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MINI PROJECT REPORT

ON

“Digital Counter using 7 Segment Display”

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the submission of term


work for the subject of APE (Advance Power Electronics) for Semester VI of
Electrical Engineering.

By

Name Roll. No.

Dakshata Bhabad

Mayuri Shinde

Samiksha Solase

Sanat Rathod
College logo

Department of Electrical Engineering

Lokmanya Tilak College of Engineering

Navi Mumbai

2018 – 2019
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

Mini Project on: Digital Counter using 7 Segment Display

“Analysis and Design of Buck Converter”

Submitted by:

1.Shruti Nema
2. -------------
3..................
4.-------------

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the submission of term work for
the subject of APE (Advance Power Electronics) for Semester VI of Electrical
Engineering.

Evaluator 1 Evaluator 2

Head of Department: Subject Incharge:


Dr. C. M. Wankhade Mrs. Shruti Nema
ABSTRACT

A digital counter or an automatic counter is necessary to count many products,


objects, items, gadgets and various entities. The digital counter is a simple
electronic circuit which is totally based on the analog and digital circuit because
it has some part analog and some part is digital (7 segment Display) in analog
the main part is LDR ( Light Dependent Resistor) sensors which is the sensing
element for any object. It can simply be made by using electronics, a light
reference and a light sensors are used to detect the product and display the
count using seven segment display with the help of Integrated circuits like IC
4026 and IC 555 . The light reference and the light sensor placed in such a way
that the object will cross the light path, and with high speed and precision the
counter increments the count.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Ch. No. Chapter Name Page No.

Abstract

1. Introduction 1

2. Literature Review 2

3. Project details 3

3.1 Block Diagram and 4


Circuit Diagram

3.2 Working Principle 5

4. Conclusion 8

5. Reference 15
1. Introduction

The digital counter is a cost effective and a simple system. It


overcomes the problem of manual counting of objects. Everything is
digital, if this system is implemented, then automation in the product
counting can be achieved.

Also, there is no hazardous elements used in the circuitry and


hence it can be used even at hazardous atmospheres in an
industrial area. Timer IC555 are used as a timer circuit and the main
function is done by LDR sensors. The LDR detects the light and gives
the equivalent and incrementing count on the seven segment
display. Digital counter is already been used in almost every field
and the technological advancements in electronics will amplify,
magnify and uplift its future scope and applications.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
3. PROJECT DETAILS

3.1Circuit Diagram and block diagram


3.2 Working Principle

Digital counters are needed everywhere in this digital world, and 7 Segment display is one the best
component to display the numbers. Counters are needed in object counter, calculators, timers etc. To
use the 7 segment with ease, there is a 7 segment driver IC which is IC 4026, so we are building 7
segment counter circuit using 4026 IC.

 IC 4026
4026 IC is a 4000 series IC. It is a CMOS seven-segment counter IC and can be operated at very low
power. It is a decade counter, counts in decimal digits (0-9). It is used to display numbers on seven
segment displays and it increment the number by one, when a clock pulse is applied to its PIN 1.
Means more the clock pulse rate, faster the numbers change in 7 segment Display
 Seven Segment Display

It consists 8 LEDs, each LED used to illuminate one segment/line of the unit
and the 8thLED used to illuminate DOT in 7 segment display. We can refer
each line/segment "a,b,c,d,e,f,g" and for dot character we will use "h". There
are 10 pins, in which 8 pins are used to refer a,b,c,d,e,f,g and h/dp, the two
middle pins are common anode/cathode of all he LEDs.

IC 4026 is used to drive common cathode 7 segment display. In common


cathode 7 segment display cathodes of all the LEDs are connected together,
and all the positive terminals are left alone.
 Light Dependent Resistors.

A light dependent resistor works on the principle of photo


conductivity. Photo conductivity is an optical phenomenon in which
the materials conductivity is increased when light is absorbed by the
material. A LDR or a photo resistor is a device whose resistivity is a
function of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Hence, they are
light sensitive devices. They are also called as photo conductors,
photo conductive cells or simply photocells.
They are made up of semiconductor materials having high
resistance. There are many different symbols used to indicate a
LDR, one of the most commonly used symbol is shown in the figure
below. The arrow indicates light falling on it.

The Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) lowers its resistivity when light falls on it.
This makes the NPN transistor (SL 100) to be forward biased. The voltage or
current from the collector terminal is feed 7 segment counter, this is capable of
driving common cathode seven segment display. The count can be
incremented by giving a positive voltage to its clock input or by any suitable
electromagnetic radiation to its clock pin.

Align the object and LDR closely, keeping a space to pass the objects to be
counted. Now, switch on the circuit, the 7 segment display may show zero
initially if the wiring is made correctly. Just view the direct falling of light from
led to the LDR, by passing any suitable objects in between the transmitter and
receiver. Then you can see the counter increments and counting the number
of objects passed. Circuit is quite easy and self-explanatory, we have
interfaced the 7 segment to the 4026 IC.
 Advantages

1. Counting the objects passed with high accuracy and speed.

2. It is economical and reliable.

3. Easy analysis can be done as the precision is high.

4. It is durable, saves time and human effort of manually counting.

 Disadvantages

1. Not economical for small scale industries

2. Cannot count high volume, uninterrupted traffic.


4. Conclusion

We would like to conclude this project as an enriched learning


experience for us. During the project we got familiar with the practical laborat
ory works. Using IC 555 timers and IC 4026 was fascinating. When these the
photons of light are obstructed by anything i.e. objects, counter counts, and
with every pass of light it increments one count. So with high speed and
precision, this project has wide range of applications.
5. Reference

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4566268

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7900197/

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1232897/

https://circuitdigest.com/electronic-circuits/555-timer-seven-segment-counter-
circuit

https://components101.com/ic-cd4026-pinout-circuit-datasheet

https://www.petervis.com/GCSE_Design_and_Technology_Electronic_Produ
cts/4026-counter-circuits/4026-counter-circuit.html

https://circuitdigest.com/electronic-circuits/object-counter-circuit-diagram

https://www.engineersgarage.com/electronic-circuits/2-digit-object-counter