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Name: Calmis Cristian

Date: 21.12.2018
Teacher: Jack van Hoek
Practical: EP1P.1

spec gravity ρ 1000 kg/m3

Pitot tube

Ø tube 42.5 mm
Measurement Station

surface metering
m2
station 0.00088

1. Pitot tube Pressure difference

Measurement 1 2 3 4 5
dynamic pressure P1 12100.0 4850.0 7700.0 4900.0 5640.0 N/m2
dynamic pressure P2 12450.0 4840.0 7600.0 4910.0 5640.0 N/m2
dynamic pressure P3 12400.0 4860.0 7650.0 4920.0 5690.0 N/m2
dynamic pressure P4 12700.0 4870.0 7680.0 4930.0 5740.0 N/m2
dynamic pressure P5 12950.0 4870.0 7750.0 4930.0 5750.0 N/m2

Calculations Pitot tube

Velocity V1 4.92 3.11 3.92 3.13 3.36 m/s
Velocity V2 4.99 3.11 3.90 3.13 3.36 m/s
Velocity V3 4.98 3.12 3.91 3.14 3.37 m/s
Velocity V4 5.04 3.12 3.92 3.14 3.39 m/s
Velocity V5 5.09 3.12 3.94 3.14 3.39 m/s

Average Velocity 5.00 3.12 3.92 3.14 3.37 m/s

Volume Flow 0.00709 0.00442 0.00556 0.00445 0.00478 m3/s

2. Measurement Metering Station

Measurement 1 2 3 4 5
ΔP 20000 600 6300 600 1600 N/m2

Calculations Metering
Station
Volume Flow 0.00445 0.00077 0.00250 0.00077 0.00126 m3/s

3. Difference
59 473 122 477 280 %

2. Write the hand calculations for one flow out (note the number dialed above
calculation)
3. Analysis and final conclusions

Experiment setup
1. Turn on the system at the maximum flow rate and maximum RPM. Let it stabilize for 5-10
min.
2. Once the system is stable note down the figures from the digital display, which represent the
pressure and the velocity inside the tube.
3. After taking the first measurement wait for 1-2 min and write the numbers shown on the
digital display. Repeat until you get 5 values for pressure and velocity.
4. Set the flow rate to low from the control valve. Let the system stabilize.
5. Repeat steps 2-3.
6. Change the flow rate to maximum and set the pumping power to low. Wait for 5 min.
7. Repeat steps 2-3.
8. Set the flow rate to low and wait until the system is stable.
9. Change both flow rate and pumping power to medium and let the water in the tube to
stabilize.
10. Repeat steps 2-3.
11. Turn off the system.

After getting familiar with the test rig pump we took 5 measurements in 5 different conditions:
1.max flow and max RPM 2.low flow and max RPM 3.max flow and low RPM 4.low flow and
low RPM 5.med flow and med RPM.
Once we took the measurements I noticed that the biggest dynamic pressure was for case 1 while
the lowest dynamic pressure were for cases 2 and 4. Therefore I can deduct that for a low flow
there is a low dynamic pressure which means that the dynamic pressure depends directly on the
velocity in the tube. Moreover, I noticed that for a higher value of dynamic pressure there is a
higher volume flow. That means the volume flow depends directly on the dynamic pressure, which
can be explained by analyzing the formula for the volume flow V=VA.
After completing the Measurement and Calculation sheet I obtained different values for pitotic
volume flow and static volume flow. This difference can be explained by the fact that pitot tube
uses an electronic pressure sensor with a digital display while the static tube uses a differential
pressure gauge plane before and after the constriction. Therefore using the pitot tube gives a more
accurate value.
The difference between the pressures are caused by several factors: the air in the tube and the
curves that are in the system. Due to the air present in the tube the overall velocity is slower and
therefore the difference between static and pitot tube is a bit lower. Another factor which causes
some errors in calculation is consisted by the curved sides of the tube, there are 4 bends of 90
degrees that change significantly the velocity in the system. At those points the flow becomes
turbulent.
In order to avoid some of the errors that occurred there can be build a circular system that
eliminates the turbulence problem.