZ gh i<+ ldrs gSa ijUrq jsfM;ks esa ftl Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk
gS mls f'kf{kr o vf'kf{kr nksuksa oxZ gh le> ldrs gSa A blfy, jsfM;ks esa
dk;ZØe izLrqr djus okys viuh ys[kuh ij fo'ks"k /;ku j[krs gSa fd Hkk"kk ljy
o Li"V gks rFkk vFkZi.w kZ gks A lUns'k ds vFkksaZ dks Li"V djus okyh Hkk"kk ds
okD; NksVs gksa rFkk muesa y;c)rk gks A bu lHkh ckrksa dk dk;ZØe fy[krs le;
/;ku j[kk tkrk gS A ;fn {ks=h; Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS rks ;g vkSj vf/
kd izHkko NksM+rh gS ijUrq ;fn blds foijhr jsfM;ks esa dfBu Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(68)
fd;k tk, rks Jksrkvksa dks lUns'k xzg.k djus esa dfBukbZ vk,xh vkSj os jsfM;ks
dks rqjUr can dj nsxa s A Hkkjrh; lekt esa jsfM;ks izlkj.k dh bruh yksdfiz;rk
gS fd yksx ch-ch-lh-] jsfM;ks ikfdLrku] Jh yadk] flyksu vkfn ds izlkj.kksa dks
lqurs gSa rFkk mu ij fo'okl Hkh djrs gSa A
jsfM;ks ,d JO; ek/;e gS ijUrq vko';drk ls vf/kd ;fn ,d O;fDr
dks cksyrs gq, lquk tkrk gS rks mlesa cksfj;r vk tkrh gS ijUrq ;fn ,d dk;ZØe
esa nks ;k nks ls vf/kd O;fDr;ksa dh vkoktksa dks ysdj cuk;k tkrk gS rks mls
lquus esa :fp c<+rh tkrh gS A tSls lekpkj cqyfs Vu o okrkZ dks ,d O;fDr
}kjk cksyk tkrk gS ijUrq lekpkj n'kZu vkfn esa ,d O;fDr ls vf/kd dh
fjdkfMZxa dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS A ftlls lquus dh jkspdrk dks c<+k;k tk ldrk
gS A jsfM;ks esa lekpkj nsus ls igys lekpkj lEiknd dks lHkh oxksaZ dh :fp
dk /;ku j[kuk iM+rk gS fd mUgsa D;k ilan gS A izknsf'kd lekpkj] fons'k
lekpkj] lkekU; lekpkj vkfn A jsfM;ks esa le; lhek fuf'pr gksrh gS vr% blds
vuqlkj lekpkj dks NksVk cukdj izLrqr fd;k tkrk gS ijUrq og lekpkj Hkh vius
vUnj lEiw.kZ lkj dks fy;s gksrk gS A vr% Li"V gS fd jsfM;ks izlkj.k ds fy,
fo"k; dks rS;kj djuk Hkh ,d m|e gS A jsfM;ks us lekpkj] lekpkj n'kZu]
ifjppkZ,]a lk{kkRdkj] ukVd vkfn dk izLrqrhdj.k gksrk gS A blds vfrfjDr
fo'ks"k oxZ tSls ukjh txr] cky&txr] d`"kd lekt vkfn ds fy, fo'ks"k dk;ZØe
gksrs gSa A ;|fi Hkkjr esa jsfM;ks izlkj.k dk foLrkj gqvk gS fdUrq brus cM+s jk"Vª
esa yksxksa dh vko';drkvksa dks lkeus j[kdj ;g foLrkj mruk vf/kd ugha gS
ftruk gksuk pkfg, A
jsfM;ks us orZeku ;qx esa ekuuh; psruk mn~c)
q djus dk HkxhjFk dk;Z fd;k
gS A jsfM;ks ds egRo ds fo"k; esa eSV~lu Li"V djrs gSa tks euq"; lalkj dh
mFky&iqFky ls vufHkK Fkk vkSj ftlus vius euksjt a u ds fy, vkSj lkalkfjd
leL;kvksa ds iyk;u ds fy, bl lk/ku dk lgkjk fy;k Fkk mlus ;g ik;k fd
mlds eu esa la;ksxoa'k ,d NksVs ls cht dk jksi.k gks pqdk gS vkSj bl
fofp=fo'o ds ckjs esa vf/kd ls vf/kd tkuus dh mldh bPNk c<+ x;h gS A
okLro esa jsfM;ks lekpkj i= ;k vU; lapkj ek/;eksa dk izfr}anh dHkh ugha jgk A
;g ,d ,slk ek/;e gS ftldk izHkko LFkwy ls lw{e gks x;k gS vFkkZr~ lekpkj

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


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i= dks ns[kuk vkSj i<+uk i<+rk gS tcfd jsfM;ks esa JO;&ukn&ok.kh xq.k gS A
lqifz l) i=dkj ds- ih- ukjk;.k ds 'kCnksa esa ^lksQs ij vkjke ls iM+s gq, vka[ks
ewna dj] jsfM;ks ls izlkfjr lekpkj ;k :id lquuk] lh/ks cSBdj lekpkj i= esa
eqfnzr NksV&s NksVs v{kjksa dks vkW[a kksa ij tksj nsdj i<+us ds ctk; vf/kd lq[kdj
gksrk gS A
Vh- oh- %
Vsyhfotu 20oha 'krkCnh dk ,slk tu ek/;e gS tks cgqr vf/kd yksd s fiz;
gS A blus vius 'osr&';ke vkSj jaxhu pyfp=ksa ds dkj.k n'kZdksa dks viuh vksj
vkdf"kZr fd;k gS rFkk viuh blh xq.koÙkk ds dkj.k gh Vsyhfotu us lekpkj i=]
if=dkvks]a jsfM;ks vkfn dks iNkM+ fn;k gS A vr% ;g lR; gS fd Vsyhfotu
tulapkj esa vR;f/kd l{ke gS A blls tuer cukus ,oa turk ds fgrksa dh j{kk
ds lEcU/k esa lgk;rk yh tk ldrh gS A
Vsyhfotu ds izHkko dk Kku bldh yksdfiz;rk ls yxk;k tk ldrk gS A
nwjn'kZu ds dk;ZØe dh yksdfiz;rk ftruh vf/kd gksxh ek/;e mruk gh vf/kd
viuk izHkko NksM+xs k A bldk vuqeku n'kZdksa dh Vsyhfotu ns[kus dh izof` Ùk ls Hkh
yxk;k tk ldrk gS Avkt izR;sd ?kj esa Vsyhfotu dh lsok,a izfrfnu yh tkrh
gSa A xzkeh.k o 'kgjksa esa ;g lsok,a viuh&viuh fLFkfr ds vuqlkj vf/kd o de
yh tkrh gSa A ;g deh O;oLrk gksus ds dkj.k gksrh gS A nwjn'kZu ,d n`';
ek/;e gS vkSj n`'; gksus ds dkj.k bldh fo'oluh;rk esa Hkh vf/kdrk gS D;ksfa d
dgk Hkh x;k gS fd yksx vka[kksa ns[kh ckr ij vf/kd fo'okl djrs gSa A
nwjn'kZu lwpuk iznku djus dk ,d egRoiw.kZ ek/;e gS blesa gesa ns'k&fons'k
dh tkudkjh] lekpkj vkfn izkIr gksrs gSa A blh Vsyhfotu ds dkj.k yksxksa esa psruk
dk fodkl gqvk gS A Hkkjr xkaoksa dk ns'k gS Hkkjr esa 70 izfr'kr turk xkaoksa
esa jgrh gS A mu rd lwpuk igqWp a kus dk ,d mÙke ek/;e Vsyhfotu gS D;ksfa d
Vsyhfotu esa ftl Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS og vke turk ds le> esa
vklkuh ls vk tkrh gS A
nwjn'kZu dks euksjt
a u iznku djus okyk ,d ek/;e ekuk tkrk gS ijUrq ;g
euksjt
a u ds vfrfjDr lkekftd] jktuhfrd o f'k{kkRed tkudkjh Hkh miyC/k
djkrk gS A nwjn'kZu vius dk;ZØeksa dks izLrqr djrk gS vFkkZr~ mUgha dh :fpuqlkj

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(70)
gh dk;ZØe dk fuekZ.k djrk gS A nwjn'kZu esa dk;ZØe nsus ds fy, 'kCnksa ds pquko
ds vfrfjDr n`';ksa dks Hkh /;ku esa j[kk tkrk gS A dgk tkrk gS fd ,d n`';
lkS 'kCnksa ds cjkcj gksrk gS A vr% ,d n`'; ds vuq:i gh 'kCnksa dks j[kk
tkrk gSA dSejk] /ofu ,oa izdk'k fdlh Hkh izLrqfr ds izk.k Qwd a nsrs gSa A
nwjn'kZu dh gj izLrqfr rF;kRed gks] fo'oluh; gks] jkspd gks] lwpuk iznk;d gks
;g t:jh gS A
fu%lUnsg Vsyhfotu vk/kqfud lekt esa ,d izHkkokRed ek/;e cu pqdk
gS A ;g ekuo ds lokZxa h.k fodkl esa lgk;d gS A
fQYe %
fo|qrh; lapkj ek/;eksa esa fQYe ,d egRoiw.kZ fo/kk gS A fQYe ;k
pyfp= dk ewy fl)kUr ihVj ekdZjkstVs us 1824 esa fn;k Fkk A Qzkl a ds tkslQs
fudkscj rFkk yqbl Z Mkbxqj us QksVksxkz Qh ds {ks= esa uohurk ykus dh ps"Vk dh
Fkh A fQYe fuekZ.k izFke fo'o ;q) ds iwoZ gh izkjEHk gks x;k Fkk fdUrq fo'o;q)
dh lekfIr ds ckn blesa vR;Ur fodkl gqvk ijUrq blds i'pkr~ fQYeksa us ,d
m|ksx dk :i ys fy;k A ,d 'krkCnh esa fQYeh m|ksx esa fujUrj ifjorZu vkrk
jgk gS A
Hkkjr fQYeksa dks cukus dks izFke LFkku ij gS A Hkkjr fofo/krk fy;s gksus
ds dkj.k Hkh blesa fgUnh fQYeksa dh la[;k vf/kd gS A fQYeksa dh yksdfiz;rk
mlds ns[kus dh izof` Ùk ij fuHkZj djrh gS fd yksx fdruk fQYeksa dks ns[krs gSa
A dqN yksx dHkh dHkkj fQYe ns[krs gSa rks dqN lIrkg esa dbZ ckj fQYe ns[krs
gSa A fQYesa Hkh vyx&vyx fo"k;ksa ij cukbZ tkrh gS A ;g n'kZdksa dh bPNk
ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd os dkSu lh fQYe ns[kuk ilan djrs gSa A vkt gj fo"k;
ij fQYe cukbZ tkrh gSa ijUrq mldk mn~n's ; dsoy n'kZdksa dk euksjt a u djuk
gksrk gS A dqN yksx viuh bPNkuqlkj /kkfeZd fQYeksa dks ilan djrs gSa rks dqN
jktuhfr] ;FkkFkZeyw drk vkSj fryLe dks ilUn djrs gSa A
fQYeksa dk euq"; ij izHkko iM+rk gS A lkekftd] /kkfeZd] dkeqdrk] I;kj
vkfn dks fufeZr fQYeksa dk izHkko lekt esa ns[kk tk ldrk gS A fiNys dqN
n'kdksa ls lwpuk iz/kku o izes dh fQYeksa dks vf/kd O;kidrk feyh gS A
mi;qDr foospu ls Li"V gS fd fQYe tulapkj dk ,d mi;qDr ek/;e
gS rFkk bldk izHkko turk ij iM+rk gS A fQYeksa esa gj izdkj dh lekt dh

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(71)
fo'ks"krk o cqjkbZ;ksa dks n'kkZ;k tkrk gS A lSl
a j cksMZ dks xfBr fd;k x;k gS rkfd
fQYeksa dks nks"k jfgr fd;k tk lds A mlesa ,slh vuSfrdrk o dkeqdrk dks u
fn[kk;k tk;s ftlls turk ij bldk udkjkRed izHkko iM+s ijUrq vkt dy fQj
Hkh bl izdkj dh fQYeksa dk fuekZ.k cgqrk;r esa gks jgk gS ij gesa vko';drk
gS ,slh fQYeksa ds fuekZ.k dh tks ekuo lekt dh lPph lsok ds y{; ls cukbZ
tk,a A
fQYe dk izHkko izR;sd n'kZd ij vyx&vyx iM+rk gS vkSj izR;sd n'kZd
viuh&viuh bPNkuqlkj fQYeksa dks ilan djrs gSa o lHkh vius&vius mn~n's ; ls
mls ns[krs gSa A dqN yksx euksjt a u gsrq fQYe ns[krs gSa rks dqN le; dkVus ds
fy, ns[krs gSa tcfd nwljs /kkfeZd rqf"V ds fy, ns[krs gSa A izR;sd fQYe n'kZdksa
ij viuk izHkko Mkyrh gS A vr% blh dkj.k dqN n'kZdksa dks fQYe dk laxhr
vPNk yxrk gS rks dqN dks u`R; vkSj dqN dks 'kSyh A bl izdkj izR;sd n'kZd
vyx&vyx mn~n's ; dks lkeus j[k fQYe ns[krk gS vkSj izHkkfor gksrk gS A
okLrfodrk esa lR; ;g gS fd cgqr de fQYesa gh uwrurk iz/kku]
dykRed] mikns;h gksrh gSa ijUrq vkt vko';drk bl ckr dh gS fd vPNh
fQYeksa dh jpuk gks rkfd lekt esa budk vPNk izHkko gks lds A izHkkoghurk
ds dkj.k vFkok FkksFks euksjt a u iznku djus ds fy, Hkkjrh; fQYesa vHkh rd
tuekul esa mruk LFkku ugha cuk ik;h A tc&tc vPNs lektfiz; pyfp=ksa dk
fuekZ.k gqvk gS yksxksa us mls ljkgk gS vkSj izHkko Hkh izkIr fd;k gS A
Reference
1. The process and effect of Mass Communication - Edited by Willbur
Schramm.
2. tulapkj % fofo/k vk;ke&c`teksgu xqIr ¼eu dh ckr½
3- tulapkj vkSj fgUnh i=dkfjrk&MkW- vtquZ frokjh
4- ehfM;k ys[ku fl)kUr vkSj O;ogkj&MkW- pUnzid z k'k feJ
5- jk"Vªh; 'kSf{kd ijh{kk&lkfgR; Hkou ifCyds'ku

All Rights Reserved by :


Directorate of Distance Education, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar - 125 001

Printed by : Competent Printing Press, Hisar-125001


Ph. : 01662-225100. Mobile : 98960-68720

BMC - 108 Mass Communication


(72)
Bachelor in Mass Communication
(B.M.C.)

BMC – 108

MASS COMMUNICATION
(fgUnh)

Directorate of Distance Education


Guru Jambheshwar University
HISAR-125001
All Rights Reserved by :
Directorate of Distance Education, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar - 125 001

Printed by : Competent Printing Press, Hisar-125001


Ph. : 01662-225100. Mobile : 98960-68720