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Common fertilizers,

pesticides and their

applications with proper
Urea is the most widely used solid nitrogen fertilizer. It is usually applied as
granules, though it is sometimes mixed with ammonium nitrate & dissolved in
water to form a solution. Urea fertilizers deliver one of the highest amounts of
nitrogen at 46 percent, with no phosphorus or potassium. On application, urea
reacts with water to form ammonia, which makes the nitrogen in the fertilizer
available to the crops.

UREA GRANULES No specific equipment required.

A solid fertilizer typically applied in A by-product derived from the waste
granular form, ammonium nitrate provides generated by coke ovens, ammonium
sulfate forms when sulfuric acid is used to
substantial amounts of nitrogen to the soil.
remove ammonia from the coal used to
The Fertilizer Institute indicates that make coke. Ammonium sulfate is a solid
ammonium nitrate is particularly effective material that contains 21 percent nitrogen.
at fertilizing specialty crops such as citrus It’s solubility in water is very useful for the
and pasture lands. Ammonium nitrate crops it is used on.
typically provides 33 percent nitrogen.
DAP is used as a fire retardant. Where soils do not have enough phosphorus,
Diammonium Phosphate can provide significant amounts of this element, at
around 46 percent. The ammonia component of diammonium phosphate also
delivers around 18 percent nitrogen. Highly water soluble, diammonium
phosphate is often applied in liquid form.


Another phosphorus fertilizer, mono- Potassium nitrate, a.k.a. Nitrate Of Potash, is
ammonium phosphate (MAP) delivers even frequently used on vegetable crops including
more phosphorus than diammonium celery, potatoes, leafy green vegetables,
phosphate, at 48 percent. The amount of tomatoes and several fruit crops, according to
nitrogen in fertilizer provides is somewhat less the Michigan State University Extension. The
at 11 percent. The lower level of the Nitrogen nitrate component of this chemical fertilizer
component of this fertilizer reduces the risk of works well with these crops. Potassium nitrate
damage when applied to growth of nascent provides 44 percent potassium.
Sulphur is a fungicide, the oldest method of disease control. Inorganic Sulphur is
used in the form of elemental Sulphur or as lime-Sulphur mixture. Elemental
Sulphur can be in dust form or as wettable powder, the latter is used more
commonly. However, the most popular fungicides in this gruoup are the organic
compounds known as Dithio-carbamates. Some of the important chemicals
under dithiocarbamates are thiram, ferbam, ziram, nabam, zineb and maneb.
▪ Thiram, a leading chemical for seed treatment for wheat, rice, gram, peas,
mustard, etc. Also used in the control of foliage disease Pythium, Rhizoctonia,
Fusarium and Protomyces.
▪ Ferbam has been used as protectant fungicide against a wide variety of fungal
diseases of fruits and vegetables.
▪ Ziram is used against many foliar disease in field and
orchard crops.
▪ Nabam is effective against leaf blights, early and late
blight of potato and seedling blights.
▪ Zineb is effective as foliar spray against blight.
▪ Maneb is effective against bean anthracnose caused by
Colletorrichum , fruit rot of chillies, and blights caused
by Alternaria, Phytophthora and Cercospora on crops.
Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is
being phased out globally. Endosulfan became a highly controversial
agrichemical due to its acute toxicity, potential for bioaccumulation, and role
as an endocrine disruptor. Because of its threats to human health and the
environment, a global ban on the manufacture and use of endosulfan was
negotiated under the Stockholm Convention in April 2011 which was signed
by more than 80 countries. It is still used extensively in India, China, and few
other countries.
➢ FIELD SPRAYER: It is the most
basic tool used to spray most
pesticides, insecticides and
fertilizers in the world of modern
agriculture. For most cases, it is a
back-mounted container with a
battery pump, although manual
and motorized versions are also
available to the farmers according
to their need.