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UNIT 5 – GROUPS Node – personal/org participating in the network

Ties – various type of connections between nodes.

Lesson 1 – Primary and Secondary Groups
Social Network Analysis/Social Network Theory – study of
Social Group – unit of interacting personalities social networks.
Group – collection of people whose members interact with
Social Network Theory – study of how people, org, or groups
each other
interact with each other inside their networks.
• Ego-centric networks – connected with a single node.
• Primary Group – basic universal human relationship. • Socio-centric networks – closed networks by default. E.g.
Family – group of people united by ties of blood children in classroom, workers in an org.
Neighborhood – geographically localized community • Open-system networks – boundary lines aren’t clearly
Peer Group – barkada, tropa, same age in a group defined. Most difficult to study. E.g. America’s elite class.
• Secondary Group – group which individual comes in contact

Lesson 2 – In and Out Groups Lesson 1 – Kinship, Marriage, Household

GROUPS ACCORDING TO SELF-IDENTIFICATION Kinship – relationships based on blood or marriage. Refers

both to patterns of social relationships themselves.
• In-group – individual feels belongingness Fictive kinship – not related by blood/marriage
• Out-group – individual feels indifferent, strange, dislike Consanguineal kin – based on bloodline
GROUPS ACCORDING TO PURPOSE Affinal kin – based on marriage

• Task Group – formed to accomplish jobs, tasks (work group) KINSHIP BY BLOOD
• Relationship Group – formed to fulfill the feeling of Descent – membership depends on common descent from
companionship (barkada) ancestor.
• Influence Group – formed to support a particular Unilineal – membership may rest on patrilineal or
cause/ideology (political parties/campaign group) matrilineal descent.
GROUPS ACCORDING TO SOCIAL ORGANIZATION Cognatic – refers to all descendants of ancestor who
enjoy membership of common descent group by
• Gemeinschaft – most relationships are personal/traditional virtue of any combination of male/female linkages.
and often both. Composed of many primary groups.
• Gesselschaft – society of bargaining and contract. Marriage – institution that admits men and women to family
Relationships are individualistic, impersonal, formal, realistic. life.
“Society” Types of Marriages
Peer Pressure – social pressure by members of one’s peer • Polygamy – marriage of man to several women
group to take a certain action, adopt certain values, conform to • Polygyny – one man marries more than one woman
be accepted. • Polyandry – marriage of 1 woman with more than 1 man
• Monogamy – one man marries one woman
Lesson 3 – Reference Groups • Serial Monogamy – allowed to marry again after the death of
first spouse or after divorce
Reference Group – group which individual refers, serves as a
• Group Marriage – marriage of 2+ women with 2+ men
model to which individual patterns his lifestyle. A group to
which we compare ourselves. KINSHIP BY RITUAL
Formal RG – have specific goal/mission. Ritual Kinship in the form of godparenthood played an
E.g. Labor unions, Greenpeace, Planet Savers important role in strengthening and extending ties of kinship.
Informal RG – based on members’ shared VARIATION IN FAMILY PATTERNS
interests/goals A. Based on Internal Organization
Conjugal Family – nuclear family, adult parents +
Lesson 4 – Social Networks
Social Network – social structure that exists between actors. Extended Family – extends past nuclear family
B. Based on Origin Types of Political Authority
Family of Orientation – family we are born and
Authority – powers or rights to give commands.
Family of Pro-creation – family we establish when 1. Legal – based on a system of rules that is applied
we marry and have children of our own. administratively and judicially in accordance with
known principles. (legal procedures)
C. Based on Descent
2. Traditional – based on a system in which authority is
Patrilineal – trace their relationships and affiliations
legitimate because it “has always existed.”
with relatives on the father side.
3. Charismatic – based on charisma of leader, who
Matrilineal – trace their relationships and affiliations
shows he possesses the right to lead.
with relatives on the mother side.
Bilateral – trace their relationships and affiliations Lesson 3 – Economic Institutions
with relatives on both parents.
Economic Organization – act of coordinating the other factors
D. Based on who wields power of production. Entrepreneur is the captain of industry.
Patriarchal – authority vested in oldest male
member, father. Aspects of the Economic System
Matriarchal – authority is exercised by mother 1. Property – socially acknowledge right of ownership.
Egalitarian – both husband and wife exercise equal 2. Economic Exchange – process wherein valuable goods &
amount of authority. services are given in return for different goods & services.
3. Division of Labor – distribution of work.
E. Based on Residence 4. Economic Socialization – process by which people learn
Patrilocal – newly-married couple lives with or near values and behavior needed to fill position in economic society.
home of groom’s parents. 5. Price – monetary value of goods and services.
Matrilocal – newly-married couple lives with or near 6. Law of Supply and Demand – D>S, P↑ while S>D, P↓
home of bride’s parents.
Bilocal – newly-weds chose to satay with either
groom or bride’s parents. Sole
Owns capital and performs
Neolocal – family where couple resides Proprietorship
One-man business all functions of
independently from their parents 2+ individuals share
Partnership Carried on by 2+ men
Avunculocal – family where couple is prescribed to capital
reside with or near the domicile of maternal uncle of groom. Legal entity Has right to
that is enter
Owns Referred to
Lesson 2 – Political & Leadership Structures Corporation
separate contracts,
assets and as “legal
and distinct loan, and
pay taxes person”
Political Science – systematic study of state and government. from
Political – Greek word polis (city) Established for the
Science – Latin word scire (to know) Cooperative purpose of providing Non-profit business
Political Organization – entity that is involved in the political Type of Economic Organization
4 Main Types of Political Organization Types of Cooperatives in the Philippines
1. Band – basic social unit found in many foraging societies. 1. Credit – promotes and undertakes savings and lending
• Has 20-50 members services among members.
• Nomadic group, hunter-gatherers. 2. Consumer’s – primary purpose is to procure and distribute
• Egalitarian societies (all are equal) commodities to members & non-members
2. Tribe – several bands or lineage groups. 3. Producer’s – undertakes joint production whether
• Has 100 to several thousands of people. agricultural or industrial
3. Chiefdom – political unit headed by chief. 4. Marketing – engages in supply of production input to
• Practice redistribution (accumulation of goods) members and markets their products
4. State – community of persons more or less numerous, 5. Service – engages in medical and dental care,
permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having hospitalization, transportation, insurance, housing, labor,
government and enjoying freedom. electric, light and power, communication, professional, etc.
• 4 elements are people, territory, government and sovereignty. 6. Multipurpose – combines 2+ business activities of different
types of cooperatives.
e. Pilgrimage once in one’s lifetime to worship at a
shrine in Mecca (Hajj)
Lesson 4 – Non-state Institutions
5. Christianity – God can be known in a personal way.
Bank – financial institution which deals with deposits and Faith in Jesus is the real key to experience joy and
advances and other related services. meaningful life.
Monotheism is the belief in singular God while polytheism is
1. People can safely deposit savings, which banks
the belief of multiple deities, gods and goddesses.
then pay interest on.
2. Banks are largely responsible for payments system Lesson 7 – Health
3. Banks issue loans to both people and companies.
Health – absence of disease, freedom from pain. WHO defines
Trade union – org made up of members and its membership it as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being
must be made up mainly of workers. It aims to protect and and not merely absence of disease or infirmity.
advance the interests of its members in the workplace.
Non-governmental Organization (NGO) – not-for-profit- org Children (6-13): 9-11 hrs Younger & adults (18-64): 7-9 hrs
that is independent from states and int’l governmental orgs. Teenagers (14-17): 8-10 hrs Older adults (65+): 7-8 hrs
Lesson 5 – Education Medical Pluralism – adoption of more than one medical
system, simultaneous integration of both orthodox medicines
Education – process of facilitation learning, acquisition of
with complementary and alternative medicine.
knowledge, skills, values, beliefs and habits.
Formal – imparted by direct instructions. Folk illness – combination of psychiatric and somatic
Informal – spontaneous process of helping people to symptoms that are considered to be recognizable disease.
Bughat (Ilonggo) / Binat (Tagalog) – ailments a mother
Lesson 6 – Religion and Belief Systems experiences after giving birth or after abortion or miscarriage.
Religion – set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and Usog/Buyag – superstition that attributes an illness to the
purpose of universe, esp when considered as the creation of a greetings of a stranger. Young children are susceptible to this.
superhuman agency. It is a specific fundamental set of beliefs
Folk Medicine – phenomena in which physical illness appear
and practices generally agreed upon by a number of persons.
to be cured by means other than drugs, surgery, etc. God’s will
Institutionalized religion – social institution in which belief
Alternative Medicine – consists of wide range of health care
systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally
practices, products and therapies. Not based on the scientific
1. Animism – all things have spirit or soul. They offer
Lesson 1 – Social Desirables
sacrifices, prayers, dances etc. in hopes of blessing
or protection from harm. Social Stratification – arrangement of any social group into a
2. Hinduism – person’s position in his present life was hierarchy of positions that are unequal with regard to power,
determined by his actions in previous life. property, social evaluation and/or psychic gratification. A
3. Buddhism – don’t worship any gods. Believe a particular form of social inequality.
person has countless rebirths – they seek to end it.
Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama) who attained spiritual Social Class – level or category where persons have more or
enlightenment – and with it is freedom from less the same socio-economic privileges in the society.
continuous cycle of life and death. Social Status – position of an individual or group within a
4. Islam – believe that everything happened is Allah’s social structure
will. Mohammad is the last prophet. Social Role – behavior expected of a person who occupies a
a. Repeat a creed about Allah and Muhammad particular status
(Shahadah) Power/Authority – ability to secure one’s ends in life. Degree
b. Recite certain prayers in Arabic 5x a day (Salah) which one directs, manages others.
c. Give alms to needy (Zakat) Property/Wealth – rights over goods and services.
d. 1 month each year, fasting (Ramadan) Prestige/Social Evaluation – implies social judgement that a
status or position is more prestigious and honorable than Ethnicity – term that described shared culture of a group.
others. Ethnic minority or minority group – any group who because
of their physical/cultural characteristics, are singled out from
others in the society in which they live. E.g. LGBTs and PWDs
• Corruption and Political Dynasty
• Concentration of Gov’t to Metropolis
Lesson 1 – Innovation
Karl Marx – insisted in his Communist Manifesto, that private
Social Change – alteration of mechanisms within the social
property is the main cause of social inequality. He also
included division of labor as a significant cause in formation of
classes, which led to social inequality. Socialism’s ultimate Theories of Social Change
goal is to abolish private property. History Materialism is the
record of class struggles; a history of class antagonism. 1. Evolution Theory – unilinear (simple to complex
society) and multilinear (change from multiple line that
Upper Class – elite families, most productive & successful don’t lead to a single result)
Middle Class – their income provides comfortable lifestyle 2. Conflict Theory – proposed by Marx and Engels and
Lower Class – lowest status in society later by Marxist sociologists. Inevitability of social
change as a result of conflict among members caused
Lesson 2 – Social Mobility System
by struggle over property
Social Mobility – movement of persons from one position to 3. Cyclical or Rise and Fall Theory – proposed by
another in the stratification system. Oswald Spengler and Arnold Toynbee. This theory
describes the rise and fall of societies.
Horizontal SM – move from one position to another which
4. Functionalist Theory – espoused by Emile
doesn’t involve a shift into higher or lower stratum.
Durkheim. It views society as a social system of
Vertical SM – movement of individuals into either a higher or
interconnected parts, with each part depending on the
lower stratum.
other to function.
Career Mobility – experience change in their social position
over the course of their lifetime. Explanations for Change
Intergenerational SM – person acquires position from parents’ 1. Theological Explanation – all social changes come about
social stratification level. because of the divine intervention in human affairs.
2. Null Explanation – there is no cause or reason for change.
3. Geographic Determinism – social change is caused by the
• CLOSED SYSTEM – based on ascribes statuses or statuses changes in the natural environment.
assigned to people because of either innate traits or social 4. Material Determinism – social change is brought by
characteristics of parents. changes in material culture or inventions.
Slave System – individuals are considered property 5. Biological Determinism – social changes is caused by the
from time of birth. biological evolution of mankind.
Estate System – based on ownership of land. Land 6. Cultural Determinism – social change is brought by
were inherited rather than achieved. changes in the non-material culture to which one is exposed.
Caste System – stratum is arranged in the order of
Sources of Social Change
superiority to inferiority. Individual born into one stratum
1. Environmental 4. Values and Beliefs
remains there for life.
2. Population Growth 5. Diffusions
• OPEN SYSTEM – classes exist but they are not 3. Technology
institutionalized; boundaries are unclear. Based on Lesson 2 – Diffusion
achievements rather than ascribed.
Cultural Diffusion – spread of cultural item from its place of
Lesson 3 – Social Inequality
origin to other places. Diffusion is the process by which
Social Inequality – occurs when resources in a society are discrete culture traits are transferred from one society to
distributed unevenly. another, thru migration, trade, war, or other contacts.

FORMS OF INEQUALITY: Gender, Racial or Ethnic, and Primary Diffusion – process brought about by migration
Global Secondary Diffusion – involves direct transfer of material
culture Africa.
Stimulus Diffusion – transfer of ideas • Number of record high temp events in US has been
increasing, while number of record low temp events has been
Lesson 3 – Acculturation and Assimilation
decreasing, since 1950.
Acculturation – process by which group adopts the dominant • Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, acidity of
culture. Transmission of values and customs from one group to surface ocean waters has increased by about 30 percent.
another. Exchange of cultural features. • Satellite observations reveal that the amount of spring snow
cover in the Northern Hemisphere has decreased over the past
Assimilation – cultural blending of 2 or more different 5 decades and that the snow is melting earlier.
societies. Cultural absorption of a minority group to be part of
the majority. This happens when a group’s culture become Gases that Contribute to the Greenhouse Effect
similar to another culture.
1. Water Vapor. Most abundant greenhouse gas, acts
Lesson 4 – Social Problems as feedback to the climate.
2. Carbon dioxide. Minor but very important component
Social Problem – condition that people in a community view of atmosphere, released thru natural processes. Most
as being undesirable. important long-lived forcing of climate change.
Characteristics of Social Problems 3. Methane. Hydrocarbon gas produced both thru
• relative • diverse through time natural sources and human activities.
• akin to one another • may be distinguished 4. Nitrous oxide. Powerful greenhouse gas produced
• complicated by soil cultivation practices.
5. Chlorofluorocarbons. Synthetic compounds entirely
Explanations on the Causes of Social Problems of industrial origin used in a number of applications.
1. Sociological Explanation – society is the culprit – Effects
responsible for social problems. • Warmer Earth, more evaporation and precipitation.
2. Psychological Explanation – social problems happen • Melting of glaciers and rise of sea level
because of individual differences of the members of Solutions
society. • Mitigation – reducing emissions of and stabilizing the levels of
3. Biological Explanation – social problems could be to a heat-trapping greenhouse gases in atmosphere
certain extent being inherited biologically. • Adaptation – adapting to climate change, adjusting to actual
or future climate.
AND SOCIAL CHANGE Lesson 2 – Transnational Migration and OFWs
Lesson 1 – Global Warming and Climate Change Transnational Migration – process by which immigrants forge
and sustain simultaneous multi-stranded social relations that
Global Warming – term used to describe a gradual increase in
link together their societies of origin and settlement.
the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere.
OFWs – Filipino working abroad that are expected to return
• Scientific consensus in climatic changes related global
permanently either upon the expiration of work contract or
warming is that the average temperature of the Earth has risen
between 0.4 and 0.8 degree Celsius over the past 100 years.
Balikbayans – Filipino citizens who have been continuously
Compelling Evidences for Rapid Climate Change out of the Philippines for a period of at least a year. Filipinos
• Global sea level rose about 17cm in the last century. who have become citizens of another country and have
• All 3 major global surface temp reconstructions show that returned to Philippines.
Earth has warmed since 1880. OFIs (I = Investor) – Filipino expatriates who contribute to the
• The oceans have absorbed much of this increased heat, with economy thru remittances. Coined by 14th Pres Arroyo.
the top 700m of ocean showing warming of 0.302 degrees F
since 1969.
• Greenland and Antarctic Ice sheets have decreased in mass.
• Both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has declined Lesson 1 – Inclusive Citizenship and Participatory
rapidly over the last several decades. Governance
• Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world –
including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska, and Civic Responsibility – responsibility of a citizen
Civic – belonging to a city, a citizen, citizenship, civil society.
Responsibility – state or quality of being responsible Orientations of Social Movements
Citizen – person having the title of citizenship, member of 1. Power-Oriented – members use coercion and often
democratic community illegitimate means to reach objectives.
Citizenship – membership in a political community, status or 2. Persuasion-Oriented – uses legal means to accomplish
character of being a citizen. objectives
3. Participation-Oriented – relatively unconcerned about
US President John F Kennedy: Ask not what your country
changing society but attempts to create a following of
can do for you, but what you can do for your country.
dedicated believers.
President Jose P Laurel: Love of country is not shown by
words, but by deeds Stages of the Development of Social Movements
: The essence of life is work. 1. Incipient Phase – stage when social movement is
Hector S De Leon: The constitution is the expression of the characterized by confusion and disorganization.
sovereign will of people. It is the shrine for all the hopes and 2. Organized Phase – stage when social movement has
vision for our nation. already established leadership, goals, ideologies, and defined
Apolinario Mabini: Liberty is freedom to do right and never and elaborated programs.
wrong. 3. Stable Phase – stage when social movement has evolved
into a bureaucratic organization.
Participatory Governance – consists of state-sanctioned
institutional processes that allow citizens to exercise voice and 3 Reasons for the Emergence of Social Movements
vote, which then results in the implementation of public policies • Changing cultural values, disorganization in the society and
that produce some sort of changes in citizens’ lives. injustices in the society.
Lesson 2 – New Forms of Media & Networking Theories of Social Movements
1. Absolute Deprivation Theory – working class even with
New Media – content available on-demand thru internet,
longer hours of work could barely support their family’s basic
accessible on any device, containing interactive user feedback
and creative participation.
2. Relative Deprivation Theory – feelings of negative
E.g. newspapers, blogs, wikis (Wikipedia), video games and
discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present
social media (Facebook).
Personal Media– used by a specific person (speech, gestures, 3. Resource Mobilization Theory – mobilization of resources
mail, telephony – blogging, podcasting) to articulate group’s grievances and frustrations.
Mass Media – used by large sets of people. (printing, radio
Types of Social Movements
and tv) • Redemptive or "Messianic" Movement – usually religious
Social Networking Service – online service, platform or site in character and do not attempt to change society, but engage
focusing on facilitating the building of social networks or in attracting people to their religion and beliefs
relations among people. It allows users to share ideas, • Revolutionary Movement – seeking radical changes making
activities, events and interests within their individual networks. their ideological beliefs as their guide and weapon
• Reform Movement – seek only to improve, to reform or
Functions of Social Media revise the existing order, and do not attempt to abolish it
• International Linkage • Targeted Advertising • Reactionary Movement – seek to restore the status quo
• Commonality of Interest • Increased News Cycle Speed after social changes. It aims to revert back to the old practices
• Real-Time Information Sharing in the system
Disadvantages of Social Networking • "Utopian" Movement – promising an ideal if not perfect and
1. Backlash harmonious existence in society for its member.
2. Cyber-bully and Crimes against children • Terrorism – violence against the civilian targets for the
3. Risks of Fraud or Identity Theft purpose of intimidation to achieve political ends.
4. Time Waster (28% of time is on social networks -
Lesson 3: Social Movements Trust yourself.
Social Movement - collective action of groups which aims to
promote or resist change in the society.
You are capable of
more than you know.