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APPROACHES, METHODOLOGIES, AND TECHNIQUES/ STRATEGIES

APPROACH

METHODOLOGY

METHODOLOGY
TECHNIQUE/STRATEGY

TECHNIQUE/

STRATEGY

A. APPROACH – Refers to what the teacher believes or a teacher’s viewpoint regarding education, teaching, nature of the
subject matter, and the learners.
- It states a philosophy or article of faith in which the teacher is guided on how to deal with the subject
matter.
- It is axiomatic
CLASSIFICATION:
1. Direct or Expository Approach – teacher- centered teaching or explicit teaching
2. Indirect or Exploratory Approach- Student-Centered teaching.
EXAMPLES
1. PROCESS APPROACH – involves the learners in hands-on activities
- Gathering of information is conducted by employing scientific process
- Focus is on the process not the product.

2. Inquiry or Discovery Approach – guides learners to discover and find answers to their own questions by
conducting observations, gathering of data and formulating own hypothesis
- Through this learners become independent learners.

3. Constructivist Approach – provide learners with relevant experiences for them to create meaning and
knowledge.

4. Reflective Learning – Training learners to learn from the insights they gained from their previous
experiences
- Evaluation or analysis of one’s experiences can result to learning.

5. Experiential Approach- provides learners actual observations of natural occurrences and gain first-hand
experience through direct experience of a phenomenon.
- Learners should be personally involved in the learning task in order for them to formulate own
conclusion.

6. Integrative Approach – Main task is training the learners to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate gathered or
learned concepts. Organized bodies of knowledge are presented in the lesson discussion. It is up to the
learners to find the relationships among facts, concepts, and principles.
- Learner is challenged to form a generalization by identifying the common characteristics or patterns.

7. Cooperative Learning Approach- use of group dynamics and group investigations, learners are trained to
work well with a partner or team to promote development of collaborative skills.

8. Problem-based/Project-based Learning Approach – Essential Feature are the application of a base of


knowledge, development of a critical thinking and decision-making skills, self- directed learning,
collaborative work, and development of professional attitudes.

- It requires much research and reflection on the product and process of problem solving or product
production.

9. Research-based Approach – Different teaching and learning processes are designed based on the
researchers conducted to improve the teaching of the lesson.

10. Whole Child Approach – Focuses not only on the cognitive development of the learner but also on the
emotional, social, psychological, spiritual, physical, and developmental needs of the learners.
11. Metacognitive Approach – Intended for learners to think about their thinking or reflect on what he
learned and ways of learning. The process of reflection regarding the learner’s achievements and failures
are given consideration.

B. METHODOLOGY – The overall plan for the orderly and systematic presentation of the lesson. IT is procedural (the
orderly logical arrangements of steps are taken into consideration)
Time-Tested Methods
1. Inductive / Herbatian – a discovery method in reality.
- Learners discover important rules or truths for themselves through careful observation of enough specific
examples that will support the generalization (specific to general)
- Steps
a. Preparation
1. Apperception/Apperceptive Basis
2. Motivation
3.Statement of the aim
b. Presentation – Specific cases/instances are presented
c. Comparison and Abstraction – Common elements are deduced
d. Generalization – Common facts deduced from specific instances is stated as a generalization, rule,
definition, a principle or formula.
e. Application

2. Deductive –
Steps
a. Statement of the Problem – Problems should be stimulating , arousing the desire to solve it.
b. Generalization – Two or more generalizations, rules, definitions or principles must be recalled
that serve as the solution to the problem.
c. Inference – Choosing the generalization, rule, definition, or principle that will fit the problem. May
be in the form of trial and error that one arrives at the right conclusion.
d. Verification – Trying out and securing the successful generalization.

3. Type Study – only one case is studied for detailed examination.


Steps
a. Apperception and Motivation
b. Statement of a typical case
c. Study of details
d. Comparing details with model
e. Generalization

4. Problem – purposeful activity that will remove a difficulty or perplexity through a process or reasoning.
- Reflective thinking is utilized in this method
Types of Problems
a. Mental: Contemplative, reflective, academic, reconstructive, imaginative.
b. Symbolic: Problems that require written language, drawing, modelling, or construction for
solution.
c. Real: material, physical, practical problems
Steps
a. Raising the Problem:
b. Working on the Problem:
c. Selecting a Hypothesis and trying it out
d. Gathering and organizing data or materials to be used in the solution
e. Evaluating Hypothesis or data used in solving the problem.
f. Formulating conclusions or summarizing findings
g. Checking or verifying results and application
5. Project
Nature: Emphasis is on wholehearted purposeful activity that is self-directing and self-propelling
- Problematic activity carried in a natural setting and involving of concrete materials particularly in a
constructive way.
- Significant, practical unit of activity of a problematic nature, planned and carried in completion by the
student in a natural manner and involving the use of physical materials to complete the unit of experience.
Type
a. Construction
b. Enjoyment
c. Problem
d. Learning
Steps
a. Purposing
b. Planning
c. Executing
d. Evaluating
6. Laboratory
Nature – Uses experimentation with apparatus and materials to discover, verify facts and to study
scientific relationships
- Children perform the experiment and learn by doing
Types
a. Experimental: Problem solving with incidental acquisition of information and motor skill.
Emphasize on discovery, original procedure, analysis and solution of problems.
b. Observational: acquisition of facts
Steps
a. Introductory Steps for orientation and motivation
b. Work Period: Supervised Work Problem
c. Culminating Activities
7. Demonstration/Showing
Nature – Teacher does experimentation before class.

8. Expository
Nature – Explaining or interpreting
Steps
a. Approach: Establishing the proper mind set by recalling past experiences related to the lessons.
b. Presentation
1. Relate new to previous experience
2. Teacher and Learner must have same viewpoint
3. Explain and interpret the concepts
4. Organize the materials to permit thinking
5. Explanations through analogies and stories, illustrations, models, diagrams, demonstrations,
outlines and summaries.
c. Application

9. Morrisonian Technique/Unit Method


Steps:
a. Exploration – discover previous knowledge/experience by means of questions or tests to
eliminate repetitions
b. Presentation- essential features are presented, important points are emphasized to give a bird’s
eye view.
c. Assimilation- learners learn what has been presented by the teacher, absorb and make it part of
himself. Teach learners how to express their answers in their own words.
d. Organization – outlining concepts
e. Recitation
10. Lecture
Nature – exposition
Steps
a. Preparation of the Lecture
1. Introduction to the lecture
2. Presentation of the body of the lecture
3. Conclusion, closure, completion, culmination
b. Procedure in the Lecture

C. TECHNIQUE – depends upon a teacher, his unique creativity, classroom characteristics.


- Implementational ( particular trick, stratagem, contrivance used to accomplish an immediate objective.
- Must be consistent with method, and in harmony with approach
Samples
1. KWLS Chart
Know Want Learned So what?

2. Graphich Organizer
3. Picture Analysis
4. Mini-Debate ( 10-15 mins. Debate)
5. Micro-teaching (allowing volunteer to teach for 10 -15 mins)
6. Concept mapping (brain based technique, challenging the learners to make a map of the different
concepts)
7. Story Boarding (different concepts with their short descriptions are written on small teacher-made white
board and allowing learners to expound on the issues.)
8. Photo Narratives ( Use varied pictures related to the lesson, all pictures will be used to explain the subject
matter.)
9. Meta-concepts (Concepts are written on a strip of a cartolina and will be posted on the board while the
learners are making their own interpretations and explanations regarding the concepts
10. Buzz Sessions (4-7 members shale ideas and opinions without formal preparations.

D. STRATEGY – long term plan of action, series of teaching activities prepared and performed by the teacher to achieve
certain goals.
1. Lecture – direct and logical manner
2. Lecture with Discussion – involve learner
3. Panel Discussion – allow experts to present opinions
4. Brainstorming
5. Film Viewing
6. Small Group Discussion
7. Case Studies
8. Role playing
9. Interview

TYPE OF LESSON
1. Developmental/Development
a. Preparation
1. Review
2. Motivation
b. Presentation/Development
c. Generalization
d. Application

2. Review
Types
a. Short Pre daily Review for 3-5 mins
b. Post Lesson unit Review (whole period)
c. Extensive large unit review

3. Drill – automatization of certain facts, habits, or skills. Aims to fix associations for permanency or perfect a skill.
Steps
a. Motivation
b. Focalization
c. Repetition with attention
d. Application
Forms
1. Dramatization
2. Storytelling
3. Oral reading
4. Construction and drawing
5. Written compositions
6. Singing
7. Test or examination
8. Creative work
9. Translation/solution/exercises

Steps
1. Motivation
2. Statement of a Problem or Task
3. Necessity of Information

e. Supervised Study –
Forms
1. Individual Supervised Study
2. Group Study
3. Study with books, people or things

f. Appreciation
Types
1. Aesthetic Appreciation
2. Ethical-Social Appreciation
3. Technical or intellectual Appreciation
Procedure
1. Preliminary Stages
2. Lesson Proper
a. Immediate Preparation
b. The Hour of Appreciation
c. Intellectual Discussion
d. Aesthetic Discussion
e. Reproduction
LESSON PLAN FORMAT
- Varies depending on the institution
- Requisites: Five major parts – Learning Objectives, Learning content, Learning Procedure, Evaluation and
Assignment
Learning Objectives Learning content Learning Procedure Evaluation Assignment

Statement of a condition A. Subject matter - Depends upon the - To evaluate


B. Reference method to be used learner’s
A. Cognitive Objective C. Learning by the teacher understanding
B. Affective Objective Materials - Suggested to give of the
C. Psychomotor D. Content an on-going presented
Objective E. Skills assessment lesson.
F. Values
FORMAT OF SCOPE AND SEQUENCE
Terminal Objectives:
1.
2.
3.
Day No. ____ Learning Objectives Learning Content Learning Skills References
Day 1
Day 2
Day 3
Day 4
Day 5

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
- Guide
- Must be stated in three domains
- Characterized as (SMART) Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result-Oriented, and Time-bound
2 Types
1. Terminal – general objectives
2. Enabling- more specific to the lesson, helps in attaining terminal objectives

I. COGNITIVE
A. Remembering
1. Names 8. Identifies 14. Lists/writes
2. Tells 9. Reads 15. Recalls
3. Points 10. Follows 16. Describes
4. Gives directions 17. Completes
5. Repeats 11. Chooses/select 18. Records
6. Recognizes s 19. Reports
7. Answers 12. Matches 20. Counts
questions 13. Labels

B. Understanding
1. Tells/Expresse 7. Contrasts/diffe 14. Suggests
s rentiates 15. Infers/predicts
2. Identifies 8. Classifies 16. Summarizes
3. Describes 9. Locates 17. Generalizes
4. Distinguishes 10. Relates 18. Discusses
5. Compares the 11. Give examples 19. Traces
importance of 12. Adds/extends
6. Associates 13. Reports

C. Applying
1. Shows 8. Participates 15. Keeps records
2. Classifies 9. Performs 16. Finds
3. Makes 10. Utilizes 17. Computes
4. Prepares 11. Demonstrates 18. Discusses
5. Presents 12. Constructs 19. Draws
6. Practices/uses 13. Applies
7. Dramatizes 14. Differentiates

D. Analyzing
1. Points out 7. Differentiates 14. Questions
2. Selects 8. Orders 15. Outlines
3. Groups 9. Organizes 16. Analyses
4. Draws 10. Relates 17. Breaks
conclusion 11. Deduced/infer down/separate
5. Forms s 18. Subdivides
generalization 12. Determines 19. Diagrams
6. Summarizes 13. Explains 20. Calculates
E. Evaluating
1. Selects/choose 7. Concludes 15. Discriminates
2. Describes 8. Determines 16. Appraises/asse
3. Evaluates 9. Scores sses
4. Makes a 10. Grades/rate 17. Estimates
decision 11. Explains 18. Measures
5. Compares and 12. Interprets 19. Judges
contrasts 13. Justifies 20. Tests
6. Ranks 14. Relates

F. Creating
1. Collects 8. Plans 15. Composes
2. Tells 9. Prepares 16. Produces
3. Compiles 10. Designs 17. Creates
4. Arranges 11. Rewrites 18. Develops
5. Assembles 12. Proposes 19. Combines and
6. Generalizes 13. Builds organizes
7. Summarizes 14. Constructs 20. devices
21.
II. AFFECTIVE
A. Receiving
1. Listens 7. Asks 13. Uses
2. Watches 8. Selects 14. Holds
3. Locates 9. Chooses 15. Embraces
4. Names 10. Describes 16. Gives
5. Points to 11. Follows
6. Identifies 12. Replies

B. Responding
1. Acknowledges 8. Discusses 15. Presents
2. Answers 9. Concedes 16. Performs
3. Tells 10. Labels 17. Practices
4. Recites 11. Selects 18. Rejoices/resen
5. Reports 12. Conforms ts
6. Reads 13. Complies 19. Relishes
7. Writes 14. Assists 20. Greets

C. Valuing
1. Studies 8. Selects 15. Joins
2. Reads 9. Justifies 16. Works
3. Describes 10. Proposes 17. Completes
4. Differentiates 11. Invites 18. Shares
5. Explains 12. Initiates 19. Honors
6. Reports 13. Forms
7. Favors 14. Follows

D. Organizing
1. Identifies 7. Orders 13. Combines
2. Prepares 8. Organizes 14. Relates
3. Explains 9. Compares 15. Completes
4. Generalizes 10. Alters 16. Defends
5. Adheres 11. Modifies 17. Synthesizes
6. Arranges 12. Integrates

E. Characterizing
1. Listens 6. Proposes 11. Practices
2. Questions 7. Displays 12. Solves
3. Discriminates 8. Performs/acts 13. influences
4. Qualifies 9. Modifies
5. Revises 10. Uses
III. PSYCHOMOTOR
A. Perception
1. Colors 4. Listens 7. Notes
2. Describes 5. Looks 8. Observes
3. Finds 6. Measures 9. Records

B. Set
1. Assembles 5. Demonstrates 9. Manipulates
2. Constructs 6. Executes 10. Performs
3. Copies 7. Handles
4. Creates 8. Imitates

C. Guided response
1. Assembles 5. Experiments 9. Relates
2. Connects 6. Handles 10. Uses
3. Converts 7. Manipulates
4. Determines 8. Measures

D. Mechanism
1. Devices 4. Manipulates 7. Spells out
2. Executes 5. Operates 8. Uses
3. Installs 6. Performs
9.

E. Complex overt responses


1. Assembles 4. Converts 7. Measures
2. Conducts 5. Labels 8. Uses
3. Connects 6. Matches

F. Adaptation
1. Alters 4. Moves 7. Shifts
2. Changes 5. Refines 8. Sifts
3. Modifies 6. Revises
9.

G. Organization
1. Creates 6. Repairs and uses
2. Recites and recounts 7. Recycles and uses
3. Remembers and applies 8. Recapitulates
4. Discards and substitutes 9. Selects and discards
5. Recalls and uses