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RESTRICTIVE AND PROTECTIVE COVENANTS

SPECTRUM CITY
Barangay Bilo Bilo, Tanauan-Talisay Road, Tanauan City, Batangas

Before commencing construction or alteration of any buildings, enclosures, fences,


loading docks, parking facilities, paving, storage yards or any structures or permanent
improvement on, or to any site or lot within the Spectrum City, the property owner shall
first submit draft site plans to the Calmar Land Developer Company, Inc. (CLDC) for
its written approval, which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld. The CLDC
Board shall consult with the Spectrum City’s Site Plan Review Team prior to issuing
recommendations for final site plan approval to the City's Planning Commission.

Any violation, or attempted violation of any of these restrictions, shall give the right to
the Spectrum City to proceed at law or in equity to enforce compliance with the terms
hereof.

DEFINITIONS

Terms under this Covenants and Restrictions shall have the same meaning as stated in
the Annex of the National Building Code of the Philippines.

"Builder" shall mean an owner of one or more developed but unimproved lots
purchased for the purpose of the construction of mixed-use building, or commercial
building for sale, and who holds a license for such construction.

"Common Area(s)" for the purposes of this Declaration shall mean those portion of
the Subdivision named as Tracts A, B, C, D and E on the plat of Windsor Estates as
recorded in the Public Records of Brevard County, Florida, which are intended for the
common use and benefit of all Owners of the Association. Additional parcels may be
added to the Common Areas in the future.

"Conservation Easement Area(s)" shall mean and refer to those Common Areas
designated as conservation easements.

"Grantee" shall mean a developer, builders to whom a grant or conveyance is made


for the development.

"Landscape Buffer" shall mean all subdivision walls, fences, gates and vegetative
buffers erected by the developer, his successor(s) in interest or the Association,
(including the improvements thereto).
Restrictive & Protective Covenants

"Lot", whether or not capitalized, shall mean each lot platted as such in the City, the
total number of which may increase if subsequent phases are platted and added to the
City.

"Owner" shall mean each person or entity who owns record title to a Lot, excluding
those having such title merely as security for performance of an obligation as described
in National Building Code of the Philippines.

"Surface Water or Stormwater Management System" means a system which is


designed and constructed or implemented to control discharges which are necessitated
by rainfall events, incorporating methods to collect, convey, store, absorb, inhibit, treat,
use or reuse water to prevent or reduce flooding, over drainage, environmental
degradation, and water pollution or otherwise affect the quantity and quality discharges
from the system.

The restrictions and covenants are as follows:

1. USE OF PREMISES. The site or lot(s) shall be used by the Grantee, its successors
and assigns, and the occupants thereof for light industrial purposes only. Only new
construction will be allowed in the Industrial Park.

2. LAND TO BUILDING RATIO. No buildings are to be built that will reduce the
land to building ratio below a 2:1 ratio.

3. SETBACK - FRONT YARDS. Building lines shall be maintained at least 60 feet


back from all street right-of-way lines. Pedestrian walks, vehicular access drives,
railroad tracks, landscaping or berming, stormwater detention and filtering areas,
material pits, light fixtures, recording instruments, and utility manholes extending not
more than six inches above finished grade shall be permitted within said 60-foot
setback. Off-street parking, gate or guard houses, roofs or canopies covering
unenclosed pedestrian walks, and walls or fences shall be permitted in the rear 15
feet of any required front yard setback.

4. SETBACK - SIDE YARDS. Adequate space shall be maintained between all


buildings to provide light and air. Building lines are to be maintained at least 20 feet
from side lot lines. In the event more than one building shall be owned by one person
or entity and in the improvement of such lot or tract a building shall be built on more
than one lot, then the side line restriction on the interior line or lines may be waived
by the Spectrum City Board. Provided, further that if a part of a tract or lot shall be
sold before any improvement shall have been erected thereon, then the line between
Restrictive & Protective Covenants

the part sold and the part retained shall be the property line to which the
setback restrictions shall apply.

5. SETBACK - REAR YARDS. Structures shall be at least 20 feet from the rear
property line of any lot except for a lot having a common rear property line with a
railroad right-of-way, in which case no rear building setback is required.

← The following structures and features may be located within required setbacks:

← Trees, shrubbery or other features of natural growth provided that they do not
obstruct vehicular sight distances;

← Fences or lattice-work screens or walls not more than six and one-half (6½) feet
or 1.80 in meters in height, or hedges or thick growth of shrubs, maintained so as
not to exceed such height, in any required side or rear yard or court, provided
they do not extend closer to a street than the buildable area of the lot.

← Barbed wire and razor edge are not permitted.



← Railings not more than three and one-half 0.90m in height constructed on any
balcony, stairway, porch or landing platform.


← Driveways and sidewalks Signs, provided that they are specifically permitted by
the sign regulations of this Code;

← Bay windows, architectural design embellishments, and cantilevered floor areas
of dwellings that do not project more than 0.60m into the required setback;


← Eaves that do not project more than 0.60m into the required setback;

← Access ramps and lifts for people with disabilities with review of the design,
construction and location by the Zoning Administrator to insure appropriate
context with the existing structure and neighborhood.

6. CLEAR VISION CORNERS. Where two streets intersect, no structure or planting


of any kind over 20 inches in height above curb level shall be erected on a corner lot
within a triangle having its apex at the intersection of the right-of-way lines and
having equal legs of fifty feet along the rights-of-way.

7. EXTERIOR WALLS
← a. To establish a standard of quality and to maintain architectural integration, the
exterior front walls of the office portion of the building shall be faced with brick
or some material equally acceptable to the Board from an aesthetic point of view.
Restrictive & Protective Covenants

← b. Concrete block shall be allowed for an exterior wall, provided that the wall is
an expansion wall, is located at the rear or side of the building, does not face a
street and is painted.

← c. The use of building materials shall be subject to the approval of the Board,
which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld.


8. ARCHITECTURAL AND AESTHETIC REQUIREMENTS

(a) No dwelling, building or structure of any kind shall be constructed, erected, or


altered on any Lot or in any part of the City, nor shall any exterior additions, changes
or alterations therein be made until the plans and specifications showing the nature,
kind, color, shape, height, materials, and location thereof shall have been first
submitted to and approved by the Board.

(b) Two sets of construction plans and specifications shall be submitted to the Board
showing all intended construction and alterations on the subject Lot, including but not
limited to site plan, tree survey, landscape plan, sidewalk construction, exterior
elevations, paint colors, shingle samples, exterior materials samples, and other
descriptions necessary to describe project. .Plans and specifications in regards to
topography and finished grade elevation must also be submitted for approval by the
Board prior to the commencement of any excavation work or activity which will alter
the existing topography of the Lot.

9. UNDERGROUND UTILITIES. All utilities shall be located underground within the


City. This includes electric, telephone and cable television lines. Meters for electricity,
natural gas, water, or other measurable utility shall not be located within the public right-
of-way. Any meters located in the front yard setback shall be underground in acceptable
meter pits. Meters may be installed above ground in any side yard, if they are properly
screened with mature vegetation from any public street or adjacent building. Electric
transformers and electric or telephone switching or junction boxes shall not be installed
above ground within the public right-of-way or within the front yard setback.
Transformers or junction/switching boxes may be installed above ground in any side
yard, if screened with mature vegetation from any public street or adjacent building.

10. EXTERIOR LIGHTING. All exterior lighting of each site, building, parking lot, sign,
etc. shall be designated, located, shielded, and maintained in such a manner that the light
source is fixed and not directly visible from, nor cast any significant glare upon, any
adjacent public rights-of-way or adjoining residential buildings, zones or streets.
(Adjoining residential lots shall include lots separated from the industrial lot by only a
Restrictive & Protective Covenants

public street or right-of-way.) The use of perimeter light poles and light fixtures with
aiming mechanisms and shields are encouraged.

11. SIGNAGE.

Plans and specifications for the construction, installation or alteration of all outdoor signs
as to size, location, type and appearance shall first be submitted to the Board for its
written approval, which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld. The following
signage requirements shall apply:

a. Allowable sign types include wall, ground (freestanding) and awning.

b. Prohibited sign types include all others not above allowable, including, but
not limited to: pylon, animated, flashing, changeable copy/message board (unless
time/date), neon, exposed bulb, suspended, projection, roof, integral roof, portable,
marquee, inflatable, billboard, banner, pennants, or parked vehicles with messages
(unless regularly and customarily used to transport persons or property for the
business.)

c. Wall signs shall be flat and parallel to and not more than fifteen inches from
the face of the building wall. Wall signs shall not exceed five percent of the face of
the building to which they are attached. The maximum width of any sign shall not
exceed ninety percent of the width of the wall to which it is attached.

d. Ground signs shall be no more than fifty square feet in area, as measured on
one face of a two-faced sign. Said sign shall be no more than ten feet in height,
including any mounting hardware and foundation. Ground signs may be located
within the required front yard setback, as long as they are at least five feet from any
property line and not located in any clear vision corner as defined in Item No. 6 of
these covenants. Only one ground sign is permitted per business.

e. Awning signs shall have the same area and wall coverage restrictions as wall
signs. Lighting shall be as detailed below in item "h”.

f. Directional signs of up to three square feet each, designating entrances, exits,


parking, loading areas, shipping docks or similar traffic control signs are permitted.
Such signs shall be located at least one foot from any property line and not within a
clear vision corner as previously defined.

g. Billboards, signs or advertisements for businesses not located on the site are
prohibited.

h. Lighting of signs may be either internal or external, if it meets the following


requirements:
Restrictive & Protective Covenants

1) No direct light or significant glare from a sign shall be cast on any adjacent
lot zoned and used for residential purposes or be visible from any public right-of-
way.
2) Interior lighted signs shall have light-colored translucent lettering shown
against a dark opaque background.

3) All vehicle parking, including visitor parking shall be provided on the


premises and all parking areas are to be paved to provide dust-free, all-weather
surfaces. Employees shall not be permitted to park, and visitors shall be
discouraged from parking, during business hours on public streets in front
of or to the rear of the premises. Delivery or supply trucks shall not be
parked, loaded or unloaded on public streets.
4) All signs shall be constructed of high quality materials, shall be
attractive and architecturally compatible with the primary building located on the
parcel and shall be permanently anchored by a structural foundation to the
ground.
5) Signboards on multi-storey buildings shall be erected on the same
vertical line and shall not overlap each other.

12. PARKING. All vehicle parking, including visitor parking shall be provided on the
premises and all parking areas are to be paved to provide dust-free, all-weather surfaces.
Employees shall not be permitted to park, and visitors shall be discouraged from parking,
during business hours on public streets in front of or to the rear of the premises. Delivery
or supply trucks shall not be parked, loaded or unloaded on public streets.

• Slow down to 5kph when approaching an unsignalized intersection and come to a


full stop before proceeding

• Look both ways before turning a corner

• Walk with a decent pace across the street

• Parking areas shall be environmentally friendly paved like grass pavers and the
roadways shall be asphalt or concrete so as to provide dust free, all weather surfaces.
Each parking space provided shall be designated by white painted lines upon the paved
surface and shall be adequate in area. All parking areas shall provide, in addition to
parking spaces, adequate driveways and space for the movement of vehicles.

• Parking lot spaces shall be 2.5x5 with 8m drive aisles and in a 90° orientation.
Angled parking is also acceptable.

13. LOADING DOCKS. No loading dock shall be constructed facing any public street
unless said loading dock and every part thereof is at least one hundred feet from the right-
of-way line of the street on which said loading dock fronts.
Restrictive & Protective Covenants

14. PARKWAY TREES. Each property owner will be required to purchase and install trees
in the parkway adjacent to any public street right-of-way. The City's Tree Ordinance
prescribes the following specifications for parkway trees:

a. Minimum diameter of one and one-half inches as measured at breast height.

b. One of the following species: palm tree, pine tree, Sugar Maple or Norway
Maple (all varieties acceptable.)

c. Spacing of approximately 50 feet between each tree, at an exact location as


directed by the City's Superintendent of Public Works, or his designee. The tree
locations shall be shown on the site plan when submitted for approval to the
Board.

d. No trees shall be planted closer than four feet to any curb, curbline or sidewalk.

Said trees shall be planted upon completion of the building construction and site
landscaping, or at a later acceptable time as determined by the Superintendent of
Public Works.

15. ACCESS TO LOTS. Permanent access to each industry or business shall be on


driveways connected to the City interior streets.

16. OUTDOOR STORAGE. Materials, supplies or products stored outside are to be


surrounded by a masonry wall or other appropriate type of wall, approved in writing by
the Board. The wall shall be two feet above stored materials or four feet in height,
whichever is higher and which shall shield such stored items from view from a public
street or adjoining properties.

17. CLEARING

Prior to any construction the Board will be furnished a tree survey showing the
location and type of all trees 4" or more in caliper at breast height. This survey shall
also show types and general location of existing vegetation. A site plan will be
provided showing the location of any structures, driveways, and sidewalks to be
constructed and which vegetation and trees are proposed to be removed.

It is the intent of the Board that as much of any existing wooded character of a Lot be
retained as reasonably possible. All yard areas of a Lot not left in their natural state
shall be sodded or replanted. For any Lot fronting a lake, the Owner including
Builders of same shall also be responsible for sodding and maintaining areas between
his property line and the water's edge, if any.

If any unauthorized clearing takes place on any Lot or Common Areas, restoration of
said Lot or Common Areas to their original condition must be made. The restoration
Restrictive & Protective Covenants

plans as to location of plant material, size, and type must be submitted to the Board
for approval. If the Owner of any Lot (or his contractors, agents or invitees) that has
been cleared without written authorization of the Board fails to restore said Lot or
Common Area damaged by the Owner (or his contractors, agents or invitees) within
thirty (30) days of receipt of written notice from the Board, then the Board may make
such restoration, the cost of which shall be a lien against the Lot and a debt of Owner
which may be enforced in the same manner as enforcement of Assessments as set
forth herein.

18. SITE DESIGN AND PLANNING


A. Site Improvements and Building Placement.
• Minimize environmental impact through sensitive design and mitigation. Locate
site and building improvements to preserve significant natural vegetation to the extent
reasonably possible.
• When possible orient structures to maximize solar orientation.
• Utilize plant material to reduce overall heat island effect in paved areas and
adjacent to building structures.
• The maximum Floor Area Ratio shall not exceed 60%. 40% remaining will be
used for open and green spaces.
B. Preservation of Sensitive Site Features.
• Preservation of naturalized areas is encouraged on individual sites to improve
water quality and overall aesthetics.
• Protect existing vegetation to remain during construction out to drip line with
construction type fencing.
C. Grading and Drainage.
• Drainage swales and basins shall be designed to take advantage of the natural
contour of the site and shall not be linear or geometric in design unless otherwise
approved by the Board of Review.
• Site buildings to minimize cut and fill operations.
• Provide gentle slopes and smooth transitions when grading. Avoid abrupt grade
transitions and constant slopes.
• All storm water conveyance (pipes, ditches, etc.) and detention/retention
structures shall be designed in accordance with the standards and specifications of the
entity having jurisdiction over the location of the project site.
• The maximum allowable impervious area for any site shall not exceed 75%.
Restrictive & Protective Covenants

• Drainage swales, detention and retention areas shall maintain a naturalized


appearance in order to promote water quality and provide wildlife habitat. Native
vegetation shall be utilized when landscaping these areas. Any mowing of drainage areas
and swales shall be kept to a minimum. Slopes for any mown area shall not exceed 3:1.
19. NOISE, ODOR, VIBRATION, SMOKE. No use is allowed in which the Grantee
shall be operating outside the limits of applicable use and zoning ordinances by reason
of noise, odor, vibration, dust, smoke or other hazardous nature of operation.
There is a smoke area provided for the smoker. Smoke belching and public smoking is
strictly prohibited.
20. STAIRWAYS
Except stairs or ladders used only to access equipment, every stairway serving any
building or portion thereof shall conform to the following requirements:
•Width. Stairways serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall not be less than 1.10
meters. Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or less may be 900 millimeters wide.
Private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 may be 750 millimeters. Trim
and handrails shall not reduce the required width by more than 100 millimeters
•Rise and Run. The rise of every step in a stairway shall not exceed 200 millimeters and
the run shall not be less than 250 millimeters. The maximum variations in the height of
risers and the width of treads in any one flight shall be 5 millimeters: Except, in case of
private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10, the rise may be 200 millimeters
and the run may be 250 millimeters.
•Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each side and every stairway required to be
more than 3.00 meters in width shall be provided with not less than one intermediate
handrail for each 3.00 meters of required width. Intermediate handrails shall be spaced
approximately equal within the entire width of the stairway. Handrails shall be placed not
less than 800 millimeters nor more than 900 millimeters above the nosing of treads, and
ends of handrails shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals:
•Ramps. A ramp conforming to the provisions of Building Code may be used as an exit.
The width of ramps shall be as required for corridors.

21. STORMWATER CONTROL SYSTEM. All roof, parking lot and foundation drains
shall be discharged to only the established stormwater control system within the Industrial
Park, and shall not be discharged overland or into the City's sanitary sewer system.
Several stormwater control detention basins have been constructed within the City to
accommodate the surface runoff from the public streets and private buildings, parking lots,
and foundation drains. Businesses are encouraged, however, to construct on-site surface
drainage systems to include the use of permanent vegetative filters to detain and filter
stormwater before it enters the public stormwater system. Periodic cleaning and removal
of sediments from the public stormwater ponds will be necessary, and the costs will be
assessed upon the benefiting properties in an equitable and fair manner.

Restrictive & Protective Covenants

22. ZONING AND OTHER REGULATIONS. The restrictive and protective covenants
contained herein are not the sole regulations that may apply to the development of lots
within the City, although they represent the more significant ones. Other provisions within
the City's Zoning and Subdivision Control Ordinances, and other local and Country codes
will apply to developments within the City.
23. LANDSCAPING.

(a) All landscaping must conform to all codes and requirements of the local
governing agencies. A typical or several master landscape plan(s) may be submitted
to the committee for approval by Builders in accordance with above Sections 2 and 3.
This plan may be altered to accommodate existing vegetation on individual lots. All
areas of the yard of each Lot not left in this natural vegetated condition shall be
replanted with trees, shrubs, ground cover and flowers, or sodded including all
easements and right of ways directly in the front and rear of all lots.

(b) No existing living tree four (4) or more inches in caliper, measured at breast
height, shall be removed from a Lot unless said tree is diseased or interferes with
erecting or placing the house or other permanent structures on said Lot and grading
for proper drainage.

(c) A minimum of six (6) trees are required to be planted in the front and side yard of
each residence: at least two live oaks in 30 gallon containers or equivalent, not less
than 10' to 12' feet in height with 4' to 5' of spread and 2" in caliper at breast height
and four of any of the following type trees in not less than 15 gallon containers or
equivalent, 7' to 9' feet in height with 3' to 4' of spread and 1" in caliper at breast
height: live oak, laurel oak, magnolia, or east palatka holly. The trees shall remain
perpetually on each lot. Notwithstanding the foregoing, trees must conform to any
stricter standards required by any applicable governmental entity. In the event any of
the trees die either by disease or neglect, they shall be replanted with the same or
other approved type of tree to comply with these minimum requirements. Upon
notification by the Association and/or the local governing agency, each homeowner
shall have thirty (30) days to replant/replace said trees required under these
restrictions.

(d) A minimum of P60,000 as part of the construction cost of each residential unit
must be spent on landscaping material which shall be used to purchase trees and new
plant material to be planted at the front of each residence. This planting expense shall
not include the cost of sod or irrigation system.

(e) Each Lot shall be entirely sodded including all easements and right-of-ways
directly in the front and rear of all Lots with floritam sod. All Lots that have lot
frontage on a lake must sod and irrigate down to the existing waterline. Each
residence shall have an automatic sprinkler irrigation system with automatic timers
for the proper maintenance and watering of all shrubs and landscaping including
areas in right-of-ways and easement areas adjacent to each lot.

(f) A typical planting plan for the purpose of a uniform streetscape shall be followed
as part of any landscape plan. This streetscape shall require the planting of the two of
the six trees on 50' centers 10' from the back of the sidewalk. (Detail sketch to be
provided by Developer).
(g) Front planting beds shall consist of shrubs and ground covers. Minimum coverage
shall consist of a 5' wide planting bed times the length of the house which will equal
the minimum square footage of the front yard planting beds. Example: Front
dimension of the house: 60' x 5' = 300 sq. ft. of planting bed area in the front set back
area. (Detail sketch to be provided by Developer).

(h) Side planting beds shall consist of shrubs and ground covers. Minimum coverage
shall consist of a 3' wide bed starting at the front setback running 50% of the length
of each side of the house. (Detail sketch to be provided by Developer).

• Design to provide an attractive, comfortable environment. Use


environmentally friendly, “green” materials and techniques where possible.
• Landscapes should be designed to create a naturalized appearance utilizing
plant materials best suited for the existing microclimate conditions. Group plants of
similar water needs.
• No trees shall be planted closer than four feet to any curb, curbline or
sidewalk.

24. MAINTENANCE.

a. The owner of any site or lot shall at all times keep the premises, buildings,
improvements and appurtenances in a safe, clean and wholesome condition and
comply in all respects with all government, health, fire and police requirements
and regulations. Any owner will remove, at its own expense, any rubbish of any
character whatsoever that may accumulate on said site or lot. In the event said
owner fails to comply with any or all of the aforesaid specifications and/or
requirements within a reasonable time after notification by registered or certified
mail from the Spectrum City Board, then, in addition to such other rights and
remedies, the Board or the City also shall have the right, privilege and license to
enter upon the premises and make any and all corrections or improvements that
may be necessary to meet such standards at the expense of the site owners and
such expense shall constitute a lien upon the property.

b. The owner of any site or lot shall at all times keep the landscaping in good order
and citation. Should the owner of any site or lot fail to remedy a deficiency
within a reasonable time in the maintenance of the landscaping after notification
by registered or certified mail from the Board or the City, the Board and the
City expressly reserve the right, privilege and license to make any and all

Restrictive & Protective Covenants

corrections or improvements in landscape maintenance at the expense of the site


owner and any such expense shall constitute a lien upon the property.

25. TIME LIMITS ON COMMENCEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION.

If, after the expiration of one year from the date of execution of a contract for the sale of
any lot lying within the City, or after the expiration of one year from the date of
completion of public utility service, whichever is later, any purchaser shall not have
begun in good faith the construction of a permanent building upon said lot, the Board
retains the option to rescind such contract, refund such portion of the purchase price as
had been paid and enter into possession of said land. Any refund of the purchase price
paid shall be reduced by the following costs, where applicable: land sale closing costs;
land surveying; title commitment or title insurance policies; utility extensions (municipal
or other, such as gas or electric); payment in full of any outstanding special assessments
for improvements to or adjacent to the property; any unpaid real estate taxes; and any
non-refundable option costs per agreement with the purchaser. However, the Board, in its
sole discretion, may extend in writing the time in which such construction may be begun.

26. LIGHTING

 All roadway and all parking lot lighting should be of the same family of style

 Maximum parking light pole height shall be 8m.

27. GREEN FACTOR ORDINANCE

Littering

Help tireless maintenance crew by picking up after someone

• Pet’s poop shall picked up and dispose properly

• Tree wells are for trees. Cigarette butts shall dispose of it in the trash bin provided
in the smoking area.
Pedestrian Safety

No obstruction on city streets for smooth traffic. This happens when:

• park in no parking zones

• wait with cars idling on the street

• block the street with a stopped car

Restrictive & Protective Covenants

Reduce Your Carbon Footprint

Points to note:

• No chain, no parking allowed

• Secure your bikes properly and do not leave any valuable items on them

• Bicycle shall park in designated bike parking only

• Using bicycles as transportation is implemented to reduce carbon footprints

Green mobility

Efficient urban transport is fundamental to citizens’ quality of life and to economic


development. Yet current reliance on the internal combustion engine is a major source of
air and noise pollution and negative impacts on health and the environment. The Green
Factor ordinance commercial projects to employ various strategies to increase horizontal
and vertical green space. Strategies are weighted based on their benefit to the
environment, the urban experience, and the public good.

Local actions on climate change

Fighting climate change is one of every city’s long-term sustainability goals. The
increase in the frequency of extreme weather such as heat waves and floods underscores
the importance of action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for climate
change impacts.

Energy efficiency

Green buildings that require less energy for lighting, heating and cooling through clever
use of glass and innovative air flow systems, are an important component of the effort to
achieve efficient and sustainable cities. The Spectrum City promotes green buildings
through several measures including the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive,
which sets minimum standards requiring to make new buildings more energy efficient.

Resource efficiency
Spectrum City offers an opportunity to manage our use of resources better, use them
efficiently and cut down on waste and pollution. For example, studies have found that per
capita consumption of resources such as energy tends to be lower in urban areas, because
of efficiencies achievable in areas with higher population densities.